Additional

Mathematic
s

How to Solve
a Problem
Understand
the Problem
Plan your
Strategy
Check your
Answers
Do - Carry out
Your Strategy
•Choose suitable
strategy
•Choose the correct
formula
•Which Topic /
•Subtopic ?
•What info has been
given?
•What is to be
found?
•Carry out the
calculations
•Graph sketching
•Creating tables ...
•Is the answer
reasonable?
• Any other
methods ??

PAPER 1 FORMAT

Objective Test :

No. of Questions :

Total Marks :

Duration :

L.O.D. :

Additional Materials :

Short Questions

25 questions

80

2 hours

L (15) , M(7-8), H(2-3)

Scientific Calculators,
Mathematical
Tables, Geometrical sets.

PAPER 2 FORMAT

Subjective Questions

No. of Questions : A (6), B (4/5), C (2/4)

Total Marks : 100

Duration : 2 hours 30 minutes

L.O.D : L (6) , M(4-5), H(4-5)

Additional Materials : Scientific Calculators,
Mathematical Tables,
Geometrical sets.

Key towards achieving 1A …

Read question carefully

Follow instructions

Start with your favourite question

Show your working clearly

Choose the correct formula to be used
+(Gunakannya dengan betul !!!)

Final answer must be in the simplest form

The end answer should be correct to 4 S.F.
(or follow the instruction given in the question)
π ≅ 3.142

Kunci Mencapai kecemerlangan

Proper / Correct ways of writing mathematical
notations

Check answers!

Proper allocation of time (for each question)
Paper 1 : 3 - 7 minutes for each question
Paper 2 :
Sec. A : 8 - 10 minutes for each question
Sec. B : 15 minutes for each question
Sec. C : 15 minutes for each question

Common Mistakes…
c x x dx x + + = +
∫ ∫
4 3 4 6 . 3
2
4. sin x = 30
0

,
150
0
• y = 3x
2

+ 4x
y = 6x + 4
1. The Quadratic equation 3x
2

- 4x
+ 5
= 0
dx
dy
x = 30
0

, 150
0
3
1
=


PQ
AB
5.
1
3
AB
PQ
÷
÷
·

Kesilapan Biasa Calon …

f ' (x) wrongly interpreted as f
– 1
(x)

and
/ or conversely






x
2
= 4 x = 2
⇒ •
x
2
> 4 x > ± 2

Common errors…
PA : PB = 2 : 3
then 2PA = 3 PB

Actually, …
PA : PB = 2 : 3

3 PA = 2 PB
3
2
=
PB
PA

More mistakes ……


3
2
PA
2
= 2
2
PB
2
9 PA
2
= 4 PB
2
2 2 2 2
) ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) ( 3 + = +
( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) [ ]
2 2 2 2
2 3 + = +

Common mistakes …
log
a
x + log
a
y = 0,
then xy = 0
It should be… xy = a
0
= 1

Common mistakes …
log
a
(x – 3) = log
a
x – log
a
3
2
x
x 2
y
= 1
x + y = 1
2
x
x 2
y
= 2
0
2
x + y
= 2
0

x + y = 0

Common mistakes …
log
a
x + log
a
y = 0,
then log
a
xy = 0
So, xy = 0
It should be… xy = a
0
= 1

Common mistakes …
sin (x + 30
0
) = ½ ,
then sin x + sin 30
0
= ½
…………………gone !
Do NOT use
Sin(A+B) = sin A cos B + cos A
sin B !

Correct way… …
sin (x + 30
0
) = ½ ,
then x +30
0
= 30
0
, 150
0

So, x = 0
0
, 120
0

If 0
0
is an answer, then 360
0
is also an
answer !
?

sin (x + 30
0
) = ½ ,
then x +30
0
= 30
0
, 150
0
, 390
0

So, x = 0
0
, 120
0
, 360
0

Relationship between Functions and Quadratic
Functions
f(x) = x
2
x
O
y
1
4
2
1
(1, 1) , (2, 4). …. form ordered pairs and can be
plotted to obtain a curve.
X
Y
1
1
Domain
Codomain
2
4
Image
Objec
t

SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 1
The relationship between P and Q is defined by the set of
ordered pairs { (1, 2), (1, 4), (2, 6), (2, 8)}.
State

the image of 1,

The object of 2. [2 marks]
P = { 1, 2, 3}
Q = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
Answer
(a) 2 , 4
1
1
(a) 1

SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 2
1 5 : + → x x g
3 2 :
2
+ − → x x x h
Answer
(a) or 0.4
2
2

25x
2
+ 2
B1 : (5x+1)
2
– 2(5x+1) + 3
B1 : or g(x) = 3
5
) 1 ( − x
2
5

SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 3 (SPM 2005,Q5)
Answer
2.591, - 0.2573 (both + 4 s.f.) 3
B1 : 3x
2
– 7x – 2 = 0
Solve the quadratic equation 2x(x – 4) = (1- x)(x+2).
Write your answer correct to four significant figures.
(3 marks)
B2 :
) 3 ( 2
) 2 )( 3 ( 4 ) 7 ( ) 7 (
2
− − − ± − −

SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 4
Answer
p < -3, p > 5 (kedua-duanya)
3
B1 : (1 – p)
2
– 4(1)(4) > 0
The quadratic equation x (x+1) = px – 4 has
two distinct roots. Find the range of values of p.
(3 marks)
B2 : (p + 3) (p – 5) > 0

SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 5
Answer
T = 8 V
½
4
Given that log
2
T - log
4
V = 3, express T in terms
of V. (4 marks)
3
4 log
log
log
2
2
2
= −
V
T
3
2
log
log
2
2
= −
V
T
3 log log
2
1
2 2
= − V T
3 log
2
1
2
=
V
T
3
2
1
2 =
V
T
2
1
8V T =
B1
B2
B3

SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 6
Solve the equation 4
2x – 1
= 7
x
(4 marks)
Answer
x = 1.677
4
log 4 0.6021
2log 4 log 7 0.3591
x or ·

B1
B2
B3
(2x – 1) log 4 = x log 7
2x log 4 – log 4 = x log 7
2x log 4 – x log 7 = log 4
x (2 log 4 – log 7 ) = log 4

SPM 2007 (???)
Answer
2
2(2x – 1)
= 2
3x
No !!!
Solve the equation 4
2x – 1
= 8
x
(3 marks)
2(2x – 1) = 3x
4x – 1 = 3x
x = 1
4x – 2 = 3x
x = 2

The first three terms of an A.P. are k-3, k+3, 2k+2.
Find (a) the value of k,
(b) the sum of the first 9 terms of the progression.

(3 marks)
SPM 2003 Paper 1, Question 7
Answer
(a) 7 2
B1
1
(b) 252
(k + 3) – (k – 3) = (2k + 2) – (k + 3)
6 = k – 1

Solve the simultaneous equation 4x + y = - 8
and x
2
+ x – y = 2 (5 marks)
SPM 2003 Paper 2, Question 1
Answer
Make x or y the subject
P1
N1 x = -2, -3 or y = 0 , 4
Eliminating x or y
8
8 4
4
y
x or y x

· ·
2
2
8 8
2 ( 8 4 ) 2
4 4
y y
y or x x x

| ` | `
+ · + ·
÷ ÷
. , . ,
Solving the quadratic equation :
y = 0 , 4 or x = -2, -3
N1
K1
K1

The function f(x) = x
2
- 4kx + 5k
2
+ 1 has a minimum
value of r
2
+ 2k , with r and k as constants.

By the method of completing the square, show that
r = k – 1 (4 marks)

Hence, or otherwise, find the value of k and the
value of r if the graph of the function is symmetrical
about the line x = r
2
-1. (4 marks)
SPM 2003 Paper 2, Question 2

Answer
SPM 2003 Paper 2, Question 2 ***
2(a) Writing f(x) in the form (x – p)
2
+ q
(x – 2k)
2
– 4k
2
+ 5k
2
+ 1
N1 k = 0 , 4






− = = + 




 − −
a
b
x atau
dx
dy y
2
0
4
8
2
(b) Equating (his) - (x – p) = 0
N1
r = -1, 3
N1
Equating q ( q* = r
2
+ 2k)
(k – 1)
2
= r
2
K1
K1
r = k – 1
N1
Eliminating r or k by
any valid method
K1
K1

1. Functions
F4
f : x x - 3 , g : x 3x
, find gf(1).
2.
Given
f : x
x
2

- 2 .
1.
Given
Find the values of x which map onto
itself.
x
2
- 2 = x
x
2
– x – 2 = 0
(x+1)(x-2) = 0
x = -1 , x = 2
f (x) = x
f(x) = x – 3, g(x) = 3x
gf (1) = g [ f(1) ]
= g [-2]
= -6

Let f
-1
(x) = y
Then x = f (y)
x = 3 – 2y
Method 1
( )
2
3
1
x
x f

=

2
3 x
y

=
T4 BAB 1
Functions : Inverse Functions
4. Given f (x) = 3 – 2x, find f
-1.
( )
2
3
1
y
y f

=

Method 2
Let f (x) = y
Then 3 – 2x = y
3 – y = 2x

2
3 y
x

=
( )
2
3
1
x
x f

=

F4

T4 BAB 1
Functions : Applying the Idea of Inverse functions
Method 2 ( No need f
-1
)
= 8
Let f
-1
(a) = 11
Then a = f (11)
5. Given , find the value of a if f
-1
(a) = 11
4
1 3
:


x
x f
Let f
-1
(x) = y
Then x = f(y)
Method 1 (Find f
-1
)
4
1 3 − y
x =
y =
3
1 4 + x
f
-1
(a) = = 11
3
1 4 + a
a = 8
F4

T4 BAB 1
Functions : Given composite function and one function,
find the other function.
6. Given find fg.
: 2 : 2 2, f x x and gf x x ÷ ÷
Remember : you need to find g first !
f(x) =2 - x , gf(x) = 2x-2
Let f(x) = u
Then u = 2 – x or x = 2 - u
g(u) = 2(2-u) – 2
= 2-2u
g(x) = 2-2x
fg(x) = f(2-2x)
= 2 - (2-2x)
= 2x
F4

T4 BAB 1
**Functions : To skecth the graphs of y = |f(x)|
7. Skecth the graph of y = |3-2x|+1 for domain 0 ≤ x ≤ 4
and state the corresponding range.
Tips : Sketch y = |3-2x| first !!!
x

y
0
2
3
4
6
5
3
4
2
1
Range : 1 ≤ y ≤ 6

F4

2. Quadratic equations:
SPM 2004, K1, Q4
Form the quadratic equation which
has the roots – 3 and ½ .
x = – 3 , x = ½
(x+3) (2x – 1) = 0
2x
2
+ 5x – 3 = 0
F4

2. Quadratic Equations
0
2
= +






− −
a
c
x
a
b
x
x
2
– ( S.O.R) x + (P.O.R.) = 0
ax
2
+ bx + c = 0
a
c
P.O.R.
=
S.O.R
=
a
b

F4

The quadratic
equation
ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 has
1. Two distinct roots if
2. Two equal roots if
3. No real roots if
b
2

-
4ac
b
2

-
4ac
b
2

-
4ac
> 0
< 0
= 0
2. The Quadratic Equation : Types of roots
**The straight line y = mx -1 is a tangent to the curve
y = x
2
+ 2 ……. ???
F4

3 Quadratic Functions : Quadratic Inequalities
SPM 2004, K1, S5
Find the range of values of x for which
x(x – 4) ≤ 12
x (x – 4) ≤ 12
x
2
– 4x – 12 ≤ 0
(x + 2)(x – 6) ≤ 0
– 2 ≤ x ≤ 6
6
x
-2
F4

Solve
x
2
> 4
Back to
BASIC
x> ±2
???
x
2
– 4 > 0
R.H.S
must be O !
(x + 2)(x – 2) > 0
x < -2 or x > 2
– 2
2
F4


Solve the simultaneous equations
x + y =1
x
2
+ 3y
2
= 7

Solve the simultaneous equations, give your answer
correct to three decimal places.
x + y = 1
x
2
+3y
2
= 8

Factorisation
a
ac b b
2
4
2
− ± −
4. Simultaneous Equations
*** P = Q = R
F4

Back to basic… …
3
2(x – 1)
. 3
(– 3x)
= 1
2x – 2 – 3x = 1
– x = 3
x = – 3
Solve ..

1
2 7
1
. 9
1
=

x
x
Betul
ke ???
5. INDICES
F4

3
2(x – 1)
. 3
(– 3x)
= 1
3
2x – 2 +(– 3x)
= 3
0

– x – 2 = 0
x = – 2
Solve

1
2 7
1
. 9
1
=

x
x
5. INDICES
F4

or… 9
x-1
= 27
x
3
2(x – 1)
= 3
3x

3
2x – 2
= 3
3x
2x – 2 = 3x
x = – 2
Solve

1
2 7
1
. 9
1
=

x
x
5. INDICES
F4

Solve
2
x
+ 3 = 2
x+2

5. INDICES
2
x
+ 3 = 2
x
.

2
2
x = 0
Can U take
log on both
sides ???
WHY?
2
x
+ 3 = 4 (2
x
)
In the form
u + 3 = 4u
3 = 3(2
x
)
1 = (2
x
)
F4

Solve the equation ,
give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.
[ 4 marks]
5. INDICES
F4
9 (3
x
) = 32 + (3
x
)
8 (3
x
) = 32
3
x
= 4



x = 1.26
l g 4
l g 3
x ·
2
3 3 2 3
x x +
· +
(Mid-Yr 07)

Solve
2
2x
. 5
x
= 0.05
5. INDICES
4
x
. 5
x
=
2 0
1
20
x
=
2 0
1
x = – 1
You can
also take
log on both
sides.
a
m
b
m
= (ab)
m
F4

(Mid-Yr 07)
Solve the equation
[ 4
marks]
5. INDICES &
LOGARITHMS
F4
2 4
l o g ( 2 ) 2 2 l o g ( 4 ) x x · +

x – 2 = 4 (4 – x)
x = 3.6
2
2
2
log (4 )
log ( 2) 2 2 .
log 4
x
x

· +
2 2
log ( 2) 2 log (4 ) x x · +
2 2
l o g ( 2 ) l o g 4 ( 4 ) x x ·

Back to basic… …
Solve the the equation
log
3
(x – 4) + log
3
(x + 4) = 2
log
3
(x-4)(x+4) = 2
x
2
– 16 = 9
x = 5
5. INDICES &
LOGARITHMS
F4

Back to basic… …
Solve the equation
log
3
4x – log
3
(2x – 1) = 1
SPM 2005, P1, Q8
F4
3
4
log 1
2 1
x
x
]
·
]

]
4
3
2 1
x
x
·

4x = 3(2x – 1)
= 6x – 3
2x = 3
x =
3
2

p p
4 3
3
log
1
)
log
3 log
( 2 + =
Given that log
3
p = m and log
4
p = n. Find log
p

36 in terms of m and n.
= 2log
p
3

+ log
p

4
K1
K1
K1
N1
log
p
36 = log
p
9 + log
p
4
n m
1 2
+ =
5 Indices and Logaritms : Change of base
log
a
a =
1
F4

Coordinate Geometry
Some extra vitamins 4u …

Coordinate Geometry

Distance between two points

Division of line segments : midpoints
+ the ratio theorem

Areas of polygons

Equation of straight lines

Parallel and perpendicular lines

Loci (involving distance between two
points)

Note to candidates:

Solutions to this
question by scale
drawing will not be
accepted.
Coordinate Geometry

Note to candidates:

A diagram is usually given
(starting from SPM 2004).
You SHOULD make full use
of the given diagram while
answering the question.
Coordinate Geometry

Note to candidates:

Sketch a simple diagram
to help you using the
required formula
correctly.
Coordinate Geometry

6. Coordinate Geometry
6.2.2 Division of a Line Segment
Q divides the line segment PR in the ratio PQ : QR = m : n
n m
P(x
1
, y
1
)
R(x
2
, y
2
) Q(x, y)

n
m
R(x
2
, y
2
)
P(x
1
, y
1
)
Q(x, y)






+
+
+
+
n m
m y n y
n m
m x n x
2 1 2 1
, Q(x, y) =

6. Coordinate Geometry (Ratio Theorem)
The point P divides the line segment joining the point M(3,7) and
N(6,2) in the ratio 2 : 1. Find the coordinates of point P.






+
+
+
+
n m
m y n y
n m
m x n x
2 1 2 1
,
P(x, y) =

1
2
N(6, 2)
M(3, 7)
P(x, y) 





+
+
+
+
1 2
) 2 ( 2 ) 7 ( 1
,
1 2
) 6 ( 2 ) 3 ( 1






3
11
,
3
15
11
5,
3
| `
÷
. ,
=
=
P(x, y) =


6. Coordinate Geometry
m
1
.m
2
= –1
P
Q
R
S
Perpendicular lines :


6. Coordinate Geometry
(SPM 2006, P1, Q12)
Diagram 5 shows the straight line AB which is perpendicular to the straight
line CB at the point B.
The equation of CB is y = 2x – 1 .
Find the coordinates of B. [3 marks]

m
CB
= 2
m
AB
= – ½
Equation of AB is y = – ½ x + 4
At B, 2x – 1 = – ½ x + 4
x = 2, y = 3
So, B is the point (2, 3).
x
y
O
A(0, 4)
C
Diagram 5
B



y = 2x – 1

6. Coordinate Geometry
Given points P(8,0) and Q(0,-6). Find the equation
of the perpendicular bisector of PQ.
3
4

4
3
) 4 (
3
4
) 3 ( − − = + x y
m
PQ
=

m
AB
=

Midpoint of PQ
=

(4, -3)
The equation
:

4x + 3y -7 =
0

K1
K1
N1
3
7
3
4
+ − = x y
or
P
Q
x
y
O

TASK : To find the equation of the locus of the moving
point P such that its distances from the points A and B
are in the ratio m : n
(Note : Sketch a diagram to help you using the
distance formula correctly)
6 Coordinate Geometry

6. Coordinate Geometry
Find the equation of the locus of the moving point P such that its
distances from the points A(-2,3) and B(4, 8) are in the ratio 1 : 2.
(Note : Sketch a diagram to help you using the distance formula
correctly)
A(-2,3), B(4,8) and m : n = 1 : 2
Let P = (x, y)

2
1
B(4, 8)
A(-2, 3)
P(x, y) 2 2
2 2 2 2
1
2
2
4
4 ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( 4 ) ( 8 )
P A
P B
P A P B
P A P B
x y x y
·
·
·
]
+ + · +
]
3x
2
+ 3y
2
+ 24x – 8y – 28 = 0

6. Coordinate Geometry
Find the equation of the locus of the moving point P such that its
distance from the point A(-2,3) is always 5 units. (≈ SPM 2005)

5
A(-2, 3)
P(x, y)

A(-2,3)
Let P = (x, y)
is the equation of locus of P.
2 2
4 6 12 0 x y x y + + ·
2 2 2
( 2) ( 3) 5 x y + + ·

6. Coordinate Geometry
Find the equation of the locus of point P which moves such that
it is always equidistant from points A(-2, 3) and B(4, 9).
A(-2, 3)

B(4, 9)

Locus of P
● P(x, y)
Constraint / Condition :
PA = PB
PA
2
= PB
2
(x+2)
2
+ (y – 3)
2
= (x – 4)
2
+ (y – 9)
2

x + y – 7 = 0 is the equation of
locus of P.
Note : This locus is actually the perpendicular bisector of AB

Solutions to this question by scale drawing will not be accepted.
(SPM 2006, P2, Q9)
Diagram 3 shows the triangle AOB where O is the origin.
Point C lies on the straight line AB.
(a) Calculate the area, in units
2
, of triangle AOB. [2 marks]
(b) Given that AC : CB = 3 : 2, find the coordinates of C. [2 marks]

A point P moves such that its distance from point A is always twice its
distance from point B.
(i) Find the equation of locus of P,
(ii) Hence, determine whether or not this locus intercepts the y-axis.
[6 marks]
x
y
O
A(-3, 4)
Diagram 3
C



B(6, -2)

(SPM 2006, P2, Q9) : ANSWERS
9(a)
= 9
0 6 3 0
1 1
0 24 0 0 6 0
0 2 4 0 2 2

· + +

x
y
O
A(-3, 4)
Diagram 3
C



B(6, -2)
3
2
9(b)
2( 3) 3(6) 2(4) 3( 2)
,
3 2 3 2
12 2
,
5 5
+ +
| `
÷
+ +
. ,
| `
·
÷
. ,
K1
N1






+
+
+
+
n m
m y n y
n m
m x n x
2 1 2 1
,
Use formula correctly
N1
K1
Use formula
To find area

(SPM 2006, P2, Q9) : ANSWERS

AP = 2PB
AP
2
= 4 PB
2

(x+3)
2
+ (y – 4 )
2
= 4 [(x – 6)
2
+ (y + 2)
2

x
2
+ y
2
– 18x + 8y + 45 = 0

N1
K1
Use distance
formula
K1
Use AP = 2PB
x
y
O
A(-3, 4)
C



B(6, -2)
2
1
P(x, y) ●
AP =
2 2
[ ( 3 ) ] ( 4 ) x y +
9(c) (i)

(SPM 2006, P2, Q9) : ANSWERS
9(c) (ii) x = 0, y
2
+ 8y + 45 = 0
b
2
– 4ac = 8
2
– 4(1)(45) < 0
So, the locus does not intercept the y-axis.
Use b
2
– 4ac = 0
or AOM
K1
K1
Subst. x = 0 into his locus
N1
√ (his locus
& b
2
– 4ac)

Given that A(-1,-2) and B(2,1) are fixed points . Point P moves such
that the ratio of AP to PB is 1 : 2. Find the equation of locus for P.
2 AP =
PB


x
2
+ y
2
+ 4x + 6y + 5 =
0

K1
J1
4[ (x+1)
2
+ (y+2)
2
] = (x -2 )
2

+ (y -1)
2
6. Coordinate Geometry : the equation of locus
N1
3x
2
+ 3y
2
+ 12x + 18y + 15 =
0

2 2 2 2
) 1 ( ) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 1 ( 2 − + − = + + + y x y x
F4

100 Total
2 36-40
10 31-35
13 26-30
16 21-25
27 16-20
20 11-15
12 6-10
f
Marks
From a given set of data,
(e.g. The frequency distribution
of marks of a group of students)
Students should be able to find ….
• the mean, mode & median
• Q1, Q3 and IQR
• the variance & S.Deviations
• Construct a CFT and draw an
ogive
• Use the ogive to solve related
problems
Statistics
F4

To estimate median from
Histogram
F5
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0.5 20.5 40.5 60.5 80.5 100.5
Modal age = 33.5
Age
Number of people
33.5
Graph For Question 6(b)

F4 CHAPTER 8
8. CIRCULAR MEASURE

‘Radian’ ‘Degrees’
÷

S = rθ (θ must be in
RADIANS)

A = ½ r
2
θ
Always refer to diagram when answering this question.
θ

F4
8. CIRCULAR MEASURE
Diagram shows a sector of a circle
OABC with centre O and radius 4
cm. Given that AOC = 0.8
radians, find the area of the
shaded region.

C
A
B
O
0.8
c
Area of sector
OABC
= ½ x 4
2
x 0.8
= 6.4 cm
2
= ½ x 4
2
x sin 0.8
= 5.7388 cm
2
Area of triangle
OAC
Area of shaded
region
= 6.4 –
5.7388
= 0.6612 cm
2

K1
N1
K1
K1
In radians !!!!

DIFFERENTIATION :
2
( (3) (3 1)(4)
(4 5
5
)
4 ) dy x x
dx x
+
·
+
+
2
) 5 4 (
11
+
=
x
dx
dy
5 4
1 3
+
+
=
x
x
y
Given that
, find
d u
d x v
| `
÷
. ,
F4

9 Differentiation : The second derivative
Given that f(x) = x
3
+ x
2

– 4x +
5 , find the value of f ” (1)
f’

(x) = 3x
2
+ 2x


4
f” (x) = 6x

+
2


f” (1) = 8


F4

9 Differentiation : The second derivative
Given that , find the value of g
” (1) .
g’

(x) = 10x (x
2
+ 1)
4

F4
( )
5
2
( ) 1 g x x · +
g’’

(x) = 40x (x
2
+ 1)
3
. 2x
Ya
ke ??

g’

(x) = 10x (x
2
+
1)
4

F4- 9
Given that , find the value of g
” (-1) .
( )
5
2
( ) 1 g x x · +
( )
d
uv
dx
g’’

(x) = 10x . 4(x
2
+ 1)
3
.2x +(x
2
+1)
4
.
10
g’’

(-1) = 10(-1) . 4[(-1)
2
+ 1]
3

+[(-1)
2
+1)
4
. 10
= 800
Mid-year, Paper 2

Given that y = 2x
3
– x
2
+ 4, find the value of at
the point (2, 16). Hence, find the small
increment in x which causes y to increase from
16 to 16.05.
dx
dy
Differentiation : Small increments
2 0
0 5 . 0

x δ
dx
dy
K1
K1
N1
= 6x
2
– 2x
0 0 2 5 . 0 = x δ
d x
d y
x
y

δ
δ
= 20 , x =
2
F4

Progressions : A.P &
G.P
A.P. : a, a+d, a+2d, a+3d ,
……..
Most important is “d”
F5
G.P. : a, ar, ar
2
, ar
3
, ……..
Most important is “ r
” !!

Progressions : G.P - Recurring Decimals
SPM 2004, P1, Q12
Express the recurring decimal
0.969696 … as a fraction in the
simplest form.
96
99
x = 0. 96 96 96 … (1)
100x = 96. 96 96 ….. (2)
(2) – (1) 99x = 96
x = =
32
33
F5

Usual Answer :
S
10
– S
5


= ……. ???
Correct Answer :
S
10
– S
4

Progressions
Given that S
n
= 5n – n
2
, find the sum from
the 5
th
to the 10
th
terms of the progression.
Back to basic… …
Ans :-54
F5

Y
X
1. Table for data X and Y
2. Correct axes and scale used
3. Plot all points correctly
4. Line of best fit
5. Use of Y-intercept to determine
value of constant
6. Use of gradient to determine
another constant
1
1-2
1
1
2-4
Linear Law
F5

Y
X
Bear in mind that …......
1. Scale must be uniform
2. Scale of both axes may defer :
FOLLOW given instructions !
3. Horizontal axis should start from
0 !
4. Plot ……… against ……….
Linear Law
Vertical Axis Horizontal
Axis
F5

0 2 4 6
8
10 12
x
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.5
Y
x
x
x
x
x
x
Linear law
F5
Read this value !!!!!


+ dx x
4
) 1 3 ( . 1

− dx x
4
) 3 2 ( . 2

+
dx
x
4
) 1 3 (
1
. 3

+

dx
x
4
) 1 3 (
2
. 4
=
=
=
=
c
x
+


15
) 3 2 (
5
c
x
+
+
15
) 1 3 (
5
c
x
+
+ −
3
) 1 3 ( 9
1
c
x
+
+
3
) 1 3 ( 9
2
INTEGRATION
F5

INTEGRATION
SPM 2003, P2, Q3(a) 3 marks
Given that = 2x + 2 and y = 6 when x = – 1,
find y in terms of x.
dy
dx
Answer: = 2x + 2
y =
= x
2
+ 2x + c
x = -1, y = 6: 6 = 1 + 2 + c
c = 3
Hence y = x
2
+ 2x + 3
dy
dx
(2 2) x dx +
l
F5

INTEGRATION
SPM 2004, K2, S3(a) 3 marks
The gradient function of a curve which passes through
A(1, -12) is 3x
2
– 6 . Find the equation of the curve.
Answer: = 3x
2
– 6
y =
= x
3
– 6x + c
x = 1, y = – 12 : – 12 = 1 – 6 + c
c = – 7
Hence y = x
3
– 6 x – 7
dy
dx
2
(3 6) x dx
l
Gradient
Function
F5

2 2
3 4 +
A
B
Given that OA = 2i + j and OB = 6i + 4j, find
the unit vector in the direction of AB
AB = OB - OA
= ( 6i + 4j ) – ( 2i + j )
= 4i + 3j
l AB l =
= 5
Unit vector in the direction of AB =
) 3 4 (
5
1
j i +
Vectors : Unit Vectors
K1 N1
K1
F5

Parallel vectors
Given that a and b are parallel vectors, with
a = (m-4)i +2 j and b= -2i + mj. Find the the value of
m.
a = k b
(m-4) i + 2 j = k (-2i + mj)
m- 4 = -2k
mk = 2
1
2
a = b
m = 2
K1
N1
K1
F5

Prove that tan
2
x – sin
2
x = tan
2
x

sin
2
x

x kos
x
2
2
sin
sin
2
x
x kos
x x kos x
2
2 2 2
sin sin −
=
x x
2 2
sin tan =
x kos
x kos x
2
2 2
) 1 ( sin −
=
tan
2
x – sin
2
x =
K1
N1
K1
5 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
F5

Solve the equation 2 cos 2x + 3 sin x - 2 = 0
sin x ( -4 sin x + 3 ) = 0
sin x = 0 ,
2( 1 - 2sin
2
x) + 3 sin x - 2 = 0
-4 sin
2
x + 3 sin x = 0
sin x =
4
3
x = 0
0
, 180
0
, 360
0
x = 48.59
0
, 131.41
0
K1
N1
K1
N1
5 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
F5

5 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS (Graphs)
(Usually Paper 2, Question 4 or 5) -
WAJIB !
F5
1. Sketch given graph : (4 marks)

(2003) y = 2 cos x ,

(2004) y = cos 2x for
(2005) y = cos 2x ,
(2006) y = – 2 cos x ,
0 2 x r s s
0 0
0 180 x s s
0 2 x r s s
3
2
0 2 x r s s

Find the number of four digit numbers
exceeding 3000 which can be formed from
the numbers 2, 3, 6, 8, 9 if each number is
allowed to be used once only.
No. of ways = 4 . 4.
3. 2 = 96
3, 6, 8,
9
F5 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS

Vowels : E, A, I
Consonants : B, S, T, R
Arrangements : C V C V C V C
No. of ways = 4! 3 !
= 144
Find the number of ways the word BESTARI
can be arranged so that the vowels and
consonants alternate with each other
[ 3 marks ]
F5

Two unbiased dice are tossed.
Find the probability that the sum of the
two numbers obtained is more than 4.
Dice B, y
4
1
5
6
2
3
Dice A, x
2 3 4 5 1
6
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
n(S) = 6 x 6 = 36
Constraint : x + y > 4
Draw the line x + y = 4
We need : x + y > 4
P( x + y > 4) = 1 –
3 6
6
=
6
5
F5

The Binomial Distribution
r n r
r
n
q p C r X P

= = ) ( ) ( ) (
r = 0, 1, 2, 3, …..n
n = Total number of trials
q = probability of ‘failure’
p = Probability of ‘success’
r = No. of ‘successes’
p + q = 1
F5
PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS
Mean = np
Variance = npq

The NORMAL Distribution
F5
PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS
Candidates must be able to …

determine the Z-score
Z =

use the SNDT to find the values
(probabilities)
x µ
o

z

f(z)
0
0.5 0

z

f(z)
0 1.5
z

z

f(z)
0 -1.5 1
=

1
f(z)
0
1

T5

Index Numbers
• Index Number =
• Composite Index =
• Problems of index numbers involving
two or more basic years.
100
0
1
× =
H
H
I


=
w
wI
I
_
F4

Solution of Triangles
• The Sine Rule
• The Cosine Rule
• Area of Triangles
• Problems in 3-Dimensions.
• Ambiguity cases (More than ONE
answer)

Motion in a Straight Line

Initial displacement, velocity, acceleration...

Particle returns to starting point O...

Particle has maximum / minimum velocity..

Particle achieves maximum displacement...

Particle returns to O / changes direction...

Particle moves with constant velocity...

Motion in a Straight Line

Question involving motion of TWO particles.
... When both of them collide / meet ???
… how do we khow both particles are of the same
direction at time t ???

The distance travelled in the nth second.

The range of time at which the particle returns ….

The range of time when the particle moves with
negative displacement

Speed which is increasing

Negative velocity

Deceleration / retardation

Linear Programming
To answer this question, CANDIDATES must be able to
.....

form inequalities from given mathematical
information

draw the related straight lines using
suitable scales on both axes

recognise and shade the region representing
the inequalities

solve maximising or minimising problems
from the objective function (minimum cost,
maximum profit ....)

Linear Programming
y ≤ 2x
12. The ratio of the quantity of Q (y) to the quantity of P (x)
should not exceed 2 : 1
x ≥ y + 10
11. x must exceed y by at least 10
y - 2x >10
13. The number of units of model B (y) exceeds twice the
number of units of model A (x) by 10 or more.
x + y > 40
10. The sum of x and y must exceed 40
x + y ≥ 50
9. The sum of x and y is not less than 50
3x - 2y ≥ 18
8. The minimum value of 3x – 2y is 18
x + 2y ≤ 60
7. The maximum value of x+ 2y is 60
y ≥ 35
6. The minimum value of y is 35
x ≤ 100
5. The maximum value of x is 100
y ≥ 2x
4. The value of y is at least twice the value of x
x ≤ y
3. x is not more than y
x ≤ 80
2. x is not more than 80
x ≥ 10
1. x is at least 10
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