“Product Layout is better than Process Layout” Do you agree? Justify your answer.

Draw a Layout for a company manufacturing Mobile Handsets? Definition of Plant Layout: -

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Plant Layout is the integrating phase of production system. The basic objective of layout is to develop a production system that meets requirements of capacity and quality in the most economy way. Plant Layout is of two types o Process Layout o Product Layout

Definition of Process Layout: Process Layout is based on the function performed by a department. In process Layout, similar process or machines or equipment of the same function are grouped together in a separate department. In Process Layout, separate department is established for each specialized operation of production and machine relating each functions are assembled there. Example: Welding department will perform welding operations for the benefit of all the lines of production.

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Definition of Product Layout: Product Layout, the materials flows through the predetermined channels of operations from the receipt of raw materials to fabrication of various components parts to final assembly. The parts flow from machine to machine moving a short distance at a time until all required operations are completed. Product Layout is designed for the flow type of production where continuous or repetitive operations are carried on to produce on to produce large quantities of a standardized product. Example: Flow of materials in automobile industry.

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Product Layout is better than process Layout for the following reasons: 1) Smooth Flow of Production: Product Layout: This layout ensures steady flow of production with economy because Stoppage of work at different points of production is eliminated and avoided due to proper arrangement of machines in sequence. Process Layout: In this layout, flow of production is interrupted because the machines are not arranged in a definite sequence of operation.

2) Economy in manufacturing time:
Product Layout: In this layout materials are fed at one end of the machine and the finished product is collected at the other end, there is no transportation of raw materials backward and forward and thus it shortens the manufacturing time Process Layout: This layout takes longer time for production because the work necessary for loading the machines must be delivered to each department and after the processing the work is to be held for inspection. 3) Mechanization of Material Handling: Product Layout: Since the machines are arranged in sequence of operation, the continuous flow of materials in a line through quickly and economically. Process Layout: In this layout there will be no definite channels through which all the work will flow. 4) Savings in material Handling Cost: Product Layout: In this layout product moves from one machine to other machine automatically hence no transportation cost is required till the completion of manufacturing process. Process Layout: Since there are not definite channels of work flow, it leads to  Materials are delivered to each department to process.  Materials may return to the same department more than one for processing and this makes back tracking of work which makes higher material handling cost.

5) Lesser Work-in-Progress:
Product Layout: The work-in progress is minimum and negligible under this type of layout because the process of production is direct and uninterrupted. Process Layout: Since there is no specific flow of work and the process of production is not direct, the work in progress is more than product layout. 6) Easy Inspection: Product Layout: Production process is integrated and continuous, defective practice can be easily detected and segregated. This makes the job of inspection easy and economical. Process Layout: Each department will have strict inspection responsibility before it goes to the next department for manufacturing process. So it’s not easy like product LAYout.

7) Maximum utilization of available space:
Product Layout: Under this type of layout machine are arranged in sequence of operations and it makes the maximum utilization of space available. Process Layout: Under this layout greater space is required for service activities; there is greater need for aisles, temporary storage at each department 8) Effective utilization of available resources : Product Layout: Effective utilization of men, machine and material because: 1. Minimum possible movement of worker from one place to other. 2. Lesser Wastage of materials. 3. Lesser work in progress. 4. Mechanisation of material handling. Process Layout: As in the case of product layout this is not possible because it doesn’t have definite channels of flow of work.

9) Production control greatly simplified : Product Layout: Under this layout, production control is possible by planning of operations and visual control replaces much of paper work because of which fewer records are used. Process Layout: Under this layout, production cannot be planned and control as like product layout because the similar process machines are grouped together and it takes long inspection and allows back-tracking of materials. 10) Low cost labor and easy recruitment and training: Product Layout: In this layout special semi automatic and automatic machines are used to manufacture or in each stage of process and thus it effectively utilize low cost unskilled and semi skilled labor and recruitment for such candidates are easy and training is also made easy. Process Layout: Under this layout, skilled workers are required to operate general purpose machines doing variety of jobs. Recruiting such candidate is not so easy in short time and also at the same time wage rate will usually be high.

Layout for a Mobile manufacturing company (Nokia):

RAW MATERIALS

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FINISHED GOODS STORAGE

Raw Material Supply from suppliers: - Most electronic components, from resisters and capacitors to highlyintegrated circuits, are delivered by suppliers on reels of tape, protected in circular plastic cases.

1) The Foundation: A Printed Circuit Board (Soldering Process):
At the heart of every Nokia phone is a slender strip of plastic covered with a latticework of basic circuits and settings for the installation of chips and other

electronic components. Here, printed circuit boards enter the paste printing machine, which lays down a patterned layer of solder paste, made from a tincopper-silver alloy. The paste is later melted in an oven to bind electronic components to the board.

2) Providing the Parts (Loading Process):
Reels of components are loaded onto spindles. From there, they feed into automated "pick-and-place machines" that grab individual parts off the tape and lay them precisely onto the printed circuit boards. Nokia uses mostly "surface mount" components that lie flat on the board.

3) Laying Down the Basics (Laying Process):
Circuit boards travel down a belt from one pick-and-place machine to the next, and by the time they reach the end of the line, all the basic components have been installed. After the parts are in place, the boards go to an oven for seven minutes, where the solder paste is melted and the parts become firmly attached.

4) Quality Testing:
The first quality test takes place after the basic components have been installed.

5) Configuring (Software Installation Process):
The boards are advanced automatically on tracks into the "flash and alignment" stage, where basic software is first installed into programmable components. 6) Assembly and configuring Process: A robotic arm lifts the board off the track and puts it into a bay. There, the chips on the board are configured with low-level settings, such as what power level the phone will operate on. 7) Testing Process: Then, a series of electronic tests are administered to ensure that the circuit board is perfect, all the parts work, and that they have been correctly installed

8) Fixing camera and LCD displays: At this stage, the hand work begins. Here, a worker plucks digital camera modules from a reel and installs them with tweezers onto assembled, tested, printed circuit boards. The expensive and fragile liquid-crystal display screens are also added by hand. 9) Protection covers Fixing: A nearby worker performs another essential task by hand: sandwiching the completed printed circuit board between front and back structural frames, later adding the outside covers. 10) Adding Functionality: The last step in the production turns a generic phone into one customized to the exacting specifications of mobile-phone users around the world. 11) Unique Serial numbering process: Each handset is put into a cradle, where it is given a unique serial number, known as its IMEI code. Then, depending on who the customer is, a unique batch of software code is pumped into the phone. 12) Diagnostic Test: Finally, the phone and installed software undergo a battery of diagnostic tests. From this point forward, the IMEI code links each individual phone to its intended customer. 13) Final Inspection Test (by human eye): It seems quaint after all the high-tech assembly and testing, but before every Nokia phone goes into a box, it's inspected one last time by an unmatched resource: the human eye. Only a tiny fraction of phones fail this final test. Then, before being packed, the phone is de-ionized to remove dust and electrical charge from the surface. 14) Packing Phones are packed into retail boxes by hand, with appropriate documentation and accessories, and then logged into a tracking system using a bar-code reader.

Finished Goods Storage: Phones packed into retail boxes are grouped territory wise and order wise in ware house. From there it is dispatched to specific places based on the orders

What type of maintenance is more effective? Make a comparative analysis of various types and conclude. Do you feel that the type of maintenance differ from industry to industry? Why? Maintenance: The primary goal of maintenance is to avoid or mitigate the consequences of failure of equipment. The efficient use of plant and equipment is a vital factor for industrial growth; this is possible only by means of proper and effective maintenance program. Maintenance practices are broadly classified in to: Breakdown maintenance & Preventive Maintenance. But Preventive maintenance is more effective than other System:

Maintenance System: 1. Planned maintenance a. Preventive Maintenance -------Running& Shut down Maintenance b. Corrective Maintenance -------Breakdown & Shut down Maintenance 2. Unplanned maintenance -------Emergency maintenance. Effective maintenance Practices and Analysis of various Maintenances practices: Preventive maintenance: Preventive maintenance is an attempt to prevent any probable breakdowns resulting in production stoppages. Preventive maintenance consists of routine actions taken in a planned manner to prevent breakdowns. It is based on the slogan : “Preventive is Better than Cure” or “ Stitch in time saves nine” Preventive maintenance is a systematic maintenance procedure where the condition of plant or equipment is constantly watched or monitored through a systematic inspection to reduce the incidence of breakdowns by taking preventive action.

Préventive Maintenance Activités: Direct Activités & Indirect Activités

1.Direct Activites: 1. Cleaning of the equipment 2. Lubrication to prevent wear 3. Programmed Replacement 2.Indrect Activites: 1. Failure statistics 2. Adjustments to limit wear 3. Periodic Inspection Preventive Maintenance Function: 1. Preventive Maintenance of production departments: Production department directly contributing to the production operation & so the maintenance is strategic in nature. It includes o Anticipatory inspection o Routine Maintenance

Anticipatory inspection & Servicing of Equipments: 1. Time scheduled inspection to monitor or watch the equipment to detect wear and tear of the equipment or plant by all the production department` 2. Predetermined schedule is prepared by plant engineers and it will be conducted during night , week-end days, holidays so that production flow may not be interrupted. Routine Maintenance: It involves: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cleaning of workbench Cleaning, greasing, oiling of machines. Tightening of bolts Recharging of batteries Replacement of lamps in plant area. All the above actions are done in routine and repetitive nature & is done more frequently than anticipatory inspection.

2.Preventive maintenance of plant services:

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Thought they do not directly involve in production activities but plays key role in the production operations. It is equally important when compare to other plant services. It involves in the following areas / equipment in the plant i. Grounding & Flooring ii. Buildings

iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix.

Power Plant Material Handling Equipment Water Supply Waste Disposal System Store Room Tool Room Time Keeper Office x. Fire fighting facilities xi. Fleet of transport vehicles.

------------copy the notes made by me--------------------------------------Do you feel that the type of maintenance differ from industry to industry? Why? • • • Different types of maintenance practices are followed in different industry and also inside the same plant. In a plant where the process is critical, there production team or maintenance team undergoes periodic maintenance to avoid break down and stoppage of production. In a plant where the process is not critical, there break down maintenance will be practiced. In a plant where there is no stand by machines, preventive maintenance is followed whereas when there is standby machine, breakdown maintenance is followed to avoid further cost on maintenance. For economical reason: breakdown maintenance may be followed When the plant capacities exceed the market demand then there will not be chance for preventive maintenance in that case they go breakdown maintenance, in order to capture the timely business and earn more profit during demand period. but the same time the plant may go for shut down maintenance in the off season period. Seasonal business like sugar factory they go preventive maintenance during offseason period and they may go for shut maintenance during seasonal period. But now a days all the factory will have separate team TPM (total preventive maintenance) to prevent stoppage of production.


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Some of the conditions are: Breakdown maintenance is suitable for the following condition: Copy my notes: Preventive maintenance is carried on as under: Copy my notes:

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