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Amp Circuits|Views: 549|Likes: 3

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LAB – 2 OP-AMP CIRCUITS

Experiment – 2.1 Experiment – 2.2

Basic op-amp circuits Non-linear op-amp circuits

EC0222 Electronic Circuits Lab Manual

Experiment 2.1: Basic op-amp circuits ►2.2◄

**EXPERIMENT - 2.1 BASIC OP-AMP CIRCUITS
**

2.1.1 OBJECTIVE 1. To sketch the following basic op-amp circuits and explain the operation of each: a. Inverting amplifier b. Non-inverting amplifier c. Voltage follower d. Differential amplifier e. Summing amplifier f. Integrator and differentiator. 2. To analyze and design circuits of the type listed in item I above for input & output impedances, voltage gain and bandwidth. 3. To trouble shoot and analyze faults in the op-amp circuits. 2.1.2 HARDWARE REQUIRED a. b. c. d. e. f. Power supply Equipments Resistors Capacitors Semiconductors Miscellaneous : : : : : : variable regulated low voltage dc source AFO, CRO, DMM IC 741 op-amp Bread board and wires

**2.1.3 PRE LAB QUESTIONS 1. Identify each of the op-amp configurations
**

+Vcc Vin + -Vcc

R1 +Vcc Vin + -Vcc

Vin R1 +Vcc + -Vcc uA741 Vo

Rf

Rf

uA741

Vo

uA741

Vo

Fig.(a)

2. A non-inverting amplifier has R1 of 1KΩ of 100KΩ. Determine Vf and β (Feedback voltage and feedback fraction), if VO = 5V 3. For the amplifier in Fig.(b) determine the following: (a) ACL(NI) (b) VO (c) Vf

Rf = 560k

R1 = 1.5k Vin 10 mVrms

+Vcc uA741 Vo

Fig.(b)

+ -Vcc

EC0222 Electronic Circuits Lab Manual

Experiment 2.1: Basic op-amp circuits ►2.3◄

**4. Find the value of Rf that will produce closed-loop gain of 300 in each amplifier in fig.(c)
**

Rf Rf

R1 = 2.2k Vin +

+Vcc uA741 Vo

R1 = 12k Vin +

+Vcc uA741 Vo

-Vcc

-Vcc

Fig.(c)

**5. Determine the approximate values for each of the following quantities in Fig.(d).
**

If ----Rf = 22k

Vin 1V

R1 = 2.2k ----Iin + -Vcc +Vcc uA741 Vo

Fig.(d)

**6. If a signal voltage of 10mVrms is applied to each amplifier in Fig.(e), what are the output voltages?
**

Rf =100k

Rf =1M

**+Vcc Vin + -Vcc
**

R1 = 100k +Vcc + -Vcc uA741 Vo

R1=47k Vin +

+Vcc uA741 Vo

uA741

Vo

Vin

-Vcc

Rf =10k

Rf =100k R1=1k Vin R2=1k + -Vcc

+Vcc uA741 Vo

Vin

R1=10k R2=10k + R1=10k

+Vcc uA741 Vo

-Vcc

Fig. (e)

EC0222 Electronic Circuits Lab Manual

Experiment 2.1: Basic op-amp circuits ►2.4◄

7. Determine the input and output impedances for each amplifier configuration, (Zin=10MΩ, ZO=75Ω, AOL = 175,000) in fig.(f)

Rf =560k Rf =150k

+Vcc

R1=2.7k Vin + -Vcc +Vcc uA741 Vo

Vin +

R1=10k

+Vcc + uA741 Vo

uA741

Vo

Vin

-Vcc

-Vcc

Fig.(f) 8. Determine the BW of each of the amplifiers in fig(g). The op-amps have an open-loop gain of 90dB and a unity gain bound width of 2MHz.

Rf =220k

Rf =47k

R1=3.3k Vin +

+Vcc

R1=1k Vin

Vo

+Vcc + uA741 Vo

uA741

-Vcc

-Vcc

Fig.(g)

**9. Determine the output voltage of each amplifier in Fig (h).
**

Rf =10k

3V 1V 8V 1k 1k 1k

1k

Rf =10k

Rf =100k

+Vcc + -Vcc uA741 Vo

0.2V

+Vcc 2V

R1=10k R1=10k + Rf =100k

+Vcc uA741 Vo

0.5V 1k

uA741

Vo

3V

+ -Vcc

-Vcc

Rf =10k

3V 2V 8V 47 k

Rf =10k

Rf =25k

1V 2V 100 k

+Vcc

100 k 10 k

R1=10k

2V

+Vcc uA741 Vo

+Vcc

100 k 100 k 100 k 3V 4V

+

uA741

Vo

3V

R1=10k +

+

uA741

Vo

-Vcc

Rf =10k

-Vcc

-Vcc

Fig.(h)

EC0222 Electronic Circuits Lab Manual

Experiment 2.1: Basic op-amp circuits ►2.5◄

2.1.4 THEORY In this laboratory experiment, you will learn several basic ways in which an op-amp can be connected using –ve feedback to stabilize the gain and increase the frequency response. The extremely high open-loop gain of an op-amp creates an unstable situation because a small noise voltage on the input can be amplified to a point where the amplifier in driven out of its linear region. Also unwanted oscillations can occur. In addition, the open-loop gain parameter of an op-amp can vary greatly from one device to the next. Negative feedback takes a portion of output and applies it back out of phase with the input, creating an effective reduction in gain. This closed-loop gain is usually much less than the open-loop gain and independent of it. 2.1.4.1 Closed – loop voltage gain, ACL The closed-loop voltage gain is the voltage gain of an op-amp with external feedback. The amplifier configuration consists of the op-amp and an external –ve feedback circuit that connects the output to the inverting input. The closed loop voltage gain is determined by the external component values and can be precisely controlled by them. 2.1.4.2 Non-inverting amplifier An op-amp connected in a closed-loop configuration as a non-inverting amplifier with a controlled amount of voltage gain is shown in Fig 3-1-1.

Rf

R1 + Vin

+Vcc uA741 Vo

-Vcc

Fig. 2-1-1 Non-inverting amplifier configuration of op-amp

The input signal is applied to the non-inverting (+) input. The output is applied back to the inverting(-) input through the feedback circuit (closed loop) formed by the input resistor R1 and the feedback resistor Rf. This creates –ve feedback as follows. Resistors R1 and Rf form a voltage-divider circuit, which reduces VO and connects the reduced voltage Vf to the inverting input. The feedback is expressed as R1 )Vo Vf = ( (2-1-1) R1 + R f The difference of the input voltage, Vin and the feedback voltage, Vf is the differential input of the opamp. This differential voltage is amplified by the gain of the op-amp and produces an output voltage expressed as Rf Vin Vo = 1 + (2-1-2) R1

EC0222 Electronic Circuits Lab Manual

Experiment 2.1: Basic op-amp circuits ►2.6◄

The closed-loop gain of the non-inverting amplifier is, thus Rf ACL ( NI ) = 1 + R1 Notice that the closed loop gain is • independent of open-loop gain of op-amp • set by selecting values of R1 and Rf An expression for the input impedance of a non-inverting amplifier can be written as Z in ( NI ) = (1 + AOL β ) Z in

(2-1-3)

(2-1-4)

AOL = open-loop voltage gain of op-amp Zin = internal input impedance of op-amp (without feedback) β = attenuation of the feedback circuit Vf R1 = = Vo R1 + R f Eq. (2-1-4) shows that the input impedance of the non-inverting amplifier configuration with –ve feedback is much greater than the internal output impedance of the op-amp itself. The output impedance of a NI amplifier can be written as Zo Z o ( NI ) = (2-1-5) 1 + AOLβ This equation shows that the output impedance of non-inverting amplifier is much less than the internal output impedance, Zo of the op-amp.

2.1.4.3 Voltage follower

Where

The voltage follower configuration is a special case of the non-inverting amplifier where all the output voltage is feedback to the inverting input by straight connection, as shown in fig. 2-1-2.

+Vcc + Vin -Vcc uA741 Vo

Fig. 2-1-2 Voltage follower configuration of op-amp

As you can see, the straight feedback connection has a voltage gain of (which means there is no gain). ACL (VF) = 1 (2-1-6) The most important features of the voltage follower configuration are its very high input impedance and its very low output impedance. These features make it a nearly ideal buffer amplifier for interfacing high-impedance sources and low-impedance loads. (2-1-7) Z IN (VF ) = (1 + AOL ) Z in

Z O (VF ) =

ZO 1 + AOL

(2-1-8)

EC0222 Electronic Circuits Lab Manual

Experiment 2.1: Basic op-amp circuits ►2.7◄

As you can see, the voltage follower input impedance is greater for a given AOL and Zin than for the non-inverting amplifier. Also, its output impedance is much smaller.

2.1.4.4 Inverting amplifier

**An op-amp connected as an inverting amplifier with a controlled amount of voltage gain is shown in fig. 2-1-3. Rf
**

R1 Vin + -Vcc +Vcc uA741 Vo

Fig. 2-1-3 Inverting amplifier configuration of op-amp

The input signal is applied through a series input resistor R1 to the inverting input. Also, the output is fed back through Rf to the same input. The non-inverting input is grounded. An expression for the output voltage of the inverting amplifier is written as VO = − Rf R1 Vin (2-1-9)

The –ve sign indicates inversion. The closed-loop gain of the inverting amplifier is, thus R ACL ( I ) = − f (2-1-10) R1 The input & output impedances of an inverting amplifier are (2-1-11) Zo Z O(I ) = (2-1-12) 1 + AOL β The output impedance of both the non-inverting and inverting amplifier configurations is very low; in fact, it is almost zero in practical cases. Because of this near zero output impedance, any load impedance connected to the op-amp output can vary greatly and not change the output voltage at all.

2.1.4.5 Summing amplifier

Zin(I) = R1

The summing amplifier is an application of the inverting op-amp configuration. The summing amplifier has two or more inputs, and its output age is proportional to the algebraic sum of its input voltages. Fig. 2-1-4 shows a two-input inverting summing amplifier.

Case-1: If all the three resistors are equal (R1=R2=Rf=R) then

VO = - (Vinl + Vin2)

(2-1-13)

The above equation shows that the output voltage has the same magnitude as the sum of two input voltages but with a –ve sign indicating inversion.

EC0222 Electronic Circuits Lab Manual

Experiment 2.1: Basic op-amp circuits ►2.8◄

Case-2:

When Rf is larger than the input resistors, the amplifier has a gain of −

Rf R

where R is the value of each equal value input resistor (R1=R2=R). The general expression for the output is Vo = − Rf R (Vin1 + Vin 2 ) (2-1-14)

The above equation shows that the output voltage has the same magnitude as the sum of all the input Rf voltages multiplied by a constant determined by the ratio − R Rf 1 Case-3: By setting the ration Rf/R equal to the reciprocal of the number of inputs (n), ie., = ,a R n summing amplifier can be made to produce the mathematical average of the input voltages.

Case-4: A different weight can be assigned to each input of a summing amplifier by simply adjusting the values of the input resistors. In this case, the output voltage can be expressed as

Vo = − (

Rf R1

Vin1 +

Rf R2

Vin 2 )

(2-1-15)

**The weight of a particular input is set by the ratio of Rf to Rx for the input (Rx= R1, R2, ….)
**

2.1.4.6 Subtractor or Differential amplifier

The function of a subtractor is to provide an output proportional to or equal to the difference of two input signals. A basic differential amplifier or a subtractor circuit is shown in fig. 2-1-5.

Rf

R1

V2

+Vcc uA741 Vo

V1

R1 + Rf

-Vcc

Fig. 2-1-5 Subtractor

The output voltage of the differential amplifier can be expressed as R Vo = f (V1 − V2 ) (2-1-16) R1 Thus it can be seen that the output voltage depends on the difference of the input voltages. (V1-V2) can be suitably amplified choosing the values of Rf/R1. The circuit also behaves as a subtractor if Rf=R1.

EC0222 Electronic Circuits Lab Manual

Experiment 2.1: Basic op-amp circuits ►2.9◄

2.1.4.7 Integrator

An op-amp integrator simulates mathematical integration which is basically a summing process that determines the total area under the curve of a function ie., the integrator does integration of the input voltage waveform. Here the input element is resistor and the feedback element is capacitor as shown in fig. 2-1-6. C

Vin R + -Vcc +Vcc uA741 Vo

Fig. 2-1-6 Basic op-amp integrator

The output voltage is given by

1 VO = − VS dt + VC (t = 0) (2-1-17) RC ∫ o Where VC (t=0) is the initial voltage on the capacitor. For proper integration, RC has to be much greater than the time period of the input signal.

It can be seen that the gain of the integrator decreases with the increasing frequency so, the integrator circuit does not have any high frequency problem unlike a differentiator circuit. However, at low frequencies such as at dc, the gain becomes infinite. Hence the op-amp saturates (ie., the capacitor is fully charged and it behaves like an open circuit). In order to limit the gain of the integrator at low frequencies, usually the feedback capacitor is shunted by a resistance Rf, and hence saturation problems can be avoided. A practical integrator circuit is shown in Fig. 2-1-7.

Rf

t

C R + -Vcc +Vcc uA741 Vo

Vin

Fig. 2-1-7 Practical op-amp integrator

2.1.4.8 Differentiator

An op-amp differentiator simulates mathematical differentiation, which is a process of determining the instantaneous rate of change of a function. Differentiator performs the reverse of integration function. The output waveform is derivative of the input waveform. Here, the input element is a capacitor and the feedback element is a resistor. An ideal differentiation is shown in fig. 2-1-8.

EC0222 Electronic Circuits Lab Manual

**Experiment 2.1: Basic op-amp circuits ►2.10◄
**

Rf

Vin

C +

+Vcc uA741 Vo

-Vcc

Fig. 2-1-8 Basic op-amp differentiator

**The output voltage is given by
**

VO = − RC ( dVS ) dt

(2-1-18)

For proper differentiation, RC has to be much smaller than the time period of the input signal. It can be seen that at high frequencies a differentiator may become unstable and break into oscillation. Also, the input impedance of the differentiator decreases with increase in frequency, thereby making the circuit sensitive to high frequency noise. So, in order to limit the gain of the differentiator at high frequencies, the input capacitor is connected in series with a resistance R1 and hence avoiding high frequency noise and stability problems. A practical differentiator circuit is shown in fig. 2-1-9. Cf

Rf

Vin

R1

C +

+Vcc uA741 Vo

-Vcc

Fig. 2-1-9 Practical op-amp integrator

2.1.5 TROUBLESHOOTING

As a technician, you may encounter situations in which an op-amp or its associated circuitry has malfunctioned. The op-amp is a complex IC with many types of internal failures possible. However, since you cannot trouble shoot the op-amp internally, you can treat it as a single device with only a few connections to it. If it fails, you replace it just as you would a resistor, capacitor, or transistor.

2.1.5.1 Faults in the non-inverting amplifier

The first thing to do when you suspect a faulty circuit is to check for the proper supply voltage and ground. Having done that, several other possible faults are as follows.

EC0222 Electronic Circuits Lab Manual

Experiment 2.1: Basic op-amp circuits ►2.11◄

Open feedback resistor: If the feedback resistor, Rf in Fig. 3-1-1 opens, the op-amp is operating with its very high open-loop gain, which causes the input signal to drive the device into non-linear operation and result in a severely clipped output signal. Open input resistor: In this case, you still have a closed-loop configuration, But, since R1 is open and effectively equal to ∝, the closed-loop gain from equation 1-2-2 is R R ACL ( NI ) = 1 + f = 1 + f = 1 + 0 = 1 R1 ∞ This shows that the amplifier acts a voltage follower. You would observe an output signal that is same as the input. Internally open non-inverting input: In this situation, because the input voltage is not applied to the op-amp the output is zero. Other op-amp faults: In general, an internal failure will result in a loss or distortion of the output signal. The best approach is to first make sure that there are no external failures or faulty conditions. If everything else is good, then the op-amp must be bad. 2.1.4.2 Faults in the voltage follower

The voltage follower is a special case of the non-inverting amplifier. Except for a bad op-amp, a bad external connection or a problem with the offset null potentiometer, about the only thing that can happen in a voltage follower circuit is an open feedback loop. This would have the same effect as an open feedback resistor, as previously discussed.

2.1.5.3 Faults in the inverting amplifier open feedback resistor: In fig. 2-1-3, if Rf opens the input signal still feeds though the input resistor and is amplified by the high open-loop gain of the op-amp. This forces the device to be driven into non-linear operation. This is the same result as in the non-inverting amplifier configuration. open input resistor: This prevents the input signal from getting to the op-amp input, so there will be no output signal.

Failures in the op-amp itself or the offset null potentiometer have the same effects as previously discussed for the non-inverting amplifier configuration.

2.1.5.4 Faults in summing amplifiers

If one of the input resistors in a unity-gain summing amplifier opens, the output will be less than the normal value by the amount of the voltage applied to the open input. Stated another way, the output will be the sum of the remaining input voltages. If the summing amplifier has a non-unity gain, on open input resistor causes the output to be less than normal by an amount equal to the gain times the voltage at the open input.

2.1.6 EXPERIMENT (1) Non-Inverting amplifier

1.1 Design a non-inverting amplifier for the gain of 15. Let R1=1.5k Assemble the circuit. 1.2 Feed sinusoidal input of amplitude 100mV and frequency 1KHz

EC0222 Electronic Circuits Lab Manual

Experiment 2.1: Basic op-amp circuits ►2.12◄

1.3 Observe the input voltages and output voltage on a CRO. Tabulate the reading in Table 2-1-1. 1.4 Calculate closed-loop gain (ACL), bandwidth (BW), gain-bandwidth product (GBW), input impedance (Zi), and output impedance (Zo). Tabulate the readings in Table 2-1-1. 1.5 Compare the experimental results with the theoretical values.

(2) Voltage follower

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

Assemble a voltage follower circuit. Feed sinusoidal input of amplitude 100mv and frequency 1KHz. Observe the input and output voltages on a CRP. Tabulate the readings in Table 2-1-1. Calculate ACL, BW, GBW, Zi and ZO. Tabulate the readings in Table 2-1-1. Compare the experimental results with the theoretical values.

(3) Inverting amplifier

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

(4) 4.1 4.2 4.3

Design an inverting amplifier for the gain of 15. Let R1=1.5kΩ. Assemble the circuit. Feed sinusoidal input of amplitude 100mv and frequency 1KHz. Observe the input and output voltages on a CRO. Tabulate the readings in Table 2-1-1. Calculate ACL, BW, GBW, Zi and ZO. Tabulate the readings in Table 2-1-1. Compare the experimental results with the theoretical values.

Summing amplifier Assemble an adder circuit with Rf =R1=10k and R2=47k. Feed sinusoidal input of amplitude 100mv and frequency 1 KHz to each input. Observe the input voltages and output voltage on a CRO Find the magnitude of the output voltage and tabulate the reading in Table 2-1-2. 4.4 Compare the experimental results with the theoretical values.

(5) Subtractor / Differential amplifier

5.1 Assemble a differential amplifier circuit with Rf=R1=10k 5.2 Feed V1=100mv and V2=50mv sinusoidal signal of frequency 1 KHz. To get 2 signals from the same source, use a high resistance potentiometer. 5.3 Observe the input and output voltages on a CRO. Find the magnitude of the output voltage and tabulate the readings in Table 2-1-2. 5.4 Compare the experimental results with the theoretical value.

(6) Integrator

6.1 Assemble an integrator circuit with R=1KΩ and C=0.1µf. Connect Rf of value 1MΩ across the capacitor. 6.2 Feed +1V, 500Hz square wave input. 6.3 Observe the input and output voltages on a CRO. Determine the gain of the circuit and tabulate the readings in table 2-1-1. Model waveform is shown in fig. 2-1-10(a) 6.4 Plot the input and output voltages on the same scale on a linear graph sheet.

EC0222 Electronic Circuits Lab Manual

Experiment 2.1: Basic op-amp circuits ►2.13◄

(7) Differentiator 7.1 Assemble a differentiator circuit with R=10KΩ and C=0.05µf. Connect a resistor R1 of value 470Ω between the source and the capacitor. 7.2 Feed + 0.1V, 5 KHz triangular wave input. 7.3 Observe the input and output voltages on a CRO. Determine the gain of the circuit and tabulate the readings in table 2-1-1. Model waveform is shown in fig. 2-1-10(b). 7.4 Plot the input and output voltages on the same scale on a linear graph sheet.

(a)

(b)

**Fig. 2-1-11 Waveform for (a) op-amp integrator, (b) op-amp differentiator
**

Input signal op-amp configuration / circuit Non-inverting amplifier Voltage follower Inverting amplifier Integrator Differentiator Amplitude Frequency Output signal Amplitude Frequency Voltage gain Designed value Observed value

Table 2-1-1

Input signal (volts) op-amp circuit Summing amplifier Subtractor V1 V2 Output signal, VO (volts) Designed value Observed value

Table 2-1-2

EC0222 Electronic Circuits Lab Manual

Experiment 2.1: Basic op-amp circuits ►2.14◄

2.1.7 POST LAB QUESTIONS

1. What is the relationship, if any, between the polarity of the output and input voltages in your experimental op-amp? Refer to your data. 2. Can the summer operated as a subtractor? Confirm your answer with the experimental data. 3. Look at Table 2-1-1 and comment on the statement: “The closed-loop gain-bandwidth product is a constant for a given op-amp”. 4. Determine the bandwidth of a non-inverting amplifier, voltage follower and inverting amplifier that were implemented in the laboratory. 5. Determine the gain-bandwidth product of each amplifier. 6. Determine the input and output impedances of each amplifier. 7. Determine the most likely faults for each of the following symptoms in fig. 2-1-12 with a 100mV signal applied. (a) no output signal (b) output severely clipped on both +ve & -ve swings. 8. Determine the effect on the output if the circuit in fig. has the following fault (one at a time). (a) output pin is shorted to the inverting input (b) R3 is open (c) R3 is 10KΩ instead of 910Ω. (d) R1 and R2 are swapped. 9. (a) What is the normal output voltage in fig. 2-1-14? (b) What is the output voltage of R2 opens? (c) What happens if R5 opens?

Rf =10k

10k

Vin

R1=1k +

+Vcc uA741 Vo

10k 1V 0.5V 0.2V 10k 10 k

+Vcc + -Vcc uA741 Vo

-Vcc R3 0.91k

0.1V 10 k

Fig. 2-1-12

EC0222 Electronic Circuits Lab Manual

Experiment 2.1: Basic op-amp circuits ►2.15◄

2.1.8 ADVANCED PROBLEMS

1. Design a non-inverting amplifier with an appropriated closed-loop gain of 150 and a minimum input impedance of 100MΩ. 2. Design an inverting amplifier using a 741 op-amp. The voltage gain must be 68 +5% and the input impedance must be approximately 10KΩ. 3. Design a non-inverting amplifier with an upper critical frequency of 10 KHz. 4. Design an inverting amplifier if a midrange voltage gain of 50 and a bandwidth of 20 KHz is required. 5. Design an integrator that will produce an output voltage with a slope of 100mv/µs when the input voltage is a constant 5V. Specify the input frequency of a square wave with amplitude of 5V that will result in a 5V peak-to-peak triangular wave output. 6. Show the connection of 3-stage amplifiers using 741 op-amp with gains of +10, -18 and -27. Use a 270KΩ feedback resistor for all three stages. What output voltage will result for an input of 150µV?

EC0222 Electronic Circuits Lab Manual

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