TERMS OF REFERENCES

On 20 July 2009 Mej (R) Ahmad Azan bin Ridzuan, Lecturer of Disaster Management instructed to prepare the assignment on the disaster management cycle. The purpose of the assignment is to complete the task in this subject and giving the understanding about this subject. We hereby submit this assignment on the above matter.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Term of references Table of content 1

1. Introduction 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Purpose 1.3 Scope

2 2 2 3

2. Discussion 2.1 Disaster 2.2 Management Disaster Cycle 2.3 Mitigation

3 3 4 5

3. Conclusion References

6 7

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction
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Disaster is sudden, extreme and unhumane event to human being, animal and plant. We also should realize that disaster can be caused by natural and also cause by human action. Disaster causes by natural usually happen on its own. Such as flood, typhoon land slide and earthquake. Besides that, disasters that causes by the nature usually cannot be preventing from happen, but we only can avoid from become the victim. For example earthquake, no one knows when it wants to happen. But when it happen, we only can go to the safe place. Disaster cause by the human is the disaster initiate by human such as road accident, war and others that cause by the human itself. Besides that, the civilization of human being also can cause the natural disaster. The development always causing the deforestation and other activities that can change the earth structure and stability. Although it nature disaster, but it also can be considered as human act disaster.

1.2 Purpose 1. To give the explanations on disaster management. 2. To give explanations on the cycle of the disaster management. 3. To give explanation on mitigation phases in disaster management cycle. 4. To find out the example and the solution in facing disaster.

1.3 Scope In assessing the mitigation phases in disaster management cycle, this assignment takes into consideration the following factors; 1. The explanations on disaster management. 2. Explanations on the cycle of the disaster management. 3. Explanation on mitigation phases in disaster management cycle. 4. To find out the example and the solution in facing disaster.

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DISCUSSION

2.1. Disaster

Disaster is sudden, extreme and unhumane event to human being, animal and plant. We also should realize that disaster can be caused by natural and also cause by human action. Disaster causes by natural usually happen on its own. Such as flood, typhoon land slide and earthquake. Besides that, disasters that causes by the nature usually cannot be preventing from happen, but we only can avoid from become the victim. For example earthquake, no one knows when it wants to happen. But when it happen, we only can go to the safe place. Disaster cause by the human is the disaster initiate by human such as road accident, war and others that cause by the human itself. Besides that, the civilization of human being also can cause the natural disaster. The development always causing the deforestation and other activities that can change the earth structure and stability. Although it nature disaster, but it also can be considered as human act disaster. Disaster actually can cause the casualties, economic downturn, lost of life and properties and also hunger. Based on research by Himayatullah Khan, Laura Giurca and Asmatullah Khan (2008). Impact of disaster is causes by the combination hazard and vulnerability. Hazard means the event that trigger the disaster such as earthquake. Besides vulnerability is the level of people expose to the disaster. So that, there should be the systematical approach to handle the disaster so that the impact from disaster can be reduces. Now a day, stress on disaster management is become more popular in order to reduce the impact. Based on the disaster management studies, there four main stage of disaster management cycle. Mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. This 4 phases are interact each other to overcome or reduces the impact of disasters.

2.2 Management Disaster Cycle

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The disaster management cycle is the process by which governments, businesses, and civil society plan for and reduce the impact of disasters, react during and immediately following a disaster, and take steps to recover after a disaster has occurred. Appropriate actions at all points in the cycle lead to greater preparedness, better warnings, reduced vulnerability or the prevention of disasters during the next iteration of the cycle. The complete disaster management cycle includes the shaping of public policies and plans that either modify the causes of disasters or mitigate their effects on people, property, and infrastructure. The mitigation and preparedness phases occur as disaster management improvements are made in anticipation of a disaster event. Developmental considerations play a key role in contributing to the mitigation and preparation of a community to effectively confront a disaster. As a disaster occurs, disaster management actors, in particular humanitarian organizations become involved in the immediate response and long-term recovery phases. The 4 phases of Disaster Management Cycle is; • • • • Mitigation - Minimizing the effects of disaster. Preparedness - Planning how to respond. Response - Efforts to minimize the hazards created by a disaster. Recovery - Returning the community to normal.

2.3 Mitigation

Mitigation means that, Minimizing the effects of disaster through any action. Such as building codes and zoning, vulnerability analyses and public education. Mitigation can be the first Phase in the cycle and also can be the last phase in the cycle refer to the situation. If some community put the awareness before any disaster happen, so that it will be the first stage. However, it they put at mitigation after the disaster, it will be the last phases.

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Mitigation is very important in order to prevent the second impact of disaster if happen. And if the mitigation takes part before disaster happen, it also brings the best result in facing the disaster. Mitigation is likely the preventive step in the cycle. Besides that, it also plays the main role in the cycle. As mention before, the disaster management cycle is to reduce the impact of the disaster. In any problem or disaster, awareness is very important in order to reduce the causes. So that, the only phase in the cycle that give the awareness is mitigation phase. So that, it can be considered as the vital part in the cycle. Tsunami in 2004 can be the example of mitigation. Before it happen, there is small awareness about it. Especially in south East Asia such as Malaysia, Indonesia and the others. Because of that problem, the effect of the tsunami is worst in Indonesia, Malaysia and others affected countries. After the tsunami, the awareness is improved. They put tsunami detectors in possible area. They learned from what was happen and they become more concern for any changes at sea and land agitates. Second example is Japan. Japan is very famous with the earthquake country. What can we relate them with the mitigation is, after several years and times facing the earthquake problems, Japan was modifying their building to become flexible. This is because they want to reduce the building destruction and casualties because of the destruction. Besides that, the level of awareness among their people is high. Most of them know what to do when disaster comes. No matter where they stand and stay.

CONCLUSION

3.1 Conclusion As a conclusion, all of the phase should interact each other to ensure the impact from disaster can be reduces. Besides, the control to the next disaster can be prepared. Furthermore, the basic requirement in order to facing the disaster is we should have enough knowledge about any disaster especially disaster that frequently happen in our area. Besides that we also should concern about the vulnerability such as the unsafe place, which is the location of dangerous places. Then, dynamic pressure, such as the
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lack of understanding about the disaster. And lastly underlying causes such as limited access to resources.

References

1. Vasilescu, L. G., Khan, A., & Khan, H. (2008). DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE – A THEORETICAL APPROACH. central and eastern europaen online library , 43-50.

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