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COMMUNICATION ENGLISH

DIPLOMA COURSE IN ENGINEERING FIRST & SECOND SEMESTER


A publication under Government of Tamilnadu Distribution of Free Text book Programme ( NOT FOR SALE )

Untouchability is a sin Untouchability is a crime Untouchability is inhuman

DIRECTORATE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION GOVERNMENT OF TAMIL NADU

Government of Tamilnadu First Edition 2011

Chairperson

Thiru Kumar Jayanth, I.A.S.,


Commissioner of Technical Education Directorate of Technical Education Chennai 600 025.

Co-ordinator

Convenor

Er. S. Govindarajan
Principal Dr. Dharmambal Government Polytechnic College Tharamani, Chennai 113.

Thiru.S.Ganesan
HOD/First year Central Polytechnic College Tharamani Chennai-113.

Reviewer
Thiru P.G. Rajasekaran HOD/First year (Retd.) State Institute of Commerce Education Chennai 600 113.

Authors
Thiru.R.D.Rajendran Vice Principal Govt. Polytechnic College Purasaivakkam, Chennai - 600 012. Thiru.N.Gurunathan HOD/First year Seshasayee Institute of Technology Trichy - 620 010. Thiru.A.Thiruppathi Vengateswaran Lecturer PAC Ramasamy Raja Polytechnic College Rajapalayam - 626108. Thiru.V.Subramanian Lecturer-Selection Grade Sakthi Polytechnic College Sakthi Nagar - 638 315. Thiru.M.Jeyaprakash Lecturer-Selection Grade Ramakrishna Mission Polytechnic College, Mylapore, Chennai - 4. Tmt. S. Vijayakumari Lecturer (Self Supporting Basis) Seshasayee Institute of Technology Trichy -620 010.

This book has been prepared by the Directorate of Technical Education

This book has been printed on 60 G.S.M Paper Through the Tamil Nadu Text Book Corporation
Printed by Web Offset at xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

THE NATIONAL ANTHEM


FULL VERSION Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata. Punjaba-Sindhu-Gujarata-MarathaDravida-Utkala-Banga Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga Uchchhala-jaladhi-taranga Tava Subha name jage, Tava Subha asisa mage, Gahe tava jaya-gatha. Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata. Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he. SHORT VERSION Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata. Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he.

AUTHENTIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE NATIONAL ANTHEM


Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people, Thou dispenser of India's destiny. Thy name rouses the hearts of the Punjab, Sind, Gujarat and Maratha, of Dravida, Orissa and Bengal. It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of the Yamuna and Ganges and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea. They pray for Thy blessings and sing Thy praise The saving of all people waits in Thy hand, Thou dispenser of India's destiny. Victory, Victory, Victory to Thee.
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THE NATIONAL INTEGRATION PLEDGE


I solemnly pledge to work with dedication to preserve and strengthen the freedom and integrity of the nation. I further affirm that I shall never resort to violence and that all differences and disputes relating to religion, language, region or other political or economic grievances should be settled by peaceful and constitutional means.

INVOCATION TO GODDESS TAMIL


Bharat is like the face beauteous of Earth clad in wavy seas; Deccan is her brow crescent-like on which the fragrant 'Tilak' is the blessed Dravidian land. Like the fragrance of that 'Tilak' plunging the world in joy supreme reigns goddess Tamil with renown spread far and wide. Praise unto You, goddess Tamil, whose majestic youthfulness, inspires awe and ecstasy.

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FOREWORD
English has become the language of our day-to-day life. With the advent of Globalisation, the expanding corporate sectors and the entry of MNCs, communicative competencies in English is one of the most essential and desired qualities from the candidates aspiring for a successful career . Hence, there is an urgent and persistent need on the part of the teachers in developing the skills of English language learning in the budding diploma engineers. Keeping this in mind a revised syllabus of Communication English under L scheme for Polytechnic Colleges has been prepared to suit the requirements of the individuals, industries and all the stake -holders concerned. The exercises are graded in such a way as to make the learners move gradually from the simple to the complex areas, ie. a step ahead of what they have already learnt. The selection of contents is designed to facilitate self-learning. Thus, it makes learning purposeful, fruitful, as well as an interesting one. For the first time in the curriculum, an attempt has been made to improve the reading skill of the students by allocating 16 hours for library use. The contents give a wider scope for the teachers also to be innovative and creative in imparting the essential language skills. It is earnestly hoped that the steps taken in this direction, will go a long way in enabling the students in enhancing the four skills of language learning. -Authors

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We record our sincere thanks and acknowledgment to the Publishers namely Oxford University Press(India), Macmillan Publishers India Ltd.,(India),/Cambridge University Press(India),/ Samba publishing (P) Ltd. Chennai and the English Magazines namely The Hindu/The New Indian Express and The Deccan Chronicle and the publishers of the books mentioned in the reference for our use of their texts /materials in this book.

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SYLLABUS COMMUNICATION ENGLISH-1 Part A GRAMMAR [Non Textual] 1. Parts of speech 2. Functional units [SVOCA] 3. Active voice/Passive voice/Impersonal passive voice 4. Framing Questions [for the responses given] 5. Conjunction 6. Infinitives and Gerunds 7. Question Tag 8. Articles 9. Prepositions 10. Affixation (Prefixes and Suffixes) 11. Correction of Errors 12. Synonyms (Matching/Textual) 13. Tenses Part B COMPOSITION Unseen Passage Comprehension Dialogue Comprehension Visual Comprehension Personal Letter Writing Rearrange the jumbled sentences in order Hints Development. Part C LITERATURE PROSE 1. OF TRAINS AND TRAVELLERS 2. GLOBAL WARMING 3. BOOKS-OUR NEVER FAILING FRIENDS 4. A SENSE OF THE FUTURE POETRY 1. AGELESS TAMIL 2. HOPE 3. SONG OF A DREAM

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SYLLABUS COMMUNICATION ENGLISH-II 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Part A GRAMMAR [Non Textual] Number(Conversion into plural in sentences) Transformation of sentences - Interrogative into Assertive Exclamatory into Assertive Answering the Verbal Questions in Affirmative and Negative Clauses Simple, complex and compound Changing into Negative without Changing the meaning Degrees of comparision Direct to Indirect Speech (Reporting the Dialogue) Homophones (from the Bank) Writing directions on the diagram for reaching a place (Road Map) Idioms and phrases (from the Bank)

Part B COMPOSITION Unseen passage comprehension Newspaper Report comprehension Advertisement comprehension Precis Writing / Summary Writing Impersonal Letter Writing Graphics Part C LITERATURE PROSE MACBETH THE GREEN HOUSE EFFECT MAORI VILLAGES LIGHT DESTROYS DARKNESS POETRY

1. 2. 3. 4.

1. A POISON TREE 2. THE STORM 3. CAN EARTH BE EARTH?

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FIRST SEMESTER
COMMUNICATION ENGLISH - I

CONTENT
PAGE NO. PROSE 1. OF TRAINS AND TRAVELLERS .......................................... 1 2. GLOBAL WARMING.............................................................. 5 3. BOOKS-OUR NEVER FAILING FRIENDS ........................... 9 4. A SENSE OF THE FUTURE .................................................. 14 POETRY 1. AGELESS TAMIL .................................................................. 20 2. HOPE.................................................................................... 21 3. SONG OF A DREAM.............................................................. 22 Model Question Paper - I ............................................................ 23 Model Question Paper - II .......................................................... 29 MODELS & EXERCISES ............................................................ 35

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SECOND SEMESTER
COMMUNICATION ENGLISH - II

CONTENT
PAGE NO PROSE 1. MACBETH ............................................................................ 49 2. THE GREEN HOUSE EFFECT .............................................. 53 3. MAORI VILLAGES ................................................................ 57 4. LIGHT DESTROYS DARKNESS ......................................... POETRY 1. A POISON TREE .................................................................. 66 2. THE STORM ........................................................................ 68 3. CAN EARTH BE EARTH?...................................................... 69 Model Question Paper - I ............................................................ 70 Model Question Paper - II .......................................................... 78 MODELS & EXERCISES ............................................................ 85 62

COMMUNICATION ENGLISH-I

1. OF TRAINS AND TRAVELLERS


I have a weakness for odd trains, some shuttle or passenger, which will crawl through the countryside and stop long enough at unknown stations to enable one to gain an idea of the life and habits there. I like to reach my destination by a series of such hops rather than by a masterful, purposeful mail rushing along to its terminus without pausing to look this way or that. The disadvantage of travelling by such a strict train is that one glides past most places at dead of night. For instance, Salem or Jolarpet are stations, which I have crossed hundreds of times these many years, but without any idea of what they look like. In order to remedy this deficiency in general knowledge, I have taken to travelling by unspectacular day trains. Not the least part of the delight of such a journey being that you find the human element within the compartment as attractive as the landscape without. During a night journey, preoccupation with the problem of sleep distorts the human personality. The bearded saadhu who occupies a corner with scorn on his face for all worldly goods including railway tickets; the meek paterfamilias taking his wife and numerous children somewhere always consumed with anxiety lest they should be crowded out of their seats: the businessman and his friend lounging back and continuously shouting over the din, their prowess in market operations; the bully stretching himself out on a complete seat in full luxury, daring anyone to approach him; the glutton who can never allow a single edible pass outside the window without stopping and buying one, every time haggling over price and quality and showing no inclination to produce his cash till the train actually begins to move, compelling every vendor to trot beside the train; the season ticket student showing off his familiarity with the railway by perching himself precariously on the footboard or at the doorway; these are familiar characters one meets in any journey. There is one other type of person who grips every body's attention the moment he enters a train. He is the loquacious man. He can never leave anyone alone. His air of assurance and friendliness wins him a new
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listener, if not a friend, every moment. It may be said that this man attempts to guide the life and thought of everyone in the compartment. There a child may cry. Our friend will not only persuade the child to remain quiet but also explain to the mother how children should be brought up, what should be done if they suffer from stomach ache, how to treat a cold, how to tackle bad temper or mischief. If need be he can move everybody and clear a space for the young mother to spread out a piece of cloth and put her child sleep. He once cleared a lot of space for elders by persuading all children to sit in a row on an upper berth. One might take him to be a child specialist until one sees him turn his attention to the next subject. He may happen to notice the glutton eat his orange when he will yell out, How much did you pay for the orange?" and follow it up with a discourse on the ups and downs of the orange trade, the method of its cultivation and the geography of the country where it is grown. If he happens to see the actual transaction, this or any other, you may feel rest assured he will throw his weight on the side of the buyer and force the. vendor to bring down his price. If he overhears some others in a coner talking among themselves of political matters, he will step in and put an end to their conversation, compelling them to listen to his own talk. He is one who knows all that goes on behind the scenes at New Delhi. He can explain why this policy is being pursued or why the other one is dropped. He knows who is at the back of everything. He may even claim to be the one who originated the Janata Express, Shatabdi Concession or the Hindusthan Coach through his mysterious agencies in the proper quarters. When he mentions the Parliament, he assumes the look of one who bears it like a burden on his back. He knows all the persons that pull the strings that move the puppets in the Parliament and in the Cabinet. His hints about his own participation in various political activities, builds up a background to whatever he says and gives them a touch of credibility. He can mention most of the personages at Delhi by their pet names; it may take time for an ordinary man to spot them out under his terms. Not for him, the word Prime Minister but just Jawahar. For most of the others, in the Government, he employs mystifying initials and abbreviations.

This man gives one the impression, that he travels for no other purpose, than to gain first - hand impression of how people are faring. He demands very little from others except a hearing which he will get anyway. He hardly keeps a seat for himself always surrendering it to anyone who may look for more space. I have always wanted to ask, whether he possesses a ticket or not, but could never muster enough courage to put the question to him.

-R.K.Narayan
Glossary strict train shuttle (V) unspectacular (Adj) distort (V) paterfamilias glutton (N) edible(adj) haggle (V) inclination (N) perch (N) precarious (N) loquacious (Adj) persuade (V) berth (N) discourse (N) credible (Adj) personage (N) muster (V) din (N) trot (V) express or mail train travel regularly between places something very ordinary pull or twist out of shape man exerting paternal influence on others one who eats too much suitable for eating argue about price / bargain liking or preference birds resting place unsafe talkative compel one to yield a bunk on a ship or a train speak authoritatively on a topic believable an important or famous person bring troops (of people) together, gather together noise run slowly

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each: 1. There is one other type of person who grips every body's attention the moment he enters a train. Q:Mention three characteristics of the other type of person.
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2 I have a weakness for odd trains, some shuttle or passenger which will crawl through the countryside and stop long enough at unkown stations. Q:Why does the author prefer odd trains? 3. He may happen to notice the glutton, eat his orange when he will yell out, How much did you pay for the orange?" and follow it up with a discourse. Q:What type of traveller is referred to in this passage? What do you think will be his reaction on this scene? 4. This man gives one the impression that he travels for no other purpose... Q:What impression does this man give? Fill up the blanks and rewrite: 1. The disadvantage of ______by such a strict train is that one glides past most places at dead of night. 2. He is the _______ man. He can never leave anyone alone. 3. He is one who knows all that goes on behind the scenes at _______. 4. He may even claim to be the one who_______ the Janata Express Shatabdi Concession or the Hindusthan Coach, through his mysterious agencies in the proper quarters. 5. He demands very little from others except a______ which he will get anyway.

2. GLOBAL WARMING
Global warming is defined as the increase of the average temperature on earth. As the earth is getting hotter, disasters like hurricanes, droughts and floods are getting more frequent. Over the last 100 years, the average air temperature near the earth's surface has risen by a little less than 1 degree Celsius or 1.3 degrees Fahrenheit. Doesn't seem that much, does it? Yet, it is responsible for the conspicuous increase in storms, floods and raging forest fires, we have seen in recent years, say scientists. Their data show that an increase of one degree Celsius makes the earth warmer now than it has been for atleast a thousand years. The top 11 warmest years on record have all been in the last 13 years, said NASA in 2007, and the first half of 2010 has already gone down in history as the hottest ever recorded. Projections from UN climate change body, the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change, (IPCC) say that global surface temperature will probably rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 degrees Celsius (2.0 to 11.5 degrees Fahrenheit) during the 21st century. The huge range of estimates is due to the amazing complexity of our earth's climate system and the uncertainty about whether mankind will fight this warming or continue with business as usual. A certain degree of warming is unavoidable even if we managed to reduce our burden on the climate immediately. Oceans, for example, act as huge heat repositories that follow changes in air temperature with a time lag of decades or even hundreds of years. Melting ice caps reflect less sunlight than previously; so our planet absorbs more and more heat. Exactly how these changes will influence the warming trend is unclear. All we know for certain is that it's going to be warmer and that human greenhouse gas emissions are an important reason for this. Are climate change and global warming one and the same? In a nutshell: global warming is the cause, climate change is the effect. Scientists often prefer to speak about climate change instead of global warming, because higher global temperatures don't necessarily mean that it will be warmer at any given time at every location on Earth.
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Warming is strongest at the earth's Poles, the Arctic and the Antarctic, and will continue to be so. But changing wind patterns could mean that a warming Arctic, for example, leads to colder winters in continental Europe. Regional climates will change as well but in very different ways. Some regions like parts of Northern Europe or West Africa will probably get wetter, while other regions like the Mediterranean or Central Africa will most likely receive less rainfall. But it is not just about how much the earth is warming; it is also about how fast it is warming. There have always been natural climate changes Ice Ages and the warm intermediate times between them but those evolved over periods of 50,000 to 100,000 years. In the past, climate change was triggered by changes in the sun's energy output, the changing position of continental plates, or the rotating axis of the earth itself. Many plants and animals were able to adapt themselves to these slowly changing climates. Even humans have changed their habitat according to the comings and goings of glaciers. All these so-called natural forcings, however, have been ruled out for the warming visible in the last 30 years. Since 1980, temperatures have risen faster than ever before, as far as scientists can ascertain. This radical change is leading towards a sudden loss of bio-diversity, a dwindling number and variety of plants and animals. Many species simply won't be able to adapt fast enough. According to the most recent UN assessment, 20 to 30 percent of the earth's plant and animal species face extinction if the world warms by between 1.5 and 2.5 degree Celsius. Even for humans, climate change won't be a smooth transition to a warmer world. Twelve regions around the world could be especially affected by abrupt changes, among them are the North Pole, the Amazon rainforest, and California. All these facts lead scientists to infer that the global warming, we now experience is not a natural occurrence and that it is not brought out by natural causes. Humanity's industrial emissions are responsible, they say.

Global Cooling or Warming: What to Believe? This winter, some parts of the world are freezing in record cold conditions. Is this really what global warming looks like? This winter, Britain has seen the longest cold spell in more than three decades, North America was hit by blizzards that brought frost to Florida, two dozen patients in a psychiatric hospital froze to death on the Caribbean island of Cuba. Surely, global warming has got to be a joke! On the other hand, an Australian is sweltering in Melbourne? The Southern hemisphere is in full summer swing. Heat waves left people gasping in Australia's garden city, culminating in the hottest night in a century when temperatures never dipped below 30 degree Celsius. The point is such short-term weather extremes don't prove anything about long-term climate change. Not that it is a hoax, nor the fact that humans are causing it. Unfortunately, most of us confuse climate and weather; and this is where emotions come in. Glossary disaster (N) hurricane(N) conspicuous (Adj) repository (N) lag(V) triggered(V) habitat(N) glacier(N) biodiversity (N) extinction(N) transition (N) freezing (N) blizzard (N ) proponent (N) proclaim (V) culminating (V) sweltering(V) gasp (V)

a sudden event of great damage, destruction a storm with violent wind obvious/ noticeable storehouse stay behind caused / activated / initiated natural home or environment of an animal a mass moving of ice a variety of plant and animal life total elimination change getting hardened by frost severe snow storm supporter/proposer of a theory announce officially reaching a climax suffering the heat catch one' s breath with an open mouth

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each: 1. Yet it is responsible for the conspicuous increase in storms, floods and raging forest fires we have seen in recent years, say scientists. Q:What is responsible for the storms, floods etc..? 2. Oceans, for example, act as huge heat repositories that follow changes in air temperature with a time lag of decades or even hundreds of years. Q:What are called the huge heat repositories ? 3. Scientists often prefer to speak about climate change instead of global warming. Q:Spell out the relationship between climate change and global warming. Fill up the blanks and rewrite 1. But changing ________ could mean that a warming Arctic, for example, leads to colder winters in continental Europe. 2. But it is not just about how much the Earth is warming, it is also about how ___ it is warming. 3. Not that it is a ____, nor the fact that humans are causing it.

3. BOOKS-OUR NEVER FAILING FRIENDS


A good book, among many things, can fetch us mental. physical and spiritual satisfaction. Books, written by great men, are invaluable gifts to mankind. It is humanly impossible to imagine the infinite variety of books that adorn the cupboards and shelves of libraries all over the world. Books , like food and water, have become essential requirements of modern civilized world. The invention of printing press and its gradual improvements have enabled the book-publishers to flood the markets with innumerable varieties of books and thus leading to knowledge-explosion in different fields. There is hardly any place on this vast earth where you cannot find a book. Books have been constant companions to innumerable men from their childhood till their death, it makes one shudder to think what man would have been if printing press had not been invented .He would have remained pristine, primitive or ignorant. Books enlighten men and keep him better informed .Through their influence man becomes refined, his mind becomes disciplined, frank and just. Adopting the words of Cardinal Newman, it can be said that books mould a person into a gentleman, make him tender towards the absurd, and deter him from inflicting pain on others. It is shocking to learn from the recent findings of UNESCO, that in our country, book- reading averages 32 pages per year, as against the prescribed 2000 pages per year. The number of dailies and weeklies (1334 and 5898 respectively) is a very impressive figure. Yet, the average circulation is nowhere near the world average. Not even one in a thousand reads newspapers regularly. The National Book Development Board, a wing of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, has been doing wonderful work, yet it has not been successful in infusing reading habits in the general public.
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Therefore, it becomes clear that reading should be initiated at the school level. The teachers at school and the parents at home are required to bestow utmost care and attention. They are duty bound to fulfill their obligation. A teacher should help students to choose the right type of book and a parent has to encourage his/her child to read books during leisure hours. In this way, both of them can work wonders. But in practice, the parents shift their responsibility saying that their children learn only from their teachers. ln reality, a child responds to its mother or father much better. Another viewpoint is that before the invention and introduction of T.V and Computer, children normally read books for a few hours daily but today, it is quite alarming to see children and students glued to the T.V. for hours together, leaving no time for reading their own lessons! Modern transformations are normal occurrences. As Tennyson says: Old order changeth yielding place to new And God fulfills Himself in many ways Lest one good custom corrupt the world However, reading is an activity that is indispensable, and can be neglected only at one's peril, because 'Reading maketh a full man' says Bacon. A great writer has classified books into two categories-Books of the Hour and Books of All Time. While short stories, fiction, journals, weeklies etc. fall under Books of the Hour category, great classics like the Mahabharata and the Ramayana are considered as Books of AII Time. Books of the Hour give us relaxation, provide rest to our tired minds, and also keep us abreast of times with the required information. During inclement weather, one can spend time enjoying in the company of the learned writers. A similar pleasure can be derived during a prolonged journey. The books of All Time are treasures. The treasure is so vast and rich that it becomes humanly impossible to cover the entire field because life in comparison to the vastness of the treasure is too short.

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The Ramayana and the Mahabharata are retold in lucid English prose by many eminent writers. The books have become the perennial source of inspiration. Without exaggeration it can be said that the characters and the incidents in these two classics greatly influence the character of Indian men and women. Literature is vitally connected to life and the eminent writers become instrumental in the formation of character. Shakespeare takes the uppermost place in anybody's mind. His plays contain the rarest essence of human thought and behaviour and foreruns the ages, anticipating all that can be said on human behaviour. Similar is the effect of Milton's works. While Tennyson refers to the extent of knowledge that remains undiscovered, Wordsworth, Shelly Keats, and other Nature poets ask us to approach Nature for inspiration. The novelists too endlessly delight the readers with unprecedented levels of enlightenment. The contribution to English literature by Indian writers is also commendable. Writers like Rabindranath Tagore, Sarojini Naidu, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and many others have won international honours as great and meritorious writers in English. Books are our best friends and companions. Through them we get a chance to live with the people of the past, share their thoughts and ideas, gain from their experiences and improve our aspirations. To conclude in the words of Robert Southey books:My never-failing friends are they With whom I converse day by day With them I take delight in weal And seek relief in woe; And while I understand and feel How much to them I owe. B. Selvadurai AIR Broadcasting, 1998

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Glossary invaluable(Adj) primitive (Adj) pristine (Adj) shudder (V) bestow (V) obligation (N) alarming (Adj) indispensable (Adj) perennial(Adj) lucid (Adj) instrumental(Adj) unprecedented(Adj) commendable(Adj)

of great value / extremely useful ancient / relating to the earliest age primitive /unchanged by later developments tremble/shiver confer/present duty or commitment shocking unavoidable permanent / existing for a long time clear/easy to understand serving as a cause or means never known before / without any example praiseworthy/ deserving appreciations

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each: 1. It is shocking to learn from the recent findings of UNESCO, that in our country, book- reading averages 32 pages per year, as against the prescribed 2000 pages per year. Q:What do the recent findings suggest in connection with our book-reading public? 2. The teachers at school and the parents at home are required, to bestow utmost care and attention. They are duty-bound to fulfill their obligation. Q:What is the obligation of the teachers and parents? 3. A great writer has classified books into two categories Q:Mention the two categories of books. 4. Without exaggeration it can be said that characters and the incidents, in this two classics, greatly influence the character of Indian men and women. Q:What are the two classics mentioned?

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5. .it makes one shudder to think what man would have been if printing press had not been invented. Q:What would have happened to man if printing press was not invented? 6. Shakespeare takes the uppermost place in anybody's mind. Q:Why does Shakespeare take the uppermost place in anybody's mind ? Fill up the blanks and rewrite : 1. Literature is vitally connected to life and the eminent writers become instrumental in the formation of ________. 2. Words worth, Shelly, Keats, and other nature poets ask us to approach ______ for inspiration. 3. The books of All Time are ________. 4. Writers like __________, Sarojini Naidu, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and many others have won international honours as great and meritorious writers in English. 5. However,________ is an activity that is indispensable, and can be neglected only at one's peril.

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4. A SENSE OF THE FUTURE


Seventy-five years ago, if you had walked on a summer evening into the country just beyond Bromley in Kent, you might have come on a remarkable sight. In the greenhouse of one of the larger and uglier houses of the neighbourhood a tall man in his sixties was stooping over potted plants. Beside him sat a younger man, just as absorbed, and the young man was playing the bassoon. This earnest pair were Charles Darwin and his son Frank; and they were making a scientific experiment. Darwin wanted to know exactly what tells an insect-eating plant like the common sundew to close its leaves when a fly settles on it. So he was going through the possible causes methodically one by one. Noise was not a likely cause; but it might just have worked; and Darwin was not the man to rule out anything. He had tried sand and water and bits of hard-boiled egg, and now he was trying Frank's bassoon. Darwin never did get to the bottom of what makes the sundew close. But he almost did and the next generation finished his work. He was well content with that. Darwin at sixty was a famous scientist who had changed our whole understanding of nature; yet he remained content to do tiny experiments that would bear fruit somewhere, sometime in the future. This is the sense of the future I want to talk about, at first hand, as a scientist. I am distressed to see how many people to-day are afraid of the future and of science together. I believe that these fears are mistaken. They seem to me to misunderstand the methods of science, and spring from a gloom about what it has done, which has simply forgotten the facts. We sit under the shadow of the nine o'clock news, nursing our sense of doom and we think ourselves worse off than our forefathers a hundred and fifty years ago who were at war with Napoleon for a generation. But a hundred and fifty years ago the working week was eighty hours for children. Cholera was more common in England than 'flu. The country could barely support ten million people, and not a million of them could read. You know how all this has been changed; and don't let anyone tell you that nothing has been gained but comfort. Think of the gain in life and health alone: a population which has just topped fifty millions, the infant
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death rate cut by eighty or ninety percent, and the span of life enlarged by at least twenty-five years. Every machine has been a liberator. They have freed us from drudgery and disease and ignorance and from the misery Hogarth painted that could forget itself only in the stupor of drink. We owe that miracle to science; and it is a miracle. But the scientists who have worked it have been neither gods nor witch-doctors. They have been men: men who had faith in the future; and they have used no magic. What they have used is at bottom only Darwin's method; because that method is science. Science is experiment; science is trying things. It is trying each possible alternative in turn, intelligently and systematically; and throwing away what won't work, and accepting what will, no matter how it goes against our prejudices. And what works adds one more piece to the slow, laborious but triumphant understanding of our world. This is not a secret or a mysterious progress. If it sometimes seems so, that is just because the day-to-day work of science is so unspectacular. You hear nothing from the research worker for years, arid then, suddenly, there is the result in the headlines: penicillin or the jet engine or nuclear fission. No one tells the layman about the years of experiment and failure. How is he to know what has not been done, or to guess the labor of what has? What is he to think but to marvel at the skill of science, and to fear its power? I believe that both these feelings do equal harm: the feeling of marvel as much as the fear. Because they have this in common that they both want to persuade the layman that there is nothing he can do for himself. Science is the new magic, they whisper; it is out of your hands; for good. or ill, your salvation or your doom is the business of others. That is why I have attacked the magic before the fear: because the marvel lies below the fear. In the minds of most people today, the fear is plainly uppermost. They are afraid of the future; and if you ask them why, they conveniently blame the atomic bomb. But the atomic bomb is only the scapegoat for our fears. We are not afraid of the future because of a bomb. We are afraid of bombs because we have no faith in the future. We no longer have faith in our ability, as individuals or as nations, to control our own future. That loss of confidence has not sprung overnight from the
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invention of a weapon. The atomic bomb has merely brought home to us, harshly, as a matter of life and death, what has long been growing: our failure to face, our refusal to face, as individuals and as nations, the place of science in our world. There is the taproot of our fears. In our hearts, of course, we know that the future belongs to science; we do not deceive ourselves about that. But we do not want to have to think like scientists. We want to cling to the doctrines and prejudices which we imagine, quite wrongly, made the world snug fifty years ago. We do not care about the future; we just want that world to last our time. Because we do not feel equal to the new ideas; we have been told that science is mysterious and difficult. And so we let the exciting new knowledge slip from us, a little further every day, and our confidence with it; and then, face to face, with the sense of our helplessness, we pretend that it is all a conspiracy among nuclear physicists. It is in our power to change that in our own generation. As nations, we can apply to affairs of state the realism of science: holding to what works and discarding what does not. As individuals, we can grasp the commonsense ideas of science. And there is the most important lesson we must learn: it is the ideas of science that are remaking the world, not its mechanical achievements. When we have learnt that, we will see the achievements too in their proper place. The atomic bomb is not a great achievement of science. But scientists made a great discovery: the fundamental discovery, that we can tap atomic energy. That is an achievement not of bickering nations but of man. And we have the whole history of science to tell us that every fundamental discovery has in the end brought men more good than harm. I said 'has, in the end' almost by habit: has, if we are willing to look forward. Every scientist looks forward; what else is research but to begin what others will finish and enjoy. And what other incentive can satisfy any of us but that sense of the future. Disaster threatens us only if we perpetuate the division between science and our own everyday living and thinking. Let no one tell you again that

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science is only for specialists; it is not. It is no different from history or good talk or reading a novel; some people do it better and some worse; some make a life's work of it; but it is within the reach of everybody. Science is as human as Darwin and his bassoon, and no harder to understand. Its values are the human values: honesty, tolerance, independence, common sense, and singleness of mind. Its achievements are among the great achievements of man.

- J.Bronowski
Glossary Bromley - a small town near London. (Kent is the SouthEastern country of Britain. Darwin had settled at Down in Kent.) - found unexpectedly - musical wind instrument of low range, with double tubes - serious and determined - the great English naturalist (1809 82) who, through his theory of Evolution by means of Natural selection, revolutionized man's ideas about himself and his place in the animal kingdom - satisfied - feeling of sadness and hopelessness - in worse circumstances - the great French general and administrator - (1769 1821). - small child - length in time - underground channel (pipeline, etc.,) that carries off waste matter - machine with a typewriter-like key-board used for setting metal type in the form of complete lines for printing - electronic tube for producing X-rays
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come on (Idiom) Bassoon (N) earnest (Adj.) Charles Darwin

content (Adj) gloom (N) worse off(Idiom) Napoleon infant (N) span (N) sewer (N) linotype (N)

X-ray tube

- thinking deeply about - property, qualities, etc. received from parents/grand parents drudgery (N) - hard, unpleasant, uninteresting work hogarth - English painter and engraver (1697 1764). (He painted several series of pictures with vividly present scenes form the sociopolitical life of the time.) stupor (N) - almost unconscious condition(here, one caused by drink) witch-doctors(N) - men in some primitive societies who tried to cure sickness and drive away evil spirits by the use of magic alternative (N) - one of several (possible) ways or explanations / other option prejudices (N) - likes or dislikes formed without enough knowledge or experience nuclear fission - splitting (i.e., Breaking) up of the nucleus of an atom, producing atomic energy layman (N) - non-expert scapegoat (N) - that which is made to bear the blame for the wrongs of others overnight (Adv.) - within a very short time brought home to us - made us realize fully taproot (N) - main root doctrines (N) - beliefs and teachings snug (Adj) - self satisfied pretend (V) - make believe conspiracy (N) - secret plans or plot (especially to do some harm) tap (V) - open up (for use); find out bickering - quarrelling incentive(N) - that which encourages or moves to action/ inducer perpetuate(V) - continue

puzzling over inheritance (N)

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Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each: 1. This earnest pair were Charles Darwin and his son Frank; and they were making a scientific experiment. Q:Name the scientific experiment mentioned here. 2. Every machine has been a liberator. Q:In what way has every machine been a liberator? 3. What they have used is at bottom only Darwin's method; because that method is science. Q:What is science? 4. The atomic bomb is not a great achievement of science. But scientists made a great discovery to tell us that every fundamental discovery ... Q:Does the author blame the atomic bomb? If not what does he blame? 5. And there is the most important lesson we must learn: Q:What is the .most important lesson referred here ? 6. Its values are the human values: Q:Name the human values described in this context. 7. The atomic bomb has merely brought home to us, harshly, as a matter of life and death, what has long been growing: Q:What has the atomic bomb merely brought home to us ? Fill up the blanks and rewrite: 1. Darwin at sixty was a famous scientist who had changed our whole understanding of _______. 2. We owe that miracle to ______ and it is a miracle. 3. But the scientists who have worked it have been neither gods nor ________. 4. But the atomic bomb is only the ________ for our fears. 5. Science is as ______ as Darwin and his bassoon, and no harder to understand. 6. We are afraid of bombs because we have no faith in the ________. 7. Every fundamental discovery has in the end brought men more ______than harm.

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POETRY
1. AGELESS TAMIL
Tamils provided culture and made the world glow. Long before metamorphosis of rocks We matured Tamils have lived some say Rice with farming appeared in the land Life with a code of conduct man founded Was looking for green pastures Journeyed on foot then - later Words and language appeared in the world Tamils provided culture and made the world glow.
http://www.4to40.com/poems/index.asp?p=Ageless_Tamil&k=Tamil_Nadu

It is not so easy to trace the origin of the Tamil language as it is age old and classical. It is said of Tamil that it was born long long ago; even before the mountain, the rock, the stone and the sand evolved. It is the Tamils who turned rough earth into green pastures; and refined human nature with the code of conduct. They had developed a high order of civilization which, over ages, enabled progress in every department of human activity. So, Tamils, be proud of our global contribution. Glossary metamorphosis founded matured

a total change, transformation established fully grown

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each: 1. We matured Tamils have lived some say. Q:What do some people say about the origin of the Tamils? 2. Tamils provided culture and made the world glow. Q. What is the contribution of the Tamils?

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2.HOPE

Hope abides; therefore I abide Countless frustrations have not cowed me. I am still alive, vibrant with life. The black cloud will disappear, The morning sun will appear once again In all its supernal glory. Sri Chinmoy Though we encounter many obstacles in our life, it is hope that allows us to see, beyond the darkness, to an illuminating future. It is a poem of hope and optimism. Glossary abide cowed vibrant - to put up with / withstand - frightened somebody into submission - alive with force

supernal - divine / supernatural / of the sky Answer the following questions in one or two sentences: 1. Countless frustrations have not cowed me. Q:How does he withstand the countless frustratios? 2. I am still alive, vibrant with life. The black cloud will disappear, Q:What keeps one alive and vibrant?

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3.SONG OF A DREAM
Once in the dream of a night I stood Lone in the light of a magical wood, Soul-deep in visions that poppy-like sprang; And spirits of Truth were the birds that sang, And spirits of Love were the stars that glowed, And spirits of Peace were the streams that flowed In that magical wood in the land of sleep. Lone in the light of that magical grove, I felt the stars of the spirits of Love Gather and gleam round my delicate youth, And I heard the song of the spirits of Truth; To quench my longing I bent me low By the streams of the spirits of Peace that flow In that magical wood in the land of sleep. - Sarojini Naidu Its about being in that calm place somewhere within oneself and experiencing the peace and magnificence of Nature. The values of life like Truth, Love and Peace are compared to Natural entities like birds, stars and streams. Sleep can be such a magical slice of a day. It helps us to renew and refresh ourselves from all stresses of the waking hours. Glossary wood visions poppy spring glowed grove gleam forest experience of seeing something or someone in dram a herbal plant with showing flowers jump suddenly upwards shone brightly an orchard shine brightly

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each: 1. Soul-deep in visions that poppy-like sprang; Q:Mention any two visions the poetess had. 2. And spirits of Truth were the birds that sang, And spirits of Love were the stars that glowed, Q:What are the comparisons found in this passage ? 3. To quench my longing I bent me low By the streams of the spirits of Peace that flow Q:What is her longing?
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COMMUNICATION ENGLISH - I

MODEL QUESTION PAPER - 1


Time :3hrs PART A-GRAMMAR Each question carries 2 marks Last question No. 2 carries 6 marks Max Marks:75 (24+6=30)

I. 1)Answer any twelve of the following as directed: (12x2=24) (a) Identify the parts of speech of the underlined words: (i) The thirsty crow drank the water and flew away happily. (ii)India is the biggest democracy in the world. (b) (i) Name the functional units of the underlined word / words: They laughed loudly. (ii)Frame a sentence in SVO pattern (c) (i) Change the following sentence into passive voice: Rama eats an orange. (ii)Change the following sentence into impersonal passive voice. Our teacher dictates an essay everyday. (d) Frame one question each for the responses given: (i) I have gone to Chennai. (ii)He is studying in a Polytechnic college. (e) Supply suitable question tag to the following sentences: (i) The skeleton of an ape resembles that of a human. (ii)You are coming tomorrow. (f) (i) Rewrite the sentence changing the infinitive into gerund: I like to learn French. (ii) Rewrite the sentence changing gerund into infinitive: I like eating apples. (g) Fill in the blanks with suitable articles: (i) _________ fruit seller does not earn much during the rainy season. (ii) He bought ________umbrella yesterday.
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(h)

(i) Form negative words by using prefixes: (i) lucky (ii) responsible

(i) Add suitable suffixes to the following words so as to change the part of speech: (i) judge (ii) approve (j) Rewrite the following sentences, correcting the errors: (i) The nature of things are always the same. (ii)I congratulated him for his success. (k) Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions from the given choice. Rama is fond ______ music. (of/off) Gopu is superior ______Ramu. (of/to) (l) Rewrite the sentences using the right conjunction from the given choice: The man is poor, honest. (but/and) She must weep. She will die. (or/though) (m) Match the following words with their meanings: (textual)(2) i) Doom ii) Discard iii) Throne iv)Primitive ancient royal seat reject ruin

2) Write any six sentences in six different tense forms for the subject and the verb given: (6) He subject draw-verb

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PART B COMPOSITION / COMPREHENSION (6x5=30) a) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: 5marks Insects are small creatures having six legs, no backbone and a body divided into three parts. They are the most plentiful of all living creatures. Insects can be divided into two main kinds. Those insects which are useful to man and those insects which are harmful to him. There are also those which are merely interesting or beautiful. Bees and silkworms are examples of useful insects. Bees collect honey and wax from flowers for our use. Silkworms supply us with fine, strong silk. These insects provide man with food and clothing. Locusts and mosquitoes, on the other hand, are harmful to man. Locusts will eat all growing plants and every year trees and crops are destroyed by these hungry creatures. Mosquitoes pass the dangerous disease of malaria from person to person and every year millions of people become ill and even die because of the activities of mosquitoes which are a great danger to health. There are some insects which are not directly useful or harmful to man but are interesting and beautiful. Examples of such insects are colourful butterflies, pretty little ladybirds and fluttering moths. Questions: a. Define insects. b. Give some examples of useful insects. c. Name some beautiful insects. d. Insects are always harmful to mankind. Say - True or False. e. Complete in your own words: Mosquitoes _________.

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b) Read the following dialogue carefully and answer the questions that follow:(Do not rewrite the dialogue). (5marks) Last week I went to Chennai. Whether to attend any function? Yes, to attend my friend's marriage Your friend! She studied with me in elementary school You still remember your elementary school friends? Oh, God! Youve got such a tremendous memory and sense of remembrance. Sheela : Oh! thank you. Mala : Fine, I don't have such a memory. 1) Name the speakers. 2) What is the relationship between the speakers? 3) What is the occasion discussed here? 4) Where did Sheela go last week? 5) Mention a characteristic of Sheela. c) Study the visual and answer the questions that follow:(5 Marks) Sheela Mala Sheela Mala Sheela Mala : : : : : :

Questions: 1. Name the occasion for releasing the stamp. 2. Mention the year of the occasion. 3. What is the value of the stamp? 4. Identify the animal cartoonised here. 5. Identify a monument shown here.

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d) Imagine you are S.R. Abi residing at 14, 1st Cross, T. Nagar, Chennai. D.Laxmi of Trichy is your friend. (5) Write a letter to her describing a picnic spot you visited recently. (or) Invite your friend for your College Day Function. e) Rearrange the following jumbled sentences in order: (5) Finally, it is true that the influx of immigrants in our urban areas and stress in our society have hastened the spread of the use of drugs. At a still deeper level, young intelligent and often sensitive members of our society experiment in the hope of finding an alternative society. In recent years, drug-taking by young people has become a habit. It is a grim epidemic that requires the attention and help of every responsible citizen. At a somewhat deeper level, the habit may have started as a protest against authority. f) Develop the following hints into a passage: (5 marks) Students--not serious in studies--waste time--watching unwanted TV channels--moving to movie very often--accumulate the portions of study-at the time of examination--become serious-study day and night-become worried and tired--faint in the exam hall-fail in the exam-message PART-C Literature (15 Marks) 1) a)Answer any three of the following in one or two sentences each: (3x2=6) i) Books written by great men are invaluable gifts to mankind. It is humanly impossible to imagine the infinite variety of books that adorn the cupboards and shelves of libraries all over the world. Books, like food and water, have become essential requirements of modern civilized world. Q:Name the third essential requirement of modern civilized world mentioned here..
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ii) All these facts lead scientists to infer that the global warming we now experience is not a natural occurrence and that it is not brought out buy natural causes. Humanitys industrial emissions are responsible, they say. Q:What, according to the scientists, are responsible for global warming ? iii) There is one other type of person who grips everbodys attention the moment he enters a train. Q:Mention the three characteristics of the other type of person. iv) This is the sense of the future I want to talk about, at first hand, as a scientist. Q:What is the sense of the future, according to the author ? b)Fill up the blanks and rewrite i) (5x1=5)

Melting ice caps reflect less sunlight than previously, so our planet absorbs more and more_________.

ii) A great writer has classified books into two categories. Books of the Hour and Books of __________. iii) The contribution to English literature by Indian writers is also______. iv) We owe that miracle to ___________and it is a miracle. v) But the atomic bomb is only the _________for our fears. c) Answer any two of the following in one or two sentences each: (2x2=4) (i) We matured Tamils have lived, some say. Q: What do some people say about the origin of the Tamils? (ii) I am still alive, vibrant with life. The black cloud will disappear, Q: What makes one alive and vibrant? (iii) To quench my longing I bent me low By the streams of the spirits of Peace that flow Q: What is her longing?

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MODEL QUESTION PAPER-2


Time : 3 hrs PART A GRAMMAR Each question carries 2 marks Last question No 2 carries 6 marks Max Marks : 75 (24 + 6=30) 12X2=24 marks

I. 1) Answer any twelve of the following as directed: (a) Identify the parts of speech of the underlined words: (i) India won the match. (ii) The peacock danced beautifully. (b) Name the functional units of the underlined word / words: (i) He became the captain of the team. (ii) Frame a sentence in SV IO DO pattern. (c) (i) Change the following sentence into passive voice: He presented me a gift. (ii) Change the following sentence into impersonal passive voice: My mother prepares delicious food. (d) Frame one question each for the responses given: (i) They want to play cricket. (ii) We are celebrating our festival. (e) Supply suitable question tag to the following sentences and rewrite: (i) I am a good English teacher. (ii) She is not ready for the exam. (f) (i) Rewrite the sentence changing the infinitive into gerund: He likes to write novels. (ii) Rewrite the sentence changing the gerund into infinitive: Exercising daily is a good habit. (g) Rewrite the passage filling the blanks with suitable articles: (i) Jupiter is the young world and _______ earth is the living world. (ii) We want to build_______ house in an orchard. (h) Form negative words using prefixes: (i) doubtful (ii) convenient

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(i) Add suitable suffixes to the following words so as to change the part of speech: (i) understand (ii) king (j) Rewrite the following sentences correcting the errors: (i) Please bring one of the pencil. (ii) I prefer coffee than tea. (k) Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions from the given choice: (i) Muhurtham takes place from 8a.m ______10a.m.(to, in). (ii) I agree ________ his ideas. (to, with). (l) Combine the sentence using the right conjunction from the given choice: (i) I studied hard _______ got first rank. (and, but). (ii) _______ I am suffering from fever I want leave. (but, as). (m) Match the following words with their meanings (from the text) (i) successor : length in time (ii) glacier : ruling (iii) reigning : moving mass of ice (iv) span : follower 2) Write six sentences in six different tense forms using the subject and verb given (6 marks) 'They' subject 'win' -verb PART B COMPOSITION / COMPREHENSION (6 X 5 =30 marks) a) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: (5 marks) Somanathahalli, near Gulbarga in Karnataka, is a village which has over 300 abandoned houses, located on the banks of the Bhima. The village has several natural resources. Somanathahalli and other villages in the region have large reserves of limestone. The cement factories in nearby towns covet this resource. In addition, there is granite as well. The village itself, however, has seen no development. It has about 700 residents, but no school or primary health centre.
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There are no bus services even. So the only way to get to Somanathahalli is by 'tamtam', a modified auto rickshaw. If for any reason, the tamtam doesn't come, the only other option is to walk. A tiger attack on two women in this village is said to have started the migration about six decades ago. A tiger entering a house is considered an ill-omen and the prevalent belief is that the house should be vacated. That's when the ghost stories started. Rumors of wandering spirits spread. Some said, it's the devil haunting the village in the night. It terrified the people. A fortune teller suggested that the people should leave the village to save themselves from the evil spirit. Questions: 1) Where is Somanathahalli located? 2) Mention a reason for lack of development of Somanathahalli. 3) What is 'tamtam'? 4) Somanathahalli is an abandoned village. (state true or false) 5) Complete in your own words: A fortune teller ----------b) Read the following dialogue carefully and answer the questions that follow: (Do not rewrite the dialogue). (5marks) At the railway station enquiry counter. Passenger : Is there any train to Chennai? Clerk : Of course, there are many trains, at what time you mean? Passenger : Between 6.00 a.m. and 10.00 a.m.,. Clerk : There is one superfast and two passenger trains. Passenger : Fare, please? Clerk : Rs 85/- for superfast and Rs. 40/- for passenger trains. Passenger : Journey time in superfast? Clerk : 5 hours Passenger : Thank you sir. Clerk : Most welcome. Questions: 1. Who are the persons involved in this conversation? 2. Where does the passenger want to go? 3. Where is the dialogue taking place? 4. How many trains are available to Chennai between 6 a.m. and 10 a.m.? 5. What is the passenger train fare?
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c) Study the Visual and answer the questions that follow:(5Marks) Don't build your house near a stadium.

Questions: 1. What is the warning given through the visual? 2. What has broken the glass panel? 3. Where is the house located? 4. Mention an item that is stained. 5. What has happened to one part of his spectacles? d) Imagine you are Mr. S. Ram of Trichy. Mr. S. Raghul, of 24, IInd Cross, Jevan Nagar, Madurai is your friend. Invite him to attend your sister's marriage. (or) Describe a cricket match you witnessed recently. (5 marks)

e) Rearrange the following jumbled sentences in order: (5 marks) Then he stopped giving predictions. When his enemy caught him redhanded he tactfully escaped. Rajan, initially did not know anything about astrology. There was a tactful astrologer by name Rajan. By mere guesswork and psychology he managed his business.
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f) Develop the following hints into a passage:

(5 marks)

Shersingh family live in a forest no road , transport and medical facility his brother sick shersingh bravely carries him on his back- to a distant hospital thus his brother saved proves that he is a dutiful brother. PART-C LITERATURE (15 Marks) 1) Answer any three of the following in one or two sentences each: (3x2=6marks) (i) I have a weakness for odd trains, some shuttle or passenger which will crawl though the countryside and stop long enough at unknown stations. Q:Why does the author prefer odd trains? (ii) Yet it is responsible for the conspicuous increase in storms, floods and raging forest fires we have seen in recent years, say scientists Q:What is responsible for the storms, floods etc..? (iii) The teachers at school and the parents at home are required, to bestow utmost care and attention. They are duty-bound to fulfill their obligation. Q:What is the obligation of the teachers and parents? (iv) Every machine has been a liberator. Q:In what way has every machine been a liberator? b) Fill up the blanks and rewrite: (5x1=5marks)

(i) He may even claim to be the one who_______ the Janata Express. 'Shatabdi Concession or the Hindusthan Coach, through his mysterious agencies in the proper quarters. (ii) He demands very little from others except a______ which he will get anyway. (iii) But it is not just about how much the Earth is warming, it is also about how ___ it is warming.
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(iv) The books of All Time are ________. (v) We are afraid of bombs because we have no faith in the _____. c) Answer any two of the following in one or two sentences each: (2x2=4marks) (i) Countless frustrations have not cowed me. Q: How does he withstand the countless frustrations? (ii) Soul-deep in visions that poppy-like sprang; Q: Mention any two visions the poetess had. (iii) Tamils provided culture and made the world glow Q: Explain.

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GRAMMAR - MODELS & EXERCISES 1. a. Identify the parts of speech of the underlined words: Model : He demands very little from others. Verb Preposition Exercise : 1. The Godavari overflows its banks every year. 2. The little lamb followed Mary everywhere. b .i. Name the functional units of the underlined word / words : Model : A certain degree of warning is unavoidable. s v c Exercise : 1. One cannot gather grapes from thistles. 2. Science provides us knowledge ii. Frame a sentence in SVC pattern. Model : To advise is easy. s v c Exercise : 1. Frame a sentence in SVO pattern. 2. Frame a sentence in SVA pattern. c. Change into passive voice: Model : He demands very little from others. (Active Voice) Very little is demanded by him from others. (Passive Voice) Exercise : 1. My brother has drawn this picture. (into passive voice) 2. They bought many books. (into impersonal passive voice) d. Framing questions for the responses given. Model : Regional climates will change in different ways. How will regional climates change? or Wont regional climates change in different ways.?
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Exercise : 1. Pune will host two IPL matches in the new stadium. 2. They live on a busy road. e. Question Tag: Model : Books enlighten men. Books enlighten men, don't they? Let's go. Let's go, shall we? Exercise : 1. He won't mind if I use his phone. 2. I am too impatient. f. Infinitive into gerund. Model : To see children glued to TV is alarming Seeing children glued to TV is alarming Exercise : 1. It is a nice day. Does anyone fancy to go for a walk? 2. To work with you is a pleasure. g. Articles: Model : It is not just about how much the earth is warming Exercise : 1. What is wrong with you? Have you got _________ head ache? 2. Would you like to be __________ actor? h. i Prefix to form negative words: Model : available unavailable. Exercise : responsible courage ii. Suffix to change the part of speech Model : weak weakness

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Exercise : warm globe i. Correction of errors: Model : His air of assurance and friendliness win him new listener every moment. His air of assurance and friendliness wins him new listener every moment. Exercise : 1. Plutarch's Lives are an interesting book. 2. He killed the sparrow which was eating some crumbs with a gun. j. Preposition : Model : We stopped at a small village ________ (on, in) our way to London. Exercise : 1. Even ______humans, climate change causes problems. (for/of) 2. She sat _________ the fire and told me a tale. (on, by) k. Using right conjunction: Model : Books of the Hour give us relaxation.They provide rest to our tired minds.(but, and) Books of the Hour give us relaxation and provide rest to our tired minds. Exercise : 1. It was stuffy last night. I could not sleep. (if, as) 2. It was a stormy night.We ventured out.( and / but) l. Matching words with their meanings:(from the text) Meanings matched Persuade - convince / cause to do something by reasoning Conspicuous - obvious / noticeable commendable - praiseworthy/ deserving appreciations Doctrines - beliefs and teachings

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Exercise i. loquacious ii. repository iii. treasure iv. infant

storehouse valuable objects small child talkative

2. Writing sentences in any six tense forms using the subject and the verb given : Model : Subject He verb speak Present Simple Past Simple FutureSimple Present Continuous Past Continuous Future Continuous He speaks English fluently. He spoke English fluently. He will speak English fluently. He is speaking English fluently. He was speaking English fluently. He will be speaking English fluently.

Exercise : 1. Use the subject 'I' with the verb 'work'. 2. Use the subject they' with the verb walk. PART - B COMPREHENSION - MODELS & EXERCISES Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: Model : There was a farmer in a village. He had three sons. They always quarrelled with one another. The father was not happy about their behaviour. He tried hard to bring them into union. All his efforts ended in vain. The father was getting old also. He was worried and he called his sons. He begged them to stop fighting but his sons did not listen to him. They continued their quarrel. One day, the father fell ill. He called his sons, My dear sons, I have nothing to leave behind you except this piece of field. If you work together in the garden, you will make your living. Even that did not stop them from quarrelling with each other. The father was depressed.

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Suddenly, the farmer got an idea. He called out his sons and asked each of them to bring two sticks of same height and thickness. When they returned with the sticks, the farmer took one stick from each of them and tied the three sticks together. Then he asked them to break the single stick with their hands. The brothers broke their sticks very easily. Then, the farmer gave the bundle of sticks to the first son. He asked him to break the bundle. He tried to break it but could not. The second and the third sons too tried it. They also could not break the bundle. Thus, the father made his sons realise the importance of UNITY. Questions: a. How many sons did the farmer have? The farmer had three sons. b. What did the farmer ask his sons to bring? He asked his sons to bring two sticks each of same height and thickness. c. Why was it difficult for them to break the bundle? It was difficult for them to break the bundle because all the sticks were tied together. d. Did the father succeed in his effort? Yes, the father succeeded in his effort. e. Complete: Unity .............................. Unity is Strength. Exercise: The Arabs, who are not in the cities, live in the desert all the year round. They live in tents that can be put up and taken down very easily and quickly, so that they can move from one oasis to another, seeking grass and water for their sheep, goats, camels and horses. These desertArabs eat ripe, sweet figs and also the dates that grow up in the palm trees; they dry them too, and use them as food all the year round. These Arabs have the finest horses in the world. An Arab is very proud of his riding horse and loves him almost as much as he loves his wife and children. He never puts heavy loads upon his horse and often lets him stay in the tent with his family.
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The camel is much more useful to the Arab than his beautiful horse, for he is much larger and stronger. One camel can carry twice as much load and do twice as much work as one horse. The Arab loads the camel with goods and rides on it for miles and miles across the desert just as if it were really the Ship of the Desert, which it is often called. Questions : a. Which section of Arabs lives in the desert? b. Why do these Arabs live in movable tents? c. What do they eat? d. Which animal do they love most? e. Complete: The Ship of the Desert ................. Dialogue comprehension I: Read the following dialogue and answer the questions that follow: Model: Opening a Savings Bank Account Ms.Seema : Excuse me, I want some details on opening a savings account here. Officer : Oh, sure, madam! Are you new to this bank? Ms.Seema : Yes. I have come to Chennai from Pune just a week ago. But I have an account with your Pune branch. Officer : Oh! Then that shouldn't be a problem at all. Do you want to transfer your account from Pune to this branch or do you want to open a new account here? Ms.Seema : Please tell me which would be easier and faster? Officer : Transferring the account would be faster and easier. Please fill up this form and bring two passport size photos. Ms.Seema : By the way, does the Chennai branch have ATM facility? Officer : Sure, madam. We have ATM facility all over India. Ms.Seema : Thank you very much. Officer : You're most welcome!

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Questions: 1. Who are the speakers? 2. What does Ms. Seema want? 3. Where has she come from? 4. Does this bank have ATM facility? 5. How many photographs are required? Answers: 1. Ms. Seema and an offficier in a bank are the speakers. 2. Ms. Seema wanted to open a savings account with the bank. 3. She has come from Pune. 4. Yes, the bank has ATM facility. 5. Two photographs are required. Exercise: I: Read the following dialogue and answer the questions that follow. Situation : Two students are sitting at table in Vijay Restaurant waiting to be served.. After a few minutes, they converse. Dialogue Maria : The service is really slow here. I've been trying to get the waiter's attention for the last ten minutes. Ali : I hope he waits on us soon. I have a class at two o'clock. Maria : Me, too. I recognize that English book. You must be a student at the English Language Centre. Ali : Yeah. I'm in the fourth course. Are you also studying there? Maria : Yes, I'm in the fifth course. I took the fourth course last month. Ali : I just came here two weeks ago. Do you like the institute? Maria : Sure . How long are you going to be here? Ali : I guess a year, but sometimes I feel like going home tomorrow. Maria : You'll get used to it. Where are you from? Ali : Saudi Arabia. How about you?

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Maria : Venezuela. I'm only staying here for three more months. Then I go to Columbia University in New York. Ali : Hi. Oh, here comes the waiter. It looks like we're going to get served atlast. 1. How many persons are involved in this conversation? 2. Where is Ali from? 3. Where are they studying? 4. Where is Maria from? 5. Where will Maria go after three months? II: Read the following dialogue and answer the questions that follow: Situation : Maria and Ali are enjoying their lunch in Vijay Restaurant when a friend of Maria's, Tom, comes up. Conversation Tom : Hi, Maria. Maria : Hai, Tom! Do you want to join us? Tom : Sure. Maria : Ali, this is my friend Tom. He lives in the apartment across from mine. Ali's from Saudi Arabia. He's studying at the English Language Center. Tom : Hi, Ali. Nice to meet you. Ali : Very nice to meet You.. Tom : How long have you been in the United States? Ali : For the past two months. Questions: 1. How many persons are involved in this conversation? 2. Where does this conversation take place? 3. For what does Maria invite Ali? 4. What is the Nationality of Ali? 5. Where does Ali live in the United States?

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Exercise: III:Read the following dialogue and answer the questions that follow: [between two friends, Govind (G) and Leela (L)] G : Latha has misplaced her wallet again. L : Are you sure? Do you recollect last time when she couldn't locate it, we searched every nook and corner of the office and come to think of it, we found it in her hand bag. G : I very well remember the incident. That's why this time I asked her to look for it there immediately. L : If I misplace something, I mentally go through the day and try to recollect the moment I set it down. G : This is what I also do. I have cultivated the habit of putting things back in the place. L : I wish, Latha did the same. By the way, have you ever seen her room? G : No, and I don't want to. I imagine it to be awfully messy. L : Yes, it is. It looks as though an earthquake hit it. G : Really! is it that bad? L : Thats bad! Give Latha some time and she herself will get lost in it! Questions: 1. Name the three persons involved. 2. What are the people discussing? 3. Where was the wallet found in the last instance? 4. How does Govind remember where his possessions are? 5. Does Latha keep her room neat and clean?

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3.Visual comprehension

U.S. President Barrack Obama addresses students at St.Xaviers college in Mumbai on Sunday. The Obamas went to the college after visiting Holy Name school.- the best Diwali gift to the kids Answer the questions on the visual Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Who is handshaking with the students? Where is it taking place? Name the school he visited first. Name the occasion of this scene. Write a sentence of your own about the visual. 5x1 = 5 marks

Answers: 1. Barrack Obama, the U.S. President is handshaking with the students. 2. It is taking place at St.Xaviers college in Mumbai. 3. He visited the Holy Name School first. 4. Diwali was the occasion 5. Barrack Obama is fond of meeting students.
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Exercise - 1 Answer the questions on the visual 5 x 1 = 5 marks

Questions: 1. Who has inserted this visual? 2. Name the occasion of this release. 3. Is the child in happy mood? 4. For whom is this visual meant? 5. Name two bank schemes for the children.

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4. Write a letter to your friend T.Pinky of Trichy, congratulating her on her colourful success in the examination . Imagine you are S.Meena of Bengaluru. 5 Raopura road , Bengaluru, March 10,2011 Dear Pinky, Fine. I have just heard that you have passed your examination in flying colours. Kindly accept my heartiest congratulations. It is an achievement of which you ought to be proud. Undoubtedly, you deserve such a high score. You really worked hard throughout the year. You stand very high and ,I think, you are sure to win a scholarship. Mother joins me in singing your praises. She says your parents ought to be proud of such a child. We pray that your ambition be realized. Yours lovingly, S.Meena Address on the cover: To Miss. T. Pinky 18, Ist Street Nehru Nagar Trichy - 17. Exercise You are M.Ramesh of Chennai. Write a letter to your friend V.Kamal, inviting him to attend your College Day function. 5. Rearrange the jumbled sentences in order: Model: * So there was only winter in his garden. * Spring came to his garden and he was happy * There was a selfish giant who owned a beautiful garden * Then he allowed the children to play in his garden * He did not allow the children to play in his garden
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Answer: 1. There was a selfish giant who owned a beautiful garden. 2. He did not allow the children to play in his garden. 3. So there was only winter in his garden alone. 4. Then he allowed the children to play in his garden. 5. Spring came to his garden and he was happy. Exercise: Rearrange the jumbled sentences in order: Finally, he touched his daughter and she too became gold. His touch would turn anything into gold. The greedy Midas touched all the materials and changed them into gold. Thus he was punished for his greed. King Midas got a boon of golden touch. 6. Developing the hints into a readable passage: [Hints Development] Points to note: (i) Read the given outline carefully. (ii) Be careful to connect as naturally as possible the various points given in the outline. (iii) The conclusion is equally important Model: A bee falls into a tank a dove flies past drops a large leaf into the water the bee climbs on the leaf flies away a boy takes aim at the dove the bee stings the dove is saved. MUTUAL HELP Once a bee went to a tank to quench its thirst. Unexpectedly, it fell into the tank. It almost drowned. A dove was passing that way. It saw the sinking bee. The dove desired to help the bee. It hurriedly flew to the nearby tree, plucked off a leaf and dropped it in to the water before the bee.The bee moved on to the leaf, dried its wings and flew away. The bee was full of gratitude to the dove that had saved its life. A few days later the
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bee was returning to its home at the end of the day. It saw a boy taking aim at a dove sitting upon the branch of a tree. The bee realized it was the dove that saved its life. At once the bee flew down and stung the boy in his wrist. The boy lost his aim and shouted in pain. The dove realized the danger it had been in and flew away. Thus the bee showed its gratitude for the dove that saved its life. Moral : A friend in need is a friend indeed . Exercise : A king had a clever jester a favourite of the king's made jokes about the courtiers offended the king condemned to death bagged the king for mercy allowed to choose the kind of death he would like to die he said, I choose, Your Majesty, to die of old age the king pleased pardoned him.

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COMMUNICATION ENGLISH-II

1. MACBETH
Macbeth and his friend Banquo were riding back home after a victorious war, proud and happy over their achievement. It was a cold day and mist had spread across the Scottish plane. The two riders rode on in silence, each one's mind occupied with his own thoughts. Suddenly they saw three strange figures, resembling old witches. The figures uttered greetings to Macbeth in their shrieking voices, addressing him as Governor of Glamis. Macbeth had become the Governor of Glamis very recently after the death of his father. They next called him Governor of Cawdor. This address surprised Macbeth because the Governor of Cawdor was still alive. The witches addressed him, for the third time, as the king of Scotland. This greeting again puzzled Macbeth greatly, because Duncan was the reigning king and he had two worthy sons to succeed him. The three frail creatures then danced queerly around Banquo making contradictory statements. They said that Banquo was lesser than Macbeth but greater. Banquo was not so happy, yet he was very much happier and that his son would become a ruler, although Banquo himself would not. After this, the three witches disappeared into the mist as mysteriously as they had appeared. Banquo and Macbeth exchanged glances and were both at dismay at the strange happenings. They met two horsemen who said that they were noblemen sent by king Duncan to receive the victorious generals. They said that the Governor of Cawdor, found guilty of treachery, had been sentenced to death. The king had conferred the title of Cawdor on Macbeth for his bravery in the war. Macbeth was stunned. But Banquo quickly warned Macbeth to be very cautious because the evil powers were bound to cause harm to men who believed their words. But Banquo's warning fell on deaf ears, for Macbeth's mind, was occupied by some other thoughts. He was thinking about the third prophesy.
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When Macbeth reached his castle, to his surprise, he found the King himself waiting at his castle to welcome Macbeth. Immensely pleased, Macbeth sent word to his wife to make all the arrangements for the royal visit. He also wrote a letter to her describing the events that had happened on the way and how two of the three prophesies had already been fulfilled. Macbeth's wife, a woman of great ambition and greed, craved for power. She filled Macbeth's mind with dreadful thoughts and deeds, she did it with such skill that Macbeth was willing to do anything for his wife. Macbeth entered the King's bed chamber and using the two daggers placed by his wife there, killed the King in his sleep. He, then, went back to his room. The next day, Macduff, a nobleman, who went into the royal bed chamber to wake up the king, was shocked to find the king lying in bed murdered. The news spread, creating confusion and chaos in the country. Duncan's sons, alarmed by the happenings, fled form the country. Later Macbeth, who was considered a mighty soldier and as one loved by Duncan, was chosen to become the king of Scotland. In this way the third prophesy of the evil witches had come to pass. Instead of peace and happiness, dreadful happenings continued to take place after Macbeth became the king. People began to fear and distrust each other. Macbeth remembered the words of the witches that Banquo's son would become a ruler. Macbeth set assassins to murder Banquo and his children. Banquo was murdered, but Banquo's son escaped. Soon after this, Macbeth went to attend a dinner party, where the ghost of Banquo was visible only to Macbeth. Macbeth was struck with terror. He shouted at it madly. The other nobles were unable to understand Macbeth's behaviour. Macbeth continued to behave like a madman whenever the ghost appeared. Finally, Macbeth's wife led him out of the dining hall, saying that Macbeth was experiencing fits.

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Macbeth, in a desperate mood, went in search of the three witches. They told him that his life was safe until Birnam woods moved towards Dunsinane and no man born of woman could kill him. How could forest move? and further all are born of women. So, Macbeth concluded that his life was safe. The witches had also warned him to be careful about Macduff. So Macbeth got the wife and children of Macduff killed. But Macduff escaped. By this time, the people of Scotland realized that Macbeth was wicked and turned against him. Guilt and bloodshed had caused Macbeth's wife many a sleepless night and she died a miserable death. Macduff and Duncan's son returned to Scotland with an army. They both advanced towards Macbeth's castle to kill Macbeth. The army moved from Birnam forest towards Macbeth's castle. Each soldier carried the branch of a tree to conceal himself. From the top of the castle, it looked like a moving forest. Unwilling to believe the messenger, Macbeth himself went up and was surprised to find the Birnam woods moving. Macbeth faced the combined armies. He learnt that Macduff was ripped off from his mothers womb. Macbeth's ambition did not allow him to surrender. Macduff, with a mighty blow, cut off Macbeth's head.The severed head, displayed on a spear, was, no doubt, a horrible sight, but the sight did not make anyone either pity Macbeth or feel sorry for him. Thus Banquo's warning, that belief in the prophesy of evil powers, was sure to cause havoc, became a reality. Favoured by the nobles, Banquo's son was crowned king in the end. Glosssary shrieking(V) reigning(V) contradictory(Adj) frail(adj ) queerly(Adv) witch (N) dismay treachery (N)

uttering a shrill sound ruling opposed to lean/ skinny abnormally/strangely enchantress dread/ fright act of disloyalty/ deception
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prophesy(N) craved (V) chamber(N) daggers (N) distrust (N) desperate (Adj) havoc(N) stunned(V) assasins (N)

prediction desired private room small knives disbelief helpless damage terribly shocked murderers

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each: 1. The two riders rode on in silence, each one's mind occupied with his own thoughts. Q:Who were the two riders and from where were they returning? 2. The figures uttered greetings to Macbeth in their shrieking voices, Q:What was the first prophecy? 3. This greeting again puzzled Macbeth greatly, because Duncan was the reigning king and he had two worthy sons to succeed him. Q:What puzzled Macbeth greatly? 4. Using the two daggers placed by his wife there he killed the King in his sleep. Q:Who was the king and who killed the king? Who instigated him to kill the king? 5. Macbeth, in a desperate mood, went in search of the three witches. Q:What did the three witches tell him? Fill up the blanks and rewrite: 1. Macbeth and his friend ______ were riding back home after a victorious war 2. Macbeth's wife, a woman of great ambition and ______ craved for power. 3. She filled Macbeth's ______ with dreadful thoughts and deeds 4. Instead of peace and happiness, _______happenings continued to take place after Macbeth became the king 5. The army moved from _______ forest towards Macbeth's castle. 6. _______ with a mighty blow, cut off Macbeth's head 7. Favoured by the nobles, _________ was crowned king in the end.
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2. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT


Seen from space, our atmosphere is but a tiny layer of gas around a huge bulky planet. But it is this gaseous outer ring and it is misleadingly called greenhouse effect that makes life on Earth possible - and that could destroy life as we know it. The sun is the earth's primary energy source, a burning star so hot that we can feel its heat from over 150 million kilometers away. Its rays enter our atmosphere and shower upon, on our planet. About one third of this solar energy is reflected back into the universe by shimmering glaciers, water and other bright surfaces. Two thirds, however, are absorbed by the earth, thus warming land, oceans and atmosphere. Much of this heat radiates back out into space but some of it is stored in the atmosphere. This process is called the greenhouse effect. Without it, the earth's average temperature would be a chilling -18 degrees Celsius, even despite the sun's constant energy supply. In a world like this, life on earth would probably have never emerged from the sea. Thanks to the greenhouse effect, however, heat emitted from the earth is trapped in the atmosphere, providing us with a comfortable average temperature of 14 degrees. So, how does it work? Sunrays enter the glass roof and walls of a greenhouse. But once, they heat up the ground, which, in turn, heats up the air inside the greenhouse, the glass panels trap that warm air and temperatures increase. Our planet, however, has no glass walls; the only thing that comes close to acting as such is our atmosphere. But here, processes are more complicated than in a real greenhouse. Like a radiator in space Only about half of all solar energy that reaches the earth is infrared radiation and causes immediate warming when passing the atmosphere. The other half is of a higher frequency and only translates into heat once it hits earth and is later reflected back into space as waves of infrared radiation.
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This transformation of solar radiation into infrared radiation is crucial, because infrared radiation can be absorbed by the atmosphere. So, on a cold and clear night, for example, parts of this infrared radiation that would normally dissipate into space, get caught up in the earth's atmosphere. And like a radiator in the middle of a room, our atmosphere radiates this heat into all directions. Parts of this heat are finally sent out in the frozen nothingness of space, parts of it are sent back to earth where they step up global temperatures. Just how much warmer it gets down here depends on how much energy is absorbed up there and this, in turn, depends on the atmosphere's composition. The switch from carbon dioxide to oxygen Nitrogen, oxygen, and argon make up 98 percent of the earth's atmosphere. But they do not absorb significant amounts of infrared radiation and thus do not contribute to the greenhouse effect. It is the more exotic components like water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons that absorb heat and thus increase atmospheric temperatures. Studies indicate that until some 2.7 billion years ago, there was so much carbon dioxide (Co2) and methane in our atmosphere that average temperatures on earth were as high as 70 degrees. But bacteria and plants slowly turned Co2 into oxygen and the concentration of Co2 in our current atmosphere dropped to just about 0.038 percent or 383 parts per million (ppm), a unit of measurement used for very low concentrations of gases that has become a kind of currency in climate change debates. Greenhouse Gases: Life givers and Life takers In what seems like nature's brutal irony, the gases that make life on earth possible, now threaten our very existence. Co2, methane, and nitrous oxide might become benevolent climate killers. Greenhouse gases heat up our planet. They are part of earth's atmosphere and trap warmth emitted by the sun, thus heating earth. It is this process - the greenhouse effect - that makes life on the planet possible.

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Natural greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide have always been in the atmosphere. Without them, the world's average surface temperature would be a chilly -18 degrees Celsius. Thanks to the greenhouse effect, however, we enjoy an average temperature of 14 degrees. Glossary atmosphere(N) shimmering(V) glacier (N) radiate (V) radiation(N) absorb(V) dissipate (V) frozen(V) brutal (Adj) irony(N)

gas surrounding the earth flashing/shining moving mass of ice emit rays or waves emission/sending out of rays take in scatter or disappear hardened by frost cruel/inhuman a happening contradicting the thought

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each: 1. Two thirds, however, are absorbed by the earth, thus warming land, oceans, and atmosphere Q:Two thirds of what, are absorbed by the earth? 2. This process is called the greenhouse effect Q:What is greenhouse effect? 3. Our planet, however, has no glass walls; the only thing that comes close to acting as such is our atmosphere. But here, processes are more complicated than in a real greenhouse. Q:What acts as glass wall of our planet? 4. But they do not absorb significant amounts of infrared radiation, and thus do not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Q:What does they refer to? 5. Without them, the world's average surface temperature would be a chilly -18 degrees Celsius. Q:Name the natural greenhouse gases that safeguard the worlds average surface temperature.

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Fill up the blanks and rewrite: 1. But it is this ______________ and it is misleadingly called greenhouse effect that makes life on earth possible. 2. The _______ is the earth's primary energy source. 3. About one third of this _________ is reflected back into the universe by shimmering glaciers, water and other bright surfaces. 4. Only about half of all solar energy that reaches the earth is infrared radiation and causes immediate _________ when passing the atmosphere. 5. Thanks to the greenhouse effect, however, we enjoy an average temperature of _______degrees. 6. ________greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide have always been in the atmosphere. 7. Heat emitted from the earth is trapped in the atmosphere, providing us with a comfortable ________ temperature of 14 degrees.

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3.MAORI VILLAGES
When you go bathing in a river or a pond, do you expect the water to be hot or cold? Cold of course, you would be very surprised indeed if you find it hot. And yet, that was what I found, when I visited North Island, the northern part of New Zealand, I had been invited to spend my holidays with some friends who had taken a house for the summer on the outskirts of the Maori village of Ohinemutu, near the town of Retotua. The Maori, as I expect you know, are the natives of the New Zealand. Retotua lies in the centre of a district known as the Hot spring District, where the water is not only hot but boiling. You see it bubbling away in pools, or shooting up into the air in a column known as a geyser and you come across little pools, where the mud boils like porridge in a saucepan. My friends live in a wooden house as do the Maoris themselves. Most of the houses in the district are of wood, for there are frequent earth quakes and a wooden house does not cause so much damage when falling as a brick house would do. The first day of my visit was Sunday. Would you like to come with us to a service in the Maori church? asked my hostess. Indeed I would, I replied, and we set off. The church was beautifully built and decorated by the Maoris themselves. As we reached the door, my hostess said, I will show you over the church after service. The service itself was very interesting, for the clergyman was a Maori. He said the prayers first in the Maori language and then in English and the same with the lessons and the sermon. The hymns, we all sang together ,the Maoris singing in their language, while the rest of us sang in English. Afterwards, my hostess kept her promise and took me around the church. I very much admired the ends of the pews and choir stalls, which had been very cleverly carved and I was standing, looking at the pulpit, which appeared to be made of finely carved wood, when my hostess said, That isn't really wood you know it is flax, the kind known as phermium.
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I looked at it more closely and saw that she was right. It was made of panels of flax, beautifully hand woven. As we walked back through the churchyard, my guide suddenly stopped at the side of a gravestone. Look! she said, that was not there last time I passed this way. She was pointing to a little boiling pool at the corner of the gravestone. Some one had put a stone over it so that no passerby should step into it by accident but I could hear the water boiling furiously underneath. We often find new pools like that appearing all over the place, said my hostess, as we walked on. After a while I noticed that the ground on which we were walking sounded hollow, I mentioned it to my companion. Yes I know, She said I often feel that if I were to stamp my foot heavily it might go through the ground into the boiling water or mud below. We really live on a sort of crust, which is always cracking. Even those of us, who know, where the pools are, have to be careful when we go out at night, all the more on because, as you have just seen, new ones are constantly appearing. But isn't it very dangerous to live here at all? I wanted to know. The Maoris don't seem to think so. she answered, they build their houses almost on the edges of the hot pools. They find them very useful, you know, both for cooking and bathing. There is no need for a Maori house to have either a kitchen or bathroom. After the mid-day meal, it was suggested that we go for a picnic to another Maori village near by, called Whakaraswarewa, What a tongue twister. I could not help saying. Oh, we call it Whaka, for short, said my host. I will make your tea for you, said the Maori woman. I expect you would like to see how she makes it, My host suggested, I did not see why, but to my surprise, the woman, after filling a kettle with cold water, carried it outside the house, instead of putting it on a stove, near by was a boiling pool and in one corner of this, she placed the kettle. In a very short while, the water inside was boiling too and we were able to have our tea. How convenient it would be on a hot summer day not to have to stoke up the kitchen range to cook the dinner, I thought, and
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how much cheaper to have a hot pool handy than to have to pay for coal or gas. On the way home there were many other interesting things to see. One was a little pool fenced round. What is that for? I asked, Oh, that is the washing pool, said my hostess. the women take the clothes and some soap and do their washing there. Maori houses do not need coppers or basins either. As we came along the village again, there was a very good smell in the air of food cooking. I sniffed appreciatively, and my host and hostess smiled. Those are the Maoris suppers cooking they told me. Just then a woman came to see if her supper was done. She pulled out of one of the pools a bag made of woven flax. She would call that a kit, said my hostess. her supper is inside it. Endingly it was nicely cooked, for the woman disappeared with it into her house. The good odours had made us all hungry and we were glad of our own supper when we got home. Then after a pleasant evening wandering about the village though with care so as to avoid the hot pools we went to bed. I hope you slept well, said my host at break fast next morning. Very well, thank you, I replied, once I could get to sleep, that is. But there was party of singers who kept me awake for a good while. Oh dear I should have warned you, exclaimed his wife. Our house is very near the pool which the Maoris like for their bathroom and as they always like to sing in their bath, while they swim about and play in the hot water. People, who are not used to it, do find it hard to get to sleep. How amazing it is! I said, the Maoris use the hot water for cooking, bathing, and washing. Is there any other way in which it can be used? Yes indeed, said my host. many of these pools have medicinal powers, and people come to the district to bathe in the water and even to drink it, though I believe it is some what unpleasant, for the sulphur in it makes it taste like bad egg.
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The more I thought about it, the more enjoyable it seemed to me to be able to live in a Maori village and let the hot water do so much of the work. I was usally sorry when my holiday came to an end and I was obliged to go back to the land of baths and taps and kitchen stores. - M.Brown In New Zealand, especially in the district called Hot Springs, there are hot springs and pools with boiling water caused by steam coming from inside the earth. The Maoris, who are natives of New Zealand, use these hot springs for several purposes including washing, bathing and cooking. Glossary outskirts (N) porridge (N) hostess (N) clergy (N) sermon (N) pews (N) choir (N) churchyard (N)

passer by (N) panela (N) gravestone (N) furiously(Adv) underneath (Prepo)crust (N) cracking (N) carving (N) fence (N) stoke up (V) -

borders of a town thick, sticky food made of oats. a woman honouring the guests with food etc. priests or ministers of the Christian church a religious lecture long wooden seat with back used in church. a trained group of singers for singing together an area of land around church where dead people are buried. a person who is walking past someone flat rectangular piece of wood or other material a large stone on a grave with words on it. angrily beneath /below a hard layer of something forming a cut without breaking a design that is cut out of a material such as stone or wood a barrier between two areas of land made by wood or wire/ border marker put fuel on

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Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each: 1. I had been invited to spend a holiday with some friends who had taken a house for the summer on the outskirts of the Maori village of Ohinemutu. Q:Who are the natives of Newzeland. What do you find in Hot Spring District? 2. My friends live in a wooden house as do the Maoris, themselves, Q:Why do the Maoris prefer wooden house? 3. The service itself was very interesting, for the clergyman was a Maori. Q:Why was the service interesting? 4. They build their houses almost on the edges of the hot pools. Q:What is the advantage of building the houses on the edges of the hot pools? 5. How amazing it is! I said, The Maoris use the hot water for cooking, bathing, and washing. Is there any other way in which it can be used? Q:For what other way is the hot water used by Maoris? Fill up the blanks and rewrite: 1. When you go bathing in a river or a pond, do you expect the water to be hot or cold? Cold of course, you would be very surprised indeed if you find it _______. 2. What a tongue twister. I could not help saying.. Oh, we call it ______ for short, said my host. 3. There is no need for a Maori house to have either a kitchen or _______. 4. The good ______ had made us all hungry, and we were glad of our own supper when we got home.

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4. LIGHT DESTROYS DARKNESS


Scene 1 (A palace - a court in session-the King seated on his throne-is very old and weak- is looking worried-He is in secret conversation with his Chief Minister) King : Have you thought of a way to select my successor? C.M : Your Majesty, it is a very delicate question. Unless we consider all aspects of a solution, we may have to face serious consequences. King : I agree with you. But you must n't forget that I'm becoming weaker. C.M : Your Majesty will surely live long..Please give me two more days. I shall come back with a good answer. King : Sure, sure, shall we meet here three days hence ? And let this remain a secret between you and me. C.M : Yes, Your majesty. The secrecy will be maintained at all cost. [Exit King and C.M] Scene 2 [Chief Minister's house-Chief Minister - alone-in deep thought- talks to himself] CM:-The King has given me this tough task of choosing a fitting successor to his throne. The real problem, is how to choose the better, from the two equally, capable and intelligent princes. (Enter- Jyothi the daughter of C.M. she is only 12 years old -but has proved herself to be very smart) Jyothi C.M Jyothi C.M Jyothi C.M. Jyothi : Father, it is going to be midnight. Why are you still awake? : Oh, my dear daughter! Your father will not get sleep unless he solves a problem that he has. You know that. Dont you? : Yes, yes. And I also know what your problem is . : What? How do you know it? : Sorry father. I happened to overhear your conversation with the King, when I came there to make the princess. : Jyothi! Don't you know that it is bad manners? : Father, you have told me that eavesdropping or listening to the conversation either stealthily or wantonly is bad. But over62

C.M Jyothi C.M Jyothi

: : : :

hearing a conversation by accident is not. Haven't you told me so! (Embarassed a little) Yes, yes, of course! Father, if I could be trusted, I have a solution to the problem. You have! Are you serious or joking? I am not in any jolly mood! Please listen to my suggestion. Implementing it or discarding it is entirely yours. (she whispers something into her father's ears.)

C.M

: (His face brightens up. He looks at his daughter with pride and says) His Majesty will surely admire you for your smartness. Scene-3

[In the palace -court in session-the King is seated on his throne-The C.M. and other Ministers are also seated in their seats. Two seats, very close to the throne, are vacant.] King : Let my two sons come into my court. (The two princes enter and take their seats-very close to the King.) My sons, listen carefully, I want to choose one of you to succeed me as King after my death. 1st Prince : No, Your Highness, we wish to be your sons. We are not interested in ascending the throne. But I am ready to give up my claim in my brother's favour. No, father, I wish that my elder brother becomes the King and not I. I am very happy to note your love and respect for each other. But we cannot meddle with the procedure. Both of you possess kingly qualities. This contest is to show to the people that the best person has been chosen. Then we abide by what you say. Good. This is the contest. Without using any costly decoration or articles you should fill a big hall. (You are given six days time. We can meet as soon as you have completed the task.)
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2 nd Prince : King :

The princes : King :

Scene-4 After six days (King's court-enter Princes-) Elder Prince : Sire, I am ready. (King and his retinue follow him into a big hall) I have filled the hall with hay; Hay is neither costly nor decorative. King : (to the second son)We shall now look at your hall. Younger Prince : (leads them into his hall. It is very dark inside. The king and the others are just wondering.) Your Majesty, the hall is dark. I wish to remove this darkness. (He lights a candle. The light now fills the entire hall.) King : What is your interpretation? Younger Prince : Sire, our world is full of problems related to physical. mental and spiritual sides. We are in the dark as we are unable to solve such problems. My aim, as a King, would be to find solutions to the physical, mental and spiritual problems and remove the darkness from our society. (The King, highly pleased, looks at his Chief Minister who supports the King's decision.) The King : This is my decree. My second son will be the successor to my throne. He has realized the important duties of a King. (the entire court including the elder prince applauds.) Glossary succession(N) successor (N) consequence (N) eavesdropping (V) stealthily (Adv) following one another follower a result or effect secretly listening to a conversation cautious and secretive action
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wanton(adj) wantonly (Adv) implement (N) throne (N) retinue (N) interpret (V) interpretation (N) decree (N) applaud (V)

wilful / playful deliberately/knowingly a tool(V) put into effect a ceremonial chair for a monarch / royal seat a group of assistants accompanying an important person explain the meaning explanation an official order with force of law express approval by clapping / praise

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each: 1. Your majesty will surely live long Please give two more days I shall come back with a good answer Q:What was the question posted by the king? 2. No, Your Highness, we wish to be your sons. We are not interested in ascending the throne Q:Who spoke this passage ? 3. Good. This is the contest Q:What is the contest? 4. What is your interpretation? Q:Write down the interpretation given by the second prince? 5. This is my decree. Q:What is the decree? Fill up the blanks and rewrite: 1. King:-Have you thought of a way to select my ________? 2. you have told me that _________or listening to the conversation either stealthily or wantonly is bad. 3. Both of you possess _______ qualities. 4. Your Majesty, the hall is dark. I wish to remove this ________. 5. Sire, our world is full of ________ related to physical. mental and spiritual sides.

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POETRY
1. A POISON TREE
I was angry with my friend: I told my wrath, my wrath did end. I was angry with my foe; I told it not, my wrath did grow. And I watched it in fears, Night and morning with my tears; And I sunned it with smiles, And with soft deceitful wiles, And it grew both day and night, Till it bore an apple bright; And my foe beheld it shine, And he knew that it was mine. And into my garden stole When the night had veiled the pole; In the morning glad I see My foe outstretched beneath the tree. -William Blake Like the slow and steady growth of a tree, anger when hidden and untold, gradually develops a murderous intent as mighty and deadly as a poisoned tree .Blake warns the reader of the dangers of grudging and of rejoicing in the sorrows of our foes. The apple, in the poem, is a product of hate. The expression, And I sunned it with smiles describes not only false intentions, but the processing of sunning, giving nutrients to a plant (anger) so that it may not only grow but flourish also. To err is human; to forgive is divine.

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Glossary sunned veiled made it grow by exposing it to sunlight hidden / covered cunning tricks

deceitful wiles -

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences 1) And it grew both day and night Till it bore an apple bright What does 'it' refer to? 2) And into my garden stole When the night had veiled the Pole Who stole into the garden? 3) And I watched it in my fears Night and morning with my tears Why was he in tears?

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2.THE STORM
We wake to hear the storm come down, Sudden on roof and pane; The thunder's loud, and the hasty wind Hurries the beating rain. The rain slackens, the wind blows gently, The gust grows gentle and stills, And the thunder, like a breaking stick, Stumbles about the hills. The crops still hang on leaf and thorn, The downs stand up more green; The sun comes out again in power, And the sky is washed and clean. Edward Shanks This poem describes something with which we are all familiar-the movement, the sounds and the effects of a storm. It seems to take place a little before sunrise, and wakes up the poet from his sleep. The storm is not just destructive. It cleanses and purifies Nature. Glossary panel slackens gust stumbles sheet of glass in a door or window to become slow sudden rush of wind or smoke to lose one's balance

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences 1. And the thunder, like a breaking stick, Stumbles about the hills. Q:What is ' the thunder ' compared to? 2. The crops still hang on leaf and thorn, The downs stand up more green; The sun comes out again in power, And the sky is washed and clean. Q:Write down any two advantages of storm.

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3.CAN EARTH BE EARTH ?


Can earth be Earth when all it's trees are gone, And sudsy waters have become unfit, And poisoned life no longer greets the dawn With raucous sounds that death has caused to quit? Will trees no longer wave, with limbs unfurled, On hapless earth, that ever in orbit roams? Will human ego sacrifice the world To satiate its lust for pompous homes? Will distant space look down on orb that's bald. I now can hear the mother say, I was once called Earth. But now. Bereft of mirth, I weep. That treeless orb's no longer Earth -Garvit
Source: www.familyfriendspoems.com/nature/earth-

The earth is a paradise for all its inhabitants. It provides food, clothing and shelter. It is a pity to note that human beings turn it into a treeless desert. Deforestation is an invitation to evil and death. Glossary sudsy raucous unfurled, hapless satiate lust pompous bereft a mass of bubbles on liquids / foamy / soapy loud/ harsh hoarse opened / spread out unlucky satisfy fully strong desire showy deprived of / sth. precious taken away

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences 1. Will distant space look down on orb that's bald. Q:Why does the poet say 'orb that's bald'? 2. I now can hear the mother say, I was once called Earth. But now. Bereft of mirth, I weep. Q:Explain the expression 'I weep'

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COMMUNICATION ENGLISH-II

MODEL QUESTION PAPER - I


Time :3hrs PART-A GRAMMAR Each question carries 2 marks Last question No: 2 carries 6 marks I. 1.Answer any twelve of the following as directed: a) Change the following sentences into plural form: i) He studies well. ii) I am an alumnus of CPT. b) Convert the following interrogative into assertive sentence: Does this not look good? c) Convert the following exclamatory into assertive sentence: How tall Selva is!,said Ganesh. d) Answer the verbal question first in affirmative and then in negative: Do you like these flowers? e) Identify the main clause in the following sentence: He came running into the station when the train left the station f) Identify the subordinate clause in the following sentence: The book that is on the table belongs to our library g) Combine the following simple sentences to form i) a compound sentence and ii) a complex sentence: a) He studied well. b) He got good marks. h) Change it into negative without changing the meaning: The road is narrow. i) Change it comparative degree: He is as good as my brother. j) Change it into positive degree: This is the best hotel in the town. k) Convert the dialogue into reported speech: Ram: what are you doing? Sam: I am reading a novel.
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Max Marks:75 (24+6=30)

l) Rewrite the following sentences filling the blanks with the suitable homophones from the given choice: i) I want to ______my car (cell/sell) ii) Rama visited a _______(fare/fair) m) Give two instructions to Mr.X for reaching the temple.(Road Map)
Temple
Roy Road

RS Road 200 MTS Gandhi Road

Roy Road

Mr.X is here (BUS STOP)

2. Use the following idioms and phrases in sentences of your own bringing out their meanings: (3x2=6Marks) i) Hit the nail on its head ii) Once in a bluemoon iii) Achillesheel.

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RS Road

Signal

PART B COMPOSITION / COMPREHENSION (6x5=30) a) Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (5) The coral is often mistaken for a flowering plant. It is actually the skeleton of a tiny, soft-bodied animal known as coral polyp. This animal has tentacles with which it catches as its food the planktons floating about. The polyp develops a cup shaped skeleton of limestone outside its body and lives inside it . Through an opening, it goes out and comes in. The tiny, young polyp buds grow like the branches of a tree. When an old polyp dies it skeleton is left behind to which the young ones remain attached and in their turn produce their new buds. This process goes on, fusing the skeleton together. In course of time, they grow into huge colonies which become coral reefs and island. The largest reef is the great barrier reef of Australia and it is more than 2000 km long. The sea where it lies is called the Coral Sea. Corals are also found in the warm, shallow waters of the Indian Ocean, the South Pacific Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The coral resembles beautiful flowers. The most beautiful of them looks like chrysanthemum (a kind of flower) which you may have seen in the flower shows. They have fascinating colours and shapes to attract small animals towards them. The strong tentacles, around the mouth of the polyp, strangle prey when they come near. So, most of the animals prefer to avoid them although many sea creatures like crab, shrimps, sponges and some fish reside among them. i) Complete the following: (3x1=3) 1. The coral polyp catches its food, planktons with_______________ 2. The young ones remain attached to the skeleton of the old polyp _________ 3. The small animals are attracted towards the coral because of their______ 4) Find the words from the passage which are the opposites of (2x1/2=1) (a) rarely (Para 1) (b) ugly(para 3)
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5) Find the words from the passage which mean the same as: (2x1/2=1) (a) To be similar (para3) (b) Keep away from (para3) b) Read the following Newspaper Report carefully and answer the questions that follow: (5marks) ORACLE OCTOPUS PAUL NO MORE Berlin Oct, 26: Paul the octopus, who shot to fame during this year's football World Cup in South Africa for his flawless record in predicting game outcomes, has died, his aquarium in Germany said on Tuesday. Management and staff at the Oberhausen Sea Life Center were devastated to discover that octopus Paul who achieved global renown during the recent World Cup, had passed away overnight, the aquarium said in a sombre statement. Paul amazed the world by correctly predicting the winners of all Germany's World Cup clashes and then of the final. Said Sea Life manager Stefan Porwoll. His success made him almost a bigger story than the World Cup itself We had all naturally grown very fond of him and he will be sorely missed,said Porwoll. Paul's body is now in cold storage while the aquarium decides how best to mark his passing However, Paul's fans need not despair. The aquarium has already been grooming a successor, to be named Paul like his mentor. We may decide to give Paul his own small burial plot within our grounds and erect a modest permanent shrine, said Porwoll. ---AFP Questions: 1. Who is called Paul? Is he alive now? 2. When did Paul achieve global renown ? 3. What was Paul famous for? 4. Where was his aquarium? 5. Name the successor of Paul.

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c) Read the following advertisement and answer the questions that follow: (5 marks)

DEALERS REQUIRED

A 10 Year old manufacturing company is seeking to expand its operations & i channel partners with entrepreneur skills for commercial LPG and Auto LPG pumps for the following states

GUJARAT , MAHARASHTRA ANDHRAPRADESH , TAMIL NADU


Interested parties may send the details of their current line of business, nature of firm ability to invest etc., within 10 days

Pratly Gases Pvt.Ltd.


303, B.N. Chambers , Opp Welcome Hotel , R.C. Dutt Road, Alkapuri , BARODA 390005 Phone:0265-2322950 (M) 09099926053 www.pratlygases.com

Questions: 1. Who has inserted this ad? 2. Is it a marketing company or manufacturing company? 3. Name any two states for which they seek partners. 4. What is the time limit for responding to the ad? 5. Complete: The company is manufacturing ________ . d) Make a precis of the following passage with topic sentence and note making: (5) Contemporary urban lifestyle demands that we spend more than a third sometimes even half of our lives in the workplace. Infact, most urbanites, whatever their gender, derive their very identities from the work that they do. As a result, work has come to occupy a position of predominance in modern lives and the workplace has slowly become almost as important as home, oftentimes, even being a substitute for it. This probably explains why many large business corporations invest substantially in increasing work environments that are friendly and supportive. Today, employees in many progressive companies besides doing their work, can eat, sleep, work, lounge around, read books and
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magazines and so on, without ever leaving the office, the idea being that if employees think of their workplace as a more engaging environment than home, they may, then, find it easier to spend increasing amount of time at work, thereby, ensuring greater productivity. e) Imagine You are S. Rani of Madurai. Write a letter to the editor of The Hindu regarding the poor sanitary condition in your area. (5marks) (or) Place an order with M/S Goyal Publishers, 17 Anna Salai, Chennai 2, for the supply of text books. f) Study the following diagram carefully and convert it into a passage: (5 marks) Murali Vijay India Full Name : Murali Vijay Date of Birth : Apr 01, 1984, Chennai Major Team : India, Tamil Nadu Playing Roll : Batsman Career Statistics International Debut : 2008 ODI Debut : India v South Africa, Feb 27, 2010

Test ODI T20I

M 8 5 6

Inns 12 5 5

Runs 509 86 103

HS 139 25 48

Ave 42.42 17.20 20.60

Lead Questions: 1. When did Vijay make his International debut? 2. What is his average score in ODI? 3. What is his highest score in test match? 4. How many ODI matches he has played? 5. Make your observation on Murali Vijay

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PART-C LITERATURE (15 Marks) a) Answer any three of the following in one or two sentences each: (3 X 2 = 6 marks) i. My friends live in a wooden house as do the Maoris themselves. Most of the houses in the district are of wood, for there are frequent earthquakes.. Q:Why are the houses made of wood? ii. The king : This is my decree. My second son will be my successor to my throne. He has realised the important duties of a King. Q:Why does the king choose second son as his successor? iii) The witches addressed him, for the third time. Q:What is the third prophesy? iv)Nitrogen, oxygen and argon make up 98 percent of the earth's atmosphere. Q:Do these gases contribute to Greenhouse effect? State the reason. b) Fill up the blanks and rewrite: (5x1=5 marks) i. But isn't it very ___________ to live here at all? ii. Your Majesty, the hall is dark. I wish to remove this________ iii. Using the two daggers placed by his wife, he killed the king in his _________. iv)All signs now suggest that a major ______ change is happening again. v) The ___________ use the hot water for cooking, bathing c) Answer any two of the following in one or two sentences each: (2x2=4 marks) 1. I was once called earth But now bereft of mirth, I weep Q:Explain I Weep 2. I told it not, my wrath did grow Q:What and whom did he not tell? 3. We wake to hear the storm come down Q: What are the effects of storm?
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MODEL QUESTION PAPER-2


Time : 3 hrs PART A (24 + 6 =30 ) GRAMMAR (12X2=24 marks) Each question carries 2 marks. Last question No: 2 carries 6 marks. 1. Answer any twelve of the following as directed: a) Change the following sentences into plural form: i)They want a book. ii)He bought a car. b) Convert the following interrogative into assertive sentence: Isn't he good? c) Convert the following exclamatory into assertive sentence: What a nice man Gopal is! d) Answer the verbal question, first in affirmative and then in negative: Will they win the match? e) Identify the main clause in the following sentence: Though he was poor he was honest. f) Identify the subordinate clause in the following sentence: The teacher said that he would come over there. g) Combine the following simple sentences to form i) a compound sentence and ii) a complex sentence: a) There was a heavy rain. b) The match was cancelled. h) Change the following sentence into negative without changing the meaning: It is common. i) Change it into superlative degree: Gold is costlier than any other metal. j) Change it into comparative degree: Bombay is the biggest city in India. k) Convert the dialogue into reported speech: Teacher: Is the work over? Student: I need one more day.
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Max Marks : 75marks

l) Rewrite the following sentences, filling the blanks with the suitable homophones: i) The_______ of a baby is an occasion for joy in the family. (birth/berth). ii) You have to keep a ________ on your expenditure. (check/cheque) m) Give two instructions to Mr.S.Vishnu for reaching T.S.P School
II cut Nehru Nagar Mr.S.Vishnu here T.S.P. School I cut Gandhi Salai

2. Use the following idioms and phrases in three different sentences of your own bringing out their meanings: (3x2=6 marks) i) For a short while ii) To rule out iii) Round the corner PART B COMPOSITION / COMPREHENSION (6x5=30) a) Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: ( 5 marks) The first man-made satellite, Sputnik was launched by the Russians in 1957.It was perhaps the beginning of the space era. The Americans and the Russians seem to be involved in a race for space exploration. Each of them is keen to overtake the other in this race. India has also plunged into space exploration by putting her own satellites in orbits. We are, however, far behind the Russians and the Americans. What are the advantages of space exploration? It is meaningless to spend colossal money and man-power on space research, if there are no returns. First, space exploration quenches our thirst for knowledge.
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Secondly, man made satellites are already used in the field of communication. Radio and TV programmes are relayed by the artificial satellites. They are also used for weather forecasting. Thirdly, it has helped man to land on the moon. Our scientists are keen to find some planet where life exists. This will help man to migrate to some heavenly places and establish new colonies. Complete the following: 1. The name of the first man- made satellite is________ 2. ______ and_______ are involved in space-race. 3. Man made satellites are already used in the field of ______. 4. Find the words from the passage which are the opposites of : (a) ending (para 1) (b) natural (para 2) 5. Find the words from the passage which mean the same as : (a) competition (para1) (b) merits (para2) b) Read the following newspaper report carefully and answer the questions that follow: (5marks)
AIRCRAFT SAFETY

METRO GOES UNDER AT AIRPORT


S. SUJATHA DC/CHENNAI March 22: With concerns being raised over alleged compromises in safety in Metro Rail's elevated structure neat the airport, Chennai Metro Rail Ltd. has decided that the transit system now under construction will go underground for around 400 metres near the airport. The underground stretch, on a portion that overlaps the air funnel area of the secondary runway, will increase the cost of constructing the portion by three times from the cost according to the original plan. We will take care of the concerns and fears expressed by airlines by going underground despite the Airport Authority of India giving us a no objection certificate to construct anything 3 meters high near the aircraft approach area. said a senior Metro Rail official.

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CMRL has revised the cost of the project and the final draft of the modified proposal is being prepared. we will soon submit the plan to the AAL, the official said. The estimated cost of underground tunneling is Rs. 450 crore per km. while the cost of the elevated track is Rs. 150 crore per km. Corridor 1 of Metro Rail was supposed to be on an elevated platform from Little Mount to the airport, but on objections by the airlines, CMRL prepared a plan to go underground just opposite Trident Hotel. The tracks of the transit system will go above ground, soon after the plane approach area.

Questions: 1. What is CMRL ? 2. What is AAL ? 3. What is this news about? 4. What is the estimated cost of the underground tunnelling? 5. Who has raised objections for the elevated structure near airport? c) Read the following advertisement and answer the questions that follow: (5 marks) AIEEE/AIPMT BITSA/VITEE/AMRITA/SRMEEE/CMC/JIPMER/AFMC Comprehensive Training Program From March 25

Join now RAJ Circle

Excellent classroom training by experienced faculty Comprehensive study material Previous years AIEEE/AIPMT solved booklet Test after every topic Centres all over Tamil Nadu

Places : Chennai, Madurai, Coimbatore, Trichy, Karur, Tanjore Contact : Raj Circle, Mobile : 65462 72845.

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Questions: 1. What is this advertisement about? 2. Who has inserted this ad? 3. Name any two places where training is given. 4. When does the program start? 5. Do they give study materials? d) Make a prcis of the following passage with topic sentence and note making: (5 Marks) If you want to get on well in life, you must do your duty to the best of your ability. In this connection, it is right to say that the youth are the future rulers of the country. From this point of view, it will be quite clear that the future of students depends on how fast and how well development takes place. For this purpose, it is a good idea that the students should really first train themselves. It means that they should do well in whatever they have chosen to study. It is not in any way wrong for them, when they can, to take part in other activities. The government have been trying to encourage city students to go to the villages. Of course, it is better that the rural people do the village work and not the city people. But, at the same time, it is true that these two different societies are cut off. It is fair to say that this is not at all a good thing. We must do, what all we can, to close this gap. e) Imagine You are S.Rajan, DME of Madurai. Write a letter to the Personnel Manager, XYZ Limited, Chennai, enclosing your curriculam vitae , for the post of supervisor. (5marks) (or) Place an order with M/S Abu sports, Trichy, for the supply of sports goods.

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f) Study the following table carefully and convert it into a passage: (5 marks) Students selected on campus placement programme in a polytechnic.

Branch Computer Civil Electrical Electronics Mechanical

Corporate INFOSYS TVS WIPRO 40 22 11 23 35 25 45 12 17 32 23 78 57 30 27

Lead Questions: 1. What is this chart about? 2. Name the corporates that visited the polytechnic. 3. Name the branches of engineering that appeared for placement. 4. How many students are selected for placement in INFOSYS? 5. How many students are selected in Civil Engineering Department? PART-C LITERATURE (15 Marks) Answer any three of the following in one or two sentences each: (3X2=6 marks) a) 1) She filled Macbeth's mind with dreadful thoughts and deeds. Q:What was the character of Macbeth's wife? 2) The hymns, we all sang together, the Maoris singing in their language, while the rest of us sang in English. Q:Name the language spoken by the Maoris. 3) But they do not absorb significant amounts of infrared radiation, and t h u s d o n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e g r e e n h o u s e e ff e c t . Q:What does the term they refer to? 4) No, Your Highness, we wish to be your sons. We are not interested in ascending the throne. Q:Who spoke this passage ?

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b) Fill up the blanks and rewrite: (5x1=5 marks) i) The army moved from _______ forest towards Macbeth's castle. ii) But it is this ______________and it is misleadingly called greenhouse effect that makes life on earth possible. iii) What a tongue twister. I could not help saying.. Oh, we call it ________ for short, said my host. iv)There is no no need for a Maori house to have either a kitchen or ______. v) Both of you possess _______ qualities. c) Answer the following questions in one or two or sentences each: (2x2=4marks) i) And it grew both day and night, Till it bore an apple bright; Q: What does the term 'it' refer to? ii). And the thunder, like a breaking stick, Stumbles about the hills. Q: What is ' the thunder ' compared to? iii). Will distant space look down on orb that's bald. Q: Why does the poet say 'orb that's bald'?

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GRAMMAR - MODELS & EXERCISES I.1. (a). Changing the sentence into plural form: Model: I had been invited to spend a holiday with a friend (Singular). We had been invited to spend holidays with friends(Plural). Exercise: 1. A passer-by saw the thief escape in a taxi. 2. That delicious biscuit was eaten by a mouse. (b). i.Converting interrogative into assertive: Model: Wasn't Macbeth ambitious? Macbeth was very ambitious. Exercise: 1. Why waste time in reading trash? 2. Are we sent into the world simply to make money? (c). Converting exclamatory into assertive: Model: How hot the springs are! The springs are very hot. Exercise: 1. If only I were young again! 2. What sweet delight a quiet life affords! (d). Answering verbal questions. Model: Shall we meet here three days hence? i.Yes, we shall meet here three days hence. ii. No, we shall not meet here three days hence. Exercise: 1. Are you angry with me? 2. Will they be at the cinema?

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(e) Combining simple sentences to form compound and complex sentences: Model: The good odours had made us all hungry and we were glad of our own supper. (compound) As the good odours had made us all hungry, we were glad of our own supper. (complex) Exercise: 1. Your father will hear of your success. He will be delighted. 2. He cannot afford a motor car. He is too poor. (f). i. Identifying the main clause: Model: When you go for bathing in a river, you expect the water to be cold. Main clause Exercise: 1. He expressed his regret when he admitted his error. 2. I am not afraid, as I speak truth (g) Identifying the subordinate clause: Model: If there is no green house effect, the earth's average temperature would be a chilling 18 Celsius. Exercise: Though the weather is pleasant, it is a little cold however. As it poured heavily, the streets were flooded. (h) Changing affirmative into negative sentence without changing the meaning. Model: I am happy to note your love and respect for each other. (Affirmative) I am not unhappy to note your love and respect for each other. (Negative) Exercise: We found the road in good condition. Everyone will admit that he did his best.

1. 2.

1. 2.

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1. 2.

1. 2.

1.

2.

1. 2.

(i). Change into superlative degree: Model: Very few kings were as brave as Macbeth. (Positive) Macbeth was one of the bravest kings. (Superlative) Exercise: This hotel is cheaper than any other hotel in the town. No other film was so boring as this one. (j). Change into comparative degree: Model: The hot spring in the Maori village was one of the most amazing things. (Superlative) Very few things were so amazing in the Maori village as the hot spring. (Comparative) Exercise: R.K.Narayanan was one of the greatest Indian writers in English. Everest is the highest mountain in the world. (k). Converting a dialogue into a reported speech. Model: Elder Prince : I have filled the hall with hay. King : We shall now look at your hall. Reported Speech : The elder prince told the king that he had filled the hall with hay. The king replied that they would then look at his hall. Exercise: Hari : Are you ready for our picnic? We have to start early in the morning. Karim : Yes, almost, I have to pack only a few more things. Master : Well, by the by, Ram Narayanan, I hear you are taking part in the speech competition. Student : Yes, Sir, and I have come to collect from you some hints on the art of public speaking. (l).Homophones : Exercise: He _______ all the sweets.(ate / eight) His uncle hasn't sent him a ______ (check / cheque)

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(m).Giving two instructions to reach a place Model: To reach the bus stand.
You are here X Shopping Complex Traffic Signal

Temple 100 mts

Bus Stand

1. Walk straight to reach the Traffic Signal and turn right. 2. Find the temple in the South and walk 100 mts towards the East. Exercise:1 To reach the Airport
you are here X

N W
College Road

E S

Temple

Airport

Exercise:2 To reach the harbour Ram Road Harbour 50 mts.


You are here X

Mall

50 mts.

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2. Using idioms and phrases in sentences : Model: A chip on your shoulder. Meaning Example Exercise: 1. On and off 2. Round the corner PART-B COMPREHENSION/COMPOSITION Passage: Exercise: All true students need a library. In the library we find information for class work, extra reading in subjects which interest us and reading for pleasure. We call these three types as Information Reading, Supplementary Reading and Recreational Reading. Books in libraries are arranged in a special order, that is, they are classified. Many libraries use the Dewey system which divides books into these ten divisions (0) General Works, (1) Philosophy, (2) Religion, (3) Social Sciences, (4) Languages, (5) Science, (6) Technology, (7) Arts, (8) Literature, (9) History and(10) Geography . These are divided into subdivisions and the exact class number of any book is put on the spine of the book so that it can be easily seen. Every library should have card catalogues. These are small drawers holding cards on which we find information about each book. Usually there are two catalogues; one arranged alphabetically as to the authors' names, the other arranged by the class numbers. In the author catalogue we find the names of authors beginning with A, then those with B, C and so on. In the subject catalogue we start with General Works,
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: Angry because of what happened in the past. : He lost his game this morning and now he has a chip on his shoulder.

0, then we go on to Class 1, 2, 3 and so on. If we know the name of the author of a book, we can quickly find the card in the author catalogue. If we know the subject, we can find the book in the subject catalogue, because it is usually easy to guess its class number. Complete the following : a. In the library we find..... b. Dewey system divides books into..... c. Each library should have..... d. Find the words from the passage which are the opposites of: (i) deranged (para 2 ) (ii) ordinary (para 2 ) e. Find the words from the passage which mean the same as: (i) tiny (para 4 ) (ii) additional (para 1) Exercise: ADVERTISEMENT COMPREHENSION M/S.TATA GOLD PLUS LTD. CHENNAI-600020. REQUIRES SALES PERSONNEL FOR THE SHOWROOM AT ADAYAR QULIFICATION: ANY DEGREE SALARY: RS. 10,000/-PLUS ALLOWANCES PER MONTH MEN and WOMEN WITH A FLAIR FOR SALES CAREER CAN APPLY TO MANAGER- SALES TATA GOLD PLUS LTD. 17, GANDHIJI ROAD, ADAYAR CHENNAI-600020. Questions. 1. Name the post for which this ad is made. 2. Who has issued the advertisement?
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3. What is the salary offered? 4. To whom should the application be sent? 5. Can women apply for the post? PRECIS WRITING There is a misconception that prcis writing is a mere one third condensation of the passage given but it is not so. Choosing the main points and forming them into a readable passage is called prcis writing. While during so, automatically, the repetitive phrases, the expanding phrases and relative clauses are scissored off.In the process, the essence of the passage is retained. POINTS TO NOTE read the passage with utmost care and attention decide the subject-matter of the passage locate the topic sentence. make notes. fix the title connected to the subject matter. take pains to prepare the rough draft which will help in presenting the fair draft in a better way. (VII) present a fair draft and then strike off the rough draft. (VIII) focus the message if any How to locate the topic sentence? Topic sentence means a sentence that covers the whole idea of the given passage. Normally topic sentences occur at the beginning of the passage but there are also cases of topic sentence appearing anywhere in the passage. Sometimes more than one sentence may cover the central idea of the passage. Model: Now a days more and more attention is being paid all over the world to the protection of man's environment on which human existence depends. Environment mean natural things that surround us such as the
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(I) (II) (III) (IV) (V) (VI)

earth's atmosphere, healthy air and drinkable water. Thus, protecting the environment means keeping nature's gifts to mankind in as good and natural condition as possible. Murder of the environment, which involves senseless poisoning of the earth, air and water, and wanton destruction of forest wealth in our mad race for development, expansion and growth, is fraught with grave consequences for mankind. The chemicals being produced and marketed for various purposes are proving useful to modern civilization, particularly in the manufacturing of weapons of war but their adverse effect on the environment can hardly be lost sight of. THE UNESCO Director-General even warned the world recently that the problems of environment were jeopardizing the development of mankind. It is, therefore, essential that every country should have department of the environment - Government Department responsible for land planning, construction of industries, transport, preservation of public amenities, control of air and water pollution, the protection of the coast and the countryside. Topic Sentence : (I) Now-a-days more and more attention is being paid all over the world to the protection of man's environment on which human existence depends . Note Making: (i) definition of environment. (ii) dependence of human existence on environment. (iii) protection and pollution. (iv) warning of the UNES CO. (v) a separate department for environment. Title :Environment Protection Rough Draft : Human existence depends on environmental protection. Environment includes the natural things like atmosphere, air and water Environment protection means keeping nature's gifts in their natural condition. Poisoning earth, air and water and destroying forests in the
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name of development activities affect the mankind. Use of chemicals in manufacturing weapons of war affect the environment. The Director General of UNESCO, warns that the problems of environment were jeopardizing the development of mankind.So every country could lave a separate department for environment protection and developmental activities.( written and struck off after finishing the Fair draft.) Fair Draft : Human existence depends on environmental protection. Environment includes the natural things like atmosphere, air and water. Environment protection means keeping nature's gifts in their natural condition. Poisoning earth, air and water and destroying frosts in the name of development activities affect the mankind. Use of chemicals in manufacturing weapons of war affect the environment. The Director General of UNESCO, warns that the problems of environment are jeopardizing the development of mankind.So every country should lave a separate department for environmental protection and developmental activities. Message : Environment protection is a must for the healthy human existence. Exercise 1: Television is one of the wonders of our age. By turning the switch on a box-like instrument in our house, we can see events that are happening thousands of kilometers away. Watching the television is like watching a film at the cinema; the only difference is that, instead of a large screen at the cinema, we have a small screen, made of glass and fixing to a box which is not much bigger than a radio, and just as by turning the switch on the radio, we can hear music or speech put out from distant studios, we can, with television, watch dramas and films put on at special studio which we have never visited. The word 'television' itself means 'seeing from a distance': 'tele' is a Greek word meaning at a distance and 'vision, comes from a Latin word meaning 'see'.

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How does television work? It involves the sending out (or 'transmission') of pictures from one place and the getting in for 'reception ' of those pictures at many other places. Let us first see how the transmission is done. This may be a meeting, a play or a cricket match. Whatever it is, the first thing to do is to convert the event into a series of pictures, through a television camera. Now a television camera is not like an ordinary film camera. It does not take a complete picture of a scene. What it does is to break the picture up into a series of parallel lines, very close to one another. -adapted. Exercise 2: People are very fond of smoking without realizing that it is injurious to health. That is why the Government has banned smoking in buses, trams and trains as well as in offices and public places. You must remember two things : First, someone said, A cigarette is tobacco rolled in paper with smoke at one end and a fool at the other.It gives you nothing for the money you waste. Secondly, smoking causes diseases like asthma, bronchitis, cancer of the lungs and mouth, etc., although illness takes time to hurt us. The Government has, therefore, made it mandatory for the companies manufacturing and selling cigarettes to print on every cigarette packet the warning that Smoking is injurious to health. Impersonal Letter Model : Imagine you are R.Subbu of Erode. Write a letter to M/s Palani Brothers (Booksellers), ordering books and stationery. 16 Gandhi road, Erode, April 15,2011. Messers .Palani Brothers Booksellers, 12,Market road. Chennai-5.

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Dear sirs, I shall be obliged if you send me the following books by V.P.P at your earliest convenience: One copy of : 1. A Junior English Grammar and Composition 2. General Knowledge Today : Books I-VIII 3. Spell-well English Word books : I-VIII. Yours truly, R.Subbu Exercise: Imagine you are S.Tilak, student representative of PGR Polytechnic College of Salem. Write a letter to the district collector inviting him for your college day function. Graphic conversion: Model: Admission /Placement details of students in a Polytechnic College During 20092010

Course Civil Mechanical Electrical Paper Tech

Admitted Placed Opted for Higher studies 50 50 50 30 30 40 32 20 12 10 15 08

Lead Questions: 1. What is this chart about? 2. How many courses are offered? 3. How many are placed in total? 4. Make an observation on the option for Higher studies.
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Answer : This table is about the admission and placement details of students in a Polytechnic College during 20092010. There are four columns. The first column shows the different courses offered in the Polytechnic College during 2009-2010. The second and third columns show the number of students admitted and placed coursewise. The fourth column shows the number of students opted for higher studies. Four courses namely Civil, Mechanical, Electrical and Paper Technology are offered in this Polytechnic college. One hundred and twenty students are placed in total. Option for higher studies will result in higher qualification and better placement. Exercise: Population Density

16% 18% 24%

20%

22%

Mumbai 24% Delhi 22% Kolkata 20% Chennai18% Bengaluru 16%

Lead Questions: 1. What is this chart about? 2. Name the cities mentioned. 3. Which city suffers maximum density? 4. Where do you find minimum density?

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Bank of Idioms and Phrases Words in an Idiom, as a whole, gives a different meaning from their usual meaning when used literally and individually. For example: In the dark in this idiom the three words have different literal meanings when used individually, separately and literally but idiomatically it means no knowledge or ignorant 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. to cause havoc taken aback to give up in the dark dead of night Achilles' heel rest assured to go on to pull the string to freeze one's blood to rule out to set off round the corner for a short while to make both ends meet to lose ground to win laurels to turn a deaf ear by hook or crook on and off to make up one's mind to turn over a new leaf up-to- date to get into hot water hoping against hope to wash one's hands off to go out of hand to beat about the bush

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29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

to be out of spirits to spread like wildfire gift of the gab in the eleventh hour to be in the bad books of somebody to be at sea to fight tooth and nail to take to one's heels to read between the lines in cold blood to hit the nail on its head once in a bluemoon

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Bank of Homophones Homophones are words with same sound but with different spellings and meanings. Rewrite the sentence filling up the bank with correct homophone: Model: Q : He sprayed(scent/cent)over his body. A : He sprayed scent over his body. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. scent / sent oar/ ore heir/ air coarse / course minor/miner hare / hair knew/new some/sum blue / blew fare /fair week / weak see / sea road /rode whole /hole hear /here tale /tail dear/ deer sweet / suite made /maid pale /pail stare /stair alter/altar sell/cell check/cheque birth/berth

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