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‘The Sociological Review Safer Rc fare Ma oy Uni, Cage B sain Dry of Aon Deny of Masher 1 sar Une of Euer Unter Caley. Seon, SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW MONOGRAPH 38 A Sociology of Monsters: Essays on Power, Technology and Domination Edited by John Law R London and New York Technology is society made durable Bruno Latour Abstract 1s it possible to deve a set of concepts that could replace the tecinaogyscety divide? Tht tof new concepts -aocation and ‘bsitation = might help to reprate ome of the trata! questions fsx oder and pec that ofthe durability of domination of power. However, instead of wing ferent tol nase power and teaknes, ie agued that power and domination are spl erent ‘econsucing eteois is gud that ll description of power and ‘tomination may be obsined For a long time socal theory has been concerned with defining power relations (Barnes 1948), but that always found it dfclt {o sce how domination i achieved. In this paper I argue that in ‘order to understand domination we have to turn sway from aa txcusive concern with social relations and weave them into 3 fabric that includes non-human actants, acants that offer the possiblity of holding society together as a durable whole To be fure, the distinction between material nfactruture and symbolic fupersruture has been wsefl to remind socal theory ofthe importance of non-homans, bu its avery inaceurate portrayal of their mobilisation and engagement inside the social inks. This Paper aims to explore another repertoire for studying this process ‘f mobilisation, In the rst part, will we avery simple example toilustate what T believe to be the right focus for detecting the entry point of techniques into the human collective. nthe second part, Iwill analyse the beautiful ease ofthe Kodak camera studied ‘by R. Jenkins 1 show how soil theory could benefit rom history of technology. Finally, I will try to explain how stability and domination may be stcounted for once non-humans are woven Jnto the social fabri, 103 Bruno Latour 1 Prom contest and content to association and substitution Consider tiny innovation commonly found in European hel attaching large cumbersome weights {0 room keys ip order 10 ‘remind customers that they should leave their key af the fron desk everytime they leave the Hotel instead of taking along Om tour fof the city. Am impoative statement nscibed om a sgn Please leave you room Key atthe oat desk before you go ou ~ appears to be not enough to make customers behave secording t0 the speaker's wishes. Our fickle customers seemingly have other oneerns, and room eps disappear into thin ait, But if the inaovator, called w the rescue, displaces the inscription by introducing alge metal weight, the hotel manager no lange has to rely on is customers” sense of moral obligttion, Customers suddenly become only 100 happy 10 rid. themselves of this annoying object which makes her pockets bulge and weighs down their handbags: they goto the front desk on their own accord 10 et rid of it. Where the sign, the inscription, the imperative, ‘ciple, of moral obligation all fled, the hotel manage, the innovator, and the metal weight succeeded. And yet, obtaining ‘such discipline has a price: the hotel manager hd t sly himself with an inovator, and the innovator had to ally herself with ‘various metal weights and their manufacturing processes. “This minor imovation leary ilustates the fundamental pice underlying all tudes of science and technology: the force with Which speaker makes a statement | never enough, in the beginning, to peed the path thatthe statement wll low. This path depends on what successive listeners do with the statement. the listencr~ inthis cae the hotel customer ~ forgets the order Inscribed on the sign, oF if he doci’t speak the langage, the Satement is reduced to Bit of pant of the piece of board. If {he seuputouseastomer obey the order, he as complied with he Imperative, thereby adding reality to it. The strength of the statement thus depends in part on what i writen on the sign, and in parton what each listener does with the insription. A thousand different customers will follow a thousand diferent path after reading the order. In order be aleto predict the path, the hotel ‘manager has two choiees. He ean ether make al the customers qual by ensuring that they wil iow Row to read the language and that they will know that going oa hotel in Europe means that ‘one has a privat, locke room but that the key must Be left at the tos ‘Technology i society made durable desk upon exiting the Hotel every dy. Or he can fond bis statement insuchs way tet to ert comer al behave ime sme manor, reales of thee native language or hie percnce wth hotel The cole i hetween corporation and “the pammatcal imperative act 8 fist loud ~ eve your key te meron othe st send oa the pote word ics aed tothe mera to win the good graces ofthe Somer comtiutes hd he ma ofthe etl weight ads 3 fourth’ The numberof fade tut one needs to ach 10 the Sttoment depends onthe etme’ estan, heels, tier sage, ad thermo. Tako dependson how ly the here! manoer mats to contol hi castors” And fal, Aspens onthe everne ofthe esters The program of the speaker get move completed they respond 10 he ant rotons ofthe tne werd cnt could beak the ring CDnmecing te ight ty tothe hey wei, he anova woah thon have to ada soldered ring o preset ach breakage Thais fh anantrpiogom, I's pated hotel manager waned paar zero ey lore could place a uaa eh Gort search the customers but theme woud prota le hs stoners intad ls ol once mos ofthese stepogrms re ounce thr the path taken bythe sstementtecomesprediable. The Ustomen obey the ode, with oni few sxepions and he hotel manager aseis th los off Hey iol the eer hs obeyed sn fone he same the ini cover has been oni, ot ronomied Ta foowing 8 Steno allowing sentence thong te context 8 apisaon for he we moving rom langage tothe pas. The program, icave your fey atthe fot desk whi now seaplesy rest he majo te casters sinpy nou hone we Sted wh. dplacemem har tensormet f-Coxtomers 90 Toner cove teem fee ned, they gt fa sly tee tho deforms ther pockets, I thy conform, 10 the imange' with snot Des they a te gn aor eee they te prtaary wellmanered Is because they cannot So terse, They dont even tk aout fe The statement mo longer the same the customers ren one the same the ey to longer te tae een the bol longer quite eat he Ste CAkich 198 Latour 19; Law 198) ‘Tis ample the fst pci’ any of ingovation nsec ad tesnogy: the fate tate 0 os