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Network Monitoring and Optimization

Rajendra Radio Network Design Rajendra@xl.co.id 02-03 September 2004 Network Optimization

Agenda

1. RF Optimization 2. Network KPIs Overview 3. Optimization Flow 4. Tems Investigation 4.1 5. Drive Test Measurement and Analysis 6. Optimization Expert (RNO) 7. Reporting

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RF OPTIMIZATION
RF Optimization What is it ..? the fine-tuning of all system parameters and antenna configurations to attain optimum quality in the built network. How to achieve..? By carrying out drive tests and other RF measurements to determine optimal settings for system parameters whilst meeting network specification What the Outputs are ..? Report containing the final parameter setting History of changes Final site configuration data along with graphical plot showing the actual measurement report

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RF OPTIMIZATION
Optimization Tasks include :

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Reviewing any site and network design object set Discussing the routes that will be using for performing drive test Determining the setting default network parameter Identifying the neighboring of each cell Reviewing the frequency planning Completing site audit to ensure that all RF equipment has been correctly installed and located 7. Executing test to verify the correct operation of all air interface parameter 8. Carriout baseline drive test 9. Analyse and identify problem from drive test data 10. Investigate and analyse each problem area ( interference and cell coverage)

Note : Every change should be test individually and noted to ensure there is no degradation on the surrounding network
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Network KPIs Overview

Input for the RF Optimization : 1. Key Performance Statistic such as Dropped call, Handover failure and Blocking 2. Customer Complain

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Network KPIs Overview

1. Accessibility
Random Access ( > 99.6% Good) SDCCH Drop ( < 0.8 % Good) TCH Assignment ( > 99.8% Good) SDCCH Congestion TCH Congestion

2. Retainability
Call Drop ( < 1.3 % Good) Call Minutes Per Call Drop ( > 106.9 Second Good)

3. Integrity
Handover ( > 97.2% Good)

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Optimization Flow
Daily Brief KPI analy sis

Is TCH Assignment <x%?

Y es

Perf orm TCH Assignment analy sis

Is Cell Congestion >x%?

Y es

Goto Congestion analy sis

No No

Is Dropped Calls >x%

Y es

Perf orm Dropped Call analy sis

No

Is SDCCH/TCH congestion <x%

Y es

Goto Congestion analy sis

No

Is HO <x% No No

Y es

Goto HO analy sis

Some process here to catch the rest

Has Site perf ormance improv ed?

Y es

Clear of f Trouble Tickets

End

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Network KPIs Overview


Drop Call Problem Cause : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Coverage Handover Interference Uplink and Downlink Unbalance cause by antenna and feeder system Transmission Failure Unreasonable Parameter setting Equipment Failure

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Network KPIs Overview


Dropped Calls on TCH

Dropped Calls on TCH

Drop Call Flow Analysis


Bad Locating Parameter Setting? Y es Correct Parameter Setting Perf orm handov er analy sis No Check Output Power Y es

Check Lost Handov er

Most dropped calls during handov er?

No Is Power Regulation used properly ? Y es Is the Power Balanced? Y es Check BTS Error log Is DTX used? Y es Activ ate Frequency Hopping No Introduce DTX Adjust output power Remov e sit e or change f requency Y es Dragon site? No Correct power regulat ion parameters Check site position

No

No

Swap & repair HW No

Y es

HW f ault?

Is Frequency Hopping Used?

No Check link quality & sy nchronisation

Y es Check Dropped call reason

Bad Quality ? No

Y es

Perf orm Interf erence Analy sis

Perf orm link inv estigation

Y es

Transmission f ault?

No Perf orm low Signal Strength analy sis

Low Signal Strength?

Y es

Add site

No

Best serv er exist s?

No Y es Timing Adv ance? No Sudden Drop? No Perf orm site surv ey Other? Inv estigate possible Hardware f ault Check antenna inst allation No B End Check reason f or sudden loss Y es Check site locat ion & TALIM Check MS problem

Perf orm driv e test

Perf orm CTR recordings

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Network KPIs Overview


Handover Problem Cause :

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Improper antenna installation Interference CO BCCH and CO BSIC Unreasonable parameter setting Congestion on the destination cell Equipment failure ( TRX` Performance Deterioration) Uplink and Downlink Unbalance

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Network KPIs Overview


Handover Analysis

Handover Flow Analysis

Handov er analy sis

Check successf ul handov ers per Cell External? No Is success < x%? High rat io of lost handov ers? No High rat io of urgency handov ers? No Y es

Start Inter BSC/ MSC analy sis

Y es Check handov er activ ity

No

High rat io of rev ersion?

Y es

More than y handov ers pef ormed? Y es

Interf erence Analy sis

Y es

Does up or down link interf erence exist?

No Check site location, site to site distance, co-sited?

Change Frequency

Y es

Does cochannel exist?

Priority Cell? high traf f ic

No

Y es Check handov er f low Correct parameter settings Y es

Handov er related parameters such as relations, missing relat ions, BA-List, BSIC, hy stersis, of f sets, etc set correctly ?

Unev en f low? No No Ping pong analy sis Y es

No

Ping Pong Handov ers?

Y es

Dif f erence in perf orm ance in outand incoming? Fix f aulty Y es Focus on bad direction No Select worst relation hardware Y es

No

Does cell hav e hardware problem?

No

Congestion analy sis

Y es

Is Target Cell congest ed?

No A End

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Tems Investigation 4.1

Key Feature in Tems Investigation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. C/I and C/A Measurement In Building Positioning Identification Interference source Channel Verification Tool for testing traffic channel Frequency Scanning Decoding and Modification of layer 3 Signaling Cell Reselection and handover behavior Logging and Export Summary of Logfile in .HTML

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Tems Investigation 4.1

Workspace and Worksheets

Toolbars
Status Bar Menu bar Navigator

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Tems Investigation 4.1

Interference Measurement
Carrier to Interference (C/I) Measurement - In Idle and dedicated mode - In hopping and non hopping networks - Per used TS Carrier to Adjacent (C/A) - In Idle and dedicated mode - On frequency hopping with 2 MSs
The C/I parameter enables the identification of frequency exposed to particular high level interference

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Tems Investigation 4.1


FER, RXQUAL and DTX Measurement RxQual is a value between 0-7 where each value corresponds to an estimated number of bit error in number of burts
RxQual 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Bit Error Rate, BER BER < 0.2 % 0.2% < BER < 0.4% 0.4%< BER < 0.8% 0.8%< BER < 1.6% 1.6%< BER < 3.2% 3.2%< BER < 6.4% 6.4%< BER <12.8%

12.8%< BER

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Tems Investigation 4.1

DTX DL Rate indicate in percent how many TCH frames that were not sent to the mobile station during the last SACCH multi frame DTX DL Rate varies from 0 to 96% ( never reach 100%) DTX DL Rate (%)=(number of silent blocks/total number of blocks)*100
*Total number of blocks = 24

DTX DL Rate information element can be used to investigate silent call problem in the network.

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Tems Investigation 4.1

FULL and SUB Values

The FULL values are based on upon all frames on the SACCH multiframe whether they have been transmitted from the base station or not.
The SUB values are based on the mandatory frames on the SACCH multiframe i.e frames that always must be transmitted If DTX DL is used in the network, the SUB set must be used If DTX DL is not used in the network , the FULL values are preferred

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Frame Erasure Rate (FER)

FER rate is a value between 0 and 100% and is calculated and presented in TEMS once each SACCH Multiframe (Synchronous with the RxQual values) and calculated on the TCH and SACCH Blocks
FER FULL% = (Number of blocks with incorrect CRC/25)*100 Total number of blocks on a full rate TCH channel is 24 TCH +1SACCH =25 FER SUB % = (Number of blocks with incorrect CRC/2 )*100 Total number of blocks on a full rate TCH channel is 2 TCH +1 SACCH =2

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Tems Investigation 4.1


BER/Timeslot ( %) BER parameter gives the bit error rate for each used timeslot that calculated by summing the number of bit errors for each of the 24 blocks included in the BER the dividing the sum by the total number of bits in the 24 blocks. BER % = (total number of bits error in 24 blocks/total number of bits in 24 blocks) * 100

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Tems Investigation Tems Investigation 4.1 4.1


Quality Identification RxQual : transforming the bit error rate (BER) into a scale from 0 to 7 (see GSM 05.08). Acceptable RxQual range is 0-3 ( basic measurement) RxQual : doesnt reflect to speech quality SQI : can produce unbiased prediction of the speech quality, independently of channel conditions

Computation of SQI involves : -Bit Error Rate -Frame Error Rate -Data on handover events -Statistic on distribution of these parameters

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Interference Identification Co-Channel Interference is usually by far the most common type of interference encountered in a GSM network SQI Level decreased suddenly C/I Level decreased suddenly RxQual increased until 6-7

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Interference Source Identification 1

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Interference Source Identification Traditional Of Methods of tracing co-Channel Interference -Temporarily shutdown base station -Repeatedly modifying the frequency planning Effect : -Disturb network traffic -Cause inconvenience to subscribers New feature in TEMS Investigation 4.1 offer a way to spot interferes -without resorting to such heavy handed and costly methods -Without any performance loss

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Interference Identification HOW IT WORKS? Main task Interference identification : -To determine the base station color code ( BCC) = TSC ( Training Sequence Code) that is found in the middle of GSM Burst. -Do Interference Scan -Knowing The BCC/TSC reduce the number of possible interferers by factor 8 -Many proposed cell as candidates can be rule out simply ( too far from disturbed cell, and topology features of the area).

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Interference Identification Outcome of Interference Scan

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Interference Identification Eliminating Remote Candidates

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Troubleshooting : BCCH Scanning on the
problem area Replace interfered BCCH with low interference BCCH channel as temporary Lock the interfered BCCH to get the interfered cell or do scanning on the interfered BCCH including with BSIC decoding

Display on the map : - Co-Channel


- Adjacent Channel - Scan Channel including BSIC Scanning

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Interference Identification Problem area with measurement statistic

High RxQual Low SQI High BER High Signal Strength

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Interference Source Identification 2
Co-Channel might come from : 12912

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Channel Verification * Allow to check the availability a set of traffic channel.

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Channel Verification Properties

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Improved Site Presentation on the map - Show neighbor cells - Show serving cell - Show to neighbor lines

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Cell Definition File in *.cel format

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Frequency Scanning and Neighbor List Scanning

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Tems Investigation 4.1 CW Scanning


Adjacent Scan Bar Chart

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Logfile Summary and Analysis

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Tems Investigation 4.1


Logfile Statistics

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Standard Drive Test Report


Table of Drive Test Report
1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 3 3.1 3.2 the drive test 4 4.1 4.2 5 6 6.1 6.2 7 8 Executive summary Test conditions Purpose of the drive test Site Data Drive route Test results Reference to attached plots Reference to attached listings of statistics collected during OSs Statistics Daily reports from NMC SRP reports Performance and optimisation summary action points Change Requests Other actions Conclusions References
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Rajendra - Radio Network Optimization

RNO
Radio Network Optimization RNO is a collection of several radio network optimization applications in OSS FAS Frequency Allocation Support FOXFrequency Optimization eXpert NCSNeighbouring Cell Support NOXNeighbouring cell list Optimization eXpert MRRMeasurement Result Recording

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RNO
Radio Optimization Expert (RNO-MRR) a tool for measuring the radio characteristics of the connections between MSs and the network. MRR records information on the radio characteristics of the dedicated channels and calculates statistics on the data recorded
Supervision of the network performance Troubleshooting of the network Comparison of the network performance before and after a change is made to the network

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RNO
Radio Optimization Expert (RNO-FAS)
FAS is an optional feature that helps the operator achieve good frequency allocations and minimize the interference levels in the radio network with a minimum of effort.

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RNO
Radio Optimization Expert (RNO-FAS) FAS is an optional feature that helps the operator achieve good frequency allocations and minimize the interference levels in the radio network with a minimum of effort.
To find frequencies in order to add or expand a cell (frequency planning). To improve the cell plan and/or frequency plan due to capacity and/or quality problems (optimization). To supervise the interference level in a certain area (supervision). To verify improvement after a frequency change (verification).

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RNO
NCS (Neighbouring Cell Support) is a tool that helps users to specify adequate neighbouring cell relations for each cell in the radio network
to find neighbouring cell relations to a new cell (network planning) to find missing neighbouring cell relations in the active BA-List (network optimization) to find neighbouring cell relations to be removed from the active BA-List (network optimizati on) to evaluate neighbouring cell relations (network supervision).

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Tems Investigation 4.1

THE END

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Tems Investigation 4.1

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