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THE CLAY SANSKRIT LIBRARY

FOUNDED BY JOHN & JENNIFER CLAY


GENERAL EDITOR
RICHARD GOMBRICH
EDITED BY
ISABELLE ONIANS
SOMADEVA VASUDEVA
WWW.CLAYSANSKRITLIBRARY.COM
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Copyright c :cco by the CSL.
All rights reserved.
First Edition :cco.
The Clay Sanskrit Library is co-published by
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and the JJC Foundation.
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Bound by Hunter & Foulis Ltd, Edinburgh, Scotland.
The Recognition
of Shak untala
by K alid asa
EDITED AND TRANSLATED BY
SOMADEVA VASUDEVA
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PRESS
JJC FOUNDATION
:cco
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
K alid asa
[

Sakuntal a. English & Sanskrit]


The recognition of Shakuntala / by Kalidasa ;
edited and translated by Somadeva Vasudeva.
p. cm. (The Clay Sanskrit library)
Play.
In English and Sanskrit; includes translation from Sanskrit.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN c-:;-:,-; (cloth : alk. paper)
I. Vasudeva, Somadeva. II. Title. III. Series.
PK,;,o.SV,; :cco
,:.:: : :: :ccc:,,:,
Contents
Sanskrit alphabetical order ;
CSL conventions ;
THE RECOGNITION OF

SAKUNTAL

A
Introduction :,
Dramatis Person ;
Prologue ,c
Act One: Tui Cuasi ,
Act Two: Tui Siciir ,
Act Three: Tui Passiox :,c
Act Four: Tui Faiiwiii :;o
Act Five: Tui Tiacio\ ::
Act Six: Tui Loxcixc :,
Act Seven: Tui Ansoiuriox ,:o
Paraphrase of Prakrit (ch ay a) ,o,
Notes c,
Index ::
csi coxvixrioxs
saxsxiir aiiuaniricai oioii
Vowels: a a i u u r
.
r
.
l
.

l
.
e ai o au m
.
h
.
(f )
Gutturals: k kh g gh n
Palatals: c ch j jh n
Retroex: t
.
t
.
h d
.
d
.
h n
.
Dentals: t th d dh n
Labials: p ph b bh m
Semivowels: y r l v
Spirants: s s
.
s h
cuioi ro saxsxiir iioxuxciariox
a but
a, a rather
i sit
, fee
u put
u, u boo
r
.
vocalic r, Americanpurdy
or English pretty
r
.
lengthened r
.
l
.
vocalic l , able
e, e, e made, esp. in Welsh pro-
nunciation
ai bite
o, o, o rope, esp. Welsh pronun-
ciation; Italian solo
au sound
m
.
anusv ara nasalizes the pre-
ceding vowel
h
.
, f visarga, a voiceless aspira-
tion (resembling English
h), or like Scottishloch, or
an aspiration with a faint
echoing of the preceding
vowel so that taih
.
is pro-
nounced taih
i
. In Kash-
mirianpractice, whenvis-
arga is followed by p or
ph it is replaced by upa-
dhm anya, here written as
f, and pronounced as an
unvoiced, short blow of
air.
k luck
kh blockhead
g go
gh bighead
n anger
c chill
ch matchhead
j jog
jh aspirated j, hedgehog
n canyon
t
.
retroex t, try (with the
tip of tongue turned up
to touch the hard palate)
t
.
h same as the preceding but
aspirated
d
.
retroex d (with the tip
;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
of tongue turned up to
touch the hard palate)
d
.
h same as the preceding but
aspirated
n
.
retroex n (with the tip
of tongue turned up to
touch the hard palate)
t French tout
th tent hook
d dinner
dh guildhall
n now
p pill
ph upheaval
b before
bh abhorrent
m mind
y yes
r trilled, resembling the Ita-
lian pronunciation of r
l l inger
v word
s shore
s
.
retroex sh ( with the tip
of the tongue turned up
to touch the hard palate)
s hiss
h hood
csi iuxcruariox oi ixciisu
The acute accent on Sanskrit words when they occur outside of the
Sanskrit text itself, marks stress, e.g. Ram ayana. It is not part of tra-
ditional Sanskrit orthography, transliteration or transcription, but we
supply it here to guide readers in the pronunciation of these unfamiliar
words. Since no Sanskrit word is accented on the last syllable it is not
necessary to accent disyllables, e.g. Rama.
The second CSL innovation designed to assist the reader in the pro-
nunciation of lengthy unfamiliar words is to insert an unobtrusive mid-
dle dot between semantic word breaks in compound names (provided
the word break does not fall on a vowel resulting from the fusion of
two vowels), e.g. Mahabh arata, but Ram ayana (not Rama ayana). Our
dot echoes the punctuating middle dot () found in the oldest surviving
samples of written Indic, the Ashokan inscriptions of the third century
nci.
The deep layering of Sanskrit narrative has also dictated that we use
quotation marks only to announce the beginning and end of every direct
speech, and not at the beginning of every paragraph.

csi coxvixrioxs
csi iuxcruariox oi saxsxiir
The Sanskrit text is also punctuated, in accordance with the punc-
tuation of the English translation. In mid-verse, the punctuation will
not alter the sandhi or the scansion. Proper names are capitalized, as are
the initial words of verses (or paragraphs in prose texts). Most Sanskrit
metres have four feet (p ada): where possible we print the common
sloka metre on two lines. The capitalization of verse beginnings makes
it easy for the reader to recognize longer metres where it is necessary to
print the four metrical feet over four or eight lines. In the Sanskrit text,
we use French Guillemets (e.g. kva sam
.
cicrs
.
uh
.
?) instead of English
quotation marks (e.g. Where are you o to?) to avoid confusion with
the apostrophes used for vowel elision in sandhi.
Sanskrit presents the learner witha challenge: sandhi (euphonic com-
bination). Sandhi means that when two words are joined in connected
speech or writing (which in Sanskrit reects speech), the last letter (or
even letters) of the rst word often changes; compare the way we pro-
nounce the in the beginning and the end.
In Sanskrit the rst letter of the second word may also change; and if
both the last letter of the rst word and the rst letter of the second are
vowels, they may fuse. This has a parallel in English: a nasal consonant is
inserted between two vowels that would otherwise coalesce: a pear and
an apple. Sanskrit vowel fusion may produce ambiguity. The chart at
the back of each book gives the full sandhi system.
Fortunately it is not necessary to know these changes in order to start
reading Sanskrit. For that, what is important is to know the form of the
second word without sandhi (pre-sandhi), so that it can be recognized
or looked up in a dictionary. Therefore we are printing Sanskrit with a
system of punctuation that will indicate, unambiguously, the original
form of the second word, i.e., the form without sandhi. Such sandhi
mostly concerns the fusion of two vowels.
In Sanskrit, vowels may be short or long and are written dierently
accordingly. We follow the general convention that a vowel with no
mark above it is short. Other books mark a long vowel either with a
bar called a macron ( a) or with a circumex ( a). Our system uses the
macron, except that for initial vowels in sandhi we use a circumex
,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
to indicate that originally the vowel was short, or the shorter of two
possibilities (e rather than ai, o rather than au).
When we print initial a, before sandhi that vowel was a
or e, i
u or o, u
ai, e
au, o
a, a (i.e., the same)
, (i.e., the same)
u, u (i.e., the same)
e,
o, u
ai, ai
au, au
, before sandhi there was a vowel a
iuiruii uiii wiru vowii saxoui
When a nal short vowel (a, i or u) has merged into a following
vowel, we print at the end of the word, and when a nal long vowel
( a, or u) has merged into a following vowel we print at the end of
the word. The vast majority of these cases will concern a nal a or a.
Examples:
What before sandhi was atra asti is represented as atr asti
atra aste atr aste
kany a asti kany asti
kany a aste kany aste
atra iti atr eti
kany a iti kany eti
kany a psit a kany epsit a
Finally, three other points concerning the initial letter of the sec-
ond word:
(:) A word that before sandhi begins with r
.
(vowel), after sandhi
begins with r followed by a consonant: yatha rtu represents pre-sandhi
yath a r
.
tu.
:c
csi coxvixrioxs
(:) When before sandhi the previous word ends in t and the following
word begins with s, after sandhi the last letter of the previous word is c
and the following word begins with ch: sy ac ch astravit represents pre-
sandhi sy at s astravit.
(,) Where a word begins with h and the previous word ends with a
double consonant, this is our simplied spelling to show the pre-sandhi
form: tad hasati is commonly written as tad dhasati, but we write tadd
hasati so that the original initial letter is obvious.
coxiouxos
We also punctuate the division of compounds (sam asa), simply by
inserting a thin vertical line between words. There are words where
the decision whether to regard them as compounds is arbitrary. Our
principle has beento try to guide readers to the correct dictionary entries.
ixaxiii
Where the Devan agari script reads:
Others would print:
kumbhasthal raks
.
atu vo vikrn
.
asind uraren
.
ur dvirad ananasya /
pras antaye vighnatamaschat
.
an am
.
nis
.
t
.
hy utab al atapapallaveva //
We print:
kumbhaAsthal raks
.
atu vo vikrn
.
aAsind uraAren
.
ur dviradA ananasya
pras antaye vighnaAtamasAchat
.
an am
.
nis
.
t
.
hy utaAb alA atapaApallav eva.
And in English:
May Gan eshas domedforeheadprotect you! Streakedwithvermilion
dust, it seems to be emitting the spreading rays of the rising sun to
pacify the teeming darkness of obstructions.
Navas ahasanka and the Serpent Princess I., by Padmagupta
::
+ = +"H"l(--" i
" H- -?u i
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
oiaxa
Classical Sanskrit literature is in fact itself bilingual, notably in drama.
There women and characters of low rank speak one of several Prakrit
dialects, an unrened (pr akr
.
ta) vernacular as opposed to the rened
(sam
.
skr
.
ta) language. Editors commonly provide such speeches with a
Sanskrit paraphrase, their shadow (ch ay a). We mark Prakrit speeches
with

opening and closing

corner brackets, and supply the Sanskrit


ch ay a in endnotes. Some stage directions are original to the author but
we followthe customthat sometimes editors supplement these; we print
them in italics (and within brackets, in mid-text).
woioiia\
Classical Sanskrit literature can abound in puns (sles
.
a). Such parono-
masia, or wordplay, is raised to a high art; rarely is it a cliche. Multiple
meanings merge (slis
.
yanti) into a single word or phrase. Most common
are pairs of meanings, but as many as ten separate meanings are attested.
To mark the parallel senses in the English, as well as the punning original
in the Sanskrit, we use a slanted font (dierent from italic) and a triple
colon (: ) to separate the alternatives. E.g.
yuktam
.
K adambarm
.
srutv a kavayo maunam asrit ah
.
B an
.
aBdhvan av anAadhy ayo bhavat ti smr
.
tir yatah
.
.
It is right that poets should fall silent upon hearing the K adambari,
for the sacred law rules that recitation must be suspended when
the sound of an arrow : the poetry of Bana is heard.
Som eshvaradevas Moonlight of Glory I.:,
::
Introduction
The eloquence of great poets, streaming with such sugges-
tive essence, reveals a coruscating extra-ordinary genius,
whereby in this world, crowded with a succession of di-
verse poets, only two, three, or perhaps ve or six, headed
by Kalidasa, can be reckoned great poets.
:
DhvanyB aloka :.o
K
aiioasas The Recognition of Shak untala (Abhij n a-
naBs akuntala) was one of the rst examples of Indian
literature to be seen in Europe, rst translated into English,
and then into German. It attracted considerable attention
(from Goethe, among others) and, indeed, pained surprise
that such a sophisticated art form could have developed
without the rest of the world noticing.
It tells the story of the hermit girl Shak untala, the daugh-
ter of the celestial nymph M enaka and the sage Vishvamit-
ra. The poet Kalidasa intends Shak untala to be the focus of
attention. This is not the story of King Dushy anta, or their
son Bh arata, who, according to the Mahabh arata is the
emperor whose rule gives India its Sanskrit name: Bh arata.
Tui Poir
The poet Kalidasa is traditionally linked to a ruler called
Vikram aditya. This is most probably a Gupta emperor.
The Gupta dynasty rose to prominence in the late third
century ci, winning control of M agadha. Year one of the
Gupta era is ,:,/,:c ci, but it is not clear if this marks
the accession of Chandragupta I or rather the year he pro-
claimed himself an independent and sovereign ruler. In the
following decades military conquest and marital alliances
:,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
expanded the Gupta empire until, when Sam udragupta
died in ,c ci, it included the entire Indus valley in the
west, reached into what is now Myanmar in the east, incor-
porated Nepal in the north, and reached the river N armada
in the south, with Ujjain becoming the new capital city.
The courtly culture sponsored by the imperial Guptas has
been called a conservative, conscious eort to restore the
customs of the Vedic past: Sam udragupta revived the royal
horse sacrice, and all titles and inscriptions issued were in
elegant classical Sanskrit, abandoning the spoken tongues
hitherto favored. Ixcaiis (:,;o) notes that this perception
is also contradicted by remarkable innovations. Many schol-
ars have called the ensuing blossoming of the ne arts and
philosophy an Indian Golden Age. The Chinese pilgrim
Fa Hsien, arriving in India in c ci (and writing for a
Buddhist audience in China) describes a well-governed and
prosperous land with beautiful cities, hospitals and univer-
sities. He notes that the people are free to move at will, not
subject to corporal punishment, and that ocial salaries are
xed. He particularly draws attention to the amenities avail-
able to travellers. Kalidasa similarly describes a happy land,
and the meager evidence at our disposal makes it plausible
that Gupta rule was benign not just for monks and courtier
poets but for the common people too, at least in days of
peace and prosperity.
Kalidasa may have lived during the reign of one or all
of the following three Gupta emperors: Chandragupta II
Vikram aditya (reg. ,;,:, ci), Kum aragupta Mah en-
dr aditya (reg. :,,, ci), or Skandagupta Vikram aditya
(reg. ,,o; ci).
:o
ixriooucriox
Baxxii (:cco::o,:;) has put forward the theory that
Kalidasas drama M alavika and Agnimitra (M alavikB ag-
nimitra) uses an ancient love story to describe a contempo-
rary Gupta succession struggle. In its wake a geo-political
triangle with Vdisha and Vdarbha which had ensured
Gupta power andprosperity disintegrated, sealing the doom
of the Golden Age.
Other playwrights wrote similarly political plays (though
more explicitly so),
:
and Vish akhadatta even wrote a work
about the Shaka-Gupta wars, the now lost DevBcandragup-
ta (much of its plot has been reconstructed from citations
and allusions by Racuavax
,
). Kalidasas political subtext
is however less obvious and still awaits fuller unveiling and
discussion (in the prologue to M alavika and Agnimitra
he himself draws attention to his originality in this matter

).
If Kalidasas M alavika and Agnimitra alludes to actual
events, is it possible that his other works do too?
,
It would be
interesting to study whether the character of Kalidasas Sha-
k untala might have anything to do with either Dhruvadevi,
wife of Chandragupta II and mother of Kum aragupta, or
with his wife An antadevi.
o
Similarly the Birth of Kum ara (Kum araBsambhava) tells
of events leading up to the birth of Skanda Karttik eya, the
God of war and saviour of the Gods (deva) in a cosmic
struggle against the Titans (asura). In an interesting parallel,
Kum aragupta was at war with an expanding confederacy of
Hunnic tribes based in Tokharistan and called the Kidarites
(sometimes just Red Huns) after their leader Kidara. In
,, ci, during the confusion of the last year of Kum aragup-
tas reign, the Gupta armies, led by his son Skandagupta,
:;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
inicteda defeat onanother Hunnic groupthat hadinvaded
the shortlived Kidarite state, the Hephthalites (Xionites or
White Huns). Kalidasa may have personally seen these
Hunnic tribes (he refers to either of them indiscriminately
as H un
.
as although in other Sanskrit sources the more de-
scriptive

SvetaB h un
.
a, White Hun, is also found), for he
gives details about them not known to other Sanskrit writ-
ers. In his Lineage of Raghu (RaghuBvam
.
sa) he notes that
they live on the river Va nks
.
u (Oxus) and that the wives of a
fallen chieftain gouge their cheeks in mourning.
;
Anumber
of such apparently observed details in Kalidasas work has
led many to conclude that he was a widely travelled man.
This is not beyond dispute. In the Lineage of Raghu as
transmitted by the earliest commentator V allabhadeva, Ka-
lidasa erroneously seems to think that Raghu nds himself
in Kerala as soon as he crosses the River K averi. Isaacsox
& Goooaii (:cc,) discuss this to demonstrate how subse-
quent commentators corrected Kalidasas text to remove
such perceived inconsistencies. Kalidasas apparently accu-
rate geographical knowledge may not be a feature of the
earliest witnesses of his work.
Around c ci the Hephthalites, led by Toram ana, re-
newed their onslaught and the nancial strain of ghting
this prolonged war of annihilation proved too much for
the Gupta empire; by ,:c ci Ujjain was destroyed and the
Western provinces devastated. In the aftermath of the catas-
trophic Hephthalite invasion the shrinking empire entered
into a long phase of decline as local feudatories asserted
their independence.
:
ixriooucriox
Baxxii places Kalidasas literary activity between :, and
, ci, a time of political stability between the Gupta em-
pire, Vdisha and Vdarbha. Waioii had tentatively placed
Kalidasas literary activity between ,c and ;c ci, Ixcaiis
between cc and ,c ci. These approximate dates gain sup-
port from chronological lists of poets found in eulogies in-
corporated into many dateable works.

Tui Pior
Acr :: In the course of a hunting expedition King Dush-
y anta chances upon the hermitage of the sage Kanva. He is
welcomed by the absent sages daughter Shak untala, with
whom he falls in love. Dushy anta learns that Shak untala
is the daughter of the nymph M enaka and the seer Vish-
v amitra, abandonded in the wild and fostered by the sage
Kanva.
Acr :: The king, aided by the buoon, seeks a pretext
to enter the hermitage to see Shak untala again when he is
suddenly summoned by the ascetics to protect their rites
from malevolent demons.
Acr ,: Shak untala and Dushy anta meet in secret and
contract a gandharva marriage of mutual consent. Upon the
succesful completion of the seers rites Dushy anta returns
to his capital city, leaving a signet ring with Shak untala as a
token of his aection. Absentminded with love, Shak untala
unknowingly slights the irascible seer Durv asas andis cursed
by him: whoever she was thinking of will not remember her.
Her companions manage to win a reprieve fromthe angered
sage: a token of recognition can break the curse.
:,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
Acr : The patriarch Kanva returns and is delighted with
events so far. When no word from Dushy anta arrives, the
now heavily pregnant Shak untala is despatched to his court
and in a famous and moving scene bids farewell to her
hermitage home.
Acr ,: At court the amnesic king disavows her; she tries to
show him his signet ring to prove her story but cannot nd
it. Humiliated, Shak untala is suddenly borne away into the
sky by her mother.
Acr o: A sherman nds the ring in the guts of a sh.
A zealous police chief recognizes the royal signet ring and
shows it to the king who at once regains his memory. Dush-
y anta then torments himself with remorse until he is sum-
moned by Indra, king of the Gods, to ght against the
demons.
Acr ;: Six years later Dushy anta is returning in an air-
borne chariot when he alights in a celestial hermitage. He
sees a young boy called Sarvad amana playing with a lion
cub. It dawns on him that this is his son, the prophesied
world emperor later called Bh arata. Shak untala herself ap-
pears and forgives Dushy anta. Blessed by the sages and the
Gods, the reunited family returns to the world of mortals
and Dushy antas capital.
,
Suax uxraia Biioii Kaiioasa
The plot of The Recognition of Shak untala is a carefully
conceived expansion of an episode found in the Maha
bh arata. By adding the device of a curse to account for
Dushy antas loss of memory, Kalidasa casts him in a more
favorable light; in the Mahabh arata he seems to have
:c
ixriooucriox
simply forgotten about Shak untala once he returned to the
pleasures of his palace. The Mahabh arata alsoexplains the
origin of Shak untalas name. Abandonded in the wilderness,
the infant was shielded from predators by birds (sakunta)
when the sage Kanva chanced upon her; and as the daughter
of an apsaras nymph she possesses the power of ight, which
Kalidasas drama deprives her of.
Related versions of the tale, presumed to be derivative,
exist in Puranic texts as well.
A very similar story is also found in a J ataka tale of one of
the Buddhas previous lives.
:c
King Brahmadatta encoun-
ters a woman gathering rewood in a grove and at once falls
in love with her. They make love there and then and the
Bodhisattva is conceived. The king gives her a signet ring
and instructs her to bring the child to him if it is a boy. A
few years later the king, embarrassed before his court, de-
nies both the child and the ring. The mother then throws
the child up and he remains oating cross-legged in midair.
The king then acknowledges the son as his heir and makes
the rewood collector his chief queen. Of all these retellings
of the story, Kalidasas is the most intricate.
Kaiioasas Diaxarisariox
One of the most immediate joys of reading and rereading
Kalidasas play lies in the discovery of the relevance of the
many subtle strategic pairings of acts and parallelisms that
Kalidasa has worked into the plot.
Giiow(:,;,c) has shown howKalidasa uses complex
mirroring and inversion of events to structure and punctu-
ate his narrative.
::
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
Among the more striking is the symmetry between the
beginning and the end of the play. In the rst act the eager
Dushy anta and his human charioteer are in pursuit of the
pleasure of hunting. He is borne up a slope to the moun-
tain hermitage, a place of religious duty, where he enters a
kind of higher plane of natural spontaneity inhabited by the
semi-divine Shak untala, and is bidden to combat the local
demons. In the last act the listless Dushy anta is descending
with the divine charioteer M atali in an aerial chariot from
heaven where he has taken part in a war against universal
demons at the bidding of Indra. They alight in a celestial
hermitage again halfway between heaven and earth, where
a very dierent meeting with Shak untala takes place.
Similarly, act : is mirrored in act o, and act , in ,. The
celebrated fourth act is the central pivot around which all
of this symmetry turns. In this act Kalidasa shows Shak un-
talaalready suering from the separation of her beloved
Dushy antaundergoing a painful farewell from her foster
father, her dear friends, and the natural world of the her-
mitage of which she had considered herself an integral part.
For the spectator or reader, aware of the curse, her nave
hopes for a happy future are all the more poignant. In this
act, Kalidasa eectively seems on the verge of killing o
Shak untala the shy, innocent forest girl for the readerit is
a character that cannot possibly cope with the world she will
encounter at court. But what happens next is unexpected.
Of all of the characters Shak untala alone does not develop
into a more evolved character, assuming a new persona
as she enters the real world beyond the hermitage. Dush-
y anta does not appear at all in this central act, and when
::
ixriooucriox
she meets him again it is as a stranger. Dushy anta is not
merely changed by the curse, he has assumed an entirely
new public identity far removed from Shak untalas expec-
tations. Kalidasa shows her as a simple girl humiliated and
awkwardly out of place as she tries to defend herself at the
royal court, but he will not let her compromise her charac-
ter. Since her presence at court is so incongruent, he whisks
her away in a supernatural ash of light. The eect on the
reader is shocking. It is as if Kalidasa has let us watch her
walk slowly towards a precipice, and nally over it.
What does he intend with this?
There is no simple answer, for Kalidasa has not written
a simple work by following a single set of rules. A series
of partial explanations of what he has done can be given
according to various models of interpretation.
It would be a mistake to assume from the above synopsis
that The Recognition of Shak untala concludes with a
banal happy ending. While the play does not end on the
same note of optimistic innocence with which it begins, it
is clearly not intended as a tragedy either.
This is not because Sanskrit drama is completely unaware
of tragedies as is frequently claimed in secondary literature,
but because the play ends in what is called abhyudaya, a pos-
itive result. A tragic genre of Sanskrit drama called utsr
.
s
.
t
.
ikB
a nka, interpreted as marked by death, (though probably
originally one-act-play about death) in which are depicted
death and lamenting
::
may or may not end in such abhy-
udaya.
:,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
Scuoiiasric Tuioiiis
The earliest surviving Sanskrit dramaturgical treatise, the
N at
.
yaBs astra (Science of drama) of Bh arata (redacted into
its present composite form
::
by c. :cc ci), mentions in-
struction (hitB opadesa) and entertainment (krd
.
a, sukha,
visr anti) as the purposes of drama, but all of the four goals
(purus
.
B artha) of brahminical culture are prominent in its
initial justicatory chapter: pleasure, wealth, justice, and
spiritual liberation. Drama should depict all kinds of emo-
tions and all kinds of states, it should imitate events in the
world.
:,
In part about religion, in part about entertainment, in
part about money, inpart about tranquility, inpart about
comedy, in part about war, in part about love, in part
about killing.
:
Dramaturgical theory from Bh arata onwards discusses a
peculiar idealised plot structure that progresses through ve
transitions or junctions (sandhi).
:,
The [:.] origin (mukha) states the seed (bja) of the
plot in outline; the [:.] incident (pratimukha) develops
the seed by alternating episodes showing a balance of both
gain (pr apti) and loss (apr apti) of the aim (phala); in
the [,.] germ (garbha) the likelihood of gain outweighs
the possibility of loss, the attainment of the aim seems
likely; in the [.] crisis (vimarsa) the likelihood of loss
outweighs gain, all hope of securing the aim seems lost;
in the [,.] completion (nirvahan
.
a) all narrative currents
converge towards the nal consummation.
:
ixriooucriox
Erudite commentators will alert the inattentive reader to
the occurrence of these as the play progresses.
Stepping back fromsuch learned discussions about which
transition happens exactly where and why, and reconsider-
ing the logic of Kalidasas plot on the basis of this inherent
structure one might reduce as follows: We start with what
might be called an idyll (A). This is reversed to not-idyll
(A). Not-idyll is countermanded, but the end-result is not
a reversal back to idyll (either the original A or a new idyll
B), but a strange, ambivalent situation quasi-idyll (A

). It
is striking that in the nal act Kalidasa uses essentially
the same setting, and the same characters as he does in his
opening act. Nor can the diering action, dialogue or dic-
tion alone account for the disparate eect on the spectator
or reader. This means that the new situation quasi-idyll (A

)
diers from idyll (A) for the spectator or reader because
he has witnessed the characters be subjected to a series of
symmetries and reversals.
In other words, Kalidasa has brought his audience to a
point where they respond dierently and even perceive as
dierent a very similar situation because of what they know
about it. Events (and the spectators deepening involvement
in them) have made a return to the original, unqualied
innocence impossible.
This brings us to an inuential Indian theory of aesthetic
appreciation.
:o
Aisruiric Sixrixixr
The key terms to understanding the theory of aesthetic
sentiment (rasa) are: determinant emotional states (vi-
:,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
bh ava), consequent emotional states (anubh ava), tran-
sient emotional states (vyabhic ariBbh ava), and permanent
emotional states (sth ayiBbh ava). In the N at
.
yaBs astra and its
derivatives these are used primarily prescriptively to teach
an elaborate grammar of emotional response. Later aestheti-
cians expanded on this by minutely analysing the mecha-
nisms of aesthetic appreciation in the spectator (as taught
in the sixth book of the N at
.
yaBs astra). Here rasa must be
understood as a technical term. Nothing but obfuscation is
gained by importing the vague allusions or associations that
a literal translation of the term evoke. Tiixix (:ccc:::)
rightly deplores the use of the term as a magic word to
justify all manner of absurd speculation on the purpose of
Indiandrama, broadening it to such a point that it becomes
an utterly meaningless concept with which one can indeed
explain virtually everything.
:;
Before going further, there-
fore, I fear I cannot spare the reader froma brief explanation
of what it is that the mature theory attempts to explain. It is
not, in essence, a complicated doctrine, admitting of sim-
plication and paraphrase. Hopefully, many of us have had
a similar experience to the following.
Ax Exaxiii
Imagine that you nd yourself going to see a performance
of Romeo and Juliet. You are in the right mood for the
play, no mundane worries preoccupy your mind, you have
agreeable company, and the theatre, the stage, the director
and the actors are all excellentcapable of doing justice to
a great play. Your seat in the theatre is comfortable and gives
an unobstructed view.
:o
ixriooucriox
The play begins and you nd yourself drawn into the
world Shakespeare is sketching. The involvement deepens
to an immersion where the ordinary, everyday world dims
and fades from the center of attention, you begin to under-
standandevenshare the feelings of the characters onstage
under ideal conditions you might reach a stage where you
begin to participate in some strange way in the love being
evoked.
Now, if at that moment you were to ask yourself: Whose
love is this? a paradox arises.
It cannot be Romeos love for Juliet, nor Juliets love for
Romeo, for they are ctional characters. It cannot be the
actors, for in reality they may despise one another. It cannot
be your own love, for you cannot love a ctional character
and know nothing about the actors real personalities (they
are veiledby the role they assume), and, for the same reasons,
it cannot be the actors love for either you or the ctional
characters. So it is a peculiar, almost abstract love without
immediate referent or context.
A Sanskrit aesthete would explain to you that you are at
that moment relishing ( asv adana) your own fundamen-
tal emotional state (sth ayi B bh ava) called passion (rati)
which has been decontextualised (s adh aran
.
kr
.
ta) by the
operation of sympathetic resonance (hr
.
dayaBsam
.
v ada) and
heightened to become transformed into an aesthetic sen-
timent (rasa) called the erotic sentiment (sr
.
ng ara).
This aesthetic sentiment is a paradoxical and ephemeral
thing that can be evoked by the play but is not exactly
caused by it, for many spectators may have felt nothing
at all during the same performance. You yourself, seeing
:;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
it again next week, under the same circumstances, might
experience nothing. It is, moreover, something that cannot
be adequately explained through analytic terms, the only
proof for its existence is its direct, personal experience.
:
The fourteenth century Orissan literary critic Vishva
natha has summarised his predecessors deliberations on the
strange ontological status of this aesthetic sentiment as a
series of paradoxes:
:,
It cannot be made known for its existence cannot be sepa-
rated from its experience. Since it depends in essence upon
the aggregation of determinants etc. it cannot be an effect;
nor is it eternal since it is not perceived before [the deter-
minants etc.], when not perceived it does not even exist.
Nor is it something that will exist [eternally or indepen-
dently in the future] since it is self-manifest immediate
bliss. Nor does it exist presently, since it is different from
an effect or a knowable thing. Nor is its perception in-
determinate knowledge since it becomes objective by the
experience of the determinants etc., and since sensitive
readers experience it directly as supreme delight. Nor is it
perceived as determinate knowledge since it does not ad-
mit contact with analytical terms. It is not imperceptible
since it can arise from words, yet its manifestation is not
perceptible. Therefore connoisseurs should truly regard it
as non-ordinary. Since this [aesthetic sentiment] is not
different from ones own experience, the learned consider
it proven by pleasurable experience.
It is, moreover, a blissful experience. The fact that sensitive
readers often weep while reading poetry does not mean
:
ixriooucriox
that they are suering, rather the tenderness of the work
has succeeded in melting the contraction of their minds or
hearts.
The non-ordinary nature of such aesthetic sentiments
makes it possible for the spectator or reader to derive a plea-
surable experience even from what in ordinary life would
be causes of grief.
:c
Ticuxicai Diraiis
The RasaBs utra in the N at
.
yaBs astra of Bharata states:
::
Rasa is evoked by the conjunction of determinants, con-
sequents and transient emotional states.
For example: In a play based on the story of the Ram aya-
na, the characters Rama, Sita and the demon R avana might
be the objective determinants. The season, garlands, and
the appropriate makeup are the excitant determinants.
::
The bodily consequents are the gestures and stances the
characters assume on stage.
:,
The verbal consequents are
peculiar intonations which may, for instance, reveal if a
statement is sarcastic. The involuntary consequents are
spontaneous reactions such as tears and tremors.
:
The ac-
cessory consequents are such as Rama wearing armor and
a helmet. The many transients support the emerging rasa:
When Sita sees R avana, the consequents paralysis, trem-
bling, and perspiration are supported by the transients
worry, fear, and eort.
:,
But how exactly is this aesthetic sentiment evoked?
The theory is considered a doctrine of transformation
(parin
.
amaBv ada).
:,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
What is it that is transformed into an aesthetic sentiment?
Eight pre-existing foundational emotions (sth ayiB bh a-
va) are postulated. These can be transmuted into aesthetic
sentiments by the presence of all of the other emotional
processes and conditions mentioned above. Even though
many of these may be at the time more prominent than
a foundational emotion, only the foundational emotions
can be transmuted into aesthetic sentiments.
Just as a king alonethough he may be surrounded by a
great retinuedeserves his title, and not some other man,
however exalted, so a fundamental emotion, attended by
determinant, consequent, and transient emotional states,
receives the designation aesthetic sentiment.
:o
The aesthetic sentiment is in this way categorically dier-
ent from the other sentiments. The fundamental emotions
generate aesthetic sentiments as follows:
Foundational state Aesthetic sentiment
:. passion (rati) > erotic (sr
.
ng ara)
:. energy (uts aha) > heroic (vrya)
,. revulsion (jugups a) > disgust (bbhatsa)
. anger (krodha) > wrathful (raudra)
,. fun (h asa) > comic (h asya)
o. wonder (smaya) > amazing (adbhuta)
;. fear (bhaya) > fearful (bhay anaka)
. grief (soka) > compassionate (karun
.
a)
,. world-weariness (sama/nirveda) > quietist (s anta)
The much-discussed quietist emotional state is not uni-
versally accepted. It may be a later addition, and some argue
it cannot be staged and is thus conned to poetry.
,c
ixriooucriox
Another theory further reduces this list by dividing the
rst eight of these into two paired groups, the former being
capable of generating the latter.
:;
Lovi
For many theoreticians the erotic sentiment is considered
the most important since it requires the greatest sensitivity
in handling:
:
The erotic alone is the sweetest, most captivating aesthetic
sentiment. The quality of evocativeness arises from poetry
imbued with this sentiment.

Abhinavagupta, on the other hand, considers the qui-


etist sentiment as fundamental to all others. The variety
of amorous relationships depicted in classical Sanskrit po-
etry are governed by well-dened conventions. Rhetoricians
stipulate that the erotic sentiment as it ought to be de-
picted in poetry is twofold, happy and sad: love-in-union
(sam
.
bhoga), and love-in-separation (vipralambha). Love-
in-separation is further subdivided rather clinically into ten
developmental stages:
:,
[:.] longing (abhil as
.
a), [:.] ponder-
ing (cintana), [,.] remembrance (smr
.
ti), [.] praising (gun
.
aB
krtana), [,.] agitation (udvega), [o.] babbling (pral apa), [;.]
madness (unm ada), [.] fever (sam
.
jvara), [,.] torpor (jad
.
a-
t a), and nally [:c.] death (maran
.
a).
The SattaB sa of Hala, a Prakrit anthology of amorous
verse compiledinthe early centuries ci may well have served
as the model for the formulation of the conventions of
love, since almost all amorous situations discussed by the
scholiasts can be traced in it.
,:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
Ixiioixixrs
A playwright wishing to write a work capable of evoking
this relishing of an aesthetic sentiment (rasan a, camatBk a-
ra, rasB asv ada)
,c
must guard against a number of pitfalls.
These are summarised as seven impediments to the expe-
rience of the aesthetic sentiment, and apply equally to the
spectator.
,:
They are [:.] lack of credulity, a sympathetic
response must be possible; [:.] a too personal identica-
tion with the characters or narrative must be avoided by
the use of not only realistic conventions (lokaBdharmin) but
also theatrical conventions (n at
.
yaBdharmin) in drama, or, in
poetry, naturalistic expression (svabh avB okti) and articial
expression (vakrB okti); [,.] preoccupation with personal af-
fairs; [.] lack of proper means of perception; [,.] lack of
clarity, abstract theatrical conventions must be balanced by
the presence of everyday conventions; [o.] lack of predomi-
nance of a single aesthetic sentiment; [;.] presence of doubt
as to how the consequents are to be interpreted: tears may
ambiguously represent joy, anger, fear etc. unless they are
properly combined with other emotional states.
Ricixsioxs Oi Viisioxs?
What is presented here is the rst complete translation
of the Kashmirian recension of the The Recognition of
Shak untala. Recension here designates the product of
conscious redactional choices. This diers from what might
be called a version of a text which simply comes into ex-
istence as scribal errors accumulate with each generation of
copying. Some scribes may consult other manuscripts to
,:
ixriooucriox
correct obvious errors,
,:
but as long as this is done unsys-
tematically, the resulting conated text remains a version.
Fol. ,cr of the Shrinagar manuscript showing o.::::c.
,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
The boundary between recension and version is necces-
sarily a blurred one. Some scribes might redact parts of their
text, while some redactors might be inept. Nevertheless, in
principle, the activity of the redactor (redacting) diers from
that of the scribe (copying) enough to be usefully studied
in its own right.
,,
The kinds of changes, emendations andcorrections sucha
redactor (or groupof redactors) will make are not impossible
to deduce.
In lucky cases the redactor is also a commentator, who
might discuss variant or rejected readings (p at
.
hB antara, apa-
p at
.
ha). The kind of argument adduced in such cases can
be telling, proceeding from the assumption that a play or
poem should awlessly conform to rules laid down in a
number of technical treatises. Thus commentators will jus-
tify their preference for readings by appealing to authorities
on grammar, dramaturgy, poetics, politics, erotics, metal-
lurgy/chemistry, gemology, medicine, astronomy/astrology,
archery, elephant-lore, equestrian science, physiognomy,
gambling, and sorcery.
,
The more celebrated an author is, the more stringent
this requirement becomes, and there is no poet writing in
Sanskrit more celebrated than Kalidasa. As the aesthete

Abhinavagupta puts it:


,,
Not even in their imagination in a dream would con-
noisseurs impute even the most minute imperfection to
his poetry.
This might be read as tantamount to a license to emend
away whatever oends a pedantic scholiast, and such com-
,
ixriooucriox
mentarial projects have indeed been documented. Only re-
cently Goooaii & Isaacsox have made a successful eort
to evaluate such criteria to weight variant readings in their
critical text and recover anolder stratumof one of Kalidasas
works, the RaghuBvam
.
sa.
A closer reading reveals that such wilful purication (as
V amana puts it) of a poets work, is not, in fact, sanctioned
by all rhetoricians. Instead of advocating a rigid application
of inexible rules, a benign, contextually sensitive reading of
poetry is preferred by some of the most prominent writers.
Dandin allows breaches of rules as long as the learned are
not oended. M ammata, the author of the most popular
text-book on aesthetics, teaches that defects can become
virtues if appropriately used.
,o

Abhinavagupta puts it most
bluntly: these rules are not royal edicts.
,;
What does such an editorial policy mean for the current
volume?
Let us look at an example: the third metrical foot of verse
o., (o.:: in this book) is marred by a number of unsat-
isfactory or banal readings in the Devan agari and Bengal
recensions. The Kashmirian recension presents a syntactical
diculty with the predicate (vidheya) being predominant.
The Mthila recension reads the word sudat (ne-toothed
woman) as the predominant subject (uddesya) in place of
the Kashmirian tad attam (passed beyond). Now this is
exciting: we may surmise that there exists ample motivation
for redactors to remove the word sudat, for the rhetorician
V amana (active in Kashmir in the th cent. ci) had taught
that it is grammatically suspect.
,
The messy readings thus
show us various attempts to repair the damage done by
,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
wilfully replacing sudat with conjectures. A further prob-
lem: in place of the Kashmirian recensions mam ais
.
a the
Mthila recension reads mam aiva. Now there exists again
a compelling reason for this. Here the Kashmirian reading
is probably original, the problem for the Mthila redactor
is that it presents us with a metaphor (r upaka) where the
subject (upameya) and object (upam ana) are in dierent
genders, the ne-toothed woman (sudat fem.) and the
precipice (prap atah
.
masc.). As a general rule, rhetoricians
censure such gender incongruence, but Kalidasa does not
always adhere to such formal requirements. The Mthila
redactor appears to have wilfully read precipice as a fem.
(prap at a), and then changed the masc. pronoun es
.
ah
.
to the
syntactically redundant particle eva.
But note how appropriate is the use of ne-toothed
for the juxtaposition with the gaping, jagged cli precipice
if we adopt the following reading (a combination of the
Mthila and Kashmirian) as original: s asannivr
.
ttyai sudat
mam ais
.
a, She, the ne-toothed woman, became for me
this [precipice. . . ] from which there is no return.
Such textual criticism explains how the Kashmirian re-
cension translated here comes to have its peculiar reading
in this place and it also indicates what Kalidasa may have
originally written. That noprintedtext of The Recognition
of Shak untala gives this reading shows just how much we
stand to gain from a careful reevaluation of the recensions
in the light of the Kashmirian text.
The study of the writings of Sanskrit rhetoricians and lit-
erary critics is thus indispensable for anyone wishing to edit
Sanskrit literature; not because it provides insightful tools
,o
ixriooucriox
to analyze the text (which, of course, it does) but because
generations of scribes, redactors and even the original poets
have made decisions based on rhetorical works prominent
in their place and time.
Tui Ricixsioxs
With the exception of the Devan agari recension (named
after the script its manuscripts were written in), the sur-
viving recensions of The Recognition of Shak untala are
usually named for the regions they are found in.
The Devan agari recension, often published with R agha-
vabhattas commentary, is probably the most popular. De-
spite this, there exists no critical text of this recension.
Of the Bengal recension there exists a pioneering critical
edition by Richard Piscuii published in its nal form in
the Harvard Oriental Series :o. Piscuiis editorial decision
to standardize the Prakrit to that of the grammarians has
been called into question.
The Southern recension is available in print with a num-
ber of commentaries, notably the Di nB m atra B darsan of
Abhir ama Bhat
.
t
.
a, the Kum araBgiriBr ajya of K at
.
ayavema, the
S ahityaBs ara of

Srniv asa Bhat
.
t
.
a and a learned, anonymous
Carc a commentary published by the Trivandrum Sanskrit
Series.
The Mithila recensions readings were published by the
Mithil a Research Institute in Darbhanga in :,,;, based on
the two commentaries of

Sa nkara and Narahari.
Besides these, there are many more unpublished com-
mentaries by well known medieval commentators such as
Ghanasy ama, Daks
.
in avartan atha, and Nlakan
.
t
.
ha (as well as
,;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
a large number of modern Sanskrit commentaries). It would
be of inestimable value to know what relation the texts of
these early commentators bear to the published recensions.
In : Karl Buixuaiopublished a provisional edition of
the Kashmirian recension froma single manuscript brought
to Poona by Georg B uuiii after one of his tours to col-
lect manuscripts in Kashmir. The same was reprinted in
Devan agari by S.K. Biivaixai in :,o, (S ahitya Academy).
Buixuaio had previously (::) published another manu-
script written in the Kashmirian

S arad a script preserved in
Bikaner which he believed to be the Kashmirian recension.
This, however, is a

S arad a manuscript of the Devan aga-
ri recension with a few emendations based on the Kash-
mirian text. In :,c Dilp Kum ar Kax;ii

ai attempted to
reconstruct Kalidasas original text from the various recen-
sions. His is the only work, so far, to make use of the Sriix
manuscripts of the Kashmirian recension preserved in Ox-
ford. Kax;ii

ais pioneering eort is greatly hampered by


the fact that the regional recensions are not yet properly
critically edited.
The text published here in the Clay Sanskrit Library is
the rst stage of a work in progress; much more careful
textual criticism is required before we can have a clearer
picture of the Kashmirian recension. The surviving Kash-
mirian manuscripts allowus to restore the text to the formit
assumedinKashmir some time after about ;ccci but before
the end of the rst millenium ci, dates tentatively deduced
by the detectable inuence of V amana and by

Abhinava
guptas knowledge of (some parts of ) the text as presently
constituted.
,
ixriooucriox
Coxciixixc rui Piaxiir Passacis
Not all characters in a Sanskrit drama speak Sanskrit.
A substantial part of both verse and dialogue is sung or
spoken in various forms of Prakrit. These are not intended
as regional dialects, but rather as something approaching
sociolects: gender, status and age determine the language.
Diering approaches toediting these additional languages
have been attempted, and the controversy is ongoing. I do
not nd it advisable, in this edition, to adopt either Pis-
cuiis strong program of disregarding the manuscript ev-
idence as unreliable, and emending the text to conform to
the rules of the Prakrit grammarians, nor its opposite. It is
uncertain that the Kashmirian redactors used a grammar
at all, and if they did, it remains unclear which grammar
this might have been. Saioxox (:,:) believed that Pis-
cuiis (and Hiiiiniaxors Mudr aBr aks
.
asa) approach had
become dubious at least since L uoiis (:,::) published the
Central Asian fragments of Ashvaghoshas plays because
their Prakrit predates and diverges from what is prescribed
by the grammarians. Because this might have little bearing
on the post Vararuchi (,rdth cent ci) period of Kalidasa
and the other classical poets, the dispute is reevaluated in
Sriixii (:,,;:,).
As regards the des (provincial, local)
,,
terms encoun-
tered, the most likely surviving source for Prakrit lexicogra-
phy that comes close to what the Kashmirian redactors of
The Recognition of Shak untala might have used (if they
used anything at all) is the P aialacchn amam al a of Dha-
napala (he styles himself Dhanav ala in Prakrit), composed
in VikramaBsam
.
vat :c:,=,;: ci in Dhara, the capital city
,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
of the Paramara dynasty of Malava, and Hemachandras
inuential DesiBn amaBm al a.
As a result the presentation of Prakrit is still somewhat
uneven; sometimes the manuscript evidence favored forms
which accord with the norms of the grammarians, some-
times they did not. I did not use either as evidence for a
normative Kashmirian Dramatic Prakrit but have rather
preserved much of this eclecticism, removing only what I
judged to be copyists errors: more work on the regional
variation of the transmission of dramatic Prakrits is needed
before either of the two procedures mentioned above could
be seriously entertained in the present case.
acxxowiiocxixrs
I am grateful to Harunaga Isaacsox and Eivind Kauis for their many
corrections.
niniiociaiu\
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.
yas astra, Studien zur
Indologie und Iranistik. Monographie I, Reinbeck :,c.
Roland Sriixii Untersuchungen zu Harsadevas N ag ananda und zum
indischen Schauspiel, Swisttal-Odendorf :,,;, (Indica et Ti-
betica. 31.)
Hermann Tiixix, On the Use of rasa in Studies of Sanskrit Drama.
Indo-Iranian Journal 43 (:ccc), pp. ::,:,.
The Structure of Kalidasas Raghuvamsa. Studien zur Indologie und
Iranistik 15 (:,,), pp. :,::,.
V. Racuavax Bhojas

Sr
.
ng araprak asa, Madras :,o,.
A.K. Waioii Indian K avya Literature, Vol. ,, Delhi :,;;.
:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
Ziixai, E.V., The Kidarite Kingdom in Central Asia. History of Civi-
lizations of Central Asia, vol. , (Paris: UNESCO, :,,o).
xoris
: Anandav ardhana, Vr
.
tti to DhvanyB aloka :.o: tad vastuBtat-
tvam
.
nih
.
s
.
yandam an a mahat am
.
kavn am
.
bh arat aBlokaBs a-
m anyam
.
pratibh aBvises
.
am
.
parisphurantam abhivyanakti yen
asminn ativicitraBkaviBparampar aBv ahini sam
.
s are K alid asaB
prabhr
.
tayo dviBtr ah
.
pa ncaBs
.
a v a mah aBkavaya iti gan
.
yante.
: For example the Mudr aBr aks
.
asa.
, Racuavax :,o,:,c.
See Waioii :,;;:::,, and Tiixix :cc:.
, Tiixix had speculated that the M alavika and Agnimitra is
unique in this respect.
o It would go too far to suppose that this in itself implies that
there was a suspicion of illegitimacy surrounding the succes-
sion. Kalidasas works were not crude vehicles for Gupta pro-
paganda. But it is noteworthy how much emphasis is laid on
establishing Bh aratas claim to succession in the play.
; RaghuBvam
.
sa .o; as read by the oldest commentator, V alla-
bhadeva. The presence of the Huns on the River Oxus also
serves as a conrmation of Kalidasas date.
Baxxii :,,, has suggested that a sculpture of Kalidasa sur-
vives.
, For a very beautiful series of plaques made of inlaid shells
depicting the story see C. Raiix :,,o.
:c Kat
.
t
.
hah ariBj ataka.
:: According to the aesthetician

Abhinavagupta this term is to
be rendered as lit. marked (a nkita) by death.
:: See S.A. Suiixivasax :,c.
:
ixriooucriox
:, N at
.
yaBs astra :.:::: n an aB bh av B opasam
.
pannam
.
n anB avasthB
antarB atmakam / lokaB vr
.
tt B anukaran
.
am
.
n at
.
yam etan may a
kr
.
tam.
: N at
.
yaBs astra :.:c: kvaBcidBdharmah
.
kvaBcitBkrd
.
a kvaBcidB
arthah
.
kvaBcicBchamah
.
/ kvaBcidBdh asyam
.
kvaBcidByuddham
.
kvaBcitBk amah
.
kvaBcidBvadhah
.
.
:, For a succinct treatment of these not deriving from the Da-
saBr upaka see N at
.
akaBlaks
.
an
.
aBratnaBkosa of S agaranandin (ca.
:::,ci) chapter .
:o H. Tiixix questions the value of this in On the Use of rasa
in Studies of Sanskrit Drama, Indo-Iranian Journal , (:ccc)
::,:,.
:; As examples of this abuse Tiixix (:ccc:::) cites the work of
Lyne Baxsar Bouoox, concluding: We are dealing with rasa
as a kind of comforting mantra here. This third type of use of
the term rasa properly belongs to the realm of ction and need
not be considered any further.
: Adapted mainly from

Abhinavaguptas discussion of DhvanyB
aloka :., using as example the love of Rama and Sita.
:, S ahityaBdarpan
.
a ,.:ccd:o: n ayam
.
j n apyah
.
, svaBsatt ay am
.
pra-
ttyB avyabhic aratah
.
// yasm ad es
.
a vibh avB adi B sam uhB alamba-
nB atmakah
.
/ tasm an na k aryah
.
, no nityah
.
p urvaBsam
.
vedanB oj-
jhitah
.
/ aBsam
.
vedanaBk ale hi na bh avo py asya vidyate // n api
bhavis
.
yan s aks
.
ad anandaBmayaBprak asaBr upatv at / k aryaBj n ap-
yaBvilaks
.
an
.
aBbh av an no vartam ano pi // vibh av adiBpar amarsaB
vis
.
ayatv at saBcetas am / par anandaBmayatvena sam
.
vedyatv ad api
sphut
.
am // na nirvikalpakam
.
j n anam
.
tasya gr ahakam is
.
yate /
tath abhil apasam
.
sargayogyatvavirah an na ca // savikalpakasam
.
-
vedyah
.
s aks
.
at k aratay a na ca / paroks
.
as tatprak aso n aparoks
.
ah
.
sabdaBsam
.
bhav at // [Vr
.
tti: tat kathaya kdr
.
g asya tattvam asru-
tB adr
.
s
.
t
.
aBnir upan
.
aBprak arasyety aha] tasm ad alaukikah
.
satyam
.
vedyah
.
sahr
.
dayair ayam / [Vr
.
tti: tat kim
.
punah
.
pram an
.
am
.
tasya
sadbh ave?] pram an
.
am
.
carvan
.
aiv atra sv abhinne vidus
.
am
.
matam
//26//. [atra=rase, sv abhinne=carvan
.
asvar upe].
,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
:c S ahityaBdarpan
.
a ,.: karun
.
B ad av api rase j ayate yat param
.
sukham, saBcetas am anubhavah
.
pram an
.
am
.
tatra kevalam. kim
.
ca tes
.
u yad a duh
.
kham
.
na ko pi sy at tadBunmukhah
.
, tath a R a-
m ayan
.
B adn am
.
bhavit a duh
.
khaBhetut a. hetutvam
.
sokaBhars
.
ader
gatebhyo lokaBsam
.
sray at. sokaBhars
.
B adayo loke j ayant am
.
n ama
laukik ah
.
, alaukikaBvibh avatvam
.
pr aptebhyah
.
k avyaBsam
.
sray at.
sukham
.
sam
.
j ayate tebhyah
.
sarvebhyo p ti k a ks
.
atih
.
, asruBp atB
adayas tadvad drutatv ac cetaso mat ah
.
.
:: N at
.
yaBs astra o: vibh avB anubh avaBvyabhic ariBsam
.
yog ad rasaBnis
.
-
pattih
.
.
:: Determinant emotional states can be either objective ( alam-
bana), the objects towards which the emotional responses are
directed, e.g. the dramatis person, or excitant (uddpana),
these include the setting, the season, etc.
:, The consequents are responses to the emotional states. They
are of four kinds: bodily, verbal, involuntary, and accessory.
(DasaBr upaka .,ab, Bh avaBprak asana :.::cd:,ab.)
: Of particular importance to the theory are the eight involun-
tary emotional responses (s attvikB anubh ava). They are: paral-
ysis, unconsciousness, horripilation, perspiration, loss of color,
trembling, tears, stammering. ([1.] stambha, [2.] pralaya, [3.]
roma nca, [4.] sveda, [5.] vaivarn
.
ya, [6.] vepathu, [7.] asru and
[8.] vaisvarya). See Bh avaBprak asana :.:,:cd:o,ab.
:, The transient emotional states (vyabhic aribh ava) are counted
as thirty-three: [1.] nirveda, [2.] gl ani, [3.] sa nk a, [4.] srama, [5.]
dhr
.
ti, [6.] jad
.
at a, [7.] hars
.
a, [8.] dainya, [9.] augrya, [10.] cint a,
[11.] tr asa, [12.] rs
.
y a, [13.] amars
.
a, [14.] garva, [15.] smr
.
ti, [16.]
maran
.
a, [17.] mada, [18.] supta, [19.] nidr a, [20.] vibodha, [21.]
vrd
.
a, [22.] apasm ara, [23.] moha, [24.] mati, [25.] alasya, [26.]
avega, [27.] tarka, [28.] avahittha, [29.] vy adhi, [30.] unm ada,
[31.] vis
.
ada, [32.] utsuka, [33.] c apala.
:o AbhinavaB bh arat ;.: yath a narBendro bahuB janaB pariv a-
ro pi sa eva n amo labhate n anyah
.
sumah an api purus
.
ah
.

ixriooucriox
tath a vibh av B anubh avaB vyabhic ari B parivr
.
tah
.
sth ay bh avo
rasaBn ama labhate.
:; N at
.
yaBs astra o.,,. For a discussion of this see K oivii :,,:.
: DhvanyB aloka :.;: sr
.
ng ara eva madhurah
.
parah
.
prahl adano rasah
.
/ tanmayam
.
k avyam asritya m adhuryam
.
pratitis
.
t
.
hati.
:, See DasaBr upaka .,:cd,:.
,c Denedat AbhinavaBbh arat Vol. :, p. :;,: sa c atr
.
ptiBvyatireken
.

aBvichinno bhogB avesa ity ucyate.
,: AbhinavaB bh arat Vol. :, p. :c:; see also Dhvany B aloka
,.:;:, on the six obstructors (virodhin) of rasa.
,: In fact textual critics have had to evolve various strategies to
deal with such conation.
,, Baxsar-Bouoox, following Caiiiiii (pseudo-recensions)
and Cuaxo (temporary ctions), calls the recensions ver-
sions. My own view is that they are recensions, i.e. versions
that have been consciously revised to remove inconsistencies
accumulated by accidents of transmission.
, A list provided by the eleventh-century Kashmirian poet and
literary critic Kshem endra.
,,

Abhinavagupta, Ghat
.
aBkarparaBvivr
.
ti :c: na c asya k avye tr
.
n
.
aB
m atram api kala nkaBp atram utpreks
.
itavanto manorathe pi supte
pi sahr
.
day ah
.
.
,o K avyaBprak asa ;.,,.
,; Ghat
.
aBkharparaBkulaka :c: na h yam
.
r ajB aj n a.
, K avyB ala nk araBs utraBvr
.
tti ,.:.o;: sudatyB adayah
.
pratividhey ah
.
.
,, Desi terms are words encountered in standard Prakrit works
which cannot be explained by Sanskrit dictionaries, the deriva-
tions of the Prakrit grammarians, or by laks
.
an
.
a (indicative us-
age). All other Prakrit words are classed as either tatBsamas or
tadB bhavas. To explain: indu (the moon) is a tat B sama, it
has the same form and meaning in both Sanskrit and Prakrit.
,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
Prakrit gaha, (planet, or house), is a tadBbhava, it can be de-
rived from the Sanskrit graha or gr
.
ha by following the rules of
the Prakrit grammarians. The Prakrit word cem
.
ccha (unchaste
woman) is a desi word of uncertain etymology and formation.
Similarly, the Prakrit compound valayaBb ahu (bracelet) is a
desi word even though both of its members are tatBsamas: this is
because the correct Sanskrit compound should be b ahuBvalaya.
For further detail see E. Kauis (:,,:).
o
ixriooucriox
DRAMATIS PERSON
In order of appearance:
S utraBdh arah
.
: Sraci Diiicroi
Nat
.
: Acriiss
R aj a, Dus
.
yantah
.
: Kixc Dusu\ axra
S utah
.
: His Cuaiioriii
Tapasv, T apasah
.
: Asciric
Sakhyau: Two Fiiixos

Sakuntal a: Suax uxraia


Priyam
.
vad a: Pii\axvaoa
Anas uy a: Axas u\a
Vid us
.
akah
.
, M adhavyah
.
: Buiioox
Dauv arikah
.
, Revakah
.
: Dooi-xiiiii
Sen aBpatih
.
: Gixiiai
Parijanah
.
: Ririxui
T apasau, R
.
s
.
Two Ascirics, Two Sacis
Karabhakah
.
: Kai anuaxa, Royal Envoy

Sis
.
yah
.
: Kanvas Disciiii
T apas: Two Female Ascirics
R
.
s
.
iBkum arakau Two Youxc Sacis
Gautam: G auraxi
Durv asas: Duiv asas, An Irascible Sage
K asyapah
.
, Kan
.
vah
.
: K asu\aia, Kaxva

Sis
.
y ah
.
: Three Disciiiis

S ar ngaravah
.
: Suaixcaiava
Ka ncuk, Maudgalyah
.
: Cuaxniiiaix
Pratih ar: Poiriiss
Vait alikah
.
: Hiiaio

S aradvatah
.
: Suaiaovara
Purohitah
.
, Purodh ah
.
, Somar ata: Piiisr
R
.
s
.
ayah
.
: Siiis
Raks
.
in
.
au: Two Guaios
Purus
.
ah
.
: Man, a Fisuiixax

Sy alah
.
: Poiici Cairaix,
the kings brother-in-law
;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
Aks
.
am al a: Axsuaxaia
Cet
.
: Two Female Gaioixiis
LipiBk ar, Medh avin: Airisr, Sciini
M atali: M araii
C utama njar: Cuurax a x;aii,
Fiisr Daxcii
P arij atama njar: Paii; arax a x;aii,
Sicoxo Daxcii
B alah
.
: Bo\
T apas: Two Female Ascirics
M arcah
.
: Maicua
Aditih
.
:

Aoiri

Prologue
y

a sias
.
r
.
uu
.
si
.
s
.
r
.
ii

ao\

a pivati vidhiAhutam
.
,
y a havir, y a ca hotr,
ye dve k alam
.
vidhattah
.
, srutiAvis
.
ayaAgun
.
a
y a sthit a vy apya visvam,
y am ahuh
.
sarvaAbjaAprakr
.
tir iti, yay a
pr an
.
inaf pr an
.
avantah
.
,
pratyaks
.
abhif prasannas tanubhir avatu nas
t abhir as
.
t
.
abhir

Isah
.
!
n andyBante.
s uriaAou

aiau
.
: (nepathyB abhimukham avalokya) arye! yadi
nepathyaAvidh anam avasitam
.
tad itas t avad agamyat am.
pravisya nat
.
.
xar
.
:

ayya! ia mhi. an
.
avedu ayyo ko n
.
ioo an
.
ucit
.
t
.
hadu tti.

:.,
s uriaA ou

aiau
.
: (dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a) abhir upa A pr aya A bh uyis
.
t
.
h eyam
.
paris
.
at. asy am
.
ca kila K alid asa A grathita A vastun a nave-
na n at
.
aken opasth atavyam asm abhih
.
. tat pratip atram
asthyat am
.
yatnah
.
.
xar
.
:

suvihidaAppaoad ae ayyassa n
.
a ki nci pad
.
ih aissadi.

s uriaA ou

aiau
.
: (smitam
.
kr
.
tv a) arye. kathay ami te bh utA
artham.
a paritos
.
ad vidus
.
am
.
na s adhu manye prayogaAvij n anam.
balavad api siks
.
it an am
atmany apratyayam
.
cetah
.
.
,c
M
a\ Goo, xixoi\ oisiosio, protect us
with eight manifest bodies:
The rst creation of the creator, that drinks
the ritual oering,
And the oering,
The sacricer,
The two which regulate time,
That which pervades the universe, audible to
the ear,
That which is called the source of all seeds,
And that which gives living beings their vital
energy!*
At the end of the benediction.
sraci oiiicroi: (looking toward the curtain) Madam! If
everyone has prepared their parts!
Enter the actress.
acriiss: Sir! Here I am. What are your instructions? :.,
sraci oiiicroi: (looking) This audience is overwhelm-
ingly made up of very sophisticated spectators, and we
have to entertain them with a new play, its plot devised
by Kalidasa. Let each role be seen to with care.
acriiss: With your careful directing, nothing can go awry.
sraci oiiicroi: (smiling) Lady, let me tell you a truth.
I cannot be condent of my directorial prociency
until the literati are satised. The heart of even
those who have rehearsed diligently is racked by
self-doubt.
,:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
xar
.
:

evan
.
n
.
edam
.
.* an
.
antaraAkaran
.
am
.
d an
.
im
.
ayyo an
.
abe- :.:c
du.

s uriaA ou

aiau
.
: (dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a) kim anyat, asy af paris
.
adah
.
sruti A
pramodaAhetor imam eva n aticiraApravr
.
ttam upabhogaA
ks
.
amam
.
grs
.
maAk alam adhikr
.
tya gyat am
.
t avat.
sam
.
prati hi
subhagaAsalilA avag ah ah
.
p at
.
alaAsam
.
sargaAsurabhiAvanaAv at ah
.
pracch ayaAsulabhaAnidr a
divas af parin
.
amaAraman
.
y ah
.
.
xar
.
:

taha.

(g ayati.)

khan
.
aAcumbi a bhamareh
:.:,
suhaaAsuum araAkesaraAsih aim
.
odam
.
saanti pamad a
daam an
.
ao sirsaAkusum aim
.
.

s uriaAou

aiau
.
: sus
.
t
.
hu gtam! es
.
a hi gtaAr agA anubaddhaAci-
ttaAvr
.
ttir alikhita iva sarvato ra ngah
.
. tad id anm
.
katamat
prakaran
.
am asritya janam ar adhayis
.
y avah
.
?
xar
.
:

n
.
am
.
pad
.
hamam
.
yyeva ayyen
.
an
.
attam
.
jah a Abhi-
n
.
n
.
an
.
aAsa untal a n
.
ama apuruvam
.
n
.
ad
.
aam
.
paoen
.
a adhi-
karadu tti.

s uriaA ou

aiau
.
: bhavati! samyag anuprabodhito ham. as-
min ks
.
an
.
e khalu vismr
.
tam
.
may a tat. kutah
.
?
,:
iioiocui
acriiss: How true. Now tell me what must be done next,
:.:c
sir.
sraci oiiicroi: (looking) What other than sing about this
season of summer, not long upon us, suited to enjoy-
ment, to delight the ears of this gathering.
For now,
Are the days:
when plunging into water is a joy,
with woodland breezes fragrant by contact
with p atala blossoms,
where sleep comes with ease in deep shade,
delightful in their twilight.
acriiss: As you wish. (Sings.)
Sympathetic women adorn :.:,
themselves with shirsha owers,
their exceedingly delicate laments
eetingly kissed by bees.*
sraci oiiicroi: Beautifully sung! For this audience all
around me, engrossed in the melody of the song, seems
as if it were painted. Now, then, what play shall we stage
to regale these people?
acriiss: Surely, sir, you just said at the outset: Stage the
new play called The Recognition of Shak untala?
sraci oiiicroi: Madam, I amjustly reminded. Right now
it had simply slipped my mind. Why?
,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
tav asmi gtaAr agen
.
a h arin
.
a prasabham
.
hr
.
tah
.
. . .
(nepathyB abhimukham avalokya.) :.:c
. . . es
.
a r aj eva Dus
.
yantah
.
s ara ngen
.
atiram
.
has a.
iti nis
.
kr antau.
prast avan a.
,
iioiocui
I was irresistibly carried away
by the captivating melody of your song. . .
(glancing toward the curtain.) :.:c
. . . just as this king Dushy anta was
by a swift antelope.
With this they exit.
End of the prologue.
,,
Act One:
The Chase
tataf pravisati rathaBy atakena mr
.
gB anus ar c apaBhasto
Dus
.
yantah
.
S utas ca.
s urau
.
: (r aj anam
.
mr
.
gam
.
c avalokya) ayus
.
man! :.:,
kr
.
s
.
n
.
aAs are dadac caks
.
us tvayi c adhijyaAk armuke
mr
.
gA anus arin
.
am
.
s aks
.
at pasy am va Pin akinam.
i

a;

a: s arathe! sud uram anena kr


.
s
.
n
.
aAs aren
.
a vayam akr
.
s
.
t
.
ah
.
.
ayam id anm api,
grvA abha ngA abhir amam
.
muhur anupatati
syandane dattaAdr
.
s
.
t
.
ih
.
pascA ardhena pravis
.
t
.
ah
.
saraApatanaAbhay ad
bh uyas a p urvaAk ayam
sas
.
pair ardhA avald
.
haih
.
sramaAvitataAmukhaA
bhram
.
sibhih
.
krn
.
aAvartm a
pasy odagraAplutitv ad viyati bahutaram
.
stokam urvy am
.
pray ati.
katham? anup atina eva me prayatnaApreks
.
an
.
yah
.
sam
.
vr
.
ttah
.
!
s urau
.
: ayus
.
man! udgh atin bh umir iyam
.
may a rasmiAsam
.
- :.,c
yaman ad rathasya mandkr
.
to vegah
.
. ten ais
.
a mr
.
go vi-
prakr
.
s
.
t
.
A antarah
.
sam
.
vr
.
ttah
.
. sam
.
prati tu samaA desaA vart
na te dur asado bhavis
.
yati.
,
Enter King Dushy anta in a chariot, pursuing a deer, bow in
hand, accompanied by his charioteer.
cuaiioriii: (glancing at king and deer) Your Majesty! :.:,
As I cast my eye upon the deer, and you
with your bow strung,
I seem to see before my very eyes
the Bow-bearer Shiva chasing the Deer.*
xixc: Charioteer! We have been drawn far by this black
antelope. Even now he,
Repeatedly darts a glance at the pursuing chariot,
gracefully twisting his neck,
with his haunches drawn acutely forward
into his forebody
out of fear of the arrows strike,
scattering the path with grass half-chewed,
dropping from his mouth gaping
with exhaustion.
Look! With his lofty leaps he moves
more through the sky
and hardly touches the ground.
How? Even though I am hard on his heels he has become
hard to make out!
cuaiioriii: Your Majesty! The terrain is uneven.* By :.,c
curbing in the reins I have reduced the chariots speed.
Thereby the antelope has made good some ground. But
now the ground is level, you will have no trouble getting
him.
,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: mucyant am abhsavah
.
.
s urau
.
: yad aj n apayaty ayus
.
m an. (tath a kr
.
tv a vegB antaram
.
nir upayan) ayus
.
man! pasya pasya! ete
muktes
.
u rasmis
.
u nir ayataAp urvaAk ay a
nis
.
kampaAc amaraAsikh a nibhr
.
tA ordhvaAkarn
.
ah
.
atmA oddhatair api rajobhir ala nghany a
dh avanty am mr
.
gaAjavA aks
.
amay eva rathy ah
.
.
i

a;

a: satyam attya HariAharn api harayo vartante. tath a hi


yad aloke s uks
.
mam
.
:.,,
vrajati sahas a tad vipulat am
yad ardhe vicchinnam
.
bhavati kr
.
taAsam
.
dh anam iva tat
prakr
.
ty a yad vakram
.
tad api samaArekham
.
nayanayoh
.
na me d ure kim
.
cin
na ca bhavati p arsve rathaAjav at.
s urau
.
: ayus
.
man! asya khalu te b an
.
aApathaAvartinah
.
kr
.
s
.
n
.
aA
s arasy antare tapasvinah
.
.
i

a;

a: (saBsam
.
bhramam) tena hi nigr
.
hyant am
.
v ajinah
.
!
s urau
.
: tath a karomi. (ity uktv a ratham
.
sth apayati.)
tataf pravisati atman aBtr
.
tyas tapasv.
raiasv: (saBsam
.
bhramam
.
hastam udyamya) r ajan! r ajan! as- :.c
ramaAmr
.
go yam
.
! asramaAmr
.
go yam
.
!
oc
acr oxi: rui cuasi
xixc: Let loose the reins!
cuaiioriii: As Your Majesty commands. (does so; acts a
change in speed) Your Majesty! Look, look!
The reins being loosened, these chariot horses,
their anks fully extended,
their yak-tail plumed crests unshaking,
their ears sti,
unreachable even by the dust they themselves
throw up,
sprint as though unable to tolerate
the speed of the antelope.
xixc: Truly the horses are outstripping the horses of Indra.
For,
What looked tiny to my eyes :.,,
suddenly becomes immense,
what really is divided in half appears joined,
what is inherently crooked appears straight.
Because of the chariots speed,
nothing is far from me,
and nothing remains at my side.
cuaiioriii: Your Majesty! Ascetics have come between
you and the black antelope your arrow is aimed at!
xixc: (alarmed) Then restrain the horses!
cuaiioriii: Im doing so. (So saying, he stops the chariot.)
Enter an ascetic with two companions.
asciric: (raising up his hand agitatedly) King! King! This is :.c
a hermitage antelope. This is a hermitage antelope.
o:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
tat s adhu kr
.
taAsam
.
dh anam
.
pratisam
.
hara s ayakam
artaAtr an
.
aya te sastram
.
na prahartum an agasi.
i

a;

a: es
.
a pratisam
.
hr
.
tah
.
. (yath oktam
.
karoti.)
r

aiasau
.
: (saBhars
.
am) s adhu bhoh
.
! sadr
.
sametat PuruAvam
.
saA
j atasya bhavatah
.
. sarvath a cakraAvartinam
.
putram av ap-
nuhi.
i

a;

a: (saBpran
.
amam) pratigr
.
htam
.
tapoAdhanaAvacanam.
r

aiasau
.
: samidA aharan
.
aya prasthit a vayam. es
.
a c asmadA :.,
guroh
.
K asyapasya sam
.
saktaAHimavatAs anur anuAM alinA
tram asramo dr
.
syate. na ced anyaAk aryA atip atas tad a tat
pravisy atra pratigr
.
hyat am atithiAsatk arah
.
. api ca,
dhany as tapoAdhan an am
.
pratihataAvighn ah
.
kriy ah
.
sam alokya
j n asyasi: kiyad bhujo me
raks
.
ati maurvAkin
.
A a nka iti!
i

a;

a: ayam
.
sam
.
nihito tra kulaApatih
.
?
r

aiasau
.
: ady aiv anavady am
.
duhitaram
.

Sakuntal amatithiA
satk ar aya sam
.
disya pratik ulam asy a daivam
.
samayitum
.
SomatrthaAPrabh asam
.
gatah
.
.
o:
acr oxi: rui cuasi
Therefore withdraw
your well-aimed arrow.
Your weapon is meant to protect the aicted,
not to strike the innocent.
xixc: It is withdrawn. (He does as said.)
asciric: (rejoicing) Well done, sir! This becomes you, scion
of the lineage of Puru. Without fail, may you have a son
who will be a universal emperor.
xixc: (bowing) The words of the ascetic are welcome.
asciric: We have set out to collect rewood. Yonder, along :.,
the banks of the River M alini, clinging to the escarp-
ments of the Him alaya, you can see the hermitage of
our master K ashyapa. If it does not interfere with other
duties, then enter it and receive the welcome due a guest.
Moreover,
Watching the worthy sacrices of ascetics
rich in penance,
carried out without obstructions,
you will appreciate:
How much my bowstring-scarred arm protects!
xixc: Is the patriarch at home?
asciric: This very day he bidhis faultless daughter Shak un-
tala provide hospitality and departed to Prabh asa at the
sacred Moon-ford to work a reprieve from her adverse
fate.
o,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: ( atmaB gatam
.
) bhavatu. t am eva draks
.
y ami. s a m am
.
viditaAbhaktim
.
mahaArs
.
eh
.
karis
.
yati.
r

aiasau
.
: s adhay amas t avat. (iti saBsis
.
yo nis
.
kr antah
.
.) :.,c
i

a;

a: S uta! coday asv an! pun


.
yA asramaAdarsanena t avad at-
m anam
.
punmahe.
s urau
.
: yad aj n apayaty ayus
.
m an. (parikramya rathaB y ata-
kam
.
nir upayati.)
i

a;

a: (samant ad vilokya) S uta! akathito pi j n ayata eva yath


ayam abhogas tapoAvanasy eti.
s urau
.
: katham iti?
i

a;

a: kim
.
na pasyati bhav an? iha hi, :.,,
nv ar ah
.
sukaAgarbhaAkot
.
araAmukhaA
bhras
.
t
.
as tar un
.
am adhah
.
prasnigdh ah
.
kva cid i ngudAphalaAbhidah
.
s ucyanta ev opal ah
.
visv asA opagam ad abhinnaAgatayah
.
sabdam
.
sahante mr
.
g ah
.
toyA adh araApath as ca valkalaAsikh aA
nih
.
s
.
yandaAlekhA a nkit ah
.
.
s urau
.
: sarvam upapannam.
o
acr oxi: rui cuasi
xixc: (aside) So be it. It is her I shall see. She will make my
devotion known to the great seer.
asciric: We must go now. (Exit with his disciples.) :.,c
xixc: Charioteer! Drive on the horses! First of all, we will
purify ourselves by the sight of the sacred hermitage.
cuaiioriii: As Your Majesty commands. (Walks about,
acts the steering of the chariot.)
xixc: (looking around) Charioteer! Evenwithout being told,
it is evident that these are the outskirts of a penance
grove.
cuaiioriii: How so?
xixc: Can you not see? For here, :.,,
Beneath the trees are grains of wild rice
dropped from tree hollows harboring parrots,
elsewhere one sees stones,
oily from crushing ngudi fruits;
the fawns are so trusting
they will tolerate speech without stopping
in their tracks,
the paths to the ponds are marked by lines
of water drops from the corners
of bark-garments.
cuaiioriii: It all ts.
o,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: (stokam antaram
.
gatv a) api ca,
kulyA ambhobhif prasr
.
taAcapalaih
.
s akhino dhautaAm ul a
bhinno r agah
.
kisalayaAruc am
ajyaAdh umA odgamena
ete c arv agAupavanaAbhuvi
cchinnaAdarbhA a nkur ay am
.
nas
.
t
.
A asa nk a harin
.
aAsisavo
mandaAmandam
.
caranti.
m a tapoA vanaA niv asin am uparodho bh ut! tad et avaty eva :.oc
ratham
.
sth apaya y avad avatar ami.
s urau
.
: dhr
.
t af pragrah ah
.
. avataratv ayus
.
m an.
i

a;

a: (avatrya) vintaA ves


.
en
.
a pravesy ani tapoA van ani. tad
idam
.
t avat pragr
.
hyat am. (iti s ut ay abharan
.
am
.
dattv a
dhanus c otsr
.
jya) s uta! y avad aham up asya mahaA rs
.
n
up avarte t avad ardraApr
.
s
.
t
.
h ah
.
kriyant am
.
v ajinah
.
.
s urau
.
: yad aj n apayaty ayus
.
m an. (iti nis
.
kr antah
.
.)
i

a;

a: (parikramy avalokya ca) idam asramaA dv aram


.
y avat
pravis ami. (pravisya, nimittam
.
s ucayan vimr
.
sati.)
s antam idam asramaApadam
.
:.o,
sphurati ca b ahuh
.
. kutaf phalam ih asya?
athav a bhavitavy an am
.
dv ar an
.
i bhavanti sarvatra.
oo
acr oxi: rui cuasi
xixc: (proceeds a bit) Moreover,
Trees have their roots washed
by turbulent canal streams,
the gleam of their tendrils is mixed
with the rising smoke
from claried butter oerings,
and here fawns lazily graze without inhibition
on the lawn before us where the shoots
of darbha grass have been cut.
Let no disturbance hinder the hermitage inmates! Stop the :.oc
chariot on this verge for me to descend.
cuaiioriii: The reins are secure. Descend, Your Majesty.
xixc: (descends) Hermitages should be entered in modest
dress. Therefore take this now. (with which he gives the
charioteer his ornaments and lays aside his bow) Chari-
oteer! Until I return from paying homage to the great
seers douse the horses backs.
cuaiioriii: As Your Majesty commands. (Exit.)
xixc: (walking around and observing) I shall enter through
this gateway to the hermitage. (He enters, displays a por-
tentous twitch and reects.)
Tranquil is the hermitage ground, :.o,
yet my arm throbs.
How can this happen here? Or rather,
the gates to what must come to pass
are everywhere.
o;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
xiiaru\i:

ido ido piaAsah.

a;

a: (karn
.
am
.
dattv a) aye! daks
.
in
.
ena kusumaA p adapaA v-
thm al apa iva. y avad atra gacch ami. (parikramy avalokya
ca) et as tapasviAkanyak ah
.
svaApram an
.
A anur upaih
.
secanaA
ghat
.
akair b alaA p adap an si ncantya ita ev abhivartante.
(nipun
.
am
.
nir upya) aho m adhuryaAk antam
.
khalu darsa-
nam as am. y avad et am
.
ch ay am asritya pratip alay ami.
(vilokayan sthitah
.
.)
tataf pravisati yathB oktaBvy ap ar a saha sakhbhy am
.

Sakunta-
l a.
saxu\au:

hal a Sa untale! tatto vi kkhu t adaAKassavassa assa-


maArukkha a pia tti takkemha jen
.
a nom ali aApelav aAvi tu-
mam
.
edassa alav alaAp uran
.
e n
.
iutt a.

saxuxrai

a:

n
.
a kevalam
.
t adaAnioo tti. bahuAm an
.
o j ava ma- :.;c
m avi. sodar A sin
.
eho edesu atthi yyeva.

(vr
.
ks
.
aB sekam
.
r upayati.)
unui:

hal a Sa untale! udaam
.
lambhid a gimhaA k alaA kusu-
maA d ain
.
o guma a. id anim
.
adikkantaA samae vi rukkhae
si ncamha. tasun
.
o an
.
ahisandhidaApuravo dhammo bha-
vissadi.

saxuxrai

a:

ahin
.
andan
.
am
.
mantedha.

(n at
.
yena si ncati.)
i

a;

a: (nirvarn
.
ya saBkautukam) katham? iyam
.
s a Kan
.
vaAdu-
hit a? aho vismayah
.
!
o
acr oxi: rui cuasi
niuixo rui scixis: This way, this way, dear friends!
xixc: (listening) Ah! There appears to be a conversation to
the right of the ower-tree path.* I will go there. (walks
around and looks) It is the daughters of the ascetics, sprin-
kling the young trees with watering pots proportioned to
themselves, coming this way. (appraising them expertly)
Oho! How lovely they are to behold. I will take to this
shade and wait. (Keeps looking.)
Enter Shak untala, engaged as described, accompanied by two
friends.
iiiixos: Shak untala, dear! We do believe that the her-
mitage trees are dearer to father K ashyapa than even you
are, since you, as tender as the navam alika jasmine, have
been appointed to ll their basins.
suax uxraia: This is not just an order from father, but my :.;c
own respect; I truly do feel a sisterly aection toward
them. (Mimes sprinkling the trees.)
noru: Shak untala, dear! The copses of summer-blossoming
trees are slaked with water. Now lets water the trees no
longer in season. Then we can expect some unforeseen
merit.
suax uxraia: What you say is commendable. (Mimes sprin-
kling.)
xixc: (watching, surprised) What? This is the daughter of
Kanva? How amazing!
o,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
suddhA antaAdurlabham idam
.
vapur asramaAv asino yadi janasya
d urkr
.
t ah
.
khalu gun
.
air
udy anaAlat a vanaAlat abhih
.
.
bhavatu. p adapA antarita eva visvastaA bh av am en am
.
pasy a- :.;,
mi. (tath a karoti.)

saxuxrai

a:

eso v adA eridaApallavA a ngulhim


.
tuvar avedi via
mam
.
ba ula A rukkhao. j ava n
.
am
.
sambh avemi.

(r aj nah
.
sam
.
nikars
.
am agacchati.)
i

a;

a: (nirvarn
.
ya) aA s adhuA dars tatraA bhav an K asyapo ya
im am asramaAdharmaAcaran
.
e niyu nkte.
idam
.
kil avy ajaAmanoAharam
.
vapuh
.
tapah
.
Aks
.
amam
.
s adhayitum
.
ya icchati
dhruvam
.
sa nlA otpalaApatraAdh aray a
samilAlat am
.
chettum r
.
s
.
ir vyavasyati.

saxuxrai

a:

hal a An
.
as ue! ati A pin
.
addhen
.
a Piam
.
vad ae vak-
kalen
.
a n
.
iantida mhi. sed
.
hilehi t a d ava n
.
am
.
. (Anas uy a
sithilayati.)

iii\ax
.
vao

a: (saBsmitam)

ittha paoAharaAvitth arattaam
.
ap- :.c
pan
.
o jovvan
.
am
.
uv alaha.

a;

a: k amam, aApratir upam asya vayaso valkalam


.
na punar
ala nk araAsriyam
.
na pus
.
yati. kutah
.
?
;c
acr oxi: rui cuasi
If the gure of this person,
scarcely to be found in royal apartments,
is that of a hermitage-dweller, then indeed
the garden vine is outclassed in virtues
by the forest creeper.
Be that so. Concealed by this tree I will observe her freed :.;,
from inhibition. (Does so.)
suax uxraia: This b akula tree seems to hasten me on with
its wind-stirred tendril-ngers. I will attend to it. (Comes
close to the king.)
xixc: (watching) His honor K ashyapa must be blind, that
he should employ her in hermitage duties.
The sage who tries to make
this guilelessly appealing gure capable
of enduring penance:
surely he has set about cutting hard rewood
with the edge of a blue water-lily petal.
suax uxraia: Anas uya, dear! I am pinioned by the bark-
garment tightened by Priyamvada. Please loosen it now.
(Anas uya loosens it.)
iii\axvaoa: (smiling) For this you had better scold your :.c
own youth, which expands your breasts.
xixc: Admitted, the bark-clothis not apposite to her youth-
ful prime, yet it does not fail to adorn her. How?
;:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
sarasiAjam anuviddham
.
sevalen api ramyam
.
malinam api himA am
.
sor laks
.
ma laks
.
mm
.
tanoti.
iyam adhikaAmanoAj n a valkalen api tanv:
kim iva hi madhur an
.
am
.
man
.
d
.
anam
.
n akr
.
tn am?
iii\ax
.
vao

a:

hal a Sa untale! es a t adaAKassaben


.
a tumam
.
via
sam
.
vad
.
d
.
hid a alindae m ahavAlad a. pekkha n
.
am
.
. kim
.
vi-
sum arid a de?

saxuxrai

a:

att abi visumarissadi.

(iti tatBsampam
.
gaccha-
ti.)
iii\ax
.
vao

a:

hal a Sa untale! cit


.
t
.
ha idha yyeva muhuttaam
.
:.,
d ava ba ulaArukkhaAsambe.

saxuxrai

a:

kim
.
ti?

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

tae sambaAt
.
t
.
hid ae lad aAsan
.
adho via me ba u-
laArukkhao pad
.
ibh adi.

saxuxrai

a:

ado kkhu Piam


.
vad asi.

a;

a: priyam api tathyam ah ais


.
a. asy ah
.
khalu
adharah
.
kisalayaAr agah
.
:.,c
komalaAvit
.
apA anuk arin
.
au b ah u
kusumam iva lobhanyam
.
yauvanam a nges
.
u sam
.
naddham.
;:
acr oxi: rui cuasi
A lotus entangled with sh aivala weed is still
attractive,
the spot on the moon, though a blemish,
sheds beauty,
this slender maiden is most captivating even
wearing a bark-cloth:
For what could not serve as an adornment
to sweet gures?
iii\axvaoa: Shak untala, dear! Here in this natural veran-
dah* is the m adhavi vine raised by father K ashyapa as if
it were you yourself. See to it. Or have you forgotten it?
suax uxraia: As likely as I might forget myself. (With this
she approaches it.)
iii\axvaoa: Shak untala, dear! Pause for a moment, right :.,
by the b akula tree.
suax uxraia: Why?
iii\axvaoa: With you standing beside it, the b akula tree
seems to me as if it were embraced by a vine.
suax uxraia: That is why you are Priyamvada (Sweet-
talker).
xixc: What she says is sweet but also true. For her
Lower lip has the hue of a sprouting tendril, :.,c
her arms imitate tender branches.
Youth, desirable like a ower, is primed
in her physique.
;,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
axas u\

a:

hal a Sa untale! iam


.
saam
.
AvaraAvah u sahaA arassa tae
kidaAn
.
amaAheassa Van
.
aAdosin
.
o n
.
oAm ali a.

saxuxrai

a: (upagamy avalokya ca)

hal a! raman
.
e k ale imas-
sa p adabaAmihun
.
assa vadiaro sam
.
vutto. iam
.
n
.
avaAkusu-
maAjovvan
.
a. aam
.
bi baddhaAphalad ae uvabhoaAkkhamo
sahaA aro.

(pasyant tis
.
t
.
hati.)
iii\ax
.
vao

a:

hal a An
.
as ue! j an
.
asi kim
.
A n
.
imittam
.
Sa untal a
Van
.
aAdosin
.
am
.
adimettam
.
pekkhadi tti.

axas u\

a:

n
.
a kkhu vibh avemi.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

jadh a Van
.
aAdosin
.
a an
.
usadisen
.
a p adaben
.
a sa n- :.,,
gad a n
.
oAm ali a, avi n
.
ama evam
.
aham
.
pi attan
.
o an
.
ur uvam
.
varam
.
lahemi tti.

saxuxrai

a:

eso n
.
un
.
am
.
de attan
.
o cittaAgado man
.
oAradho!

(iti kalasam avarjayati.)


i

a;

a: api n ama kulaApater iyam aAsaAvarn


.
aAks
.
etraAsambhav a
sy at? atha v a
asamsayam
.
ks
.
atraAparigrahaAks
.
am a
yad evam asy am abhil as
.
i me manah
.
sat am
.
hi sam
.
dehaApades
.
u vastus
.
u
pram an
.
am antah
.
Akaran
.
aApravr
.
ttayah
.
.
tath api tattvata en am
.
veditum icch ami.

saxuxrai

a: (bhramaraB sam
.
p atam
.
n at
.
ayati)

ammo! salila A :.:cc
seaAsam
.
bhanto n
.
oAm aliam
.
ujjhia vaan
.
am
.
me mahuAaro
an
.
uvat
.
t
.
adi.

(bhramaraBb adh am
.
nir upayati.)
;
acr oxi: rui cuasi
axas u\a: Shak untala, dear! This is the navam alika jas-
mine, the bride who chose as her husband the mango
tree named by you Pleaser of the Forest.
suax uxraia: (approaching andlooking) My dear! The union
of this pair of root-drinking plants has taken place at a
happy time. She is youthful with fresh blossoms. The
mango tree, bedecked with fruits, is ready to be enjoyed.
(Remains gazing.)
iii\axvaoa: Anas uya, dear! Do you know why Shak un-
tala is staring at Pleaser of the Forest so ardently?
axas u\a: I cannot imagine.
iii\axvaoa: Shes thinking: Just as the navam alika jas- :.,,
mine is united with Pleaser of the Forest, a worthy tree,
so may I too win a suitable bridegroom.
suax uxraia: Surely thats a wishinyour ownheart! (empties
her pot.)
xixc: Can it be that she is born in a caste dierent from
the patriarchs?* Or, rather,
Doubtless she is t to be wed by a warrior,
since my heart desires her so.
For the good, the inclinations
of their inner faculties
are authoritative in matters of doubt.
Nevertheless, I wish to know the truth about her.
suax uxraia: (acting the attack of a bee) Ah! A bee confused :.:cc
by the sprinkling of water has left the jasmine and is now
assailing my face. (Mimes fending off the bee.)
;,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: (vilokya saBspr
.
ham)
calA ap a ng am
.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
im
.
spr
.
sasi bahuso vepathumatm
.
rahasyA akhy ay va
svanasi mr
.
du karn
.
A antikaAgatah
.
karau vy adhunvaty ah
.
pivasi ratiAsarvasvam adharam
.
vayam
.
devair maugdhy an
madhukara hat as tvam
.
khalu kr
.
t.

saxuxrai

a:

hal a! paritt aadha mam


.
imin a kusumaA p ad
.
ac-
caren
.
a ahibh uam an
.
am
.
!

unui: (vihasya)

ke vaam
.
paritt an
.
e? Dussantam
.
akanda! r aaA
rakkhid aim
.
khu tavoAvan
.
aim
.
honti.

a;

a: avasarah
.
khalv ayam
.
mam atm anam
.
darsayitum. :.:c,
(upasr
.
tya) na bhetavyam! na bhetavyam! (ity ardhB okte
pav arya) evam
.
r aj aham iti pratij n atam
.
bhavati. bha-
vatu! atithiAsamucitA ac aram avalambis
.
ye.

saxuxrai

a: (sa B tr asam
.
)

n
.
a eso me purado adhat
.
t
.
ho vi-
ramadi. t a an
.
n
.
ado gamissam
.
. (iti pat
.
B antaren
.
a sthitv a
saBdr
.
s
.
t
.
iBks
.
epam
.
) haddh! kadham
.
ido bi mam
.
an
.
usaradi.

a;

a: (saBtvaram upetya)
kah
.
Paurave vasumatm
.
s asati s asitari durvint an am
ayam acaraty avinayam
.
mugdh asu tapasviAkany asu?
sarv a r aj anam
.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a ki n cid iva sambhr ant ah
.
.
;o
acr oxi: rui cuasi
xixc: (gazing longingly)
You repeatedly touch her darting eye,
so that it quivers;
approaching her ear you hum
sweetly as if conding a secret;
and while she ails her hands you drink
from her lower lip the treasure of love.
I, perplexed, am foiled by the Gods,
while you, bee, enjoy success.
suax uxraia: My friends! Protect me, I am assailed by this
ower-bandit!
noru: (laughing) Who are we to protect you? Call for Du-
shy anta! Penance groves are under the protection of the
king.
xixc: This is the opportunity to reveal myself. (approach- :.:c,
ing) Fear not! Fear not! (stops in mid-sentence, aside) Like
this I will acknowledge that I am the king. Never mind.
I will enjoy the welcome due a guest.
suax uxraia: (trembling) This bold villain will not leave me
alone. Ill go elsewhere. (stands behind a curtain, casting
glances)* Oh, no! Why must he follow me even here?
xixc: (approaching hastily)
Who dares harass innocent hermitage daughters,
while the scion of Puru,
chastiser of the wicked, rules the earth?
Seeing the king, they are all somewhat taken aback.
;;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
axas u\

a:

n
.
a kkhu kim
.
A ci acc ahidam
.
. iam
.
un
.
a n
.
o piaA sa- :.::c
h mahuAaren
.
a a ulkiam an
.
a k adarAbh ud a.

Sakuntal am
.
darsayati.)
i

a;

a: (

Sakuntal am upetya) bhavati! api tapas te vardhate?

saxuxrai

a: (saBs adhvas avanataBmukhy avacan a tis


.
t
.
hati.)
axas u\

a: (r aj anam
.
prati)

id an
.
im
.
adidhiAvisesaAl ahen
.
a.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

s aadam
.
ayyassa!

axas u\

a:

hal a Sa untale! gaccha tumam


.
ud
.
a ado phalaAmis- :.::,
sam
.
aggham
.
uv ahara, idha p adA odaam
.
atthi yyeva.

a;

a: bhavatu! s unr
.
tay aiva kr
.
tam atithyam.
iii\ax
.
vao

a:

ten
.
a imassim
.
d ava p adavaA cch a aA sdal ae sa-
ttaA van
.
n
.
aA vedi ae ayyo uvavisia muhuttaam
.
parsamam
.
avan
.
edu.

a;

a: nanu y uyam apy anena dharmaAkarman


.
a parisr ant ah
.
.
tan muh urtam upavisata.
iii\ax
.
vao

a: (janB antikam)

hal a Sa untale! uidam
.
n
.
o adi-
dhiApayyuv asan
.
am
.
. t a idha uvavisamha.

(sarv a upavisan-
ti.)

saxuxrai

a: ( atmaBgatam)

kim
.
n
.
u kkhu imam
.
pekkhia ta- :.::c
boAvan
.
aAvirohin
.
o vi arassa gaman
.
a mhi sam
.
vutt a?

;
acr oxi: rui cuasi
axas u\a: There is no cause for alarm. This dear friend of
:.::c
ours, upset by a bee, became frightened. (Presents Sha-
k untala.)
xixc: (approaching Shak untala) Madam! Does your pe-
nance thrive?
suax uxraia: (remains speechless, looks downward timidly.)
axas u\a: (to the king) Now it does, by winning such a
distinguished guest.
iii\axvaoa: Welcome, lord!
axas u\a: Shak untala, dear! Go and fetch a mixed fruit
:.::,
oering from the leaf-hut. Water to wash his feet we
have here.
xixc: Do not trouble yourselves! Your friendly conversation
has already performed the rite of hospitable welcome.
iii\axvaoa: Then, lord, sit on this terrace surrounding
the Seven-leaf tree, cooled by its shade, and dispel your
fatigue.
xixc: Surely you too are wearied by this religious labor, so
please be seated for a while.
iii\axvaoa: (in private) Shak untala, dear! It is our duty to
wait upon a guest. So let us sit down here. (The women
all sit down.)
suax uxraia: (to herself ) What is this? No sooner have I :.::c
seen him than I have become susceptible to feelings out
of place in this penance grove.
;,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: (sarv a vilokya) aho! sam ana A vayoA r upa A raman


.
yam
.
sauh ardam
.
bhavatn am.
iii\ax
.
vao

a: (janB antikam)

An
.
as ue! ko n
.
u kkhu eso ca uraA
gambhrA aid mahuram
.
piam
.
alavanto pahavantam
.
dak-
khin
.
n
.
am
.
via karedi?

axas u\

a: (jan B antikam eva)



sahi! mam avi kod uhalam
.
atthi yyeva. t a pucchissam
.
d ava n
.
am
.
.

(prak asam)

ayyassa
n
.
o mahurA al avaAjan
.
ido vsambho mant avedi. kadamam
.
un
.
a ayyo van
.
n
.
am
.
ala nkaredi? kin
.
An
.
imittam
.
v a suum are-
n
.
a ayyen
.
a taboAvan
.
A agaman
.
aAparsamassa att a patthAka-
do?

saxuxrai

a: ( atmaBgatam)

hiaa, m a uttamma! jam
.
tae cin-
tidam
.
tam
.
An
.
as u a mantedi.

a;

a: (svaB gatam) katham id anm atm anam avedaye? ka- :.::,


tham
.
vA atmA apah aram
.
karomi? bhavatu! evam
.
t avad
en am
.
vaks
.
ye. (prak asam) bhavati! VedaAvid asmi Paura-
ven
.
a r aj n a dharmA adhik are niyuktah
.
. so ham asrami-
n
.
am avighnaAkriyA opalambh aya dharmA aran
.
yam idam
ay atah
.
.
axas u\

a:

saAn
.
adh a dhammaA arin
.
o.

saxuxrai

a: (sr
.
ng araBlajj am
.
nir upayati.)
saxu\au: (ubhayor ak aram
.
viditv a, janB antikam
.
)

hal a Sa-
untale! jadi ajja t ado idha san
.
n
.
ihido bhave. . .

saxuxrai

a: (saBbhr uBbhedam)

tado kim
.
bhave?

c
acr oxi: rui cuasi
xixc: (looking at all of them) Ah! Your ladyships friendship
is delightful because you are alike in age and beauty.
iii\axvaoa: (in private) Anas uya! Who is this man with
elegant and dignied demeanor, who, speaking to us
with aectionate gentleness, seemingly shows us extraor-
dinary courtesy?
axas u\a: (also in private) My dear, I too am curious. Let
me ask him. (aloud) The condence evoked by your
lordships gentle talk prompts me to speak. Which caste
does your lordship adorn? And on what account has a
rened lord given himself the toil of visiting a penance
grove?
suax uxraia: (to herself ) My heart! Do not be faint. Ana-
s uya has asked what you want to know.
xixc: (to himself ) How now should I introduce myself? :.::,
Or how should I conceal my identity? Very well! I will
tell her this: (aloud) Lady! I am a knower of the Vedas
appointed by the P aurava to the oce of supervising
religion.* I have come to this sacred forest to ascertain
that the rites of the hermits are not obstructed.
axas u\a: The followers of righteousness have a champion!
suax uxraia: (mimes infatuated coyness.)
rui iiiixos: (realizing the pairs condition, to the audience)
Shak untala, dear! If only father were here now. . .
suax uxraia: (knitting her brows) What would happen
then?
:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
unui:

tado imam
.
adidhim
.
jvidaAsavvassen
.
abi kadAattham
.
:.:,c
kare.

saxuxrai

a: (saBros
.
am)

ayi! avedha! kim
.
pi hiae karea man-
tedha! n
.
a khu sun
.
issam
.
.

(par avr
.
tya tis
.
t
.
hati.)
i

a;

a: vayam api t avad bhavatyau sakhAgatam


.
pr
.
cch amah
.
.
unui:

ayya! an
.
uggahe bi abbhatthan
.
a.

a;

a: bhagav an K asyapah
.
s asvate brahman
.
i vartate. iyam
.
ca v am
.
sakh tadA atmaj eti. katham etat?
axas u\

a:

sun
.
adu ayyo. atthi Kosio tti gottaAn
.
amaheo ma- :.:,,
haAppah avo r aA es.

a;

a: prak asas tatraAbhav an.


axas u\

a:

tam
.
sahi A an
.
e pahavam
.
avagaccha. ujjhiaA sarraA
sam
.
rakkhan
.
A adhim
.
un
.
a t adaAKassavo se pid a.

a;

a: ujjhitaAsabdena janitam
.
me kut uhalam. tad a m ul ac
chrotum icch ami.
axas u\

a:

pur a kila tassa Kosiassa r aA esin


.
o ugge tavasi va-
t
.
t
.
am an
.
assa kim
.
pi j adaAsa nkehim
.
devehim
.
Men
.
a a n
.
ama
acchar a n
.
iamaAvigghaAk arin
.
pahid a.

a;

a: asty etad anya A sam adhi A bhrutvam


.
dev an am. tatas :.:c
tatah
.
?
:
acr oxi: rui cuasi
noru: Then he would satisfy this visitor with the very trea- :.:,c
sure of his life.
suax uxraia: (angrily) Pah! Go away! You are just prattling
after making up some fantasy in your hearts. Im not
listening. (Turns away and stays so.)
xixc: For my part, I too would like to question you two
concerning your friend.
noru: Lord! Your request amounts to a favor.
xixc: The reverend K ashyapa abides in constant celibacy,
and your friend here is supposed to be his daughter. How
can this be?
axas u\a: Listen, lord! There is a mighty royal sage of the :.:,,
patriline known as K aushika.*
xixc: His reverence is well known.
axas u\a: Knowhimto be the begetter of our friend. Father
K ashyapa is her parent by virtue of protecting her, etc.,
after she was abandoned.
xixc: The word abandoned arouses my curiosity. I would
like to hear this from the beginning.
axas u\a: Long ago, when the royal sage K aushika was
enduring severe penances, the gods became mightily
alarmed and dispatched the nymph M enaka to thwart
his observances.
xixc: The Gods indeed fear the deep concentration of oth- :.:c
ers. What happened then?
,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
axas u\

a:

tado vasantA odaaA samae t ae unm adayitta r uvam


.
pekkhia. . .

(ity ardhB okte lajjay a viramati.)


i

a;

a: bhavatu! purast ad avagamyata eva. . . apsarah


.
A sam
.
-
bhav ais
.
a!
axas u\

a:

adhaAim
.
?

a;

a: yujyate.
m anus
.
s
.
u katham
.
v a sy ad :.:,
asya r upasya sam
.
bhavah
.
?
na prabh aAtaralam
.
jyotir
udeti vasudh aAtal at.

saxuxrai

a: (adhoBmukh tis
.
t
.
hati.)
i

a;

a: (svaBgatam) labdhA avak aso me manoA rathah


.
! kim
.
tu
sakhy a parih asA od ahr
.
t am
.
varaApr arthan am asy ah
.
srutv
api na sraddhatte me k ataram
.
manah
.
.
iii\ax
.
vao

a: (

Sakuntal am
.
saB smitam
.
vilokya n ayakB abhi-
mukh)

pun
.
o via vattuk amo ayyo.

saxuxrai

a: (sakhm a nguly a tarjayati.)


i

a;

a: samyag upalaks
.
itam
.
bhavaty a. asti nah
.
sacAcaritaAsra- :.:,c
van
.
aAlobh ad anyat pras
.
t
.
avyam.
iii\ax
.
vao

a:

ten
.
a hi vi ariden
.
a alam
.
. n
.
iantan
.
A an
.
uyoggo
tavassiAan
.
o.

a;

a: upapadyate bhavati! sakhm


.
te j n atum icch ami:

acr oxi: rui cuasi


axas u\a: Then, when spring had just begun, he beheld her
intoxicating gure. . . (stops bashfully in mid-sentence.)
xixc: Say no more! The rest can be inferred. . . she is born
from a nymph!
axas u\a: Thats it.
xixc: It makes sense.
How could such a form
:.:,
be born among mortals?
The ash that ickers
with unsteady brilliance
does not arise from the earth.
suax uxraia: (remains looking at the ground.)
xixc: (to himself ) My desire is within reach! But even
though I heard her friend wish her a bridegroom in jest,
my faint heart cannot believe it.
iii\axvaoa: (after looking at Shak untala with a smile, to
the hero) His lordship seems inclined to say something
more.
suax uxraia: (threatens her friend with her nger.)
xixc: You perceive correctly. Out of a desire to hear of :.:,c
the deeds of the virtuous, I would like to ask another
question.
iii\axvaoa: Then do not hesitate. Ascetics are equal to
being retained.
xixc: Of course, my lady. I would like to know your friend:
,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
vaikh anasam
.
kim anay a vratam a prad an at
vy ap araArodhi Madanasya nis
.
evitavyam,
atyantam atmaAsadr
.
sA eks
.
an
.
aAvallabh abhih
.
aho nivatsyati samam
.
harin
.
A a ngan abhih
.
?
iii\ax
.
vao

a:

ayya! dhammaAcaran
.
e vi eso parA adhn
.
o jan
.
o,
gurun
.
o un
.
a se an
.
ur uvaAvaraApad
.
iv adan
.
e sa nkappo.

a;

a: na khalu durlabh ais


.
a pr arthan
.
a. ( atmagatam) :.:,,
bhava hr
.
daya sA abhil as
.
am
.
.
sam
.
prati sam
.
dehaAnirn
.
ayo j atah
.
.
asa nkase yad agnim
.
tad idam
.
sparsaAks
.
amam
.
ratnam.

saxuxrai

a: (saBros
.
am iva)

An
.
as ue! gamissam
.
aham
.
.

axas u\

a:

kin
.
An
.
imittam
.
?

saxuxrai

a:

imam
.
asambaddhA alavin
.
im
.
Piam
.
vadam
.
ayy ae
Godame n
.
ivedassam
.
(ity uttis
.
t
.
hati.)
axas u\

a:

sahi! n
.
a juttam
.
assamaA v asin
.
o jan
.
assa akidaA sakA :.:oc
k aram
.
adidhiAvisesam
.
ujjhia sacchandado gaman
.
am.

saxuxrai

a: (na ki n cid uktv a prasthit aiva.)


i

a;

a: (apav arya) katham? gacchati? (grahtum icchan punar


atm anam
.
nigr
.
hya) aho ces
.
t
.
aApratir upik a k amino manoA
vr
.
ttih
.
. aham
.
hi
o
acr oxi: rui cuasi
Will she observe her hermits vow,
frustrating the work of the God of love,
until she is given in marriage,
or will she dwell for good with the does,
her favorites because their eyes resemble hers?
iii\axvaoa: Lord! Even in her religious duties she is de-
pendent on another. Her preceptor has made up his
mind to give her to a worthy groom.
xixc: This wish will not be dicult to fulll. (to himself ) :.:,,
Be full of expectation, heart,
the doubt has unravelled.
That which you feared to be re
is a jewel that may be touched.
suax uxraia: (appearing angry) Anas uya! I am going!
axas u\a: Whats wrong?
suax uxraia: I will go and tell the venerable G autami
that Priyamvada is prattling incoherently. (With this,
she stands up.)
axas u\a: My friend! It is not proper for a person living in :.:oc
a hermitage to leave a distinguished guest who has not
been properly attended to, and go as they please.
suax uxraia: (Sets off without a word.)
xixc: (aside) What? Is she leaving? (wishes to detain her, then
checks himself ) Ah! A lovers inclinations are mirrored in
his bodily movements. For I,
;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
anuy asyan muniAtanay am
.
sahas a vinayena v aritaAprasarah
.
.
sth an ad anuccalann api
gatv eva punaf pratinivr
.
ttah
.
.
iii\ax
.
vao

a: (

Sakuntal am upasr
.
tya)

hal a can
.
d
.
i! n
.
a de ju-
ttam
.
gacchidum
.
.

saxuxrai

a: (parivr
.
tya, saBbhr uBbhedam)

kitti?

:.:o,
iii\ax
.
vao

a:

rukkhaAsean
.
ae due me dh aresi. tehi d ava at-
t an
.
aam
.
moehi, tado gamissasi.

(bal ad en am
.
niv arayati.)
i

a;

a: bhadre! vr
.
ks
.
aAsecanak ad eva parisr ant am atraAbhava-
tm
.
laks
.
aye. tath a hy asy ah
.
srastA am
.
s av atim atraAlohitaAkarau
b ah u ghat
.
A otks
.
epan
.
at
ady api stanaAvepathum
.
janayati
sv asaf pram an
.
A adhikah
.
baddham
.
karn
.
aAsirs
.
aArodhi vadane
gharmA ambhas am
.
j alakam
.
bandhe sram
.
sini c aikaAhastaAyamit ah
.
pary akul a m urdhaAj ah
.
.
tad aham en am anA r
.
n
.
am
.
karomi tvayi. (svB a ngulyam
.
pra-
yacchati.)
unui: (n amaB mudrB aks
.
ar an
.
y anuv acya parasB param
.
mu- :.:;c
kham avalokayatah
.
.)
i

a;

a: alam asm akam anyath aAsambh avitena. r aj naf parigra-


ho yam.

acr oxi: rui cuasi


About to pursue the sages daughter,
my motion has suddenly been held back
by decorum.
Though I did not move from my place,
it is as if I had gone and returned.
iii\axvaoa: (approaching Shak untala) Hey! Angry girl! It
is not right for you to leave.
suax uxraia: (turns around, knits her eyebrows) Why not? :.:o,
iii\axvaoa: You owe me two tree waterings. Acquit your-
self rst of these, then you may go. (Detains her by force.)
xixc: Good lady! I perceive that she is wearied by watering
trees. For her
Shoulders are slack,
the hands of her arms are intensely red
from emptying the watering pot,
even now her breath is still heavier than usual,
making her breasts quiver,
a web of perspiration adheres to her face,
hindering the play of the shirsha blossoms
on her ear,
and as the band slips,
she holds in check her unruly hair with one hand.
Therefore let me settle her debt with you. (Offers his ring.)
noru: (Reading out the letters on the name-seal, they look at :.:;c
each others faces.)
xixc: Do not take me for what I am not. This is a gift from
the king.
,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
iii\ax
.
vao

a:

ten
.
a hi n
.
arahadi idam
.
a ran
.
n
.
o a ngulaam
.
vioaAk ariam
.
. ayyassa tuva vaan
.
en
.
a n
.
ama es a arin
.
a eva ma-
ma.

(parivr
.
ty apav arya)

hal a Sa untale! moid asi an
.
u-
kampin
.
a ayyen
.
a. ahav a mahA an
.
ubh aven
.
a. kidaAn
.
n
.
a d a-
n
.
im
.
hohisi.

saxuxrai

a: (apav arya nih


.
svasya)

n
.
a idam
.
visumarissadi ja-
di attan
.
o pahave.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

hal a! kim
.
d an
.
im
.
sam
.
padam
.
n
.
a gacchasi?

saxuxrai

a:

id an
.
im pi tae kim
.
kattavvam
.
? jad a roissadi me :.:;,
tad a gamissam
.
.

a;

a: (

Sakuntal am
.
vilokayan svaBgatam) kim
.
nu khalu yath a
vayam asy am evam iyam apy asm an prati sy at? atha v a
labdhaAg adh a me pr arthan a. kutah
.
?
v acam
.
na misrayati yady api madAvacobhih
.
karn
.
am
.
dad aty avahit a mayi bh as
.
am an
.
e
k amam
.
na tis
.
t
.
hati madA ananaAsam
.
mukh yam
.
bh uyis
.
t
.
ham anyaAvis
.
ay a na tu dr
.
s
.
t
.
ir asy ah
.
.
xiiaru\i: bhoh
.
! bhoh
.
! tapasvino vahit as tapoAvane sattvaA
raks
.
ayai bhavantu bhavantah
.
. pary aplutam
.
str A kum a-
ram! praty asannah
.
khalu mr
.
gay aAvih ar p arthivah
.
!
turagaAkhuraAhatas tath a hi ren
.
ur
vit
.
apaAvis
.
aktaAjalA ardraAvalkales
.
u
patati parin
.
atA arun
.
aAprak asah
.
salabhaAsam uha iv asramaAdrumes
.
u.
,c
acr oxi: rui cuasi
iii\axvaoa: Well, then this ring of the king must not be
separated from you. On your lordships word her debt to
me has been cancelled. (turning, aside) Dear Shak untala!
You have been released by the compassionate lord. Or,
rather, by His Majesty. You are indebted to him from
now on.
suax uxraia: (sighs, aside) This will not be forgotten if I
regain my independence.
iii\axvaoa: My dear! Why are you not going now?
suax uxraia: Who are you to command me now? I will go :.:;,
when it pleases me.
xixc: (looking at Shak untala, to himself ) Can it be that she
feels toward me as I feel toward her? No, rather, my hope
has found a shallow ford. Why?
Even if she does not mingle her words
with my words,
she attentively lends an ear when I speak.
Granted she will not face me,
but her eyes are not, on the whole,
xed on anything else.
oiisraci: Ye hermits! Be alert to protect the animals in the
penance grove. Women and children are in peril! The
king is hunting nearby!
For the dust raised up by the hooves of his horses,
shining as red as the evening twilight,
falls like a swarm of locusts
upon the hermitage trees
to whose boughs clings damp bark-cloth.
,:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
aho dhik! es
.
a khalu nibhr
.
taAc ar bh utv a
:.:c
tvrA ap ataApratihataAtaruA
skandhaAlagnA aikaAdantah
.
praud
.
hA asaktaAvratatiAvalayA a-
sa ngaAsam
.
j ataAp asah
.
m urto vighnas tapasa iva no
bhinnaAs ara ngaAy utho
dharmA aran
.
yam
.
virujati gajah
.
syandanA alokaAbhtah
.
.
i

a;

a: (svaBgatam) aho dhik! pram adah


.
! madAanves
.
in
.
ah
.
sai-
nik as tapoAvanam uparundhanti. tad apar addham
.
tapa-
svin am asm abhih
.
. bhavatu! gamis
.
y ami t avat.
axas u\

a: (saBsam
.
bhramam)

ayya! imin
.
a akkandiden
.
a pa-
yy a ulamha. t a an
.
uj an
.
hi n
.
o ud
.
aaAgaman
.
aa.

a;

a: (saB sam
.
bhramam) gacchantu bhavatyah
.
. asramaA b a-
dh a yath a na bhavis
.
yati tath a prayatis
.
y amahe.
saxu\au:

asambh avidaAsakAk aram


.
bh uyovvi d ava paccavek- :.:,
khan
.
aAn
.
imittam
.
lajj amo ayyam
.
vin
.
avedum
.
. vididaAbh u-
yit
.
t
.
ho si n
.
o sam
.
padam
.
jam
.
d an
.
im
.
uva araAmajjhatthad ae
avaraddhamha tam
.
marisesi.

a;

a: m a m aivam! darsanena bhavatn am


.
purasAkr
.
to smi.
unui:

hal a Sa untale! ehi sigghadaram
.
! a ul a ayy a Godam
bhavissadi.

,:
acr oxi: rui cuasi
Woe, alas! This solitary :.:c
Elephant, frightened
by the appearance of a chariot,
one tusk stuck in a chunk of a tree
struck with a massive blow,
with fetters formed from a tangle
of mighty vr atati coils clinging to him
is tearing up the sacred forest scattering
the herd of antelopes,
like an incarnate obstacle to our penance.
xixc: (to himself ) Alas! How careless. Soldiers searching for
me are disturbing the penance grove. So I have com-
mitted an oence against the ascetics. Very well, I must
go!
axas u\a: (perturbed) Lord! We are frightened by this shout-
ing. Permit us to retire to the leaf-hut.
xixc: (agitated) Go, ladies. I will see to it that no harm
befalls the hermitage.
iiiixos: Without having completed the rites of welcome, :.:,
we feel shame to petition his lordship for another meet-
ing. We now consider you well-nigh an acquaintance,
so being tolerant of our conduct you might put up with
our oense.
xixc: Not at all, not at all! I have been hospitably welcomed
by seeing you ladies.
noru: Dear Shak untala! Come quickly! The noble G auta-
mi will be worried.
,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia

saxuxrai

a: (saBvy ajaBvilam
.
bitam
.
kr
.
tv atmaBgatam
.
)

haddh!
uruAtthamben
.
a viala mhi sam
.
vutt a.

a;

a: svairam
.
svairam
.
gacchantu bhavatyah
.
! vayam avegaA
hetum asramasy apanes
.
y amah
.
.

saxuxrai

a: (saBvy ajaBvilambitam
.
kr
.
tv a parikramya sakhbh- :.:,c
y am
.
saha nis
.
kr ant a.)
i

a;

a: (utth aya saB khedam) mand A autsukyo smi nagaram


.
prati. y avad anuy atrikaAjanam
.
sametya n atid ure tapoAva-
nasya nivesay ami. na khalu saknomi

Sakuntal aAvy ap ar ad
atm anam
.
nivartayitum. mama hi
gacchati purah
.
sarram
.
dh avati pasc ad asam
.
vr
.
tam
.
cetah
.
cihnA am
.
sukam iva ketoh
.
prativ atam
.
nyam anasya.
(saBcintah
.
skhalit ani pad ani dattv a nis
.
kr antah
.
.)
iti mah aAkaviAK alid asaAviracite

Sakuntal aAn amani n at


.
ake
prathamo nkah
.
.
,
acr oxi: rui cuasi
suax uxraia: (Delays under a pretext, to herself ) Oh dear! I
am crippled by a cramp in my thigh.
xixc: Carefully, go carefully. I will draw away the source of
perturbation from the hermitage.
suax uxraia: (delays under some pretext, walks around and :.:,c
then exits with her friends.)
xixc: (arises, grieved) My eagerness to return to the city has
slackened. I will join my retinue and encamp not too
far from the penance grove. I am not able to turn myself
away from preoccupation with Shak untala. For my
Body moves ahead, while my heart lags behind,
not enclosed by it
like the marked cloth of a banner
carried into the wind.
(Exits pensively with faltering steps.)
The rst act in the play called Shak untala,
composed by the great poet
Kalidasa.
,,
Act Two:
The Secret
tataf pravisati parisr anto vid us
.
akah
.
.
vio us
.
axau
.
: (sramam
.
n at
.
ayati, nih
.
svasya)

bho did
.
ho mhi!
edassa mia aAslassa ran
.
n
.
o vayassaAbh aven
.
a n
.
ivin
.
n
.
o. aam
.
mio! aam
.
var aho! tti. majjham
.
Adin
.
e vi gimhaAviralaAp a-
davaA cch a asu van
.
aA r asu aphan
.
d
.
adi. pattaA sa nkaraA ka-
s a aim
.
pante kad
.
u aim
.
un
.
h aim
.
giriA n
.
adA jal aim
.
. an
.
iadaA
velam
.
s ulaA m am
.
sam
.
sa un
.
aA m am
.
saA bh ut
.
t
.
ham
.
an
.
hadi.
turaA an
.
aA kan
.
t
.
hadaA sandhiA bandhan
.
anam
.
a ng an
.
am
.
ra-
ttim
.
pi n
.
atthi pak amam
.
sadavvam. tado mahanti yyeva
pacc use d aseA puttehim
.
Sa un
.
aA luddhaehim
.
kan
.
n
.
aA gh a-
din
.
a van
.
aA gahan
.
aA kol ahalen
.
a pad
.
ibodh ami. (vicintya)
ettien
.
a vi me p an
.
a n
.
a n
.
ikkant a. (sB as uyam
.
vihasya) ta-
do gan
.
d
.
A ovari pid
.
i a sam
.
vutt a. hio kila amhesu ohn
.
esu
tatthaA bhavado miA an
.
us aren
.
a assamaA padam
.
pavit
.
t
.
has-
sa kila t avasaAka n na a Sa untal a n
.
ama mama adha n nad ae
dam
.
sid a. sam
.
padam
.
n
.
aaraAgaman
.
assa sa nkadham
.
pi n
.
a
karedi. ajjha tam
.
yeva sam
.
cintaantassa vibh adam
.
acch-
su. t a k a gad? j ava n
.
am
.
kidA ac araAparikammam
.
kahim
.
bi pekkh ami. (mandam
.
parikramya vilokya ca) eso r a a
b an
.
A asan
.
aAhatth ahim
.
javan
.
him
.
parivudo van
.
aApupphaA
m al aAdh ar ido yyev agacchadi. t a j ava n
.
am
.
ubasapp ami.
(kim
.
cid upasr
.
tya) bhodu a ngaAsammad
.
d
.
aAvihalo d an
.
im
.
bhavia idha yyeva cit
.
t
.
hissam
.
jado evam
.
pi d ava vs amam
.
lahemi.

(dan
.
d
.
aBk as
.
t
.
ham avalambya tis
.
t
.
hati.)
,
Enter the buffoon, exhausted.
nuiioox: (acting fatigue, sighing) Im immobilized! Im
sick of being a sidekick to this hunt-mad king. Heres
an antelope! Theres a boar! and even at midday we
charge along forest tracks where the shade cast by trees is
sparse in summer. We drink lukewarm, acrid water from
mountain-streams, bitter by contamination with leaves.
At odd hours we eat spit-roast meatmostly fowl. Even
at night I may not rest my limbs at will, for their joints
are knocked out by the horse-cart. Then, at the crack of
dawn, I am woken up by the ear-splitting din of fowlers
taking to the forest, sons of bitches! (reects) Despite
all of this, my vital breaths have not departed. (laughs
with malice) And now a pimple crowns the boil. Just
yesterday, as I lagged behind, His Majesty, chasing some
antelope, entered a hermitage and was, by my ill fate,
shown an ascetics daughter called Shak untala. Now he
will not eventalk of going back to the city. Today he rem-
inisced about her until dawn. What can be done? I will
track him down somewhere when he has performed his
usual toilet. (saunters about and looks around) The king
is coming this way, wearing a garland of forest owers,
encircled by his bodyguard of Ionian women bearing
bows. So I will confront him. (approaching a bit) Thats
far enough! Now that I am crippled by the crushing of
my limbs I will stay right here. At least in this way I
might gain some rest. (Stands leaning on his staff.)
,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
Tataf pravisati yath aBnirdis
.
t
.
aBpariv aro r aj a.
i

a;

a: (saBcintam
.
nih
.
svasy atmaBgatam)
k amam
.
priy a na sulabh a :.,
manas tu tadAbh avaAdarsanA asv asi.
akr
.
tA arthe pi manasiAje
ratim ubhayam
.
pr arthan a kurute.
(smr
.
tim abhinya vihasya) evam atmA abhipr ayaAsambh avitA
es
.
t
.
aAjanaAcittaAvr
.
ttif pr arthayit a vid
.
ambyate. kutah
.
?
snigdham
.
vks
.
itam anyato pi nayane
yat prerayanty a tay a
y atam
.
yac ca nitambayor gurutay a
mandam
.
vil as ad iva.
m a g a ity avaruddhay a yad api s a
sA as uyam ukt a sakh
sarvam
.
tat kila matApar ayan
.
am aho
k amah
.
svat am
.
pasyati.
(parikr amati.)
vio us
.
axau
.
: (tath aBsthita eva.)

bho r aam
.
! n
.
a me hattho pa-
saradi v a aAmettaen
.
a ja avasi. jaadu jaadu bhavam
.
!

a;

a: (vilokya saBsmitam.) vayasya! kuto yam


.
g atrA opagh a- :.:c
tah
.
?
vio us
.
axau
.
:

kudo kila! saam
.
yeva acch a ulkadua am
.
suA
k aran
.
am
.
pucchasi!

:cc
acr rwo: rui siciir
Enter the king, attended as described.
xixc: (sighs pensively, to himself )
Granted, my love is not easily won, :.,
but my heart takes comfort
in perceiving her feelings.
Though love be not satised,
mutual longing gives pleasure.
(mimes recollection and smiles) In this way, the longing lover,
imagining the feelings of his beloved according to his
own intentions, is duped. How so?
That tender look,
even when her eyes glanced elsewhere,
that gait, slowed by the heaviness of her buttocks,
as if deliberately teasing,
that angry outburst at her friend
who had detained her,
saying: You may not leave!
All this was really aimed at me!
Ah! Love perceives all as its own.
(Walks about.)
nuiioox: (remaining where he is) Lord King! My hand will
not extend, so I hail you with words alone. Victory!
Victory, sir!
xixc: (looks on, smiling) My friend! Whence this bodily :.:c
paralysis?
nuiioox: Whence indeed! You poke me in the eye then
ask why these tears!
:c:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: vayasya! na khalv avagacch ami.


vio us
.
axau
.
: (saBros
.
am iva)

bho! tae n
.
ama r aaAkayy aim
.
uj-
jhia t adise a kl
.
aApas ade van
.
A arAekkaAvuttin
.
a hodavvam
.
?
jam
.
saccam
.
paccaham
.
s avadaAsa un
.
A an
.
ug aman
.
ehim
.
sa n-
khohidaAsandhiAbandhan
.
anam
.
a ng an
.
am
.
an
.
so mhi sam
.
-
vutto.

(saBpran
.
ayam
.
.)

t a pasda! mam
.
vajjehi. ekkA aham
.
pi d ava vsamadu.

a;

a: ( atmaBgatam) ayam evam aha, mam api K asyapaAsu-


t am anusr
.
tya mr
.
gay aAviklavam
.
cetah
.
. kutah
.
?
na namayitum adhijyam asmi sakto :.:,
dhanur idam ahitaAs ayakam mr
.
ges
.
u.
sahaAvasatim upetya yaif priy ay ah
.
kr
.
ta iva mugdhaAvilokA opadesah
.
.
vio us
.
axau
.
: (r aj no mukham
.
vilokya)

bho! attha A bhavam
.
hiaen
.
a kim
.
pi mantedi. aran
.
n
.
e mae rudidam
.
.

a;

a: (saBsmitam iva) kim anyat? anatikraman


.
yam
.
me su-
hr
.
dAv akyam iti sthito smi.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

ciram
.
jva!

a;

a: tis
.
t
.
ha. sA avases
.
am
.
me vacah
.
.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

an
.
avedu bhavam
.
.

:.:c
i

a;

a: visr antena bhavat a mam anyasminn an ay ase karman


.
i
sah ayena bhavitavyam.
:c:
acr rwo: rui siciir
xixc: My friend! I really do not follow.
nuiioox: (as if angry) Sir! Have you given up your royal
duties, and an exquisite life of luxury, to become no
better than a forest ranger? So that, truth be known,
with running after wild beasts and birds every day, I am
no longer master of my limbs whose joints are knocked
out. (pleading) Have mercy now! Give me a break! Rest
just one day.
xixc: (to himself ) My friend urges me like this, and my
heart, too, preoccupied with the daughter of Kanva, is
averse to hunting. Why?
I am no longer able to bend this strung bow, :.:,
with arrow laid upon it, against fawns, who,
dwelling with my beloved, have given
her instruction, as it were,
in innocent glances.
nuiioox: (looking at the kings face) Sir! You are mulling
something over in your heart. I am crying in the wilder-
ness.
xixc: (with a slight smile) How could it be any other way? I
would never defy the words of a friend. I will stay here.
nuiioox: Live long!
xixc: Stay! I have more to say.
nuiioox: Command, Your Majesty! :.:c
xixc: When you have rested you must assist me in another
undemanding matter.
:c,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
vio us
.
axau
.
: (sB abhil as
.
ena.)

avi modaaAkhajji ae?

a;

a: yatra vaks
.
y ami. . .
vio us
.
axau
.
:

gahido khan
.
o.

a;

a: kah
.
ko tra bhoh
.
?
:.:,
(pravisya) oauv

aiixau
.
:

an
.
avedu bhat
.
t
.
a.

a;

a: Revaka! sen aApatis t avad ah uyat am.


oauv

aiixau
.
:

jam
.
bhat
.
t
.
a an
.
avedi.

(iti nis
.
kr antah
.
.)
tataf pravisati six

aAiarii oauv

aiixa

s ca.
six

aA iariu
.
: (r aj anam
.
vilokya) dr
.
s
.
t
.
aA dos
.
api sv amini mr
.
- :.,c
gay a khalu gun
.
ay aiva sam
.
vr
.
tt a. tath a hi,
anavarataAdhanurAjy aAsph alanaAkr uraAp urvam
.
raviAkiran
.
aAsahis
.
n
.
uh
.
svedaAlesair abhinnah
.
.
apacitam api g atram
.
vy ayatatv ad alaks
.
yam
.
giriAcara iva n agaf pr an
.
aAs aram
.
bibharti.
oauv

aiixau
.
:

eso kkhu an
.
uvaan
.
aA din
.
n
.
aA kan
.
n
.
o ido din
.
-
n
.
aAdit
.
t
.
h yeva bhat
.
t
.
a tumam
.
pad
.
iv aledi. t a uvasappadu
ayyo.

six

aA iariu
.
: (upasr
.
tya saBpran
.
amam
.
.) jayatu jayatu sv am!
prac araAs ucitaAgr
.
htaAsv apadam aran
.
yam. kim anyad ava-
sthyate?
:c
acr rwo: rui siciir
nuiioox: (greedily) Tasting some cakes?
xixc: I will tell you what it is. . .
nuiioox: Take your time.*
xixc: Who is here?
:.:,
(Enter) oooi-xiiiii: Command, master!
xixc: R evaka! Summon the general at once.
oooi-xiiiii: As you command, master. (With this he ex-
its.)
Enter the general and the door-keeper.
cixiiai: (looking at the king) Though considered a vice, :.,c
hunting, in fact, has proved benecial for our Comman-
der. For
With his body, its forefront raw
from the ceaseless impact of the bowstring,
withstanding the suns rays
without breaking into sweat,
though it has lost weight this is not noticeable
because of its muscular development,
he exhibits a vital force
like a mountain-roving elephant!
oooi-xiiiii: There is the master, listening to a conversa-
tion, casting his glance hither, expecting you. Approach,
sir!
cixiiai: (approaches with a bow) Be victorious, be victori-
ous, Commander! The forests beasts of prey are hemmed
in, it is t for roaming in. What are we waiting for?
:c,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: mandA ots ahah


.
kr
.
to smi mr
.
gayA apav adin a M adha-
vyena.
six

aA iariu
.
: (janB antikam) M adhavya! sthiraA pratibandho :.,,
bhava. aham
.
t avat sv aminas citta A vr
.
ttim anuvartis
.
ye.
(prak asam) deva! pralapaty es
.
a vaidheyah
.
. nanu prabhur
eva nidarsanam mr
.
gay aAgun
.
an am.
medasAchedaAkr
.
sA odaram
.
laghu bhavaty
utth anaAyogyam
.
vapuh
.
sattv an am api laks
.
yate vikr
.
timac
cittam
.
bhayaAkrodhayoh
.
.
utkars
.
ah
.
sa ca dhanvin am
.
yad is
.
avah
.
sidhyanti laks
.
ye cale
mithy aiva vyasanam
.
vadanti mr
.
gay am.
dr
.
g vinodah
.
kutah
.
?
vio us
.
axau
.
: (saBkr
.
takaBros
.
am
.
)

atthaA bhavam
.
d ava padim
.
avan
.
n
.
o. tumam
.
pun
.
o ad
.
avdo ad
.
avim
.
ahin
.
d
.
a j ava ssaA
si alo via jun
.
n
.
aArikkhassa muhe pad
.
issasi.

a;

a: bhadra sen apate! asramaAsam


.
nikars
.
e vart amahe. atas
te vaco n abhinand ami. adya t avat,
:co
acr rwo: rui siciir
xixc: My enthusiasm has been dampened by Madh avya,
who is denouncing hunting.
cixiiai: (aside) Madh avya! Remain steadfast in your op- :.,,
position! I will probe the Commanders frame of mind.*
(aloud) Commander! This dolt prattles nonsense. Why,
Your Majesty is yourself an advertisement for the virtues
of hunting.
The body, slim-waisted and trim,
becomes light and t for intrepid adventure;
the temperament of the wild animals, too,
is seen altered by fear and rage;
and then there is that exaltation for the archer,
that his arrows should strike a eeting target;
It is plain false, that they should decry
hunting as a vice;
whence else derives such recreation?
nuiioox: (feigning anger) His Majesty has come to his
senses. You can carry on blundering from thicket to
thicket until, like a lead jackal, you stumble into the
jaws of an old bear.
xixc: My good general! We are in the proximity of a her-
mitage. Therefore I do not applaud your words. For
today,
:c;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
g ahant am
.
mahis
.
a nip anaAsalilam
.
sr
.
ngair muhus t ad
.
itam
ch ay aAbaddhaAkadambakam
.
mr
.
gaAkulam
.
romantham abhyasyatu
visvastaih
.
kriyat am
.
var ahaApatibhir
must aAks
.
atif palvale
visr antim
.
labhat am idam
.
ca sithilaA
jy aAbandham asmadAdhanuh
.
.
six

aAiariu
.
: yat prabhavis
.
n
.
ave rocate. :.c
i

a;

a: tena hi nivartyant am
.
vanaA gr ahin
.
ah
.
. yath a ca saini-
k as tapoA vanam
.
d ur at pratiharanti tath a nis
.
eddhavy ah
.
.
pasya,
samaApradh anes
.
u tapoAdhanes
.
u
g ud
.
ham
.
hi d ahA atmakam asti tejah
.
.
sparsA anuk ul a iva s uryaAk ant as
tad anyaAtejo bhibhav ad vamanti.
six

aAiarii: yad aj n apayati devah


.
.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

gaccha sam
.
padam
.
d ase putta!

nis
.
kr antah
.
sen aBpatih
.
. :.,
i

a;

a: (parijanam avalokya) apanayantu bhavanto mr


.
gay aA
ves
.
am. Revaka! tvam api svaAniyogam as unyam
.
kuru.
iaii;axo:

jam
.
bhat
.
t
.
a an
.
avedi.

(iti nis
.
kr antaf parijanah
.
.)
vio us
.
axau
.
:

kado bhavat a n
.
iddh umao dam
.
saA pad
.
aro. t a
sam
.
padam
.
edassim
.
av asa A p adava A ch a a A parivude vid a-
n
.
aaAsan
.
adhe asan
.
e jadh aAsuham
.
uvavisadu bhavam
.
, j ava
aham
.
pi suhA asanaAttho homi.

:c
acr rwo: rui siciir
Let the water bualoes plunge
into the water of pools
repeatedly battered by their horns;
let the herd of deer band together in the shade
to chew the cud;
let the leading boars tear up the musta weed
in the ponds unworried;
and may this my bow take rest
with its string loosened.
cixiiai: As it pleases the mighty one. :.c
xixc: Then recall the forest rangers. Issue an interdict so
that my soldiers are kept far from the penance grove.
Behold,
There is burning brilliance hidden in ascetics,
who are usually pacic;
Like sun-crystals, pleasing to touch, they emit it
when assailed by a hostile eulgence.
cixiiai: As His Majesty commands.
nuiioox: Leave now, you son of a slave!
Exit the general. :.,
xixc: (looking at his retinue) Remove your hunting dress.
R evaka! You too should not allow your post to be un-
occupied.
iirixui: As His Majesty commands. (Exit the retinue)
nuiioox: You have driven o the parasites without using
fumigants. So now be seated at ease on this seat provided
with a canopy, surrounded by the shade of av asa trees,
so that I, too, may repose in comfort.
:c,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: gaccha gacch agratah


.
! (parikramya.)
ubh av upavis
.
t
.
au. :.,c
i

a;

a: sakhe M adhavya! anav aptaAcaks


.
uhAphalo si yena tvay a
darsanyam
.
na dr
.
s
.
t
.
am!
vio us
.
axau
.
:

n
.
am
.
bhavam
.
aggado me cit
.
t
.
hadi.

a;

a: sarvah
.
k antam atm anam
.
pasyati. kim
.
tu t amev aham
asramaAlal amaAbh ut am
.

Sakuntal am adhikr
.
tya bravmi.
vio us
.
axau
.
: (apav arya)

bhavadu! n
.
a se pasaram
.
vad
.
d
.
has-
sam
.
(prak asam)

jad a d ava s a t avasaAkan
.
n
.
a a appatthan
.
a
t a kim
.
t ae dit
.
t
.
h ae.

a;

a: m urkha! parih arye pi vastuni Dus


.
yantasya manaf :.,,
pravartate?
vio us
.
axau
.
:

t a kadham
.
edam
.
?

a;

a:
Lalit anyaAsambhavam
.
kila
muner apatyam
.
tadAujjhitA adhigatam.
arkasy opari sithilam
.
cyutam iva navaAm alatAkusumam.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

ja vi n
.
a Kassavassa mahA esin
.
o oras a dh ud a
tadh a vi kim
.
t ae dit
.
t
.
h ae?

a;

a: avises
.
aAj na! :.oc
::c
acr rwo: rui siciir
xixc: Lead the way! (They walk about.)
Both sit down.
:.,c
xixc: Friend Madh avya! You have not attained the fruit of
sight, for you have not beheld that which is truly worth
seeing!
nuiioox: But surely you are right before me?
xixc: Everyone thinks himself attractive. But I speak of
Shak untala, the ornament of the hermitage.
nuiioox: (aside) Ha! I will give him no chance. (aloud) If,
in fact, she is the daughter of an ascetic, and cannot be
wed, then what is the point of looking at her?
xixc: Fool! Can Dushy antas heart crave a forbidden thing? :.,,
nuiioox: Then what is going on?
xixc:
It is said the sages child was born from Lalit anya,
then taken in when deserted by her,
just like a loose jasmine blossom fallen
upon an arka shrub.
nuiioox: Even if she is not the natural child of the great
sage K ashyapa, still, what is the point of looking at her?
xixc: Ignoramus! :.oc
:::
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
ciram
.
gataAnimes
.
abhir netraApa nktibhir unmukhah
.
nav am
.
induAkal am
.
lokah
.
kena bh avena pasyati?
na ca s a m adr
.
s a n ama pr arthany a sam asatah
.
saminAmadhyaAgataAk al
.
aguruAkhan
.
d
.
avad ujjval a.
vio us
.
axau
.
: (vihasya)

bhoh
.
! jadh a kass avi pin
.
d
.
aA kajj ur-
him
.
uvvejidassa tintili an
.
am
.
ahil aso bhodi tadh a itthAra-
an
.
aAparibh avin
.
o bhavado iam
.
patthan
.
a.

a;

a: na t avad en am
.
pasyasi yena tvam evam
.
Av ad.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

tam
.
khu raman
.
am
.
n
.
ama jam
.
bhavado vi vim-
haam
.
jan
.
aadi!

a;

a: vayasya! kim
.
bahun a? :.o,
citre nivesya parikalpitaAsattvaAyog a?
r upA occayena vihit a manas a kr
.
t a nu?
strAratnaAsr
.
s
.
t
.
ir apar a pratibh ati s a me
dh atur vibhutvam anucintya vapus ca tasy ah
.
.
vio us
.
axau
.
: (saBvismayam)

pacc adeso d an
.
im
.
r uvavatnam
.
!

a;

a: idam
.
ca me manasi vartate.
:::
acr rwo: rui siciir
With what melancholy does the world gaze up
at length at the rst digit of the moon
with unwinking rows of eyes?
And, for a man such as me
she, ablaze like a fragment of dark aloe
fallen among kindling,
is utterly beyond reach.
nuiioox: (laughing) Ha! Just as someone who is fedupwith
sweet dates might crave sour tamarind, so you, scorning
the most exquisite of women, have this yearning.*
xixc: You have not seen her, that you can prattle like this.
nuiioox: That must indeed be lovely which amazes even
you!
xixc: My friend! Why go on? :.o,
Was she painted and then infused with life?
Or was she visualized by assembling
alluring forms?
When I contemplate the power of the creator
her body appears to me like a second creation
of Lakshmi, jewel among women.
nuiioox: (astonished) Now the fairest are usurped!
xixc: And this is lodged in my heart:
::,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
anA aghr atam
.
pus
.
pam
.
kisalayam aAl unam
.
karaAruhair
anA amuktam
.
ratnam
.
madhu navam anA asv aditaArasam.
aAkhan
.
d
.
am
.
pun
.
y an am
.
phalam iva ca tadAr upam anAagham
.
na j ane bhokt aram
.
kam iha samupasth asyati bhuvi.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

ten
.
a hi lahu parin
.
aadu bhavam
.
m a kassa vi :.;c
tavassin
.
o i ngudA tellaA cikkan
.
aA ssassa aran
.
n
.
aassa hatthe
pad
.
issadi.

a;

a: paravat khalu tatraAbhavat, na ca sam


.
nihitaAguruAja-
n a.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

adha bhavantam
.
antaren
.
a kdiso se cittA an
.
u-
r ao?

a;

a: sakhe! svabh av ad apragalbhas tapasviAkanyak aAjanah


.
.
tath api tu
abhimukham
.
mayi samhr
.
tam ks
.
itam
.
hasitam anyaAnimittaAkathA odayam.
vinayaAb adhitaAvr
.
ttir atas tay a
na vivr
.
to madano na ca sam
.
hr
.
tah
.
.
vio us
.
axau
.
: (vihasya)

kim
.
khu s a bhavado dit
.
t
.
haAmettassa :.;,
yyeva a nkam
.
arohadu.

a;

a: sakhe! sakhbhy am
.
mithaf prasth ane s alnay api tatraA
bhavaty a mayi bh uyis
.
t
.
ham avis
.
kr
.
to bh avah
.
. tad a khalu,
::
acr rwo: rui siciir
A ower unsmelled,
a frond not plucked o by ngernails,
a jewel not set,
new wine as yet unsavored.
I do not know what enjoyer of this faultless form,
the full reward of merits, as it were,
might arise on this earth.
nuiioox: Then you must marry her at once, lest she fall :.;c
into the hands of some rustic ascetic whose head is slimy
with ngudi oil!
xixc: She is a dependent, and her parent is absent.
nuiioox: Well, what does her heart feel toward you?
xixc: Friend! The daughters of ascetics are naturally coy.
Nevertheless
When I faced her she withdrew her eyes,
her smile was feigned
to arise from some other cause.
Therefore, restrained by decorum,
her passion was neither displayed nor concealed.
nuiioox: (laughing) Was she to have climbed onto your :.;,
lap the moment she laid eyes on you?
xixc: My friend! When she departed with her two com-
panions, she, though modest, did to some extent betray
her feelings for me. For then,
::,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
darbhA a nkuren
.
a caran
.
ah
.
ks
.
ata ity ak an
.
d
.
e
tanv sthit a kati cid eva pad ani gatv a
asd vivr
.
ttaAvadan a ca vimocayant
s akh asu valkalam aAsaktam api drum an
.
am.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

bho! gahidaA p adheo hosi. kadham
.
pun
.
o un
.
a
tavoAvan
.
aAgaman
.
am
.
ti pekkh ami.

a;

a: sakhe! cintaya t avat ken op ayena punar asramaA pa-


dam
.
gacch amah
.
.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

eso cintemi. . . m a khu me alaAparidevidehim
.
:.c
sam adhim
.
bha njihisi.

(cintayitv a)

bho! ko an
.
n
.
o uv ao?
n
.
am
.
bhavam
.
r a a?

a;

a: tatah
.
kim?
vio us
.
axau
.
:

nv araAcchabAbh aam
.
d ava s am uvatti.

a;

a: m urkha! anyam bh agam ete raks


.
in
.
e nirvapanti ratnaA
r asn api vih ay abhinandyam. pasya
yad uttis
.
t
.
hati varn
.
ebhyah
.
nr
.
p an
.
am
.
ks
.
ayi tat phalam.
tapah
.
As
.
ad
.
Abh agam aks
.
ayam
.
dad aty aran
.
yako janah
.
.
xiiaru\i: hanta! siddhA arthau svah
.
!
:.,
i

a;

a: (karn
.
am
.
dattv a) aye! dhraApras antaAsvarais tapasvibhir
bhavitavyam.
::o
acr rwo: rui siciir
When she had gone but a few paces
the slender woman stopped all of a sudden, saying:
My foot is pierced by a darbha shoot!
And she turned back her face
as she freed her bark-cloth,
which was not really snagged
in the trees branches.
nuiioox: Well, then! You have your provisions for the
journey. I foresee, somehow, many more trips to the
penance-grove.
xixc: My friend! Think of some pretext to get us back into
the hermitage grounds.
nuiioox: I am thinking. . . dont interrupt my cerebration :.c
with your irritating whining. (thinking) Ha! What other
pretext? Are you not the king?
xixc: So what?
nuiioox: The ruler can claim one sixth part of the harvest.
xixc: Idiot! These hermits oer a dierent tribute to their
protector, more valuable than heaps of jewels. Look,
That tribute which accrues to kings
from the castes is perishable.
Foresters oer the imperishable sixth part
of their penance.
oiisraci: Good! We have found him!
:.,
xixc: (listening) Ah! With such steady and calm voicesit
must be hermits.
::;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
oauv

aiixau
.
(pravisya):

jaadu jaadu bhat
.
t
.
a! ede duve isiA
kum ara a pad
.
ih araAbh umim
.
uvatthid a.

a;

a: avilambitam
.
pravesaya.
oauv

aiixau
.
:

aam
.
pavesa ami.

(iti nis
.
kr antah
.
.)
tataf pravisatas t apasau dauv arikas ca. :.,c
oauv

aiixau
.
:

ido ido bhavant a.

aiasau: (r aj anam
.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a) aho dptimato pi visvasanya-
t a vapus
.
ah
.
. atha v a, upapannam etad asminn r
.
s
.
iA kalpe
r ajani. tath a hi,
adhy akr ant a
vasatir amun apy asrame sarvaAbhogye
raks
.
aAyog ad
ayam api tapaf pratyaham
.
sam
.
cinoti,
asy api dy am
.
spr
.
sati vasinas c aran
.
aAdvandvaAgtah
.
pun
.
yah
.
sabdo
munir iti muhuh
.
kevalam
.
r ajaAp urvah
.
.
ovir\au
.
: Gautama! ayam
.
sa BalabhitAsakho Dus
.
yantah
.
.
iiaruaxau
.
: atha kim?
:.,,
ovir\au
.
: tena hi,
::
acr rwo: rui siciir
oooi-xiiiii (entering): Victory, victory, lord! These two
young hermits have arrived at the gate.
xixc: Show them in without delay.
oooi-xiiiii: I will bring them. (Exit.)
Enter two ascetics and the door-keeper. :.,c
oooi-xiiiii: This way, this way, sirs.
ascirics: (seeing the king) Oh! What condence his person,
though majestic, inspires. But that is quite natural in a
king who is like a sage. For,
He too now abides in that stage of life
which benets all.
Through the protection he aords,
he too accumulates
the merit of penance day by day,
and the sacred appellation sage, for him too,
who has mastered himself, reaches up to heaven,
chanted by pairs of minstrels,
but prexed by royal.
sicoxo: G autama! This is Dushy anta, the friend of Indra.
iiisr: What of it?
:.,,
sicoxo: That is why
::,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
n aitac citram
.
yad ayam udadhiA
sy amaAsm am
.
dharitrm
ekah
.
kr
.
tsn am
.
nagaraAparighaA
pr amsuAb ahur bhunakti.
asam
.
sante SuraAsamitayah
.
saktaAvair a hi daityaih
.
asy adhijye dhanus
.
i vijayam
.
Paurah ute ca vajre.
unuau: (upasr
.
tya) svasti bhavate! (phal any upanayatah
.
.)
i

a;

a: (sB adaram utth aya) abhiv adaye bhavantau. (saBpran


.
a-
mam
.
gr
.
htB asana upavisya) kim aj n apayato bhavantau?
i
.
s
.
: vidito bhav an asramaAv asin am ihaAsthah
.
. tena bhavan-
:.:cc
tam abhy arthayante.
i

a;

a: kim aj n apayanti?
unuau: tatra A bhavatah
.
K asyapa A muner as am
.
nidhy ad ra-
ks
.
am
.
si par apatis
.
yanti. tat katipayaAr atram
.
s arathiAdvit-
yena bhavat a san athkriyat am asrama iti.
i

a;

a: anugr
.
hto smi.
vio us
.
axau
.
: (apav arya)

aam
.
d an
.
im
.
an
.
u ulaAgalaAhattho.

a;

a: Revaka! madAvacan ad ucyat am


.
s arathih
.
: saAb an
.
aAk ar- :.:c,
mukam
.
ratham upanay eti.
oauv

aiixau
.
:

jam
.
bhat
.
t
.
a an
.
avedi.

(iti nis
.
kr antah
.
.)
::c
acr rwo: rui siciir
It is no wonder that he alone,
whose arm is as long as the bar of a city gate,
enjoys the whole earth bounded
by the dark ocean.
For the Gods wars, vehement in their hostility,
fought with the demons, depend for victory
on his strung bow and
on the thunderbolt of Indra.
noru: (approaching) Hail to His Majesty! (They offer fruit.)
xixc: (stands up respectfully) I salute you both. (accepts a
seat with a bow and sits) What do you command?
siiis: It has become known to the hermitage inmates that :.:cc
you are here. Therefore they beseech Your Majesty.
xixc: What do they command?
noru: Because his reverence the sage K ashyapa is not present
we are pressed by demons. Therefore, accompanied by
your charioteer, deign to ensure the protection of the
hermitage for a few nights.
xixc: I am honored.
nuiioox: (aside) Now, this is a welcome hand throttling
your throat.
xixc: R evaka! Commandthe charioteer inmy name: Bring :.:c,
the chariot with bow and arrows!
oooi-xiiiii: As the lord commands. (Exit.)
:::
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i
.
s
.
: (saBhars
.
am)
anuk arin
.
i p urves
.
am
.
yuktaAr upam idam
.
tvayi.
apannA abhayaAsattren
.
a dks
.
it ah
.
khalu Paurav ah
.
.
i

a;

a: gacchat am
.
puro bhavantau. ahamapy anupadam aga-
ta eva.
i
.
s
.
: vijayasva! (ity utth aya nis
.
kr antau.) :.::c
i

a;

a: M adhavya! apy asti



Sakuntal aAdarsanaAkautukam?
vio us
.
axau
.
:

pradhamam
.
aparib adham
.
asi.

(saB bhayam.)

rakkhasaA vutt A anten


.
a un
.
a sam
.
padam
.
vis adaA dam
.
sin
.
a
visesidam
.
.

a;

a: m a bhais
.
h
.
! nanu matAsampe bhavis
.
yasi.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

eso cakk ak bh udo mhi!

(pravisya) oauv

aiixau
.
:

bhat
.
t
.
a! sajjo radho bhat
.
t
.
in
.
o vijaaA :.::,
patth an
.
am
.
udikkhadi. eso un
.
a n
.
aar ado devn
.
am
.
sa as ado
Karabhao uvatthido.

a;

a: (sB adaram) kim ajj ubhif pres


.
itah
.
.
oauv

aiixau
.
:

adhaAim
.
?

a;

a: pravesyat am.
:::
acr rwo: rui siciir
siiis: (joyfully)
This bets you, who follows the path
of your predecessors;
the descendents of Puru
are indeed consecrated
for the sacrice of allaying the fear
of the oppressed.
xixc: Go ahead, sirs! I too will follow shortly.
siiis: Be victorious! (With this they arise and exit.) :.::c
xixc: Madh avya! Are you curious to see Shak untala?
nuiioox: At rst my curiosity knew no bounds. (fearfully)
But now it has been put in perspective by this news of
demons, making it dubious.
xixc: Fear not! Surely you will stand by my side.
nuiioox: Id be your wheel-guard : a sitting duck! *
(entering) oooi-xiiiii: Lord! The readied chariot awaits :.::,
the lords victorious advance. But K arabhaka here has
arrived from the city and the entourage of the Queen
Mother.
xixc: (respectfully) What? despatched by Mama?*
oooi-xiiiii: What now?
xixc: Show him in!
::,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
oauv

aiixau
.
:

jam
.
bhat
.
t
.
h a an
.
avedi.

(iti nis
.
kr antah
.
.)
tataf pravisati oauv

aiixix
.
a saha xaianuaxau
.
. :.::c
xaianuaxau
.
: (upasr
.
tya)

jaadu jaadu bhat


.
t
.
a! devo an
.
aventi
jadh a agamin
.
i ca utthe diase puttaApin
.
d
.
ao d an
.
ao n
.
ama
uvav aso bhavissadi tattha dh a un
.
a avassam
.
san
.
n
.
ihiden
.
a
hodavvam
.
.

a;

a: (sa nkulam) M adhavya! itas tapasviAk aryam, ito guruA


janA aj n a, ubhayam apy anulla nghanyam
.
may a. katham
atra pratividheyam.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

Tisa nk u via antare cit
.
t
.
ha!

a;

a: satyam akulo smi.


kr
.
tyayor bhinnaAdesatv ad :.::,
dvaidhbhavati me manah
.
.
puraf pratihatam
.
saile
srotah
.
srotoAvaho yath a.
(saBkhedam
.
cintayitv a.) sakhe M adhavya! tvam ajj ubhif pu-
tra iti pratigr
.
htah
.
. tad bhav an itaf pratinivr
.
tya tatraAbha-
vatn am
.
putraA k aryam anus
.
t
.
h atum arhati. tapasviA k a-
ryaAvyagrit ah
.
smah
.
ity avedaya.
vio us
.
axau
.
: (saB garvam.)

s adhu! rakkhasaA bhruam
.
mam
.
gan
.
assadi!

::
acr rwo: rui siciir
oooi-xiiiii: As His Majesty commands. (Exit.)
Enter K

aianuaxa with the oooi-xiiiii.


:.::c
x

aianuaxa: (approaching) Victory! Victory, Your Majesty!


The Queen lets it be known that: On the coming fourth
lunar day* there will take place the ceremony known as
the oering ensuring the birthof a son. Onthis occasion
Your Majesty must be present.
xixc: (perturbed) Madh avya! On the one hand, there is my
obligation to the ascetics, on the other hand, there is
the command of my venerable parent. Neither may I
transgress. What should I do in this case?
nuiioox: Stay in the middle like Trishanku.*
xixc: Truly I am confounded.
My mind is divided :.::,
because the two duties must be carried out
in dierent places;
just like the stream of a river
branching because of a rock in its path.
(reecting, troubled) My friend Madh avya! You have been
welcomed by Mama like a son. Therefore you must
please return from here and stand in for the duty of
a son. Tell her that I have been detained by obligations
to ascetics.
nuiioox: (haughtily) Oh, I get it! You think I am afraid of
these demons.
::,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: (saB smitam) mah a A br ahman


.
a! katham etad bhavati
sambh avyate.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

ten
.
a hi jadh a r aB an
.
ur aen
.
a gantavvam
.
, tadh a
gamissam
.
.

a;

a: nanu tapoAvanA oparodhaf pariharan


.
ya iti sarv an anu- :.:,c
y atrik an tvay aiva saha prasth apay ami.
vio us
.
axau
.
: (saBgarvam.)

ten
.
a hi juaAr a a khu amhi sam
.
vu-
tto.

a;

a: (svaBgatam) capalo yam


.
bat
.
uh
.
. kad a cid asmatApr ar-
than am antah
.
Apurebhyah
.
kathayet. bhavatu. evam
.
t avad
vaks
.
ye. . . (prak asam
.
, vid us
.
akam
.
haste gr
.
htv a) vayasya!
r
.
s
.
i A gaurav ad asramam
.
gacch ami. na khalu satyam eva
t apasaAkanyak ay am
.
mam abhil as
.
ah
.
. pasya
kva vayam
.
kva paroks
.
aAmanmatho
mr
.
gaAs avaih
.
samam edhito janah
.
.
parih asaAvikalpitam
.
sakhe
paramA arthena na gr
.
hyate vacah
.
!
vio us
.
axau
.
:

evam
.
n
.
edam
.
!

iti nis
.
kr ant ah
.
sarve.
:.:,,
iti mah aAkaviAK alid asaAviracite

Sakuntal aAn amani n at


.
ake
dvityo nkah
.
.
::o
acr rwo: rui siciir
xixc: (smiling) Great brahmin! In your case that is incon-
ceivable.
nuiioox: Since, then, I must go because of love of the
king, I shall do so.
xixc: Surely, to prevent disturbance to the penance grove :.:,c
I will dispatch the entire train with you.
nuiioox: (puffed up) Now I have become a crown prince.
xixc: (to himself ) This fellow is a chatterbox. He might
reveal my dalliance to the ladies in the inner apartments
of the palace. Well, then, I will tell him this. . . (aloud,
taking the buffoon by the hand) My friend! I go to the
hermitage out of respect for the seers. There is nothing
to that aection of mine for the ascetics daughter. Look,
Where, on the one hand, stand we,
and where that person raised with fawns,
unacquainted with love.
Friend, do not take as a declaration of truth
what was made up as a jest!
nuiioox: Why, of course!
All withdraw.
:.:,,
The end of the second act
in the play called Shak untala,
composed by the great poet Kalidasa.
::;
Act Three:
The Passion
tataf pravisati yajam anaBsis
.
yah
.
.

sis
.
\au
.
: (kus an ad aya) aho mah aAprabh avo Dus
.
yantah
.
! pra-
vis
.
t
.
aAm atra eva s arathiAdvitye tatraAbhavat dam asramaA
padam
.
nirvr
.
ttaAraks
.
oAvighnam
.
sam
.
vr
.
ttam
.
nirupaplav an
.
i
ca nah
.
karm an
.
i siddh ani.
k a kath a b an
.
aAsam
.
dh ane?
jy aAsabden aiva d uratah
.
hum
.
Ak aren
.
eva dhanus
.
ah
.
sa hi vighn an apohati.
y avad im an vediAsam
.
staran
.
A artham
.
darbh an r
.
tvigbhya upa-
har ami. (parikramy ak ase) Priyam
.
vade! kasy edam us-
r A anulepanam
.
mr
.
n
.
alaA valayavanti ca kamalin A patr an
.
i
nyante? (srutim abhinya) kim
.
bravs
.
i? atapaA la ngha-
n ad balavad asvasth a

Sakuntal a. tasy a d ahe nirv apan
.
ay
eti. aho yatn ad upakramyat am sakh. yatas tatraA bha-
vatah
.
kulaA pater ucchvasitam. aham api t avad vait ani-
kaA s antyA udakam asyai Gautam A haste prahes
.
y ami. (iti
nis
.
kr antah
.
.)
pravesakah
.
. ,.,
tataf pravisati k amay anB avastho* r aj a.
i

a;

a: (saBvitarkam)
j ane tapaso vryam
.
s a b al a paravat ti me viditam
alam asmi tato hr
.
dayam
.
tath api n edam
.
nivartayitum.
:,c
Enter the disciple of the sacricial priest.
oisciiii: (bearing kusha grass) Lo! Howmighty is Dushy an-
ta! No sooner had His Majesty entered the hermitage
grounds with his charioteer than we were rid of the de-
mon menace, and our rites succeed without distractions.
What need of tting an arrow?
For he drives out troublemakers
simply with the twang
of his bowstring from afar,
as if it were by the threatening growl of his bow.
I must bring this darbha grass to the priests so they can strew
the altar. (proceeds, offstage) Priyamvada! For whom are
you fetching ushra salve and lotus leaves wrapped in
laments? (Mimes listening.) What do you say? Sha-
k untala is gravely ill with a heatstroke; to quench her
fever. Ah! Nurse your friend with care, for she is the
life-breath of our patriarch. I, too, will at once send
soothing, consecrated water to her by the hand of G au-
tami. (Exit.)
End of the prelude. ,.,
Enter the infatuated king.
xixc: (pensively)
I know the potency of penance,
and realize the girl is a dependent,
despite this I am not able to turn my heart
away from her.
:,:
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
(saBdainyam) bhagavan K ama! evam apy upapadyate na te
mayy anukrosah
.
. kutas ca te kusumA ayudhasya satas t-
ks
.
n
.
atvam? (vicintya) am
.
j n atam,
ady api n unam
.
HaraAkopaAvahnis ,.:c
tvayi jvalaty aurva iv ambuAr asau;
tvam anyath a, Manmatha! madAvidh an am
.
bhasmA avases
.
ah
.
katham evam us
.
n
.
ah
.
?
(s B as uyam) Kusum A ayudha! tvay a candramas a ca visvasa-
ny abhy am abhisam
.
dhyate k ami A janaA s arthah
.
katham
iti?
tava kusumaAsaratvam
.
staArasmitvam indoh
.
dvayam idam aAyathA artham
.
dr
.
syate madAvidhes
.
u
visr
.
jati himaAgarbhair agnim indur may ukhais
tvam api kusumaAb an
.
an vajraAs arkaros
.
i!
(saBkhedam) kva nu khalu sam
.
sthite karman
.
i sadasyair anu-
j n ataAvisr antih
.
kl antam atm anam
.
vinoday ami? (nih
.
sva-
sya) kim
.
nu khalu me priy aAdarsan ad r
.
te saran
.
am anyat?
y avad en am anvis
.
ye. (s uryam avalokya) im am ugrA ata-
p am
.
vel am
.
pr ayen
.
a lat aA valayavatsu M alinA tres
.
u tatraA
bhavat saA sakh A jan a gamayati. tatr aiva t avad gami-
s
.
y ami. (parikramya sB ahl adam
.
v ayuBsparsam
.
nir upayan.)
aho prav ataAsubhago yam uddesah
.
.
:,:
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
(dejected) Lord Cupid! Despite this you show me no pity.
And how can you, bearing owers as weapons, be so
erce? (reects) Yes, I understand,
Even now, surely, the ame of Shivas wrath ,.:c
still smolders within you,
like the submarine re in the ocean;
How else, O Shaker, could you,
reduced to ashes, be so ferocious
to those like me?
(with malice) God of the ower bow! Why do you and the
moon, who ought to be trustworthy, assail the caravan-
train of lovers?
That your arrows should be owers
and that the moons rays should be cool
both of these are evidently false
for those like me:
the moon spews re with his icy rays,
and you make your ower-arrows adamantine!
(dejected) Now that the priests have concluded their rites,
where may I, granted some respite, rest my weary soul?
(sighing) What other refuge is there for me but the sight
of my beloved? I must seek her. (observes the sun) She is
wont to pass this period of severe heat with her friends on
the M alinis banks, which are wreathed in vine bowers.
That is where I will go. (advances, acting the delightful
touch of the wind) Ah! This spot is pleasant with a fresh
breeze.
:,,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
sakyo ravindaAsurabhih
.
kan
.
aAv ah M alinAtara ng an
.
am
madanaAgl anair a ngaih
.
pd
.
itam ali ngitum
.
pavanah
.
.
(parikramy avalokya ca) asmin vetasaApariks
.
ipte lat aAman
.
d
.
a- ,.:,
pe

Sakuntalay a bhavitavyam. tath a hi (adho valokya)
alpaAnihit a purast ad avag ad
.
h a jaghanaAgaurav at pasc at
dv are sya p an
.
d
.
uAsikate padaApa nktir dr
.
syate bhinav a.
y avad vit
.
apA antaren
.
avalokay ami. (tath a kr
.
tv a, saBhars
.
am)
aye! labdham
.
khalu netraA nirv apan
.
am. es
.
a manoA rathaA
bh umif priyatam a me saA kusumA astaran
.
am
.
sil aA pat
.
t
.
am
adhisay an a sakhbhy am anv asyate. bhavatu. lat aA vyava-
hitah
.
sros
.
y ami t avad as am visrambhaAkathit ani. (avalo-
kayan sthitah
.
.)
tataf pravisati yath aBnirdis
.
t
.
a

Sakuntal a sakhyau ca.
saxu\au: (upavjya)

sahi Sa untale! avi suh aadi de n
.
alin
.
A
vattaAv ado?

saxuxrai

a: (vedanam
.
n at
.
ayitv a)

kim
.
v a vjaanti mam
.
sa- ,.:c
ho?

ubhe saBvis
.
adam
.
mukham anyonyam
.
pasyatah
.
.

saxuxrai

a: (saBkhedam
.
nih
.
svasati.)
i

a;

a: balavad asvasth a khalv atraAbhavat. (saBvitarkam) kim


atr ayam atapaAdos
.
ah
.
sy ad, uta yath a me manasi vartate?
(sB abhil as
.
am
.
nirvarn
.
ya) athav a kr
.
tam
.
sam
.
dehena!
:,
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
I am able to embrace closely
the lotus-fragranced wind, bearing the spray
of the M alinis ripples, with my limbs
languid with passion.
(wanders around and observes) Shak untala must be in this
,.:,
bower of shrubs surroundedby reeds. For, (looking down)
At its entrance, in the pale sand is seen
a line of fresh footprints,
shallow at the front,
depressed at the back with the weight of her
hips.
I will peer through the branches. (does so, joyfully) Ah! My
eyes have received their alms. My darling, the ground of
my love, lies upon a ower-strewn stone slab, together
with her two friends. Good. Concealed by vines, I will
eavesdrop on their private conversation. (Watches.)
Then enters Shak untala and her two friends as described.
iiiixos: (fanning, affectionately) Dear Shak untala! Does
the breeze of the lotus leaves relieve you?
suax uxraia: (acts anguish) Oh? Are my friends fanning ,.:c
me?
Both look sorrowfully at each others face.
suax uxraia: (sighs dejectedly.)
xixc: Her ladyship is gravely indisposed. (pondering) Might
this be a symptom of the heat, or is it as I suspect?
(longingly) Enough of this doubt!
:,,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
stanaAnyastA osram
.
prasithilaAmr
.
n
.
alA aikaAvalayam
priy ay ah
.
sA ab adham
.
tad api kamanyam
.
vapur idam
samas t apah
.
k amam
.
manasiAjaAnid aghaAprasarayoh
.
na tu grs
.
masy aivam
.
subhagam apar adham
.
yuvatis
.
u.
axas u\

a:

hal a Sa untale! an
.
antaraAn
.
n
.
a amhe maan
.
aAgadassa ,.:,
vuttantassa. tadh a vi j adis idih asaAgadesu maan
.
aAvuttan-
tesu k amaam an
.
assa avatth a sun
.
adi t adisam
.
ca lakkha-
mha. t a kadhehi kin
.
An
.
imittam
.
de aam
.
a aso. vi aram
.
khu
paramAatthado a an
.
ia an
.
arambho pad
.
arassa.

a;

a: Anas uyay apy anugato madyas tarkah


.
!

saxuxrai

a: ( atmaBgatam)

balavam
.
ca me ahin
.
iveso. na a
sakkan
.
omi sahas a n
.
ivvaridum.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

sahi! sut
.
t
.
hu es a bhan
.
adi. kim
.
n
.
edam
.
attan
.
o
uvaddavam
.
nig uhasi? an
.
udiasam
.
ca parihasi a ngehim.
kevalam
.
l avan
.
n
.
ama ch a a tumam
.
n
.
a mu ncadi.

:,o
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
This gure of my beloved,
her breasts anointed with ushra salve,
her only bracelet of lotus laments hanging loose,
though pained, is still desirable.
Admittedly, the inammation
arising from love
and the heat appears the same,
yet the injury wrought by summer
upon young women
is not as lovely as this.
axas u\a: Dear Shak untala! We may not be familiar with ,.:,
aairs of love. Even so, we can see that your state is like
that of a lover described in historical romances. Please do
tell what is the cause of your malady. Without knowing
for sure what is the source of a disease, no remedy can
be found.
xixc: Anas uya, too, shares my suspicion!
suax uxraia: (to herself ) My yearning is intense, and I am
not able to ward it o just like that.
iii\axvaoa: Dear Shak untala! What she says is right. Why
should you conceal your sorrow? Day by day your limbs
waste away, all that remains is your lovely aura.
:,;
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
i

a;

a: avitatham aha Priyamvad a. tath a hy asy ah


.
ks
.
amaAks
.
amaAkapolam ananam, urah
.
,.,c
k at
.
hinyaAmuktaAstanam,
madhyam
.
kl antataram
.
, prak amaAvinat av
am
.
sau, chavif p an
.
d
.
ur a
socy a ca priyaAdarsan a ca madanaA
klis
.
t
.
eyam alaks
.
yate
pattr an
.
am iva sos
.
an
.
ena marut a
spr
.
s
.
t
.
a lat a m adhav.

saxuxrai

a:

kassa v a an
.
n
.
assa idam
.
kadhadavvam
.
? a asatti a
d an
.
im
.
vo bhavissam
.
.

unui:

ado yyeva n
.
o n
.
ibbandho. sam
.
vibhat
.
t
.
am
.
khu duh
.
-
kham
.
sajjhaAvean
.
am
.
bhodi.

a;

a:
pr
.
s
.
t
.
a janena samaAduh
.
khaAsukhena b al a
n eyam
.
na vaks
.
yati manoAgatam adhiAhetum.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
o vivr
.
tya bahuso py anay a saAh avam
atr antaram
.
sravan
.
aAk atarat am
.
gato smi.

saxuxrai

a: (saBlajjam)

jado pahudi so tavoAvan
.
aArakkhid a ,.,,
r aA es me dam
.
san
.
aApadham
.
gado, tado arabhia uggaden
.
a
ahil asen
.
a edavatth a mhi sam
.
vutt a.

:,
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
xixc: Priyamvada speaks the truth. For her
Face has deeply sunken cheeks, ,.,c
her bosom has lost the rmness of her breasts,
her waist has grown thin,
her shoulders droop limp, her skin is pale;
tormented by love,
she appears both pitiful and lovely to behold,
just like a m adhavi vine,
touched by a wind that withers its leaves.
suax uxraia: Whom else could I conde this to? But now
I will bring you sorrow.
noru: That is why we are so insistent, for grief, shared,
becomes sorrow that can be borne.
xixc:
The girl, questioned by someone
who shares her joy and grief,
cannot fail to divulge the cause
of her secret sorrow.
Though she looked at me, turning back repeatedly,
suggestively,* I have, by now,
become fainthearted
to hear her answer.
suax uxraia: (coyly) Since that royal sage, the protector of ,.,,
the penance grove, strayed into the path of my sight,
from that moment onward, in love with him, I have
been reduced to this plight.
:,,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
i

a;

a: (saBhars
.
am) srutam
.
srotavyam!
Smara eva t apaAhetur
nirv apayit a sa eva me j atah
.
;
divasa iv abhraAsy amas
tapA atyaye jvaAlokasya.

saxuxrai

a:

evam
.
ja vo an
.
umadam
.
tam
.
tadh a mantedham
.
mam
.
jadh a tassa r aA esin
.
o an
.
ukampan
.
a homi. an
.
n
.
adh a
m am
.
si ncadha d an
.
im
.
s antAudaen
.
a.

a;

a: vimarsaA chedi vacanam et avat k amaA phalam


.
, yatnaA
phalam anyat.
iii\ax
.
vao

a: (apav arya)

An
.
as ue! d ure A gada A mammadh a ,.c
iam
.
akkham a k alaA haran
.
assa. jassim
.
baddhaA bh av a es a,
so vi lal ama A bh udo Porav an
.
am
.
. t a turadam
.
yyeva se
ahil asam
.
an
.
uvattidum
.
.

axas u\a: (apav arya)



jadh a bhan
.
asi! (prak asam) sahi! dit
.
-
t
.
hi a an
.
ur uvo se ahil aso. s aaram
.
vajjia kahimv a mah aAn
.
ae
gantavvam
.
?

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

ko d an
.
im
.
sahaA aram
.
adimuttaAlad ae pallavi-
dum
.
n
.
a icchadi?

a;

a: kim atra citram


.
, yadi citraA vis akhe sasA a nkaA lekh am
anuvartete? ayam atraAbhavatbhy am
.
krto janah
.
.
axas u\a:

ko un
.
a uv ao bhave jen
.
a sahe avilambidam
.
n
.
i-
g ud
.
ham
.
man
.
oAradham
.
samp ademha?

iii\axvao

a:

n
.
iun
.
am
.
paadidavvam
.
ti cintan
.
am
.
bhave. ,.,
siggham
.
ti n
.
a dukkaram
.
.

:c
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
xixc: (joyfully) I have heard what I needed to hear!
Love alone is the source of the fever,
Love alone has come to quench it for me;
just as at the end of the hot season, a day,
dark with clouds, does for the world.
suax uxraia: Nowif you approve, then tell me what I must
do to make the royal sage take pity on me. Otherwise,
sprinkle me now with funerary libations.
xixc: These words, cutting through my doubts, are the
fruit of love; the fruit of eort is another matter.
iii\axvaoa: (aside) Anas uya! Her lovesickness is far ad- ,.c
vanced and will not brook any delay! He upon whom
she has xed her heart is no less than the scion of the
P auravas. We must hurry to court his aection.
axas u\a: (aside) As you say! (aloud) My friend! Happily,
her desire is worthy. If not to the sea, where else should
a great river ow?
iii\axvaoa: Who, now, would not wish the mango tree
to bloom with the atim ukta vine?
xixc: Is it surprising that the two bright stars of the con-
stellation Vish akha should follow the lunar crescent? I
am beholden to you.
axas u\a: Now, with what stratagem can we secretly fulll
our friends desire without delay?
iii\axvaoa: To get it done secretly requires some eort; ,.,
quickly is no problem.
::
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
axas u\a:

kadham
.
via?

iii\axvao

a:

so r aA esi im ae sin
.
iddhaA dit
.
t
.
hi A s uidA ahil aso
im aim
.
divas aim
.
pa aaraAkiso via lakkhadi.

a;

a: satyam ittham
.
Abh uto smi. tath a hi
idam asisirair antasAt ap air vivarn
.
aAman
.
kr
.
tam
nisi nisi bhujaAnyastA ap a ngaApras aribhir asrubhih
.
anabhilulitaAjy aAgh atA a nk an muhur man
.
iAbandhan at
kanakaAvalayam
.
srastam
.
srastam
.
may a pratis aryate.
iii\axvao

a: (vicintya)

An
.
as ue! maan
.
aAleho d an
.
im
.
kara- ,.,c
du. tam
.
suman
.
oAgovidam
.
kadua devaAsesA apadesen
.
a tassa
ran
.
n
.
o hatthe p ad
.
assam
.
.

axas u\a:

roadi me sukum aro paoo vi. kim
.
v a Sa untal a
bhan
.
adi?

saxuxrai

a: (saBlajjam)

nioo vi vikappadi.

iii\axvao

a: (

Sakuntal am
.
prati)

ten
.
a hi uvan
.
n
.
asaApuravam
.
attan
.
o cintehi kim
.
pi sulalidam
.
padaAbandham
.
.

saxuxrai

a:

cintassam
.
. avadhran
.
aAbhruam
.
pun
.
o vevadi
me hiaam
.
.

::
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
axas u\a: How so?
iii\axvaoa: That royal sage, betraying his desire for her
by his tender glances, seems to be wasting away these
days through sleeplessness.
xixc: It is true, so I am. For,
I repeatedly have to pull back
this golden bracelet,
its gems discolored by tears
warmed by my inner fever,
owing night after night
from the corners of my eyes
resting on my arm,
as it slips again and again from my wrist
without even brushing against the scars
inicted by the striking of the bowstring.
iii\axvaoa: (thinking) Anas uya! Alove letter is nowcalled ,.,c
for. I will deliver it into the kings hand, concealedamong
owers, by pretending that they are the ritual leftovers.
axas u\a: I like this subtle plan. What does Shak untala say?
suax uxraia: (coyly) Is a command to be questioned?
iii\axvaoa: (to Shak untala) Well, then, just make up
some pretty verse beginning with an allusion to yourself.
suax uxraia: I amthinking, but my heart trembles, fearing
rejection.
:,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
i

a;

a: (saBhars
.
am)
,.,,
ayam
.
sa te tis
.
t
.
hati sam
.
gamA otsuko
visa nkase bhru yato vadhran
.
am
labheta v a pr arthayit a na v a sriyam,
sriyo dur apah
.
katham psito bhavet?
saxu\au:

attaAgun
.
A avam an
.
ini! ko d an
.
im
.
s aradam
.
jon
.
ham
.
adapaAtten
.
a v arassadi?

saxuxrai

a: (saBsmitam)

nioida mhi!

(upavis
.
t
.
a cintayati.)
i

a;

a: sth ane khalu vismr


.
taAnimes
.
en
.
a caks
.
us
.
a priy am avalo-
kay ami, yatah
.
unnamitA aikaAbhr uAlatam
,.oc
ananam asy af pad ani racayanty ah
.
kan
.
t
.
akitena prathayati
mayy anur agam
.
kapolena.

saxuxrai

a:

hal a! cintid a mae gdi a. asan
.
n
.
ihid aim
.
un
.
a le-
haAs ahan
.
aim
.
.

iii\axvao

a:

n
.
am
.
imassim
.
sukA odaraAsuum are n
.
alin
.
Avatte
pattaA chedaA bhatte n
.
ahehim
.
n
.
ikkhittaA van
.
n
.
am
.
karehi?
tado sun
.
amha se akkhar an
.
i.

saxuxrai

a: (tath a kr
.
tv a)

sun
.
adha d ava n
.
am
.
sa ngadAatth a
n
.
a va tti.

unui:

avahida mha!

:
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
xixc: (joyfully) ,.,,
He from whom you, timid girl,
fear rejection stands here
pining to make love with you!
The seeker may or may not nd fortune.
But how could fortune nd it dicult
to attain what it wants?
iiiixos: O belittler of your own virtues! Who would ward
o autumnal moonlight with a parasol?
suax uxraia: (smiling) Ill do as Im told! (Ponders, seated.)
xixc: Justly I gaze upon my beloved with an eye that has
forgotten how to wink, since
Her countenance, one eyebrow raised, ,.oc
as she composes her poem,
reveals her passion for me
through her horripilating cheek.
suax uxraia: My dear! I have thought of a verse, but writing
materials are not at hand.
iii\axvaoa: Can you not just incise the characters on this
lily leaf, soft as a parrots belly, with your ngernails?
Then we will appraise your syllables.
suax uxraia: (does so) Listen, then, if it makes sense or not.
noru: Were ready.
:,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox

saxuxrai

a: (pat
.
hati) ,.o,

tujjha n
.
a an
.
e hiaam
.
mama un
.
a k amo div a a rattim
.
ca
n
.
ikkiva tave baliam
.
tuha huttaAman
.
oArah a a ng aim
.
.

a;

a: (saBhars
.
am upagamya)
tapati tanuAg atri Madanas
tv am anisam
.
m am
.
punar dahaty eva
glapayati yath a sasA a nkam
.
na tath a hi kumudvatm
.
divasah
.
.
saxu\au: (vilokya saBhars
.
am utth aya)

s agadam
.
jadh aAcinti-
daAphalassa avalambin
.
o man
.
oAradhassa.

Sakuntal a abh-
yutth atum icchati.)

saxuxrai

a: ( atmaBgatam
.
saBs adhvasam
.
ca)

hiaa! tadh a ut- ,.;c
tammia d an
.
im
.
n
.
a kim
.
ci pad
.
ivajjasi.

(ity utth atum iccha-


ti.)
i

a;

a: alam ay asena.
sam
.
spr
.
s
.
t
.
aAkusumaAsayan any
asuAvivarn
.
itaAmr
.
n
.
alaAvalay ani
guruAsam
.
t ap ani na te
g atr an
.
y upac aram arhanti.
axas u\a:

ido sil aAdalAekkaAdesam
.
an
.
ugen
.
hadu vaasso.

a;

a: (upavisya) Priyam
.
vade! kac cit sakhm
.
vo n atib adhate
sarraAsant apah
.
?
iii\axvao

a: (sakhy a sah opavis


.
t
.
a)

laddhA ausadho sam
.
pa- ,.;,
dam
.
uvasamam
.
gamissadi k alen
.
a.

:o
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
suax uxraia: (recites)
,.o,
Your heart I do not know,
cruel one,
but Love day and night painfully inames
my limbs, which long for you.
xixc: (approaches joyfully)
Love may iname you incessantly,
slender girl, but me he consumes;
day does not wreak havoc on the night-lily pond
as much as it does on the moon.
iiiixos: (looking, stand up happily) We bid welcome to this
wish that is granted without delay by merely thinking
of it. (Shak untala wants to get up.)
suax uxraia: (to herself, in turmoil) My heart! Beating like ,.;c
this you will not get anything done. (Tries to stand up.)
xixc: Do not exhaust yourself!
Your limbs, cleaving to the bed of owers,
garlanded with quickly faded lotus bers,
acutely inamed,
need not observe decorum.
axas u\a: May our friend grace this part of the stone slab.
Kixc: (sits down) Priyamvada! I hope your friend is not
too badly aicted by this inammation of her body.
iii\axvaoa: (sits down with her friend) Now that the cure ,.;,
is found, it will die down in due course.
:;
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
axas u\

a: (jan B antikam)

Priyamvade! k alen
.
a tti kim
.
?
pekkha, mehaAn
.
adA ahadam
.
via ma urim
.
n
.
imesAantaren
.
a
pacc agadam
.
piaAsahim
.
.

saxuxrai

a: (saBlajj a tis
.
t
.
hati.)
iii\axvao

a:

mah aA bh aa! don
.
ham
.
pi vo an
.
n
.
on
.
n
.
A an
.
ur ao
paccakkho, sah A sin
.
eho un
.
a mam
.
pun
.
ar A uttaA v adin
.
im
.
karedi.

a;

a: ucyat am. vivaks


.
itam
.
hy anuktam anut apam
.
janayati.
iii\axvao

a:

ten
.
a hi sun
.
adu mah aAr ao.

,.c
i

a;

a: avahito smi.
iii\axvao

a:

iam
.
n
.
o sah tumam
.
yeva uddisia bhaavad a
Maan
.
en
.
a imam
.
disam
.
avatthAantaram
.
n
.
d a. t a arahasi
abbhuvatte se jvidam
.
avalambidum
.
.

a;

a: anugr
.
hto smi.

saxuxrai

a: (saBsmitam)

hal a! alam
.
vo anteA uraA vih araA pa-
yyussuen
.
a r aA esin
.
a uvaruddhen
.
a!

a;

a: sundari!
,.,
:
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
axas u\a: (in private) Priyamvada! What do you mean in
due course? Look! Our dear friend is staring like a pea-
hen revived in a ash by the rumbling sound of clouds.
suax uxraia: (Remains bashful.)
iii\axvaoa: Favored lord! Your mutual love is obvious,
but aection for my friend makes me want to state the
obvious.
xixc: Speak up. Not saying what is on your mind leads to
regret.
iii\axvaoa: Then may the great king lend me an ear. ,.c
xixc: I am attentive.
iii\axvaoa: This friend of ours has been reduced to this
state by the God of love because of you. Therefore you
must be so kind as to save her life.
xixc: I would be honored.
suax uxraia: (smiling) My friend! Stop making trouble for
the royal sage who is restless to enjoy himself in his
zenana.
xixc: Fair one!
,.,
:,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
idam ananyaApar ayan
.
am anyath a
hr
.
dayaAsam
.
nihite hr
.
dayam
.
mama
yadi samarthayase madirA eks
.
an
.
e
madanaAb an
.
aAhato pi hataf punah
.
.
axas u\a:

vaassa! bahuA vallabh a r a an
.
o sun
.
anti. jadh a n
.
o
sah bandhuAan
.
e asoan
.
a bhodi tadh a n
.
ivv ahehi.

a;

a: bhadre!
parigrahaAbahutve pi
dve pratis
.
t
.
he kulasya me
dharmen
.
ollekhit a Laks
.
mh
.
sakh ca yuvayor iyam.
unui:

an
.
uggahida mha.

,.,c

saxuxrai

a:

hal a! maris avedha loaAv alam
.
jam
.
kim
.
ca amhe-
him
.
uva ar A adikkamen
.
a vsambha A pal avin
.
him
.
bhan
.
i-
dam
.
.

saxu\au:

jen
.
a tam
.
mantidam
.
so maris avedu. an
.
n
.
assa ja-
n
.
assa ko accao? parokkham
.
ko v a kim
.
n
.
a mantedi?

a;

a: (saBsmitam)
apar adham imam
.
tatah
.
sahis
.
ye
eyadi rambhA oru tav a ngaArecitA ardhe
kusumA astaran
.
e klamA apaham
.
me
sujanatv ad anumanyase vak asam.
:,c
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
You whose eyes intoxicate like wine,
you who are sheltered within my heart,
if you should believe this heart of mine
which is intent on no other to be otherwise,
then, already wounded by Loves arrow,
I am wounded again.
axas u\a: My friend! We hear that kings have many con-
sorts. Conduct yourself so that our friend is not to be
pitied by her kinsfolk.
xixc: Fair one!
Though I may take many wives,
two will support my lineage,
the Goddess of fortune made manifest
by righteousness,
and this friend of yours.
noru: We are obliged. ,.,c
suax uxraia: Friends! Youmust pleadfor the world-protec-
tors pardon, for the things we said, when, overstepping
the bounds of courtesy, we chattered in private.
iiiixos: Only a person with whom one converses can par-
don. Who else can be oended? Who might not be
saying who knows what behind your back?
xixc: (smiling)
I can tolerate this transgression, provided,
O smooth-thighed girl, you make some space
for me,
as a friend, on this ower bed half vacated
by your limbs.*
:,:
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
iii\axvao

a:

ettien
.
a un
.
a de tut
.
t
.
h bhave?

,.,,

saxuxrai

a: (saBros
.
am iva)

virama dullalide! ed avatth ae vi
me kl
.
asi.

axas u\

a: (bahir vilokya)

Piam
.
vade, esa miaApodao ido ta-
do din
.
n
.
aAdit
.
t
.
h ussuo n
.
un
.
am
.
m adaram paribbhat
.
t
.
ham
.
an
.
n
.
esadi. t a sam
.
jojassam
.
d ava enam
.
.

(ity uttis
.
t
.
hati.)
iii\axvao

a:

n
.
am
.
cavalao kkhu eso! e ain
.
n
.
iojedum n
.
a
p aresi. t a aham
.
pi de an
.
uvat
.
t
.
idum
.
karassam
.
.

(ubhe pra-
sthite.)

saxuxrai

a:

hal a! an
.
n
.
adar a vo gacchadu! an
.
n
.
adh a asaran
.
a
mhi.

unui: (saBsmitam)

jo puhave saran
.
am
.
so tuha samve.

(iti ,.:cc
nis
.
kr ante.)

saxuxrai

a:

kadham
.
gadam
.
yeva?

a;

a: alam avegena. nanv ayam ar adhayit a janas tava sakhA


bh umau vartate.
kim
.
stalaih
.
klamaAvinodibhir ardraAv at an
sa nc alay ami nalinAdalaAt alaAvr
.
ntaih
.
a nke nidh aya caran
.
av uta padmaAt amrau
sam
.
v ahay ami karabhA oru yath aAsukham
.
te?

saxuxrai

a:

n
.
a m an
.
an
.
e jan
.
e att an
.
aam
.
avar adhassam
.
.

(a-
vasth aBsadr
.
sam utth aya prasthit a.)
:,:
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
iii\axvaoa: But will that much be enough to satisfy you? ,.,,
suax uxraia: (as if angrily) Stop it, you precocious girl! You
poke fun at me even while I am in such a sorry state.
axas u\a: (looking outside) Priyamvada! This anxious fawn
is casting its eyes here and there. Surely he is looking for
his lost mother. I will go and reunite him. (With this she
stands up.)
iii\axvaoa: My, is he not frisky! Youll never catch him
alone. I will assist you. (Both set off.)
suax uxraia: My friends! Only one of you must go! Oth-
erwise I am helpless.
noru: (smiling) He who is the refuge of the world is with ,.:cc
you. (With this they exit.)
suax uxraia: What, they have just gone?
xixc: Do not be alarmed. Have not I, who try to win your
favor, taken the place of your friends?
Shall I stir up moist breezes
with cool lily-petal fans,
removing your languor?
Or shall I, laying your feet, red as lotuses,
on my lap, rub them to relieve you,
O smooth-thighed girl?
suax uxraia: I will not let myself disrespect a person I
ought to honor. (Gets up in a manner betting her condi-
tion and sets off.)
:,,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
i

a;

a: (avas
.
t
.
abhya) sundari! aparinirv an
.
o yam
.
divasa, iyam
.
,.:c,
ca te vasth a.
utsr
.
jya kusumaAsayanam
.
kadalAdalaAkalpitaAstanA avaran
.
a
katham atape gamis
.
yasi
parip an
.
d
.
uraApelavair a ngaih
.
?

saxuxrai

a:

sahAmettaAsaran
.
a kam
.
v a saran
.
assam?

a;

a: id anm
.
vrd
.
ito smi.

saxuxrai

a:

n
.
a kkhu ayyaAuttam
.
, devvam uv alah ami!

a;

a: kim anuk ulaAk arin


.
a up alabhyate daivasya? ,.::c

saxuxrai

a:

kadham
.
d an
.
im n
.
a uv alabhissam
.
jam
.
attan
.
o
an
.
sam
.
paraAgun
.
ehim
.
mam
.
oh asedi?

a;

a: (svaBgatam)
apy autsukye mahati na varaA
pr arthan asu prat ary ah
.
k a nks
.
antyo pi vyatikaraAsukham
.
k atar ah
.
svA a ngaAd ane
ab adhyante na khalu Madane-
n api labdhA aspadatv ad
ab adhante ManasiAjam api
ks
.
iptaAk al ah
.
kum aryah
.
.
:,
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
xixc: (stopping her) Fair one! The day is not yet ended, and ,.:c,
consider your condition.
How can you venture forth into the heat,
with your delicate limbs so pale,
forsaking your ower bed in this cloister,
shielding your breast with an armor of plantain
petals?
suax uxraia: My sole refuge is my friends. Whom can I
turn to for protection?
xixc: Now I am shamed.
suax uxraia: I do not reproach the king,* but fate.
xixc: Why should you reproach fate that so favors you? ,.::c
suax uxraia: Why should I not reproach that which mocks
me, who is not mistress of herself, with the virtues of
another?
xixc: (to himself )
Virgins, though they have a deep yearning,
frustrate the advances of their lovers;
though they crave the bliss of union,
they are fearful of yielding their bodies.
It is not so much that they are troubled by Love
once it has found a foothold, but that they,
wasting time, trouble Love.
:,,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox

Sakuntal a prasthit aiva.


i

a;

a: (svaBgatam) katham atmanaf priyam


.
na karis
.
ye? (ut- ,.::,
th ay opasr
.
tya pat
.
B ant ad avalambate.)

saxuxrai

a:

Porava! mu nca mam
.
!

a;

a: bhavati tad a mu nc ami.

saxuxrai

a:

kad a?

a;

a: yad a surataAj no bhavis


.
y ami.

saxuxrai

a:

maan
.
A avat
.
t
.
had
.
d
.
ho vi n
.
a attan
.
o kan
.
n
.
a aA an
.
o
,.::c
pahavadi. bh uyo vi d ava sahAan
.
am
.
an
.
um an
.
assam
.
.

a;

a: (muh urtam upavisya) tato moks


.
y ami.

saxuxrai

a: (kr
.
takaBkop a)

Porava, rakkha vinaam
.
! ido tado
iso sa ncaranti.

a;

a: (diso valokya) katham


.
prak asam asmi nirgatah
.
? (saB
sambhramam
.

Sakuntal am
.
muktv a tair eva padair niva-
rtate.)

saxuxrai

a: (stokam upagamya s B a ngaB bha ngam)



Porava!
an
.
icch aAp urao vi dam
.
san
.
aAmettaAsuhaAdo n
.
a te aam
.
jan
.
o
visumaridavvo.

a;

a: sundari,
,.::,
:,o
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
Shak untala is about to go.
xixc: (to himself ) Why should I not do what I wish? (Arises, ,.::,
approaches her and holds on to the hem of her garment.)
suax uxraia: P aurava! Let me go!
xixc: Lady, I will let you go.
suax uxraia: When?
xixc: When I have made love to you.
suax uxraia: Even if overwhelmed by passion, a daughter ,.::c
is not her own mistress. On top of that, I must ask my
friends permission.
xixc: (sits for a moment) Then I will let you go.
suax uxraia: (feigning anger) P aurava! Maintain decorum!
Seers pass by here.
xixc: (looking around) What? I have come out into the
open? (Startled, he lets go of Shak untala and retraces his
steps.)
suax uxraia: (approaching a little bit, with her body curved)
P aurava! Though I do not fulll your desire, giving you
only the pleasure of sight, you must not forget me.
xixc: O beautiful one!
,.::,
:,;
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
tvam
.
d uram api gacchant
hr
.
dayam
.
na jah asi me;
dinA avas anaAcch ay eva
puroAm ulam
.
vanasApateh
.
.

saxuxrai

a: (stokam iva gatv a)



haddh n
.
a me caran
.
a pu-
roA muh a pahavanti. imehim
.
ayya A uttassa kuravaehim
.
vavahid a pacch ado lad aA man
.
d
.
avaassa pekkhissam
.
d ava
se bh avA anubandham
.
.

(tath a karoti.)
i

a;

a: priye! m am evam anur agA aikaArasam


.
samutsr
.
jya pra-
sthit aiv asi nirapeks
.
am
.
gantum.
anirdayA opabhogyasya
r upasya mr
.
dunas tath a
d arun
.
am
.
khalu te cetah
.
sirs
.
asy eva bandhanam?

saxuxrai

a:

imam
.
sun
.
ia n
.
a me atthi vihavo gantum
.
.

,.:,c
i

a;

a: kim ih aham
.
samprati priy a A s unye karomi? gami-
s
.
y ami. (prasthito bh umim
.
vilokya) hanta! vy ahatam
.
me
gamanam.
man
.
iAbandhaAvigalitam idam
.
sa nkr antA osraAparimalam
.
tasy ah
.
hr
.
dayasya nigad
.
am iva me
mr
.
n
.
alaAvalayam
.
sthitam
.
puratah
.
(saBbahuBm anam adatte.)

saxuxrai

a: (hastam avalokya)

ammo! dubbalaA sid
.
hilad ae
pabbhat
.
t
.
ham
.
pi edam
.
mun
.
ala A valaam
.
mae n
.
a vin
.
n
.
a-
dam
.
.

:,
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
Even though you go far away
you do not leave my heart;
just as the shade of a tree, at the end of the day,
does not leave its eastern root.
suax uxraia: (walking a short distance) Alas! My feet have
no power to carry me forward. Concealed fromthe noble
lord by these k urabaka shrubs I will see what becomes
of his passion from behind the vine bower. (Does so.)
xixc: My love! You have forsaken me, whose only pleasure
is loving you, to depart indierently.
The heart within your tender gure,
which may not be enjoyed ruthlessly,
can it be* as hard as the casing of a shirsha ower?
suax uxraia: Hearing this I have no power to leave. ,.:,c
xixc: What use is this place, desolate without my beloved? I
will leave. (sets out, looks at the ground) Alas! My departure
is checked.
This is her bracelet of lotus bers before me,
fallen from her wrist,
perfumed with ushra,
as if it were a chain for my heart.
(Picks it up reverentially.)
suax uxraia: (looking at her hand) Oh no! I failed to note
that my ber bracelet has fallen o, loosened by my
emaciation.
:,,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
i

a;

a: (valayB abharan
.
am urasi vinyasya) aho sukhaAsparsah
.
!
anena llA abharan
.
ena te priye ,.:,,
vih aya k antam
.
bhujam atra tis
.
t
.
hat a
janah
.
sam asv asita es
.
a duh
.
khaAbh ag
acetanen api sat a na tu tvay a.

saxuxrai

a:

ado avaram
.
asamattha mhi vilambidum
.
. bho-
du, eden
.
a yyeva vavadesen
.
a se att an
.
aam
.
dam
.
sassam
.
.

(ity upagacchati.)
i

a;

a: (dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a, saBhars
.
am) aye! jvitA esvar me pr apt a. paride-
vitA anantaram
.
pras aden opakartavyo smi khalu daiva-
sya.
pip as aAks
.
amaAkan
.
t
.
hena
y acitam
.
c alpaAy acin a
navaAmeghA ojjhit a c asya
dh ar a nipatit a mukhe.

saxuxrai

a: (r aj naf pramukhe sthit a)



a nga! addhaA padhe
sumaria edassa hatthaAbbham
.
sin
.
o mun
.
alaAvalaassa kade
san
.
n
.
iatta mhi. acakkhidam
.
via me hiaen
.
a tae gahidam
.
ti.
t a khiva idam
.
. m a mun
.
yAan
.
e att an
.
aam
.
mam
.
ca suassasi.

a;

a: eken abhisandhin a pratyarpayeyam. n anyath a. ,.:c

saxuxrai

a:

ken
.
a?

a;

a: yad dam aham eva yath aAsth anam


.
nivesaye.

saxuxrai

a: (svaBgatam)

k a gad!

:oc
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
xixc: (laying the bracelet on his chest) Ah! How soothing its
touch.
With this playful ornament, O my beloved, ,.:,,
which slipped from your adored arm
and remained here,
this wretched person has been comforted,
even thought it is inanimate
though not by you.
suax uxraia: I am powerless to hold back any longer! Let
me see. I will go to him under this very pretext. (With
this she approaches.)
xixc: (noticing her, joyfully) Ah! The mistress of my life
returns. After my laments, fate has granted me a favor.
Begged by one who asks but rarely,
his throat parched, a downpour
discharged by new-formed clouds
gushed upon his face.
suax uxraia: (facing the king) Hurry! When I was halfway,
I remembered that this ber bracelet had fallen from my
hand and I returned. It was as if my heart was telling me
that you had taken it. Therefore give it back, so that you
do not betray yourself and me to the hermits.
xixc: Ill hand it over on one condition, not otherwise.
,.:c
suax uxraia: What?
xixc: That I alone may fasten it in its place.
suax uxraia: (to herself ) How can I escape this!
:o:
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
i

a;

a: imam
.
sil aApat
.
t
.
am eva sam
.
sray avah
.
. (ubhau parikramy
opavis
.
t
.
au.)
i

a;

a: (

Sakuntal aBhastam ad aya svaBgatam) ,.:,


HaraAkopA agniAdagdhasya
daiven amr
.
taAvars
.
in
.
a
prarohah
.
sambhr
.
to bh uyah
.
kim
.
svit K amaAtaror ayam?

saxuxrai

a: (hars
.
aB roma ncam
.
r upayant)

tuvaraadu ayyaA
utto!

a;

a: (svaBgatam) id anm asmi visvasto bhartur abh as


.
an
.
ena.
(prak asam) sundari! n atislis
.
t
.
as sandhir asya mr
.
n
.
alaAva-
layasya. yadi te bhipr aya etad anyath a ghat
.
ayis
.
y ami.

saxuxrai

a: (vihasya)

k alaAkkhevo kusalo. jam
.
te roadi.

a;

a: (saBvy ajaBvilambitam; avamucy avalambya ca) sundari, ,.:,c


dr
.
syat am idam!
ayam hi te sy amaAlat aAmanoAharam
.
vises
.
aAsobhA artham iv ojjhitA ambarah
.
mr
.
n
.
alaAr upen
.
a navo nis aAkarah
.
karam
.
sametA obhayaAkot
.
ir asritah
.
.

saxuxrai

a:

n
.
a d ava n
.
am
.
pekkh ami, pavan
.
aAkampin
.
a kan
.
-
n
.
AuppalaAren
.
un
.
a kaluskad a me dit
.
t
.
h.

:o:
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
xixc: Lets go to this stone slab. (They both walk and sit
down.)
xixc: (taking Shak untalas hand, to himself ) ,.:,
Might this be a sprout of the tree of love, burned
by the re of Shivas anger, revived again
by a chance rain of nectar?
suax uxraia: (shows that her hair stands on end with delight)
Be quick, my noble lord!
xixc: (to himself ) Now I am assured by this address used
for a husband. (aloud) Beautiful lady! The clasp of this
lotus-ber bracelet is not very secure. If you wish, I will
fasten it dierently.
suax uxraia: (laughs) You are clever at delaying. However
you like it.
xixc: (contrives a delay; fastens it, then holds on to her) Look ,.:,c
at this, my beautiful one!
For this your arm, ravishing
like a dark vine,
appears as if graced
by the new moon
in the form of a ber bracelet,
who has rejected the sky
because of your hands superior beauty,
and nds himself spliced together
at both tips.
suax uxraia: I cannot really see it. I am blinded by pollen
from my ear-lotus, shaken by the breeze.
:o,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
i

a;

a: (saBsmitam.) yadi manyase tad aham en am


.
vadanaA
m arutena visad am
.
karis
.
ye.

saxuxrai

a:

an
.
ukampid a bhaveam
.
. kim
.
un
.
a n
.
a de vsas a-
mi.

a;

a: m a m aivam. navo hi parijanah


.
sevy an am ades at pa- ,.:,,
ram
.
na vartate.

saxuxrai

a:

eso yyeva de accuva aro avsambhaAjanao.

a;

a: n aham evam raman


.
yam atmanah
.
sevA avak asam
.
sithilayis
.
ye. (mukham unnamayitum
.
pravr
.
ttah
.
.)

saxuxrai

a: (k amaBpratis
.
edham
.
r upayant viharati.)
i

a;

a: aye! paryasrut am
.
te gatam
.
caks
.
uh
.
. alam asm an praty
avinayaAsa nkay a. unnyat am ananam!

saxuxrai

a: (kim
.
cid dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a sthit a.)
,.:oc
i

a;

a: (mukham unnamayy a ngulbhy am


.
, svaBgatam)
c arun
.
a sphuriten ayam
apariks
.
ataAkomalah
.
pip asato mam anuj n am
.
karoty eva priyA adharah
.
.

saxuxrai

a:

pad
.
in
.
n
.
adam
.
mantharo via ayyaA utto sam
.
vu-
tto.

a;

a: sundari! karn
.
A otpalaA sam
.
nikars
.
ad ks
.
an
.
aA s adr
.
syena
m ud
.
ho smi. (mukhaBm arutena netram
.
si ncati.)
:o
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
xixc: (smiling) If you permit I will blow upon it to clear it.
suax uxraia: I would become someone to be pitied. And,
anyway, I dont trust you!
xixc: Dont say that! For a new servant does not overstep ,.:,,
the orders of those whom he serves.
suax uxraia: Its your excessive servility that arouses my
distrust.
xixc: I will not let this delightful opportunity to make
myself useful slip through my ngers. (He begins to raise
up her face.)
suax uxraia: (Mimes resistance, then stops.)
xixc: Alas! Your eye is lled with tears! Do not fear mis-
conduct from me. Raise your face!
suax uxraia: (Casts him a partial glance.) ,.:oc
xixc: (raising her face with two ngers, to himself )
By its attractive trembling,
my beloveds lip,
tender because never bitten,
appears to invite me who thirsts for it.
suax uxraia: My noble lord seems hesitant to fulll his
promise.
xixc: My beautiful lady, because your ear-lotus is so close,
I was perplexed by its similarity to your eye. (He blows
on her eye.)
:o,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox

saxuxrai

a:

bhodu! padittha mhi sam
.
vutt a. lajj ami un
.
a ,.:o,
an
.
uva arin
.
piA arin
.
o ayyaAuttassa.

a;

a: kim anyat?
idam apy upakr
.
tam abale
surabhi mukham
.
may a yad aghr atam
. . . (saBsmitam) na tu kamalasya madhuAkarah
.
sam
.
tus
.
yati gandhaAm atren
.
a.

saxuxrai

a:

aAsantosen
.
a kim
.
karassasi?

a;

a: idam! (iti vyavasitah


.
.)
xiiaru\i: ayy a Godam! ,.:;c

saxuxrai

a: (karn
.
am
.
dattv a, saBsam
.
bhramam)

Porava! es a
mama sarraAvutt antA ovalabh aa t adassa dhammaAkan
.
as
uvatthid a. t a vid
.
avA antarido hohi.

a;

a: (tath a karoti.)
tataf pravisati p atraBhast a caurax.
caurax: (upasr
.
tya)

acc ahidam
.
. idha devad aAsah a a cit
.
t
.
ha-
si.

saxuxrai

a:

id anm
.
yeva M alin
.
im
.
avad
.
in
.
n
.
ao Piam
.
vad aA ,.:;,
miss ao.

caurax: (darbhB odakena



Sakuntal am abhyuks
.
ya) vatse, ni-
r ab adh a tvam
.
ciram
.
jva.

avi lahuaAsant av aim
.
de a ng a-
im
.
?

:oo
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
suax uxraia: That will do! I feel better now. But I am
,.:o,
ashamed that I render no service to my noble lord who
shows me such kindness.
xixc: What more could I want.
Even this is a favor, girl,
that I have smelled your fragrant face;
. . . (smiling) but the bee is not content
just with the scent of the lotus.
suax uxraia: If not content, what will you do?
xixc: This! (Stops at that moment.)
oiisraci: Venerable G autami!
,.:;c
suax uxraia: (listens, alarmed) P aurava! Fathers younger
sister-in-dharma has come to check on my well-being.
Hide among the shrubs!
xixc: (Does so.)
c

auraxi enters with a bowl in her hand.


c

auraxi: (approaching) Scandalous! Here you are with just


God to keep you company.
suax uxraia: Just now Priyamvada and company have de- ,.:;,
scended to the M alini.
c

auraxi: (sprinkles Shak untala with darbha water) Child,


live long in good health! Your limbs are but lightly
inamed?
:o;
suax uxraias iicocxiriox

saxuxrai

a:

atthi viseso.

caurax:

vacche parin
.
ado diaso. t a ehi. ud
.
aam yeva gac-
chamha.

saxuxrai

a: (apav arya)

hiaa, man
.
oAradhaAdullaham
.
jan
.
am
.
p avia k alaAharan
.
am
.
karesi, an
.
usaaAvighat
.
t
.
idassa kadham
.
de sam
.
padam
.
?

(pad ani gatv a, pratinivr


.
tya, prak asam)

la-
d aAgharaa! amantemi tumam
.
pun
.
o vi paribho aa!

(iti ni-
s
.
kr ante.)
i

a;

a: (p urvaBsth anam upetya, saBnih


.
sv asam) aho vighnava- ,.:c
tyaf pr arthitaAsiddhayah
.
. may a hi,
muhur a nguliAsam
.
vr
.
tA adharA os
.
t
.
ham
pratis
.
edhA aks
.
araAviklavA abhidh anam
mukham am
.
saAvivarti paks
.
malA aks
.
y ah
.
katham apy unnamitam
.
, na cumbitam
.
tu.
kva nu khalu s ampratam
.
gacch ami? atha v a ih aiva pri-
y a A paribhukte timukta A lat a A valaye sth asy ami. (sarvato
valokya.)
:o
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
suax uxraia: I feel better.
c

auraxi: Child, the day is at its end. So come! Let us go


to the cottage.
suax uxraia: (aside) O my heart, when you attained that
person, who is as unattainable as a wish, you strung him
along, so how can you now be tormented by remorse?
(walks a few steps, turns around, aloud) Bower of vines! I
bid you farewell until I may enjoy you again! (With this
they exit.)
xixc: (returns to his former position, sighing) Ah! The attain- ,.:c
ment of desires is beset with diculties. For
The face of the girl with long eyelashes,
its lower lip covered by her ngers repeatedly,
falteringly stammering syllables of denial,
averted to her shoulder;
I somehow managed to raise it up,
but it was not kissed.
Where shall I go now? Rather, I must remain right here in
the abandoned vine enclosure enjoyed by my beloved.
(Looking all around.)
:o,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
tasy af pus
.
paAmay sarraAlulit a
sayy a sil ay am iyam
k ante manmathaAlekha es
.
a nalinA
patre nakhair arpitah
.
hast ad bhras
.
t
.
am idam
.
bisA abharan
.
am ity
as adya hnA eks
.
an
.
an
nirgantum
.
sahas a na vetasaAgr
.
h ad
so smi s uny ad api.
h a h a dhik! na samyag aces
.
t
.
itam
.
may a priy am as adya k alaA
haran
.
am
.
kurvat a. id anm
.
rahah
.
Apraty asattim
.
,.:,
yadi suAvadan a y asyati punah
.
na k alam
.
h asy ami
pran
.
ayaAdurav ap a hi vis
.
ay ah
.
.
iti klis
.
t
.
am
.
vighnair
gan
.
ayati ca me m ud
.
haAhr
.
dayam
.
priy ay af pratyaks
.
am
.
kim api ca tath a k ataram idam.
xiiaru\i: r ajan! r ajan!
s ayam
.
tane savanaAkarman
.
i sampravr
.
tte
vedm
.
hutA asanavatm
.
paritaf prayast am
ch ay as caranti bahudh a bhayam adadh an ah
.
sam
.
dhyA abhraAk ut
.
aAkapis af pisitA asan an am.
:;c
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
This is her bed of owers upon the boulder,
disturbed by her body;
this is the love letter incised
on the lovely lily leaf with her nails;
this is the ornament of lotus laments
fallen from her hand
encountering these,
because they dim my eyes, I am powerless
to wrest myself away
from the reed enclosure, thought it be empty.
Alas! I did not do well by tarrying when I had my beloved.
Now
If the fair-faced girl should come ,.:,
to another secret rendezvous
I will not waste any time;
Prizes cannot be won as favors!
So schemes my foolish heart,
thwarted by complications,
but when face to face with my beloved
somehow it is nonetheless hesitant.
oiisraci: King! King!
The evening libation has commenced.
The shades of esh-eating demons, tawny
like the crests of twilight clouds,
prowl around the altar aring
with the sacricial re, spreading terror.
:;:
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
i

a;

a: (saB sambhramam.) bho bhos tapasvino! m a bhais


.
t
.
a!
ayam aham agato smi!
iti nis
.
kr antah
.
.
iti mah aAkaviAK alid asaAviracite
,.:,c

Sakuntal aAn amani n at


.
ake
trityo nkah
.
.
:;:
acr ruiii: rui iassiox
xixc: (alarmed) Ye hermits! Fear not, here I come!
Exit.
The end of the third act in the play called Shak untala, ,.:,c
composed by the great poet
Kalidasa.
:;,
Act Four:
The Farewell
tataf pravisatah
.
kusumB avacayam
.
n at
.
ayantyau tapasviBkan-
yake.
axas u\

a:

Piam
.
vade! ja vi gandhavven
.
a viv ahaA vihin
.
a n
.
i-
vuttaA kall an
.
a Sa untal a an
.
ur uvaA bhat
.
t
.
i A bh ain
.
sam
.
vutt a
tah a vi n
.
a n
.
ivuttam
.
me hiaam
.
.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

kadham
.
via?

axas u\

a:

ajja so r a a itthiAparisamatte ishim
.
visajjido atta-
n
.
o n
.
aaram
.
pavisia anteure idoAgadam
.
sumarissadi v a n
.
a
vatti.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

ettha vsatth a hohi. n
.
a t adis a aidiAvises a gu- .,
n
.
aAvirohin
.
o honti. itthiam
.
un
.
a cintan
.
ijjam
.
. t ado d an
.
im
.
im
.
am
.
vuttantam
.
sun
.
ia n
.
a j an
.
e kim
.
pad
.
ivajjissadi tti. . .

axas u\

a:

sahi! jadh a mam
.
pucchasi tadh a t adassa an
.
uma-
dam
.
piam
.
ca.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

kadham
.
via an
.
umadam
.
piam
.
ca?

axas u\

a:

kim
.
an
.
n
.
am
.
? gun
.
avade kan
.
n
.
a a pad
.
iv adadavva
tti aam
.
d ava pad
.
hamo se sa nkappo. tam
.
ja devvam
.
sam
.
-
p adedi n
.
am
.
appa asen
.
a kadAattho gurvAan
.
o.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

evan
.
An
.
Aedam
.
!

(pus
.
paBbh ajanam avalokya)

sa-
hi avacid aim
.
khu BaliAkammaApayyatt aim
.
kusum aim
.
.

axas u\

a:

sahi! Sa untal ae vi sohaggaAdevad ao accan
.
ao.

.:c
:;o
Enter the two hermit-daughters picking owers.
axas u\a: Priyamvada! Even though Shak untala has found
her happiness in a marriage of secret consent, winning a
worthy husband, nevertheless my heart is uneasy.
iii\axvaoa: How come?
axas u\a: Today, at the end of the sacrice, the seers have
dismissed the king. Returning to the womens apart-
ments in his city, will he remember what happened here
or not?
iii\axvaoa: You can rest assured about it. Men of such
.,
distinguished composure do not turn against their vir-
tues. But I am worried about this: When father hears of
this aair I do not know what will happen. . .
axas u\a: My dear! If you ask me, father will approve and
rejoice.
iii\axvaoa: What do you mean, approve and rejoice?
axas u\a: How could it be otherwise? My daughter should
be entrusted to a worthy suitor,such was his original
resolve. If fate itself has brought this about, then the
patriarch has achieved his purpose without eort.
iii\axvaoa: Thats right! (looking at her ower basket)
My dear! We have collected ample owers for the Bali-
oering.
axas u\a: My dear! The deities directing Shak untalas mar- .:c
ital harmony need to be worshipped, too.
:;;
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
iii\ax
.
vao

a:

jujjadi!

(tad eva karma n at


.
ayatah
.
.)
xiiaru\i: ayam aham
.
bhoh
.
!
axas u\

a: (srutv a)

sahi! adidhin
.
a via n
.
ivedidam
.
.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

sahi! n
.
am
.
ud
.
ajaAsan
.
n
.
ihid a Sa untal a.

axas u\

a:

am
.
, ajja un
.
a hiaen
.
a n
.
a san
.
n
.
ihid a.

.:,
iii\ax
.
vao

a: (saBtvaram
.
)

ten
.
a hi bhodu etti aim
.
kusum a-
im
.
.

(prasthit a.)
xiiaru\i: ah
.
! atithiAparibh avini!
vicintayant yam anAanyaAm anas a
yato tithim
.
vetsi na m am upasthitam
smaris
.
yati tv am
.
na sa bodhito pi san
kath am
.
pramattaf prathamam
.
kr
.
t am iva.
unui: (srutv a, vis
.
an
.
n
.
e)

haddh! yeva sam
.
vuttam
.
! kassim
.
pi
p uA arihe avaraddh a sun
.
n
.
aAhia a piaAsah.

axas u\

a: (avalokya)

n
.
a kkhu jassim
.
tassim
.
sulaha A kovo .:c
kkhu eso Duvv as a mahes hud aso via acalidaA p adA od-
dh ar ae gade gacchidum
.
pa utto.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

ko an
.
n
.
o hudavah ado dahidum
.
pahavissadi?
An
.
as ue! gaccha p aesu pad
.
ia pas aehi n
.
am
.
j ava aham
.
se
agghAA odaam
.
uvakappemi.

:;
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
iii\axvaoa: Of course! (They continue miming the same
action.)
niuixo rui scixis: Ho, here I am!
axas u\a: (listening) My dear! It sounds like a guest an-
nouncing himself.
iii\axvaoa: My dear! Surely Shak untala is near the hut.
axas u\a: Yes, but today she is not present with her heart. .:,
iii\axvaoa: (hastily) Then this quantity of owers will
have to suce. (Sets off.)
niuixo rui scixis: Ah! Derider of guests!
He on whom you mused so single-mindedly,
wherefore you did not perceive
me, come as a guest,
he will not remember you even if reminded,
just as a drunkard does not recall
what was just said.
noru: (listening, dejected) Alas! It has already happened!
Our empty-heartedfriendhas oendedsomeone worthy
of respect.
axas u\a: (looking) Oh no! Not just anyoneit is the great .:c
seer Durv asas. Quick to lose his temper, he is making
o with unfaltering strides like a re.
iii\axvaoa: Who other than re himself has power to
burn? Anas uya! Throw yourself at his feet to calm him
while I prepare the welcome-water.
:;,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
axas u\

a: (nis
.
kr ant a.)
iii\ax
.
vao

a: (padB antare skhalitam


.
nir upya)

ammo! aveaA
kkhalid ae pabbhat
.
t
.
ham
.
aggaAhatth ado pupphaAbh aan
.
am
.
me. t a pun
.
o vi avacin
.
issam
.
.

(tath a karoti.)
(pravisya) axas u\

a:

sahi, sarraA baddho via kovo kassa so
an
.
un
.
aam
.
gen
.
hadi? kim ca un
.
a sA an
.
ukkoso kado.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

tassim
.
bahuam
.
edam
.
. tado kadhehi kadham
.
.:,
via.

axas u\

a:

jad a n
.
ivattidum
.
n
.
a icchadi tad a vin
.
n
.
avido mae:
bhaavam
.
! pad
.
hamaAbhattim
.
avekkhia ajja tuha ppah a-
vaAvin
.
n
.
adaAs amatthassa duhid aAjan
.
assa bhaavad a avar aho
marisidavvo tti.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

tado tado?

axas u\

a:

tado: n
.
a me vaan
.
am an
.
n
.
adh a bhavidum
.
ariha-
di, aharan
.
A ahin
.
n
.
an
.
aAdam
.
san
.
en
.
a me s avo n
.
ivattissidi tti
mantaanto yyeva antarihido.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

sakkam
.
d an
.
im
.
assasidum. atthi ten
.
a r aA esin
.
a
sampatthiden
.
a saAn
.
amaA heAa nkidam
.
a ngulam
.
sumara-
n
.
am
.
ti Sa untal ae saam
.
yyeva hatthe pin
.
addham
.
. tassim
.
ca sA ahn
.
e aam
.
uv ao bhavissadi tti.

(parikr amatah
.
.)
axas u\

a:

hal a Piam
.
vade! pekkha pekkha! v amaAhatthA ova- .,c
n
.
ihidaAvaan
.
a alihid a via sah bhat
.
t
.
iAgad
.
ae cint ae att an
.
aam
.
vi es a n
.
a vibh avedi kim
.
un
.
a agantuam
.
?

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

hal a An
.
as ue! don
.
ham yyeva amhesu eso s a-
vaAvuttanto cit
.
t
.
hadu. rakkhan
.
a khu padiApelav a sah.

:c
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
axas u\a: (Exit.)
iii\axvaoa: (takes a step and stumbles) Oh no! Stumbling
in my haste, the ower basket has slipped through my
ngers. I will have to gather them again.* (Does so.)
(enter) axas u\a: My dear, he is like an incarnation of wrath:
Whose apologies will he accept? But he showed some
mercy.
iii\axvaoa: For him that is quite a lot. Tell me, how did .:,
it happen?
axas u\a: Whenhe did not want to come back I said to him:
Your holiness! Consider her former devotion, forgive
now this oense of your daughter whose worthiness you
can perceive by your powers.
iii\axvaoa: What then?
axas u\a: Then, saying, What I have said cannot but come
true; my curse will be lifted by the sight of a token of
recognition, he vanished.
iii\axvaoa: We can breathe now. There is a ring that the
departing royal sage himself put on Shak untalas hand
as a memento. As long as it stays with her this remedy
will work. (Walk about.)
axas u\a: Dear Priyamvada, look, look! Our friend, her .,c
face resting on her left hand, looks like a painting. With
her thoughts engrossed in her husband, she is not even
mindful of herself, how much less of a stranger arriving?
iii\axvaoa: Dear Anas uya! This aair of the curse must
remain between you and me. We have to protect our
tender-hearted friend.
::
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
axas u\

a: ko d an
.
im
.
un
.
hA odaen
.
a n
.
avaAm aliam
.
si ncadi.
iti nis
.
kr ante.
pravesakah
.
.
tataf pravisati suptB otthitah
.
K asyapaBsis
.
yah
.
. .,,
x

s\aia

sis
.
\au
.
: velA opalaks
.
an
.
A artham adis
.
t
.
o smi tatra A
bhavat a Prabh as at pratinivr
.
tten op adhy ayaAK asyapena.
tat pr ak asyam
.
nirgatya t avad avalokay ami kim avasis
.
t
.
am
.
rajany a iti. (parikramy avalokya) hanta prabh atam. tath a
hi
karkandh un am upari tuhinam
.
ra njayaty agraAsandhy a
d arbham
.
mu ncaty ut
.
ajaApat
.
alam
.
vtaAnido may urah
.
vediApr ant at khuraAvilikhit ad
utthitas c ais
.
a sadyah
.
pasc ad uccair bhavati harin
.
o
g atram ayaccham anah
.
.
api ca,
p adaBny asam
.
ks
.
itiAdharaAguror
m urdhni kr
.
tv a Sumeroh
.
kr antam
.
yena ks
.
apitaAtamas a
madhyamam
.
dh ama Vis
.
n
.
oh
.
so yam
.
candraf patati gagan ad
alpaAses
.
air may ukhaih
.

d urA aroho bhavati mahat am


apy apabhram
.
saAnis
.
t
.
hah
.
.
::
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
axas u\a: Who now would sprinkle hot water on a jasmine
vine?
Exeunt ambo.
End of the prelude.
Enter a disciple of K ashyapa, arisen from sleep. .,,
oisciiii: His reverence K ashyapa, returned formPrabh asa,
has sent me to check what time it is. Going out into the
open, I will see what remains of the night. (walks about,
looking) Ah! The dawn breaks. For,
The breaking dawn reddens
the mist hanging over the jujube trees,
the peacock, shaking o sleep, leaves
the darbha thatch of the cottage,
and this antelope, jumping up with a start
from the hoof-scratched verge of the altar,
then stretching its limbs, stands upright.
Moreover,
He who had cast down his rays : placed his feet
upon the peak of Sum eru,
greatest of mountains,
he who, dispelling darkness, reached
the middle station of Vishnu,
that moon now falls from the sky
with but few remaining rays
the towering ascendancy of even the great
ends with a downfall.
:,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
yat satyam
.
s ury aAcandramasau jagato sya sampadAvipattyor .c
anityat am
.
darsayata iva. tath a ca
y aty ekato staAsikharam
.
patir os
.
adhn am
avis
.
kr
.
tA arun
.
aApurah
.
sara ekato rkah
.
tejoAdvayasya yugapad vyasanA oday abhy am
loko niyamyata iv atmaAdasA antares
.
u.
api ca asmin k ale
antarAhite sasini s aiva kumudvat me
dr
.
s
.
t
.
im
.
na nandayati sam
.
smaran
.
yaAsobh a
is
.
t
.
aAprav asaAjanit any abal aAjanasya
duh
.
kh ani n unam atim atraAdurutsah ani.
tataf pravisaty apat
.
Bks
.
epen

Anas uy a.
axas u\

a:

evam
.
vi n
.
ama visayaAparam
.
muhassa vi edam
.
n
.
a .,
vididam
.
jadh a ten
.
a ran
.
n
.
a Sa untal ae an
.
Aayyad a aaridavva
tti.

sis
.
\au
.
: y avad upasthit am
.
vel am
.
niveday ami. (iti nis
.
kr an-
tah
.
.)
axas u\

a:

pad
.
ibuddh a vi kim
.
karassam
.
? n
.
a me utthid ae
cintidesu pabh adaA v av aresu hatth a p ad a v a pahavanti.
saA k amo d an
.
im
.
k amo bhodu, jen
.
a sin
.
iddhaA hia a sah
asaccaA sandhe jan
.
e padam
.
k arid a. (smr
.
tv a) adha v a n
.
a
tassa r aA esin
.
o avar aho Duvv asaAkovo ettha vippakaredi.
an
.
n
.
adh a kadham
.
t adiso r aA es t adis aim
.
van
.
aim
.
mantia
:
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
The sun and moon seemingly show to this world that pros- .c
perity and misfortune are impermanent,a truth. For,
On one side the moon, lord of the herbs, descends
to the western horizon-mountain,
on the other side the sun has appeared,
heralded by dawn;
by the simultaneous descent and rise
of the two luminaries
the world is bound to the uctuations of life.
Moreover, at this time,
When the moon has disappeared,
the same lily pond no longer gladdens my eyes,
its beauty remaining only in memory;
no doubt, the sorrows caused by the absence
of her beloved are exceedingly hard to bear
for a powerless woman.
Enter Anas uya with a toss of the curtain.
axas u\a: Even the sage averse to pleasures did not know .,
how ignobly the king would behave toward Shak untala.
oisciiii: I will announce that it is time. (Exit.)
axas u\a: Though I am awake, what can I do? Now that I
am up, my hands and feet lack the strength to carry out
the early morning tasks I had planned. May Love be ap-
peased, now that my tenderhearted friend has placed her
condence in a person untrue to his word. (remember-
ing) Or, rather, the royal sage is not at fault, the anger of
Durv asas is here countermanding him. Otherwise, how
:,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
ettiassa k alassa lehaAmettaam
.
vi n
.
a vissajjassadi? (vicin-
tya) ido a ngulam
.
se ahin
.
n
.
an
.
am
.
visajjema. adha v a duk-
khaAsle tavassiAan
.
e ko abbhatthadu. n
.
a a sahiAgaman
.
en
.
a
doso tti vavasidam
.
d an
.
im
.
p aremha, Pah asaA n
.
ivvuttassa
t adaA Kassavassa DussantaA parin
.
dam
.
avan
.
n
.
aA sattam
.
ko
vi Sa untalam
.
n
.
ivedassadi? ittham
.
A gade kim
.
n
.
u kkhu
amhehim
.
k adavvam
.
?

tataf pravisati Priyam


.
vad a.
iii\ax
.
vao

a:

An
.
as ue. Sa untal ae patth an
.
aAkodu aim
.
karan-
ti.

axas u\

a:

sahi. kadham
.
n
.
edam
.
?

.,c
iii\ax
.
vao

a:

An
.
as ue, sun
.
u. id an
.
im
.
suhaAsadaAvibuddh ae
Sa untal ae samvam
.
gada mhi j ava tam
.
lajjA avan
.
ada-
muhim
.
parissajia t adaA Kassavo saam
.
ahin
.
andadi: dit
.
-
t
.
hi a dh umA ovaruddhaAdit
.
t
.
hin
.
o vi jan
.
assa p avake yyeva
ahud pad
.
id a. suA sissaA pad
.
ip adid a via bijj a asoan
.
ijj asi
me sam
.
vutt a. t a ajja yyeva isiApariggihdam
.
tumam
.
bha-
t
.
t
.
in
.
o sa asam
.
visajjemi tti.

axas u\

a:

adha ken
.
a acakkido t adassa aam
.
Sa untal aA vu-
ttanto?

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

t adassa aggi A saran
.
e pavit
.
t
.
hassa kila sarram
.
vin
.
a chandovade v a ae.

:o
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
could such a royal sage, speaking such words as he did,
not send even a letter after such a long time? (pondering)
We will send him the ring from here to remind him. But
whom among the hermits, familiar only with penitence,
dare we ask? And, because he will assume: The fault
lies with her friends! we are powerless. Who can tell
father K ashyapa, who has returned from Prabh asa, that
Shak untala is wedded to Dushy anta and pregnant. This
being the situation, what can we do about it?
Enter Priyamvada.
iii\axvaoa: Anas uya! The ceremonies for Shak untalas
departure are under way.
axas u\a: My dear! How come? .,c
iii\axvaoa: Anas uya, listen. Just now I went to Shak un-
tala, who had awoken from a restful sleep when father
K ashyapa embraced her, as she bowed with bashfulness,
and congratulated her: Luckily, though his vision was
obscuredby smoke, his oblationhas falleninto the sacred
re. Like wisdom imparted to a bright pupil, you have
not become a cause of grief to me. So this very day I will
send you, escorted by seers, to your husband.
axas u\a: Well, then, who told father about Shak untalas
aair?
iii\axvaoa: A disembodied voice, in Vedic verse, when
father had entered the re-sanctuary.
:;
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
axas u\

a: (saBvismayam)

kadham
.
via?

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

sahi, sun
.
u.

(Sam
.
skr
.
tam asritya pat
.
hati. . . ) .,,
Dus
.
yanten ahitam
.
vryam
.
dadh an am
.
bh utaye bhuvah
.
avehi tanay am
.
brahman
agniAgarbh am
.
samm iva.
axas u\

a: (saBhars
.
am
.
Priyam
.
vad am aslis
.
ya)

sahi, piam
.
me,
kim
.
tu Sa untal a n
.
adi tti ukkan
.
t
.
h aAs ah aran
.
am
.
khu d a-
n
.
im
.
paridosam
.
samuvvah ami.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

ukkan
.
t
.
ham
.
vin
.
odass amo. s a d an
.
im
.
n
.
ivvud a
bhodu.

axas u\

a:

ten
.
a hi imassim
.
c udaAs ahA avalambie n arielaAsa-
muggae tan
.
A n
.
imittam
.
yyeva k alA antaraA kkham a khitt a
mae saA kesaraA gun
.
a. te tumam
.
hatthaA san
.
n
.
ihide karehi
j ava aham
.
se maaAgoroan
.
am
.
titthaAmittiam
.
duvv aAkisala-
aim
.
ma ngalaAsam alahan
.
Aattham
.
viraemi.

(iti nis
.
kr ant a.)
iii\ax
.
vao

a: (n at
.
yena sumanaso gr
.
hn
.
ati.) .oc
xiiaru\i: adisyant am
.

S ar ngaravaA misr ah
.

SakuntalA ana-
yan aya sajjbhavat eti.
iii\ax
.
vao

a: ( akarn
.
ya)

An
.
as ue! tuvara tuvara! ede kkhu
Hatthin
.
A oraAg amin
.
o iso sajjAbhavanti tti.

(pravisya sa-
m alabhanaBhast a.)
axas u\

a:

sahi, ehi, gacchamha.

(ubhe parikr amatah


.
.)
:
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
axas u\a: (astonished) What did it say?
iii\axvaoa: My dear, listen. (Recites in Sanskrit. . . ) .,,
Know O Brahman, that for the welfare
of the world your daughter bears
the virility deposited by Dushy anta,
like a shami tree holding re within it.
axas u\a: (joyfully embraces Priyamvada) My dear, I am so
happy, but, realizing that Shak untala is being led away,
I now feel a joy that is the same as yearning.
iii\axvaoa: We must dispel our grief. Let her be happy
now.
axas u\a: Well, then, in the coconut-shell box hanging
from the branches of that mango tree I have kept for
this very purpose some lotus bers* suitable for storage.
Take them with your hands while I mix yellow antelope
orpiment, clay from the sacred ford and durva shoots
for an auspicious unguent for her. (With this, she exits.)
iii\axvaoa: (Mimes picking up owers.) .oc
oiisraci: Instruct Sharngarava and his companions: Pre-
pare to escort Shak untala!
iii\axvaoa: (listening) Anas uya, hurry, hurry! The seers
are preparing to depart for Hastnapura. (Enters with
unguent in her hands.)
axas u\a: My dear! Come, lets go! (Both walk about.)
:,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
iii\ax
.
vao

a: (vilokya)

es a khu suyyA odae yyeva visajjid a
pad
.
icchidaA n
.
v araA bh aan
.
aim
.
t avashim
.
ahin
.
andam an
.
a
Sa untal a cit
.
t
.
hadi. t a uvasappamha n
.
am
.
.

(tath a kuru-
tah
.
.)
(tataf pravisati yath aBnirdis
.
t
.
B asanaBsth a

Sakuntal a, Gautam, .o,
t apasyas ca.)
ix

a r

aias:

j ad
.
e! bhat
.
t
.
in
.
o bahuA m an
.
aA uttaam
.
mah aA devA
saddam
.
adhigaccha!

ax\

a:

vacche! vraApasavin
.
hohi!

asis
.
o dattv a GautamBvarjam
.
nis
.
kr ant ah
.
.
saxu\au: (upagamya)

sahi! sumajAjanam
.
de hodu.

saxuxrai

a: (dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a sB adaram
.
)

sA aadam
.
piaA sahn
.
am
.
. ido .;c
n
.
isdadha.

unui: (upavisya)

hal a Sa untale! ujjuaA gad a hohi j ava de
ma ngalaAsam aladdham
.
a ngam
.
karadu.

saxuxrai

a:

udam idam
.
vi bahuman
.
idavvam
.
. dullaham
.
d an
.
im me sahAman
.
d
.
an
.
am
.
bhavissadi.

(rudaty uttis
.
t
.
ha-
ti.)
unui:

sahi! na de icchidavve ma ngala A k ale rodavvam
.
.

(asr un
.
i pramr
.
jya n at
.
yena pras adhayatah
.
.)
iii\ax
.
vao

a:

aharan
.
A arham
.
r uvam
.
assamaAsulahehim
.
pa-
s ahan
.
ehim
.
vippa aradi.

tataf pravisata up ayanaBhast av r


.
s
.
iBkum arakau. .;,
:,c
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
iii\axvaoa: (looking) There is Shak untala, being sent o
as soon as the sun rises, congratulated by nuns holding*
bowls of wild rice. So lets go up to her. (They do so.)
(Enter Shak untala, seated as described, together with G autami .o,
and nuns.)
iiisr xux: Child! Attain the title great queen in conse-
quence of your husbands high esteem.
axoruii xux: My dear! Give birth to a hero.
Exit after giving blessings, with the exception of G autami.
iiiixos: (approaching) My dear! May you be happy!
suax uxraia: (looks respectfully) Welcome, my dear friends. .;c
Be seated here.
noru: (sitting down) Dear Shak untala! Stand up while the
auspicious unguent is applied to your body.
suax uxraia: Though I am used to it I think highly of this.
Seldom, now, will I be adorned by my friends. (Rises
crying.)
noru: My dear! You must not cry at a longed for auspicious
occasion. (Wipe her tears and act adorning her.)
iii\axvaoa: Your beauty, deserving jewelry, is slighted by
the ornaments we can easily nd in a hermitage.
Enter two young sages with nery in their hands. .;,
:,:
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
i
.
s
.
iAxux

aiaxau: idam ala nk aran


.
am. t avad ala nkriyat am at-
raAbhavat.
tath a vilokya vismit ah
.
.
caurax:

vacca H arda. kudo edam
.
?

iiaruaxau
.
: t ataAK asyapaApras ad at.
caurax:

kim
.
m an
.
as siddh?

chnotekim
.
m anas siddhih
.
?
.c
ovir\au
.
: na khalu, sr uyat am! tatraAbhavat a vayam aj n api-
t ah
.

Sakuntal aA hetor vanasA patibhyah
.
kusum any aharat
eti. tata id anm
ks
.
aumam
.
kena cid induAp an
.
d
.
u tarun
.
a
m a ngalyam avis
.
kr
.
tam
nis
.
t
.
hy utas caran
.
A opabhogaAsulabho
l aks
.
aArasah
.
kena cit
anyebhyo vanaAdevat aAkaraAtalair
aAparvaAm ulA otthitaih
.
datt any abharan
.
ani nah
.
kisalayaA
ch ay aApratispardhibhih
.
.
iii\ax
.
vao

a: (

Sakuntal am
.
vilokya)

hal a! adbhudaAsampatt
s ud a, bhat
.
t
.
in
.
o gehe an
.
ubhavidavv a de r aaAlacch.

saxuxrai

a: (vrd
.
am
.
r upayati.)
axas u\

a:

sahi! kall an
.
in d an
.
im
.
si. kod
.
araA sam
.
bhav a via
.,
mahuAar pukkharaAmahum
.
ahilasasi.

iii\ax
.
vao

a: (man
.
d
.
ayant)

an
.
upahuttaAbh usan
.
o aam
.
jan
.
o.
cittaAkammaAparicaen
.
a d an
.
im
.
de a ngesu aharan
.
aAnioam
.
karedi.

:,:
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
rwo \ouxc sacis: Here are ornaments, so adorn her lady-
ship.
Look on astonished.
c

auraxi: Child, Harta! Where does this come from?


iiisr: From the grace of father K ashyapa.
c

auraxi: A mind-born accomplishment? .c


sicoxo: Not at all, listen! We were ordered by his reverence
to gather owers from the trees for Shak untala. Now
there,
One tree produced an auspicious linen garment,
pale like the moon;
one exuded red lac juice, ready to apply to the feet;
others oered us ornaments with the hands
of forest deities stretching out as far as the wrists,
rivalling the beauty of new shoots.
iii\axvaoa: (looking at Shak untala) My dear! This beto-
kens incredibly good fortune, you will enjoy royal for-
tune in the house of your huband.
suax uxraia: (Mimes bashfulness.)
axas u\a: My dear! Now you are beautiful! Like a female .,
bee born in a hollow, you long for lotus-honey.
iii\axvaoa: (adorning) I have never worn such nery, so
I will place the ornaments on you according to what I
have seen in paintings.
:,,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox

saxuxrai

a: (saBsmitam)

j ane vo n
.
iunattan
.
am
.
.

ubhe n at
.
yen abharan
.
am amu ncatah
.
.
i
.
s
.
iA xux

aiau
.
: Gautama, ehi. abhis
.
ek ad avatrn
.
aya t ataAK a-
syap aya vanasApatiAsev am
.
niveday avah
.
.
ovir\a: evam
.
kurvah
.
. (iti nis
.
kr antau.)
.,c
tataf pravisati sn anB otthitah
.
K asyapah
.
.
x

s\aiau
.
: (nih
.
svasya)
y asyaty adya

Sakuntal eti hr
.
dayam
.
sam
.
spr
.
s
.
t
.
am utkan
.
t
.
hay a
kan
.
t
.
hah
.
stambhitaAb as
.
paAvr
.
ttiAkalus
.
ah
.
cint aAjad
.
am
.
darsanam
vaiklavyam
.
mama t avad dr
.
sam idam
.
sneh ad aran
.
yA aukasah
.
pd
.
yante gr
.
hin
.
ah
.
katham
.
na tanay aA
visles
.
aAduh
.
khair navaih
.
.
(parikr amatah
.
) saxu\au:

hal a Sa untale. avasidaAman
.
d
.
an
.

asi. paridhehi sam


.
padam
.
imam
.
pavittam
.
khomaA n
.
im-
moam
.
.

saxuxrai

a: (lat aB gr
.
h an nirgatya paridh aya punaf pravisy .,,
opavis
.
t
.
a.)
x

s\aiau
.
: (upasarpati.)
:,
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
suax uxraia: (smiling) I know your skill.
Both act the fastening of ornaments.
\ouxc siii: G autama, come! Let us tell father K ashyapa
who has gone down for his ablutions about the generos-
ity of the trees.
sicoxo: Let us do so. (With this, they exit.) .,c
Enter K ashyapa arisen from his bath.
x

asu\aia: (sighing)
Today departs Shak untala, realizing this
my heart is touched by yearning,
my throat is sore with suppressed tears;
my vision is dulled by worry.
If such be the melancholy produced by aection
even for me, a forest-dwelling hermit,
then how must not householders be crushed
by the fresh sorrows of separation
from their daughters.
(walking about) iiiixos: Dear Shak untala! Your adorn-
ment is complete. Now put on this linen garment.
suax uxraia: (Leaves the bower, puts it on, comes back in and .,,
sits down.)
x

asu\aia: (Approaches.)
:,,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
caurax:

eso de anandaAvapphaApariv ahin
.
a cakkhun
.
a pa-
rissajanto via gur u uvatthido. t a a aram
.
se pad
.
ivajja.

saxuxrai

a: (utth aya saBlajj a.)



t ada vand ami.

s\aiau
.
: vatse,
Yay ater iva

Sarmis
.
t
.
h a .:cc
bhartur bahuAmat a bhava
putram
.
tvam api samr ajam
.
s eva P urum sam apnuhi.
caurax:

bhaavam! varo kkhu eso, n
.
a ass a.

s\aiau
.
: vatse, itah
.
sadyo hut an agnn pradaks
.
in
.
Akuru-
s
.
va. (sarve parikr amanti.)
am vedim
.
paritah
.
kl
.
ptaAdhis
.
n
.
y ah
.
samidvantaf pr antaAsam
.
strn
.
aAdarbh ah
.
apaghnanto duritam
.
havyaAgandhaih
.
vait an as tv am
.
vahnayaf p alayantu.

saxuxrai

a: (pradaks
.
in
.
Bkaroti.)
x

s\aiau
.
: vatse! pratis
.
t
.
hasv ed anm. (saBdr
.
s
.
t
.
iBks
.
epam.) kva .:c,
te

S ar ngaravaAmisr ah
.
?
pravisya samam
.
trayah
.
.

sis
.
\

au
.
: bhagavann ime vayam.
:,o
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
c

auraxi: Here is your father, embracing you, as it were,


with eyes lled with tears of joy. Performyour salutation.
suax uxraia: (arises, bashfully) Father, I salute you.
x

asu\aia: Child,
Be honored by your husband, .:cc
as Sharmshtha was by Yay ati.
May you, too, bear a son to be emperor,
as she did to Puru.
c

auraxi: Your reverence! That was a boon not a blessing.


x

asu\aia: Child, from here quickly circumambulate the


res bearing oblations. (All walk about.)
May these res of the three rites protect you,
xed in the directions surrounding the altar,
fed with fuel, their verges strewn
with darbha grass,
dispelling evil by the scent of oerings.
suax uxraia: (Circumambulates in a clockwise direction.)
x

asu\aia: Child! Set out now. (casting a glance) Where are .:c,
you, Sharngarava and company?
Enter the three together.
oisciiiis: Your reverence, here we are.
:,;
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
x

s\aiau
.
:

S ar ngarava! bhaginy a m argam adesaya.

ai xcaiavau
.
: ita ito bhavat. (sarve parikr amanti.)
x

s\aiau
.
: vatse

Sakuntale. vij napyant am
.
sannihitaAdevat as .::c
tapoAvanaAtaravah
.
:
p atum
.
na prathamam
.
vyavasyati jalam
.
yus
.
m asv asiktes
.
u y a
n adatte priyaAman
.
d
.
an api bhavat am
.
snehena y a pallav an
adye vah
.
kusumaAprabodhaAsamaye
yasy a bhavaty utsavas
s eyam
.
y ati

Sakuntal a patiAgr
.
ham
.
sarvair anuj n ayat am.
xiiaru\i:
ramyA antarah
.
kamalaAkrn
.
aAjalais sarobhih
.
ch ay aAdrumair niyamitA arkaAmay ukhaAt apah
.
bh uy at kuseAsayaArajoAmr
.
duAren
.
ur asy ah
.
s antA anuk ulaApavanas ca sivas ca panth ah
.
.
sarve saBvismayam akarn
.
ayanti.
:,
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
x

asu\aia: Sharngarava, show your sister the way.


suaixcaiava: This way, this way, your ladyship. (All walk
about.)
x

asu\aia: Child Shak untala. Let it be known to the her-


.::c
mitage trees, harboring deities within:
She who was not willing to drink rst
if you had not been watered,
she who, though fond of ornaments,
would not pick buds out of aection for you,
for whom the occasion of the rst awakening
of your owers was a festival,
that Shak untala leaves for her husbands house,
given permission by all of you.
oiisraci:
May her path be pleasantly varied with ponds,
their water strewn with lotuses,
may it have the heat of the suns rays be warded o
by shady trees,
may it have dust soft as the pollen
of water-oating lilies,
may it have gentle and favorable breezes,
and may it be good.
All listen with amazement.
:,,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox

ai xcaiavau
.
:
.::,
anumataAgaman a

Sakuntal a
tarubhir iyam
.
vanaAv asaAbandhubhih
.
paraAbhr
.
taArasitam
.
priyam
.
yad a
prativacanAkr
.
tam ebhir atmanah
.
.
caurax:

j ade. n
.
adiAjan
.
aAsin
.
iddham
.
abbhan
.
un
.
n
.
adaAgama-
n
.
asi tavoAvan
.
aAdevad ahim
.
. t a pan
.
ama bhaavade.

saxuxrai

a: (tath a kr
.
tv a; parikramya, jan B antikam)

hal a
Piam
.
vade. ayyaAuttaAdam
.
san
.
A ossu ae vi assamam
.
paricca-
ante dukkhaAdukkhen
.
a me calan
.
a puroAmuh a pahavan-
ti.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:

n
.
a kevalam
.
tava viraha A payyussu aah
.
saho
yyeva. j ava tae uvatthidaA vioassa tavoA van
.
assa vi avek-
kham
.
avatthantaram
.
. tadh a a.

ullala dabbhaAkavalam
.
.::c
ma parsantaAn
.
accan
.
a mor
osariaApan
.
d
.
uAvatt a
dhuanti a ng ai va la ao.

saxuxrai

a:

t ada, lad aAbahin
.
iam
.
d ava m adhavim
.
amanta-
ssam
.
.

s\aiau
.
: avaimi te sy am
.
saudarya A sneham. im am
.
t am
.
daks
.
in
.
en amantrayat am
.
bhavat.

saxuxrai

a: (lat am upety ali ngya ca saB snehaB gadgadam.)

m ahavi. pacc ali nga mam


.
s ah aA maehim
.
b ah uhim
.
. ajjaA
pahudi d uraAvattin
.
de bhavissam
.
.

:cc
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
suaixcaiava:
.::,
Shak untala is permitted to depart by the trees,
her kinsfolk during her stay in the forest,
since they replied to you with the sweet call
of a cuckoo.
c

auraxi: Child! The hermitage deities have given you


leave, as aectionately as kinfolk. Bow to the Godesses.
suax uxraia: (does so; walks about, to her friends) Dear
Priyamvada! Though I am eager to see the noble lord,
as I leave the hermitage my feet move forward with great
anguish.
iii\axvaoa: It is not only your friends who are sad about
separation from you. As your departure approaches so
the penance grove, too, is seen to be in a sad state. For
The doe lets go its mouthful of darbha grass, .::c
the peacock is weary of dancing,
the vines, dropping yellow leaves,
seem to have trembling limbs.
suax uxraia: Father, I will bid farewell to my tendril-sister,
the m adhavi-vine.
x

asu\aia: I know your sisterly aection toward it. Greet it


here to your right.
suax uxraia: (approaches the vine and embraces it, stam-
mering affectionately) M adhavi! Embrace me with your
branch-arms. From today onward I will be far from you.
:c:
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
x

s\aiau
.
: vatse. iyam id anm
.
cintany a me. pasya
sa nkalpitam
.
prathamam eva may a tav arthe .::,
bhart aram atmaAsadr
.
sam
.
svaAgun
.
air gat a tvam,
asy as tu samprati varam
.
tvayi vtaAcintah
.
k antam
.
sampaAsahak aram aham
.
karis
.
ye.

saxuxrai

a: (sakhy av upetya)

es a don
.
ham
.
pi vo hatthe n
.
ik-
khevo.

saxu\au: (sB asram)



aam
.
jan
.
o d an
.
im
.
kassa sandit
.
t
.
ho.

(ru-
datah
.
.)
x

s\aiau
.
: Anas uye, alam
.
ruditv a. nanu bhavatbhy am

Sa-
kuntal a sth apayitavy a. (parikr amanti.)

saxuxrai

a: (vilokya)

t ada. es a ud
.
ajaA payyantaA c arin
.
ga-
bbhaA manthar a maaA vah u jad a asan
.
n
.
aA pasavin
.
bhave
tad a me kam
.
pi piam
.
n
.
ivedattaam
.
visajjassaha.

s\aiau
.
: vatse. n edam
.
vismaris
.
yate. .:,c

saxuxrai

a: (gatiBbha ngam
.
r upayati.)
saxu\au:

ko n
.
u kkhu eso m adaAkkanto via pun
.
o vasan
.
assa
antam
.
gen
.
hadi?

s\aiau
.
: vatse!
yasya tvay a vran
.
aAvirohan
.
am i ngudn am
.
tailam
.
nyas
.
icyata mukhe kusaAs uciAviddhe
sy am akaAmus
.
t
.
iAparivardhitako jah ati
so yam
.
na putrakaAkr
.
taf padavm
.
mr
.
gas te.
:c:
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
x

asu\aia: Child! She is my worry now. Look


What I rst had intended for you, .::,
a husband like yourself, you have attained
by your own merits.
Now that my worry about you is over,
I will make her a husband
out of this nearby mango tree.
suax uxraia: (approaches her friends) I entrust her into your
hands.
iiiixos: (tearfully) To whom are we entrusted? (They cry.)
x

asu\aia: Anas uya, stop crying. Should you not be sup-


porting Shak untala? (They walk on.)
suax uxraia: (looking) Father! When this doe, roaming at
the edge of the hut, slow with child, is about to give
birth, please send me someone to announce the happy
news.*
x

asu\aia: Child, this will not be forgotten. .:,c


suax uxraia: (Mimes that her movement has been inter-
rupted.)
iiiixos: Who can this be, who comes right up to her, as
it were, who takes hold of the end of her garment?
x

asu\aia: Child,
The deer into whose mouth,
pierced by kusha-grass spikes,
you sprinkled wound-healing ngudi oil,
who was raised with handfuls
of shy amaka-grains and adopted as a son,
he will not leave your footsteps.
:c,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox

saxuxrai

a: (dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a)

vaccha! kim
.
mam
.
sahaA v asaA paricc a- .:,,
in
.
im
.
kedava A sin
.
eham
.
an
.
n
.
esasi? acira A pas ud A ovarad ae
jan
.
an
.
e vin
.
a vad
.
d
.
hido si. id an
.
im
.
pi mae virahidam
.
tu-
mam
.
t ado cintassadi. t a pad
.
in
.
iattasu.

(rudat prasthit a.)


x

s\aiau
.
: vatse!
utpaks
.
man
.
or nayanayor uparuddhaAvr
.
ttim
.
b as
.
pam
.
kuru sthirataram
.
vihitA anubandham
asminn alaks
.
itaAnatA onnataAbh umiAbh age
m arge pad ani khalu te vis
.
amAbhavanti.

ai xcaiavau
.
: a udakA ant at snigdho nugamyata iti sma-
ryat am. tad idam
.
sarasAtram. atra sam
.
disya tataf prati-
gantum arhasi.
x

s\aiau
.
: tena h m am
.
ks
.
raAvr
.
ks
.
aAcch ay am asray amah
.
.
upavisya sarve tath a kr
.
tv a tis
.
t
.
hanti. .:c
x

s\aiau
.
: (apav arya) kim
.
nu khalu tatraAbhavato Dus
.
yan-
tasya yuktaAr upam asm abhih
.
sam
.
desyam? (cintayati.)
axas u\

a:

sahi! n
.
a so assame cintan
.
ijjo atthi jo tae viraha-
ante n
.
a ussukado ajja. pekkha d ava.

padamin
.
ApattAantariam
.
v ahariam
.
n
.
an
.
uv aharadi j aam
.
muhaAuvv ud
.
haAmun
.
alah
.
tayi dit
.
t
.
him
.
dei cakkA ao.

:c
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
suax uxraia: (looking) Child, why do you follow me, who .:,,
abandons her companions, whose aection is false. You
were raised without your mother, who passed away soon
after your birth; now, abandoned by me as well, father
will look after you. So turn back. (Sets off, weeping.)
x

asu\aia: Child!
Restrainthe owof your tears about to break loose,
which hinders the function of your eyes
with their upturned eyelashes.
Your steps are uncertain on this path,
where depressions andelevations cannot be seen.
suaixcaiava: Scriptures teach that a loved one should be
accompanied up to the edge of water. This, then, is the
bank of the lake. Please instruct us here and turn back.
x

asu\aia: Let us resort to the shade of this g tree.


All sit down and remain so.
.:c
x

asu\aia: (aside) Now, what would be an appropriate mes-


sage from us to his honor Dushy anta? (Reects.)
axas u\a: My dear! There is no one imaginable in the her-
mitage who has not been made despondent by your
departure. Look, here,
The chakravaka bird,
called by his wife hidden among the lotus leaves,
does not reply, scattering bers from his mouth,
he glances at you.
:c,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox

saxuxrai

a: (vilokya)

sahi. saccam
.
yeva n
.
alinApattAantari-
dam
.
piam
.
sahaAaram
.
avekkhant aduram
.
cakkaAv a ara-
sadi: dukkaram
.
khu aham
.
karemi.

iii\ax
.
vao

a:
.:,

ajja vi vin
.
a pien
.
am
.
gamaadi r aim
.
vis uran
.
aAdham
.
hanta garuam
.
pi dukkham
.
as aAbandho sahavedi.

s\aiau
.
:

S ar ngarava iti tvay a madAvacan at sa r aj a

Sakun-
tal am
.
purasAkr
.
tya vaktavyah
.
.

ai xcaiavau
.
: aj n apayatu bhagav an.
x

s\aiau
.
:
asm an s adhu vicintya sam
.
yamaAdhan an .:,c
uccaih
.
kulam
.
c atmanas
tvayy asy ah
.
katham apy ab andhavaAkr
.
t am
.
snehaApravr
.
ttim
.
ca t am
s am anyaApratipattiAp urvakam iyam
.
d ares
.
u dr
.
sy a tvay a
bh agyA adhnam ataf param
.
na khalu tat
strAbandhubhir y acyate.

ai xcaiavau
.
: gr
.
htah
.
sam
.
desah
.
.
x

s\aiau
.
: (

Sakuntal am
.
prati) vatse. tvam id anm anus asa-
ny a. pasya. vanA aukaso pi lokaAj n a vayam.

ai xcai

avau
.
: na khalu dhmat am
.
kas cid avis
.
ayo n ama.
:co
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
suax uxraia: (looking) Dear! It is true. The female chakra
vaki bird, not seeing her mate hidden by lotus leaves
nearby, cries out piteously: How I suer!
iii\axvaoa:
.:,
Today again she will pass the night,
long with suering, without her beloved.
The bond of hope sustains
even deep sorrow.
x

asu\aia: Sharngarava, you must speak to the king in my


name about Shak untala as follows.
suaixcaiava: Command, your reverence.
x

asu\aia:
Having well considered .:,c
us who are rich in self-control,
and the noble family of yourself,
her spontaneous ow of aection toward you,
unaided by the intervention of kinsfolk,
she ought to be regarded among your wives
with equal honor;
more than that depends on fate,
indeed a womans relatives do not beg for it.
suaixcaiava: I have memorized the message.
x

asu\aia: (to Shak untala) Child! You must now be in-


structed. Look, we are forest-dwellers yet know the ways
of the world.
suaixcaiava: Nothing is really beyond the ken of the
wise.
:c;
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
x

s\aiau
.
: vatse. s a tvam itaf patiAkulam av apya:
susr us
.
asva gur un kuru priyaAsakhA .:,,
vr
.
ttim
.
sapatnAjane
bhartur viprakr
.
t api ros
.
an
.
atay a
m a sma pratpam
.
gamah
.
bh uyis
.
t
.
ham
.
bhava daks
.
in
.
a parijane
bh agyes
.
v anutsekin
y anty evam
.
gr
.
hin
.
Apadam
.
yuvatayo
v am ah
.
kulasy adhayah
.
.
kim
.
v a Gautam bravti?
caurax:

ittiam
.
khu yyeva edam
.
vahuAan
.
e uvadeso.

Sa-
kuntal am
.
prati)

j ade, evam
.
khu avadh arehi.

s\aiau
.
: vatse. ehi paris
.
vajasva m am.

saxuxrai

a:

t ada. kim ido yyeva piaAsahio n
.
iattanti?

s\aiau
.
: vatse ime api pradeye. tan na yuktam anayos .:oc
tatr agantum. tvay a saha Gautam y asyati.

saxuxrai

a: (utth aya pitaram ali ngya)



kadham
.
d an
.
im
.
t a-
den
.
a virahid a kari A satthaA paribat
.
t
.
h a karen
.
u a via p an
.
a
dh arassam
.
.

(iti roditi.)
x

s\aiau
.
: kim evam
.
k atar asi.
:c
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
x

asu\aia: Child! When you have reached your husbands


family from here:
Obey your elders, be a fair friend .:,,
to your fellow wives;
though slighted by your husband do not
reciprocate with anger;
always be polite to servants, do not be arrogant
in your prosperity;
in this way young girls become the matron
of the family;
those who act contrary are the misfortune
of the family.
What does G autami say?
c

auraxi: That is all that needs to be taught to a bride. (To


Shak untala) Child, remember it well.
x

asu\aia: Child, come embrace me.


suax uxraia: Father, must my friends turn back right here?
x

asu\aia: Child, they too are to be given in marriage. .:oc


Therefore it is not proper for them to go there. G autami
will go with you.
suax uxraia: (gets up and embraces her father) How, sepa-
rated frommy father, like a female elephant strayed from
the herd, will I support my vital breath? (She cries.)
x

asu\aia: Why are you so cowardly?


:c,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
abhijanavato bhartuh
.
sl aghye sthit a gr
.
hin
.
Apade
vibhavaAgurubhih
.
kr
.
tyair asya pratiks
.
an
.
am akul a
tanayam acir at pr ac v arkam
.
pras uya ca p aranam
.
mama virahaAj am
.
na tvam
.
vatse sucam
.
gan
.
ayis
.
yasi.
api c edam avadh araya:
yad a sarrasya sarrin
.
as ca .:o,
pr
.
thaktvam ek antata eva bh av
ah aryaAyogena vibhajyam anaf
paren
.
a ko n ama bhaved vis
.
ad?
(

Sakuntal a pituf p adayof patati.)


x

s\aiau
.
: yad icchasi tat te stu.

saxuxrai

a: (sakhy av upagamya)

hal a! edha duve yyeva
mam
.
samam
.
parsaadham
.
!

saxu\au: (tath a kr
.
tv a)

sahi. so r a a ja paccahin
.
n
.
an
.
aAman-
tharo bhave tad a se imam
.
tadaAn
.
amaAheAa nkidam
.
a ngu-
lyaam
.
dam
.
sehi.

(ity a ngulyakam
.
dattah
.
.)

saxuxrai

a: (sB asa nkam)



a sandesen
.
a an
.
ukampida mhi.

.:;c
saxu\au:

m a bh a ahi. sin
.
eho v amam
.
asa nkadi.

::c
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
Assuming the celebrated status of matron
to a husband of worthy family,
involved every minute in his aairs,
important because of his status,
soon giving birth to a son who will fulll you
just as the east gives birth to the sun,
you will count for nothing the grief
of separation from me.
And remember this:
When the absolute separation .:o,
of the soul and the body is inevitable,
who would be upset about the
surgical removal of a tumor?
(Shak untala falls at the feet of her father.)
x

asu\aia: What you desire, that you shall have.


suax uxraia: (approaches her two companions) Friends! Em-
brace me both at once.
iiiixos: (do so) My dear! If that king is slow to remember,
then show him this ring marked with his name. (With
this, they give her the ring.)
suax uxraia: (worried) I am pitied right until I am sent o. .:;c
iiiixos: Do not worry. Aection is apprehensive of the
untoward.
:::
suax uxraias iicocxiriox

ai xcaiavau
.
: ( urdhvam avalokya) yug A antaram adhir u-
d
.
hah
.
savit a. tat tvarat am
.
bhavat. (utth aya) ita ito bha-
vat.
sarve parikr amanti.

saxuxrai

a: (bh uyaf pitaram aslis


.
ya saBgadgadam
.
)

t ada, ka-
d a n
.
u kkhu bh uas tavoAvan
.
am
.
pekkhissam
.
?

s\aiau
.
: vatse! sr uyat am .:;,
bh utv a cir aya caturAantaAmahAsapatn
daus
.
yantim apratiratham
.
tanayam
.
pras uya
tasmin nivesitaAdhuren
.
a sah aiva bhartr a
s ante karis
.
yasi padam
.
punar asrame smin.
caurax:

j ade. parihadi gaman
.
aAvel a. t a nivat
.
t
.
ehi pitaram
.
(K asyapam
.
prati) adha v a ciren
.
a es a pidaram n
.
a n
.
ivat
.
-
t
.
assadi. t a n
.
ivat
.
t
.
adu bhavam
.
.

s\aiau
.
: vatse, uparudhyate me tapoAnus
.
t
.
h anam. prati-
nivartitum icch ami.

saxuxrai

a: (punaf pitaram aslis


.
ya)

t ado n
.
irukkan
.
t
.
ho bha-
vissadi, aham
.
d an
.
im
.
ukkan
.
t
.
h aAbh ain
.
sam
.
vutt a.

s\aiau
.
: ayi! kim
.
m am
.
jad
.
Akaros
.
i? .:c
:::
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
suaixcaiava: (looking up) The sun has climbed into an-
other sector of the sky. So make haste, your ladyship.
(arises) This way, this way, your ladyship.
All walk about.
suax uxraia: (embraces her father once more, sobbing) Fa-
ther, when will I see the penance grove again?
x

asu\aia: Child, listen,


.:;,
When you have been the fellow wife of the earth
bounded by the cardinal points,
when you have given birth to Dushy antas son,
whom none can withstand in battle,
when he has taken up the yoke,
with your husband alone you shall
set foot in this tranquil hermitage.
c

auraxi: Daughter, the time for your departure is slipping


away. So send your father back. (to K ashyapa) But no,
she will not send her father back after ever so long a
time. Therefore please turn back, your reverence.
x

asu\aia: Child, my observance of penitence is inter-


rupted. I wish to return.
suax uxraia: (embraces her father again) Father will be freed
from sorrow, but I am now taking on sorrow.
x

asu\aia: Ah! Why are you stupefying me? .:c


::,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
samam es
.
yati mama vatse
katham iva sokas tvay a racitaAp urvam
ut
.
ajaAdv araAvir ud
.
ham
.
nv araABalim
.
vilokayatah
.
.
vatse, gaccha siv as te panth anah
.
santu!
iti nis
.
kr ant a

Sakuntal a anuy ayibhih
.
saha.
saxu\au: (ciram
.
vilokya)

haddh! antarid a Sa untal a van
.
aA
r ahim
.
.

s\aiau
.
: Anas uye, gat a v am
.
sahaAdharmaAc arin
.
. nigr
.
hya- .:,
t am
.
sokA avegah
.
. anugacchatam
.
m am
.
prasthitam.
unui:

t ada. Sa untal aAviradam
.
sun
.
n
.
am
.
via tavoAvan
.
am
.
pa-
vis amo.

s\aiau
.
: sneha A vr
.
ttir iva darsany a. (saB vimarsam pari-
kramya.) hanta bhoh
.
!

Sakuntal am
.
visr
.
jya labdham id a-
nm
.
sv asthyam. kutah
.
.
artho hi kany a parakya eva
t am adya sampres
.
ya parigrahtuh
.
j ato mam ayam
.
visadA antarA atm a
cirasya niks
.
epam iv arpayitv a.
iti nis
.
kr ant ah
.
sarve.
iti mah aAkaviAK alid asaAviracite
.:,c

Sakuntal aAn amani n at


.
ake
caturtho nkah
.
.
::
acr ioui: rui iaiiwiii
Child, how will my grief be assuaged,
when I see the Bali-oering of wild rice,
just now planted by you,
sprouting at the cottage door?
Child, go, may your paths be happy!
Exit Shak untala with her followers.
iiiixos: (looking for a long while) Alas! Shak untala is hid-
den by the rows of trees.
x

asu\aia: Anas uya, your companion in dharma is gone. .:,


Control your grief. Follow me as I set o.
noru: Father, we enter a penance grove which seems empty
without Shak untala.
x

asu\aia: Love makes things seem like that. (walks about,


reecting) Well, now! Now that Shak untala is seen o, I
am at ease. Why?
A daughter is really anothers possession.
Now that she is sent to her husband,
my inner self has become tranquil,
as if by returning a deposit after a long time.
All withdraw.
The end of the fourth act
.:,c
in the play called Shak untala,
composed by the great poet
Kalidasa.
::,
Act Five:
The Tragedy
tataf pravisati ka ncuk.
xa xcux: ( atm anam
.
vilokya) aho bata kdr
.
sm vayoA va-
sth am
.
pr apto smi.
ac ara ity adhikr
.
tena may a gr
.
ht a
y a vetraAyas
.
t
.
ir avarodhaAgr
.
hes
.
u r aj nah
.
k ale s aiva parihnaAniyogaAsakteh
.
gantum
.
mam eyam avalambanaAvastu j at a.
y avad abhyantara A gatay a dev ay anus
.
t
.
heyam
.
ak ala A ks
.
ep A
arham
.
niveday ami. (dve pade gatv a) kim
.
punas tat? (sam
.
-
smr
.
tya) am
.
, Kan
.
va A sis
.
y as tapoA dhan a devam
.
dras
.
t
.
um
icchanti. bhos citram idam,
ks
.
an
.
at prabodham ay ati ,.,
la nghyate tamas a punah
.
nirv asyataf pradpasya
sikh eva jarato matih
.
.
parikramya.

ax

si: Maudgalya! dharmaA k aryam anatip atyam


.
devasya
nivedayitum icch ami. kim
.
bravs
.
i? nanv id anm eva
dharmA asan adutthitaf punar avarudhyate deva iti. nanv
dr
.
so lokaAtantrA adhik arah
.
. pasya,
::
Enter the chamberlain.
cuaxniiiaix: (looking at himself ) Dear me, how old I have
become.
The cane sta of oce I accepted
when I was put in charge
of the royal ladies apartments, thinking:
It is a customary formality, that very sta,
with the passing of time,
has become a means of support for me
as I fail to muster the strength to walk.
I must inform His Majesty, who is within, of matters that
brook no delay. (takes two steps) But what was it again?
(tries to remember) Ah, yes. Disciples of Kanva, ascetics,
wish to see His Majesty. Ah, how strange,
The intellect of an aged man ,.,
awakens suddenly,
then is once more overwhelmed
by darkness, just like the ame of a lamp
about to burn out.
Walks about.
oiisraci: Maudg alya! I wish to inform His Majesty of a
religious duty that cannot be postponed. What do you
say? But then His Majesty, who has just arisen from the
seat of judgment, will be disturbed again. But such is
the oce of governing the world. Look,
::,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
bh anuh
.
sakr
.
d yuktaAtura nga eva
r atrim
.
Adivam
.
gandhaAvahaf pray ati
aveks
.
ya d ahyam
.
na samo sti vahneh
.
s
.
as
.
t
.
hA am
.
saAvr
.
tter api dharma es
.
ah
.
.
kim
.
bravs
.
i? tena hi sa ngtaAs al aAsa ngatam
.
man
.
d
.
apam
.
gac-
cha! anus
.
t
.
hyat am
.
niyogah
.
, y avat tatra gacch ami. (pa-
rikramy avalokya ca) es
.
a devah
.
,
Manuf praj ah
.
sv a iva tantrayitv a ,.:c
nis
.
evate sr antaAman a viviktam
y uth ani sa nc arya raviAprataptah
.
stam
.
div a sth anam iva dvipA endrah
.
.
tataf pravisaty asanaBsthaf parimitaBpariv arah
.
r aj a vid us
.
akas
ca.
vio us
.
axau
.
: (karn
.
am
.
dattv a)

bho n
.
am
.
sa ngdaA s ali a? te-
n
.
a avadh an
.
am
.
dehi, t ala A gade visuddh ae kkhu vn
.
ae
saraAsa njo a sun
.
anti. j an
.
e! tatthaAbhod Ham
.
savadi a van
.
-
n
.
aAparicaam
.
karedi tti.

a;

a: ( akarn
.
ya) M adhavya, t us
.
n
.
m
.
bhava y avad akarn
.
ay a-
mi.
xa xcux: aye! vy asaktaAcitto devah
.
. avasaram
.
t avat pratip a-
lay ami. (vilokayan sthitah
.
.)
::c
acr iivi: rui riacio\
The sun has yoked his horses once and for all,
wind blows day and night, behold:
there is no respite
for the burning of re,
and such too is the duty of him
who receives the sixth part as tax.
What do you say? Then go to the pavilion beside the music
hall. Carry on with your duty while I go there. (walks
about and looks around) Here is His Majesty,
Who governs his subjects ,.:c
like the law-giver Manu,
retreating into solitude, mentally exhausted,
just like a bull elephant, scorched by the sun,
who resorts to a cool place after he has led
the herds to graze by day.
Enter the king and the buffoon, seated, surrounded by a
retinue.
nuiioox: (listening) Oho! Is this not the music hall? Pay
attention, I hear notes played on the vina keeping perfect
time. I know! It must be her ladyship Hamsap adika
practicing her musical phrases.
xixc: (trying to listen) Madh avya, shut up so I can listen.
cuaxniiiaix: Alas! His Majesty is engrossed. I will await
an opportune moment. (Remains watching.)
:::
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
xiiaru\i: (gyate:) ,.:,

ahin
.
avaAmahuAlohaAbh avio
taha paricumbia c uaAma njarim
.
kamalaAvasaAmettaAn
.
ivvuo
mahuAara vsario si n
.
am
.
kaham
.
?

a;

a: aho r agaApariv ahin


.
gtih
.
.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

kim
.
d ava se gdi ae avi gahido bhaavad a akkha-
rAattho?

a;

a: (smitam
.
kr
.
tv a) vayasya, sakr
.
tAkr
.
taApran
.
ayo yam
.
janah
.
,
tad asy ah
.
kr
.
te Kulaprabh am antaren
.
a samup alambham
.
upagato smi. tan madAvacan ad ucyat am
.
Ham
.
sapadik a:
nipun
.
am up alabdh ah
.
sma iti.
vio us
.
axo:

jam
.
bhavam
.
an
.
avedi.

(utth aya)

bho vaassa! ga- ,.:c
hido tae parakehim
.
hatthehim
.
sihan
.
d
.
ae acchaA bhallo!
avdaAr assa via n
.
atthi me mokkho.

a;

a: vayasya, gaccha! n agarikaAvr


.
tty a sam
.
j n apay ain am.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

k a gad!

(iti nis
.
kr antah
.
.)
i

a;

a: (svaBgatam) kim
.
nu khalu gtam akarn
.
y edam evam
.
A
vidhA artham is
.
t
.
aAjanaAvirah ad r
.
te pi balavad utkan
.
t
.
hito
smi? atha v a,
:::
acr iivi: rui riacio\
oiisraci: (a song is sung:) ,.:,
After you kissed the mango blossoms,
the way you did,
lusting for fresh honey;
how have you forgotten it, O bee,
contented to just linger on the lotus?
xixc: Ah! A song suused with passionate melody.
nuiioox: What? Youmeanyoucouldunderstandthe point
of the lyrics?
xixc: (smiling) My friend! I was once in love with her, and
so she rebukes me about lady Kulaprabha. Please say to
Hamsap adika in my name: I am skillfully rebuked.
nuiioox: As His Majesty commands. (stands up) My friend! ,.:c
You are using anothers hands to grab a bear by its tuft.
I am doomed to nd no release,just as one who has
not mastered his cravings.
xixc: My friend, go! Address her in a gentlemanly manner.
nuiioox: What a mess! (Exit.)
xixc: (to himself ) Now, why, I wonder, on hearing a song of
this kind, am I lled with a deep yearning, even though
I am not separated from a loved one? Or, rather,
::,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
ramy an
.
i vks
.
ya madhur am
.
s ca nisamya sabd an
paryutsukbhavati yat sukhito pi jantuh
.
tac cetas a smarati n unam abodhaAp urvam
.
bh avaAsthir an
.
i jananA antaraAsauhr
.
d ani.
xa xcux: (upasr
.
tya, pran
.
ipatya) jayatu jayatu deva! ete kha- ,.:,
lu HimaA girer upatyakA aran
.
yak ah
.
K asyapaA sam
.
desam
ad aya saAstrk as tapasvinah
.
sam
.
vr
.
tt ah
.
. srutv a prabhavis
.
-
n
.
uf pram an
.
am.
i

a;

a: kim
.
K asyapaAsam
.
desaAh arin
.
ah
.
saAstrk as tapasvinah
.
?
xa xcux: atha kim?
i

a;

a: tena hi madAvacan ad vij n apyat am up adhy ayah


.
Soma-
r atah
.
: am un asramaAv asinah
.
srautena vidhin a satAkr
.
tya
svayam eva pravesayitum arhas ti. aham apy en an ta-
pasviAdarsanA ocite dese pratip alay ami.
xa xcux: yad aj n apayati devah
.
. (iti nis
.
kr antah
.
.)
i

a;

a: (utth aya) Vasumati, agniAsaran


.
am adesaya. ,.,c
iiariu

ai:

ido ido devo.

(Parikr amanti.)
i

a;

a: (adhik araBkhedam
.
nir upayitv a) sarvaf pr arthitamadhi-
gamya sukh sam
.
padyate, r aj n am
.
tu caritA arthat a duh
.
-
khA ottar aiva. kutah
.
?
::
acr iivi: rui riacio\
When even a happy being is lled with longing,
onseeing pleasing sights or hearing sweet words,
then, surely, his mind recalls, unconsciously,
deeply felt friendships of former births.
cuaxniiiaix: (approaches, prostrates) Be victorious, be vic- ,.:,
torious, Your Majesty! Ascetics dwelling in the forests of
the Him alayas foothills are approaching, accompanied
by womenfolk. They bring a message from K ashyapa.
Hearing this, you are the authority to make a decision.
xixc: Ascetics with women bearing a message from K ash-
yapa?
cuaxniiiaix: What now?
xixc: Request the preceptor Somarata, inmy name: Please
welcome these hermit-dwellers according tothe rite sanc-
tioned by the scriptures and introduce them to me your-
self. I, for my part, will receive them in a place betting
an audience with ascetics.
cuaxniiiaix: As His Majesty commands. (Exit.)
xixc: (arises) V asumati! Lead the way to the re-sanctuary. ,.,c
ioiriiss: This way, this way, Your Majesty. (They walk
about.)
xixc: (shows the weariness of his ofce) Everyone who has
won his desire becomes happy. But, for kings, even the
attainment of the desired object is followed by pain.
How so?
::,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
autsukyaAm atram avas adayati pratis
.
t
.
h a
klisn ati labdhaAparip alanaAvr
.
ttir eva
n atisramA apanayan aya yath a sram aya
r ajyam
.
svaAhastaAdhr
.
taAdan
.
d
.
am iv atapaAtram.
(nepathye) vair

aiixau
.
: vijayat am
.
devah
.
.
svaAsukhaAnirabhil as
.
ah
.
khidyase lokaAhetoh
.
,.,,
pratidinam atha v a te sr
.
s
.
t
.
ir evam
.
Avidh aiva
anubhavati hi m urdhn a p adapas tvram us
.
n
.
am
samayati parit apam
.
ch ayay a sam
.
srit an am.
api ca,
niyamayasi vim argaAprasthit an attaAdan
.
d
.
ah
.
,
prasamayasi viv adam
.
, kalpase raks
.
an
.
aya
aAtanus
.
u vibhaves
.
u j n atayah
.
santu n ama
tvayi tu parisam aptam
.
bandhuAkr
.
tyam
.
praj an am.
i

a;

a: ( akarn
.
ya) ete kl anta A manasaf punar nav A bh ut ah
.
smah
.
. (parikramya.)
iiaru

ai:

eso ahin
.
avaAsammajjan
.
aAraman
.
o san
.
n
.
ihidaAka-
vilaAdhen
.
u aggiAsaran
.
A alindo. t a arohadu devo!

::o
acr iivi: rui riacio\
Ascendancy satises merely the longing for it,
protecting the won only brings pain.
Sovereignty does not so much alleviate fatigue
as it produces it, like a parasol held up
by its handle
with ones own hand.
(offstage) uiiaio: Victory to His Majesty!
Day by day you toil for the welfare of the world, ,.,,
indierent to your own ease
yet such is your birth.
For the tree endures with its crown erce heat
and cools those
sheltering in its shade.
Moreover,
Taking up your magistrates rod
you discipline those who have strayed
onto a wrong path;
you settle disputes; you aord protection.
When wealth is abundant,
relatives may be at hand;
but on you ultimately falls the kinsmans duty
toward your subjects.
xixc: (listening) My wearied mind is refreshed. (Walks
about.)
ioiriiss: Here is the terrace of the re-sanctuary, pleas-
ingly scoured clean, with its tawny cow nearby. Ascend,
Your Majesty!
::;
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
i

a;

a: ( arohan
.
am
.
n at
.
ayitv a, parijanB am
.
sB avalamb tis
.
t
.
hati. ,.c
saB vitarkam) Vasumati. kim uddisya tatraA bhavat a K a-
syapena matAsak asam r
.
s
.
ayaf prahit ah
.
syuh
.
?
kim
.
t avad vratin am upod
.
haAtapas am
.
vighnais tapo d us
.
itam?
dharmA aran
.
yaAgates
.
u kena cid uta
pr an
.
is
.
v asacAces
.
t
.
itam?
aho svit prasavo mam apacaritair
vis
.
t
.
ambhito vrudh am?
ity ar ud
.
haAbahuApratarkam apari-
cchedA akulam
.
me manah
.
.
iiaru

ai:

devassa bhuan
.
aA parsa ngaA nivvude caturA assa-
me kudo edam
.
? kim tu suaridA ahin
.
andin
.
o iso devam
.
sabh ajadum agadatti takkemi.

(tataf pravisanti Gautam B sahit ah


.

Sakuntal am
.
puraskr
.
tya
munayah
.
. puras c ais
.
am
.
purohitaBka ncukinau.)
xa xcux: ita ito bhavantah
.
.
(sarve parikr amanti.) ,.,
::
acr iivi: rui riacio\
xixc: (mimes climbing up, stops supported by the shoulder of ,.c
an attendant, deliberating) V asumati. With what inten-
tion can his reverence K ashyapa have dispatched seers to
me?
Might it be that the penance
of those following observances
who have amassed penitence is impeded?
Or is someone harming the animals
in the sacred forest?
Or is perhaps the owering of the vines stunted
through my misdeeds?
My mind, lled with many conjectures,
is confounded by a lack of discernment.
ioiriiss: How could this be, while the four estates of life
are free from fear, thanks to His Majestys embrace of
the earth? I imagine that the sages have come to laud
His Majesty, rejoicing in his good deeds.
(Then enter the sages with G autami, preceded by Shak untala.
Before them go the priest and the chamberlain.)
cuaxniiiaix: This way, this way, reverends.
(All walk about.)
,.,
::,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox

ai xcaiavau
.
:
mah aAbh agah
.
satyam
.
naraApatir abhinnaAsthitir asau
na kas cid varn
.
an am apatham apakr
.
s
.
t
.
o pi bhajate
tath api idam
.
sasvatAparicitaAviviktena manas a
janA akrn
.
am
.
manye hutaAvahaApartam
.
gr
.
ham iva.

aiaovarau
.
: sth ane bhavataf puraApraves ad ittham
.
Abh utah
.
sam
.
vegah
.
, aham api,
abhyaktam iva sn atah
.
,
sucir asucim iva, prabuddha iva suptam
baddham iva svairaAgatir
janam avasah
.
sa nginam avaimi.

saxuxrai

a: (durnimittam
.
s ucayant, sa B khedam)

ammo! ,.,c
kim
.
pi v amA etaram
.
me n
.
aan
.
am
.
vipphuradi?

caurax:

pad
.
ihadam
.
ama ngalam! suh aim
.
de bhat
.
t
.
iAkulaA
devad ao vidarantu!

(parikr amati.)
iuiouirau
.
: (r aj anam
.
nirdisya) bhoh! tapasvinah
.
! as av atraA
bhav an varn
.
A asram an
.
am
.
raks
.
it a pr ag eva muktA asanaf
pratip alayati. pasyat ainam.
:,c
acr iivi: rui riacio\
suaixcaiava:
True, the magnanimous king
does not violate order;
no one among the social classes,
no matter how lowly,
pursues wrong ways;
Nevertheless, with my mind ever accustomed
to solitude
I consider this house,
crowded with people, as if it were on re.
suaiaovara: Justly you feel such disquiet as we enter the
citadel. I, too,
As a free man,
perceive these people attached to pleasure
as one who has bathed does one smeared,
as one who is pure does the impure,
as one who is awake does the sleeping,
as one who goes at will does the bound.
suax uxraia: (acting anominous portent, distressed) Ohdear! ,.,c
Why now should my right eye throb?
c

auraxi: May misfortune be warded o! May your hus-


bands familial deities grant you happiness! (They walk
about.)
iiiisr: (indicating the king) Ye ascetics! Here is His Majesty,
protector of the classes and stages of life, awaiting you
arisen from his seat. Behold him!
:,:
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
i
.
s
.
a\au
.
: mah aA br ahman
.
a! k amam etad abhinandanyam,
tath api vayam atra madhyaAsth ah
.
. kutah
.
?
bhavanti namr as taravaf phalA odgamaih
.
navA ambubhir d uraAvilambino ghan ah
.
anuddhat ah
.
satApurus
.
ah
.
samr
.
ddhibhih
.
svaAbh ava ev ais
.
a parA opak arin
.
am.
iiaru

ai:

deva! pasan
.
n
.
aA muhaA r a a dsanti satthaA kayy a ,.,,
iso.

a;

a: (

Sakuntal am
.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a) ath atrabhavat
k a svid avagun
.
t
.
hanavat
n atiparisphut
.
aAsarraAl avan
.
y a
madhye tapoAdhan an am
.
kisalayam iva p an
.
d
.
uApatr an
.
am?
iiaru

ai:

deva kud uhalad ae vimhida mhi. n
.
a me takko
pasdadi.

iaii;axau
.
:

bhat
.
t
.
a, dam
.
san
.
a kkhu se akid lakkhadi.

a;

a: anirvarn
.
anyam
.
paraAkalatram! ,.oc

saxuxrai

a: ( atmaB gatam, hastam urasi dattv a)



hiaa! kim
evam
.
vevasi? ayyaAuttassa bh avaAtthidim
.
sumaria dhram
d ava hohi.

iuiouirau
.
: (puro gatv a) deva! ete vidhivad arcit as tapa-
svinah
.
. kas cid es
.
am up adhy ayaA sam
.
desah. tam
.
devah
.
srotum arhati.
i

a;

a: (sB adaram) avahito smi.


i
.
s
.
a\au
.
: (upasr
.
tya, hast an udyamya) vijayasva r ajan!
:,:
acr iivi: rui riacio\
siiis: Great Brahmin! Granted, this is praiseworthy, nev-
ertheless we remain indierent. How so?
Trees are bent low when they bear fruit,
clouds hang low when loaded with fresh water,
good men are not made conceited by wealth,
this is simply the nature of those who help others.
ioiriiss: Your Majesty! The seers appear to have serene ,.,,
countenances, inspiring condence.
xixc: (seeing Shak untala) Then this lady
Who might be this veiled lady,
the beauty of her body not quite revealed,
in the midst of those rich in penitence,
like a fresh bud among pale leaves?
ioiriiss: Your Majesty! I am lled with curiosity. I have
no idea.
iirixui: Lord, her form is beautiful to behold.
xixc: Anothers wife must not be looked at!
,.oc
suax uxraia: (to herself, placing her hand on her chest) My
heart, why do you utter so? Remember my noble lords
constancy and then be calm.
iiiisr: (going ahead) Your Majesty! Here are the ascetics,
honored according to custom. They have a message from
their teacher. Please hear it.
xixc: (respectfully) I am attentive.
siiis: (approaching, stretching out their hands) Be victorious,
O king!
:,,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
i

a;

a: sarv an abhiv adaye vah


.
. ,.o,
i
.
s
.
a\au
.
: svasti bhavate!
i

a;

a: api nirvighnam
.
tapah
.
?
i
.
s
.
a\au
.
:
kuto dharmaAkriy aAvighnah
.
sat am
.
raks
.
itari tvayi
tamas tapati gharmA am
.
sau
katham avirAbhavis
.
yati?
i

a;

a: arthav an me khalu r ajaA sabdah


.
. atha bhagav a

l lokA ,.;c
anugrah aya kusal K asyapah
.
?

ai xcaiavau
.
: sv adhnaAkusal ah
.
siddhimantah
.
. sa bhavan-
tam an amayaAprasnaAp urvakam idam aha.
i

a;

a: kim aj n apayati bhagav an?

ai xcaiavau
.
: (

Sakuntal am uddisya) yan mithah


.
A sama-
v ay ad im am
.
mady am
.
duhitaram upayeme, tan may a
prtaAmanas a yuvayor anuj n atam. kutah
.
?
tvam arhat am
.
pr agraAharah
.
smr
.
to hi nah
.

Sakuntal a m urtimat va satAkriy a,


sam anayam
.
s tulyaAgun
.
am
.
vadh uAvaram
cirasya v acyam
.
na gatah
.
Praj apatih
.
.
tad id anm apannaAsattv a pratigr
.
hyat am sahaAdharmaAcara- ,.;,
n
.
ay eti.
:,
acr iivi: rui riacio\
xixc: (bowing) I salute you all. ,.o,
siiis: Good fortune to you!
xixc: Is your penance unimpeded?
siiis:
Howcould there be any hindrance to the holy rites
of the good while you are their protector?
While the hot-rayed sun shines
how could darkness appear?
xixc: My title king has become meaningful. Is his rever- ,.;c
ence K ashyapa hale to bless the world with his grace?
suaixcaiava: The perfect ones have power over their own
welfare. After inquiring about your health, he says this
to your honor.
xixc: What does his reverence command?
suaixcaiava: (indicates Shak untala) Since you married
this daughter of mine by mutual agreement, I amcontent
and give you both my consent. Why?
I consider you the foremost of the worthy,
Shak untala is the embodiment of virtue,
as it were,
uniting a bride and groom of equal merit,
the creator has at last
done something commendable.
Now accept her, who is with child, to fulll your joint ,.;,
obligations.
:,,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
caurax:

bhaddaA muha! vattuk am a thida mhi, n
.
a a me
vaan
.
A ava aso atthi. kadham
.
ti?

n
.
avekkhio guruAan
.
o
im a e n
.
a a ettha pucchi a bandh u
ekkAekkamen
.
a varie
kim bhan
.
n
.
a u ekkamAekkamhi?

saxuxrai

a: (apav arya, sB otkan


.
t
.
ham)

kim
.
n
.
u kkhu ajjaAutta
bhan
.
issadi?

a;

a: (sa nkB akulam akarn


.
ya.) ayi! kim idam upanyastam?

saxuxrai

a: (svaBgatam, sB asa nkam.)



hum
.
! p avao se vaan
.
A ,.c
ovakkhevo.

ai xcaiavau
.
: katham
.
n ama? atraA bhavanta eva sutar am
.
lokaAy atr aAnis
.
n
.
at ah
.
.
satm api j n atiAkulA aikaAsam
.
sray am
.
jano nyath a bhartr
.
matm
.
visa nkate
atah
.
sampe parin
.
etur is
.
yate
tadAaApriy api pramad a svaAbandhubhih
.
.
i

a;

a: kim atraAbhavat may a parin


.
taAp urv a?

saxuxrai

a: (saB vis
.
adam, atmaB gatam)

hiaa, sam
.
bh avid a
khu de asa nk a!

ai xcaiavau
.
: r ajan! kim
.
kr
.
taAk aryaAdves
.
ad dharmam
.
prati ,.,
vimukhat a r aj nah
.
?
:,o
acr iivi: rui riacio\
c

auraxi: Kind sir! I am eager to speak, but it is not my


place to speak. Why?
She did not consult her elders,
you did not ask her kinsfolk.
Since you chose one another,
what will you now say to each other?
suax uxraia: (aside, longingly) What will my noble lord say
now?
xixc: (listening, assailed by doubt) Ah! What are you insin-
uating?
suax uxraia: (to herself, doubting) Oh! His misgivings about ,.c
her words are re.
suaixcaiava: What is this? Your Majesty is well versed in
the ways of the world.
Though she is virtuous,
people suspect a married woman
who stays only with her own relatives
to be otherwise.
Therefore, her own relatives send her
to the man who married her,
even if he loves her not.
xixc: Have I married her?
suax uxraia: (dejected, to herself ) My heart, your doubt
proves itself to be well founded.
suaixcaiava: O King! Is this a kings aversion to duty ,.,
because he reviles a deed he has done?
:,;
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
i

a;

a: kuto yam aAsatAkalpan aAprasa ngah


.
?

ai xcaiavau
.
: m urchanty am vik ar af pr ayen
.
aisvaryaAma-
ttes
.
u.
i

a;

a: vises
.
en
.
adhiks
.
ipto smi!
caurax:

j ade! m a muhuttaam
.
lajja. avan
.
assam
.
d ava de
avagun
.
t
.
han
.
am
.
. tado bhat
.
t
.
a tumam
.
ahij an
.
issadi tti.

(ya-
thB oktam
.
karoti.)
i

a;

a: (

Sakuntal am
.
nirvarn
.
ayan, saBvismayam atmaBgatam) ,.,c
idam upanatam evam
.
r upam aAklis
.
t
.
aAk anti
prathamaAparigr
.
htam
.
sy an na v ety adhyavasyan
bhramara iva vibh ate kundam antasAtus
.
aram
.
na ca khalu paribhoktum
.
n api saknomi h atum.
(iti vic arayan sthitah
.
.)
iaii;axau
.
: (janB antikam.)

aho dhammA avekkhid a bhat
.
t
.
i-
n
.
o! disam
.
n
.
ama suhA ovanadam
.
itthAradan
.
am
.
pekkhia,
ko an
.
n
.
o vi aredi?

ai xcaiavau
.
: r ajan? kim evam
.
jos
.
am asyate?
i

a;

a: bhos tapasvin! cintayann api na khalu sv A karan


.
am ,.,,
atraA bhavaty ah
.
smar ami. tat katham anabhivyaktaA sat-
tvaAlaks
.
an
.
am
.
atm anam
.
ks
.
etrin
.
am anA asam
.
sam anaf pra-
tipatsye?

saxuxrai

a: (apav arya)

haddh! kadham
.
parin
.
ae yyeva san-
deho? bhagg a d an
.
im me d urA arohin
.
as a!

:,
acr iivi: rui riacio\
xixc: What is this susceptibility to false fabrications?
suaixcaiava: Such changes for the worse commonly stu-
pefy men drunk with power.
xixc: I am gravely insulted!
c

auraxi: My daughter! For a moment, do not be bashful. I


will remove your veil. Then the lord will recognize you.
(Does so.)
xixc: (observing Shak untala, astonished, to himself ) ,.,c
Trying to decide whether this gure
of awless beauty, thus oered to me,
was in the past married or not,
I nd myself unable to accept or relinquish,
just as a bee at dawn does
a jasmine blossom with dew within.
(Remains pondering.)
iirixui: (among themselves) Oh! Howthe lordmust respect
his duty! Who else would waver, seeing such a jewel of
a woman come by with such ease?
suaixcaiava: O King? Why do you remain so silent?
xixc: Sir ascetic! Though I reect, I cannot recall marrying ,.,,
her ladyship. Then how could I take in a woman faintly
showing signs of pregnancy, doubting myself to be her
husband?
suax uxraia: (aside) Alas! How can he doubt even the mar-
riage? Broken is my hope that had climbed so high.
:,,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox

ai xcaiavau
.
: m a t avat.
kr
.
tA abhimars am avamanyam anah
.
sut am
.
tvay a n ama munir vim anyah
.
jus
.
t
.
am
.
pratigr ahayat a svam artham
.
p atrAkr
.
to dasyur iv asi yena.

aiaovarau
.
:

S ar ngarava! virama tvam id anm!

Sakuntale!
vaktavyam uktam asm abhih
.
. so yam atraAbhav an idam
aha. tad dyat am asmai pratyayah
.
.

saxuxrai

a: (svaB gatam, saB khedam


.
nih
.
svasya)

idam
.
avat- ,.:cc
thantaram
.
gade t adise muhuttaA r age kim
.
v a sumar avi-
den
.
a sam
.
padam
.
ten
.
a? adha v a att a d an
.
im
.
me sodhan
.
o
tthi vivadissam
.
edam
.
.

(prak asam)

ayyaAutta!

(ityBardhB
okte svaBgatam)

adha v a sam
.
sado d an
.
im
.
me samud a a-
ro.

(prak asam)

Porava! juttam
.
n
.
ama pur a assamaApade
sabbh avAutt an
.
aAhiaam
.
imam
.
jan
.
am
.
samaaApuravam
.
pa-
d aria disehim
.
akkharehim
.
pacc acakkhidum
.
?

a;

a: (karn
.
au spr
.
s
.
t
.
v a) s antam
.
p apam!
vyapadesam avilayitum
.
kim hase m am
.
ca p atayitum
k ulam
.
Akas
.
eva sindhuh
.
prasannam ogham
.
tat
.
aAruham
.
ca.

saxuxrai

a:

ja paramA atthado paraA pariggahan
.
aA sa nkin
.
a
tae evam
.
uttam
.
, t a ahin
.
n
.
an
.
en
.
a gurun
.
a tuha sandeham
.
avan
.
assam
.
.

:c
acr iivi: rui riacio\
suaixcaiava: This will not do!
Are you to insult the sage whom you disrespected
by seducing his daughter;
He who welcomed you
to accept what was his,
and treated you, who were like a robber,
as a worthy recipient?
suaiaovara: Sharngarava! You stop now! Shak untala! We
have said what we had to say. This is what His Majesty
says. Give him proof.
suax uxraia: (to herself; sighing, distressed) What is the use ,.:cc
now of reminding one who has undergone such a
change, one whose love was so short-lived? Nevertheless,
my name must be cleared, so I will dispute it. (aloud)
My noble lord! (to herself in midsentence) But no, this
address is now contested. (aloud) P aurava! Is it right to
reject with such words this person whose heart is by na-
ture open, whom you seduced in the hermitage grounds
making promises?
xixc: (holding his ears) Stop this evil!
Why do you attempt to befoul your name
and cause my downfall,
just as a river, surging against its bank
does to its pure stream and tree on its verge.
suax uxraia: If you speak like this because you truly fear
that I am anothers wife, then I will dispel your doubt
with this weighty token of recognition.
::
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
i

a;

a: ud aram!

saxuxrai

a: (mudr aBsth anam


.
par amr
.
sya)

haddh! a ngulaA ,.:c,
sun
.
n
.
a me a ngul.

(t apasm
.
pasyati.)
caurax:

n
.
a kkhu de SakkA avad are SacAtitthA odaam
.
ava-
g aham an
.
ae pabbhat
.
t
.
ho a ngulao?

a;

a: (saBsmitam) idam
.
tad yautukam
.
pratyutpannam
.
str-
n
.
am iti yad ucyate.

saxuxrai

a:

ettha d ava vihin
.
a dam
.
sidam
.
pahuttan
.
am
.
. ava-
ram
.
de kadhassam
.
.

a;

a: srotavyam id anm
.
sam
.
vr
.
ttam.

saxuxrai

a:

n
.
a kkhu tatthA ekkaA diase n
.
oA m ali aA man
.
d
.
avae
,.::c
n
.
alin
.
A pattaA bh aan
.
aA gadam
.
udaam
.
tava hatthaA san
.
n
.
ihi-
dam
.
asi?

a;

a: sr
.
n
.
umas t avat.

saxuxrai

a:

takAkhan
.
am
.
ca mama so kidaaAputtao harin
.
ao
uvatthido, tado tae aam d ava pad
.
hamam
.
pivadu tti
an
.
ukampin
.
a uvacchandido, n
.
a un
.
a de avaridassa hat-
thabbh aso uvagado. pacch a tassimyeva udae mae gahide
pan
.
aaApak asaApuvvam
.
pahasido si. bhan
.
idam
.
ca tae: sa-
vvo saAgandhe vsasidi duve vi ettha aran
.
n
.
aa tti.

a;

a: (vihasan) ebhir atmaAk aryaAnirvartinn am yos


.
it am anA
r
.
taAv a nAmadhubhir akr
.
s
.
yante vis
.
ayin
.
ah
.
.
::
acr iivi: rui riacio\
xixc: How noble!
suax uxraia: (feels the place of the signet ring) Oh no! The ,.:c,
ring is not on my nger. (Looks to the female ascetic.)
c

auraxi: Might not the ring have slipped o when you


submerged yourself into the waters of Shachi-ford at the
place of Indras Descent?
xixc: (smiling) This must be what is called the ready wit
that is the dowry of women.
suax uxraia: Here fate has shown its lordship. I will tell
you something else.
xixc: Now we come to something that must be heard.
suax uxraia: One day, in the jasmine bower, did you not ,.::c
have water in a lily-leaf bowl held in your hand?
xixc: Lets hear it, then.
suax uxraia: At that moment the young antelope whom I
had adopted as my son appeared. Then you coaxed him
kindly, saying: Well, let him drink rst. But, unfamil-
iar with you, he did not take it from your hand. Then,
when he took that same water from me, you laughed
after you showed aection. And you said: Everyone
trusts someone who bears the same scent. Both of you
are foresters.
xixc: (laughing) With such honey of false words, women,
scheming to meet their own ends, ensnare pleasure-
seekers.
:,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
caurax:

mah aAbh aa! n
.
arihasi ittikam
.
mantadum. tavoA
van
.
aAsam
.
vad
.
d
.
hido kkhuaam
.
jan
.
o an
.
abhin
.
n
.
o kedavassa.

a;

a: t apasaAvr
.
ddhe! ,.::,
strn
.
am asiks
.
itaApat
.
utvam am anus
.
s
.
u
sam
.
dr
.
syate kim uta y af pratibodhavatyah
.
,
pr ag antariks
.
aAgaman at svam apatyaAj atam
anyaAdvijaif paraAbhr
.
tah
.
kila pos
.
ayanti.

saxuxrai

a: (saBros
.
am)

attan
.
o hiaA an
.
um an
.
en
.
a savvam
.
pek-
khasi! ko an
.
n
.
o dhammaA ka ncuaA pavesin
.
o tan
.
aA chan
.
n
.
aA
k uvA ovamassa tav an
.
uk ar bhavissadi?

a;

a: (svaBgatam.) vanaAv as ad avibhramaf punar atraAbhava-


ty ah
.
kopo laks
.
yate. tath a hi,
na tiryag avaloki caks
.
ur atilohitam
.
kevalam
.
vaco pi parus
.
A aks
.
aram
.
na ca pades
.
u sam
.
sajjate
himA arta iva vepate sakala es
.
a bimbA adharah
.
svabh avaAvinate bhruvau yugapad eva bhedam
.
gate.
(prak asam) bhadre, Dus
.
yanta A caritam praj asu prathitam
.
, ,.::c
tath ap dam
.
na laks
.
aye.
:
acr iivi: rui riacio\
c

auraxi: Your Majesty! You must not speak thus. Raised


in the penance grove, she does not know deceit.
xixc: Old nun!*
,.::,
Untaught cunning is evident among females
not human,
how much more so among those
that are intelligent.
Before ying away into the sky,
female cuckoos ensure
their ospring is reared by other birds.
suax uxraia: (angrily) You perceive everything according
to the workings of your own heart! Can there be anybody
else like you, girding himself in the armor of righteous-
ness, resembling a well concealed by grass?
xixc: (to himself ) On the other hand, the ladys unfeigned
anger appears to be that of one raised in the forest. For,
Her eye casts no side glances,
but just glares very red,
her voice is harsh and does not slur its words,
her whole bimba-red lower lip shivers
as if pained by the cold,
her naturally curved brows
have at once knitted together.
(aloud) Good woman, Dushy antas behavior is well known ,.::c
to his subjects, yet I note no such thing.
:,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox

saxuxrai

a:

tumhe yyeva pam an


.
am
.
j an
.
adha dhammaAtthidim
.
ca loassa
lajj aAvin
.
ijjid ao
j an
.
anti khu kim
.
n
.
n
.
u mahil ao?

sus
.
t
.
hu d ava! sacchandA arin
.
kad amhi j a aham
.
imassa Pu-
ruA vam
.
saA paccaen
.
a hiaaA satthaA dh arassa muhaA mahun
.
o
hatthAabbh asam
.
uvagad a.

(iti mukham avr


.
tya roditi.)
nu

acuiiu
.
: itthamapratihatam
.
c apalam
.
dahati. atah
.
khalu,
parks
.
ya sarvam
.
kartavyam
.
,.::,
vises
.
at sam
.
vidah
.
kriy ah
.
aj n ataAhr
.
dayes
.
v evam
.
vairAbhavati sauhr
.
dam.
i

a;

a: ayi bhoh
.
! kim atraAbhavatApratyay ad ev asm an atiba-
lena ks
.
in
.
vanti bhavantah
.
?

ai xcaiavau
.
: srutam
.
bhavadbhir adharA ottaram.
a janmanah
.
s at
.
hyam asiks
.
ito yas
tasy apram an
.
am
.
vacanam janasya!
parA abhisam
.
dh anam adhyate yair
vidy eti te santu kil aptaAv acah
.
!
i

a;

a: hanta bhoh
.
, satyaAv adin! abhyupagatam
.
t avad asm a-
bhir, evamAvidh a vayam. kim
.
punar im amabhisam
.
dh aya
labhyate?
:o
acr iivi: rui riacio\
suax uxraia:
You alone are the authority
and you know the ways of the world,
what possibly can timid women know?
So be it! I have been made a wanton woman, I who, trusting
in the lineage of Puru, have fallen into the hands of a
man with a honeyed mouth but a blade in his heart.
(Averts her face and weeps.)
nu

acuii: This is how an unrestrained rash deed burns.


That is why,
One should enter into alliances, above all,
,.::,
after checking everything carefully.
This is how among those
whose hearts are unknown,
aection turns to hatred.
xixc: Ah! sir! Why with just the testimony of her ladyship
do you grieveously cast a slur upon me.
suaixcaiava: Your Majesty has got it upside down.
The words of a person
who since birth has not known deceit
have no authority!
Those who have made a study
of cheating others,
calling it politics,
they are reliable authorities!
xixc: Alas, speaker of the truth! We admit to being political.
But what would be gained from deceiving her?
:;
suax uxraias iicocxiriox

aiaovarau
.
: vinip atah
.
. ,.:,c
i

a;

a: tam
.
n aham
.
pr arthaye.

aiaovarau
.
: bho r ajan! kim uttarA ottarair? anus
.
t
.
hitaA gu-
ruAsam
.
des ah
.
smah
.
. sam
.
prati nirgacch amahe vayam.
tad es
.
a bhavataf patn
tyaja v ain am
.
gr
.
h an
.
a v a
upayantur hi d ares
.
u
prabhut a sarvatoAmukh.
Gautami, gaccha gacch agratah
.
! (iti prasthit ah
.
.)

saxuxrai

a: (saB dainyam)

hum
.
! imin
.
a d ava kedaven
.
a vi- ,.:,,
ppaladdha mhi. tumhe vi mam
.
pariccadum
.
icchadha.
t a k a gad?

(iti Gautamm anugacchati.)


c

auraxi: (sthitv a)

vaccha Sa ngarava! an
.
ugacchady es a ka-
run
.
aAparidevin
.
Sa untal a. pacc adesaAkaluse bhat
.
t
.
are kim
.
v a putti a me karedu?

ai xcaiavau
.
: (purodhas a sam
.
j nitaf pratinivr
.
ttya) ah
.
! puroA
bh age! kim idam
.
sv atantryam avalambyate? (

Sakuntal a
bht a vepate.)

ai xcaiavau
.
: sr
.
n
.
otu bhavat!
yadi yath a vadati ks
.
itiApas tath a
tvam asi kim
.
pitr
.
AsokaAday a tvay a
atha tu vetsi suci vratam atmanah
.
patiAgr
.
he tava d asyam api ks
.
amam.
:
acr iivi: rui riacio\
suai

aovara: Ruin!
,.:,c
xixc: That is not what I seek.
suai

aovara: King! Whats the point of this dispute? We


have carried out our preceptors command. Now we
depart.
So she is your wife, take her or leave her.
For a husbands power over his wives
is all-encompassing.
G autami, go, go ahead! (They set off.)
suax uxraia: (pitifully) Oh no! I really have been deceived ,.:,,
by this cheat. You, too, are about to abandon me. What
is the way out? (With this, she follows G autami.)
c

auraxi: (stops) Child, Sharngarava. Shak untala, lament-


ing piteously, is following us. When her husband is so
vile as to reject her, what can my daughter do?
suaixcaiava: (turns around, beckoned by the priest) Ah!
You forward woman! Are you being willful? (Shak untala
trembles with fear.)
suaixcaiava: Listen!
If you are as the king says,
then what have we to do with you,
who brings grief to your father?
But if you know your conduct to be pure,
then even slavery in your husbands house
is bearable.
:,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
tis
.
t
.
ha! s adhay amo vayam. ,.:c
i

a;

a: bhos tapasvin! kim atraAbhavatm


.
vipralabhase?
kumud any eva sasA a nkah
.
savit a bodhayati pa nkaAj any eva
vasin am
.
hi paraAparigrahaA
sam
.
sles
.
aApar a nAmukh vr
.
ttih
.
.

ai xcaiavau
.
: r ajan! atha p urvaAparigraho nyA asa ng ad vi-
smr
.
to bhavet, tad a katham adharmaAbhro?
i

a;

a: bhavantam eva guruAl aghavam


.
praks
.
y ami.
m ud
.
hah
.
sy am aham es
.
a v a ,.:,
vaden mithy eti sam
.
saye
d araAty ag bhav amy aho
paraAstrAsparsaAp am
.
sulah
.
.
iuioou

au
.
: (vic arya) yadi t avad evam
.
kriyate. . .
i

a;

a: . . . anus astu m am
.
bhav an.
iuioou

au
.
: atraAbhavat tavad a prasav ad madAgr
.
he tis
.
t
.
ha-
tu. bh utam idam ucyate: tvam
.
s adhubhir adis
.
t
.
af pratha-
mam cakraA vartinam
.
janayis
.
yas ti. sa cen muni A dau-
hitras talAlaks
.
an
.
A opapanno bhavis
.
yati tataf pratinandya
suddh A antam en am
.
pravesayis
.
yas ti. viparyaye pitur
asy ah
.
sampaAgamanam upasthitam eva.
:,c
acr iivi: rui riacio\
Stay! We are leaving. ,.:c
xixc: Ascetic! Why do you deceive the lady?
The moon awakens only night-lilies,
the sun only lotuses.
The character of the self-restrained recoils
from embracing the wife of another.
suaixcaiava: King! What if your previous conquest has
been forgotten because you are preoccupied with an-
other woman, then what, O shunner of dishonor?
xixc: Let me ask his honor what is more plausible here.
Doubting whether I might be oblivious ,.:,
or whether she might speak falsely
shall I become a wife-reviler
or a deler of anothers wife?
iiiisr: (considering) What if we were to do this. . .
xixc: . . . Please advise me.
iiiisr: Let her ladyship stay in my house until she has
given birth. I say this advisedly: You were told by the
wise that your rstborn will be an emperor. If the son
of the sages daughter is endowed with the appropriate
marks, then congratulate her and welcome her into the
female apartments. Otherwise, you should send her back
to her father.
:,:
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
i

a;

a: yath a gurubhyo rocate.


iuioou

au
.
: vatse, anugaccha m am! ,.:,c

saxuxrai

a: (rudat)

bhaavadi VasuA he! dehi me viaram
.
!

(iti nis
.
kr ant a saha sakalaif purodhas a ca.)
i

a;

a: (s apaBvyavahitaBsmr
.
tih
.

Sakuntal am eva cintayati.)
xiiaru\i: ascaryam ascaryam!
i

a;

a: (karn
.
am
.
dattv a) kim
.
nu khalu sy at?
iuiouirau
.
: (pravisya) deva! adbhutam
.
khalu sam
.
vr
.
ttam. ,.:,,
i

a;

a: kim iva?
iuioou

au
.
: parivr
.
ttes
.
u Kan
.
vaAsis
.
yes
.
u,
s a nindant sv ani bh agy ani b al a
b ahA utks
.
epam
.
kranditum
.
ca pravr
.
tt a. . .
i

a;

a: kim
.
ca?
:,:
acr iivi: rui riacio\
xixc: As my preceptor wishes.
iiiisr: Child! Follow me.
,.:,c
suax uxraia: (crying) Goddess Earth, give me an opening.
(She goes out with the priest and all others.)
xixc: (His memory blocked by the curse, he thinks about Sha-
k untala.)
oiisraci: A miracle, a miracle!
xixc: (listening) What can be happening now?
iiiisr: (entering) Your Majesty! A miracle has occurred. ,.:,,
xixc: What kind of miracle?
iiiisr: When Kanvas disciples had departed,
When the girl, lamenting her lot,
began to weep,
tossing up her arms. . .
xixc: What then?
:,,
suax uxraias iicocxiriox
iuioou

au
.
:
,.:oc
strAsam
.
sth anam
.
c apsarasAtrtham ar ad
aks
.
ipy aiva jyotir en am
.
tiro bh ut.
(sarve vismit ah
.
.)
i

a;

a: bhagavan, pr ag api sa asm abhir arthaf praty adis


.
t
.
a eva.
kim
.
vr
.
th a tarken
.
anvis
.
t
.
en
.
a visram ami?
iuioou

au
.
: vijayasva! (iti nis
.
kr antah
.
.)
i

a;

a: (saB smitam) Vasumati! pary akulo smi. sayanaA bh u- ,.:o,


mim adesaya.
iiaru

ai: (sB adaram


.
)

ido ido devo.

(parikr amanti.)
i

a;

a: ( atmaBgatam)
k amam
.
praty adis
.
t
.
am
.
smar ami na parigraham
.
munes tanay am
balavat tu d uyam anam
.
praty ayayat va m am
.
hr
.
dayam.
iti nis
.
kr ant ah
.
sarve.
iti mah aAkaviAK alid asaAviracite
,.:;c

Sakuntal aAn amani n at


.
ake
pa ncamo nkah
.
.
:,
acr iivi: rui riacio\
iiiisr:
,.:oc
A light in female shape fell upon her
near Nymph-ford and whisked her away.
(All are amazed.)
xixc: Your reverence, I have already settled this matter.
Why should I weary myself with vain conjectures?
iiiisr: Be victorious. (Exit.)
xixc: (smiling) V asumati! I am troubled. Lead the way to ,.:o,
the bedchamber.
cuaxniiiaix: (respectfully) This way, Your Majesty, this
way. (They walk about.)
xixc: (to himself )
Though I cannot recall marrying
the sages daughter I rejected,
but my sorely pained heart seems to want me to.
All go out.
Thus ends the fth act
,.:;c
in the play called Shak untala,
composed by the great poet Kalidasa.
:,,
Act Six:
The Longing
(tataf pravisati n agarikaBsy alaf pasc adBbaddham
.
purus
.
am ad a-
ya raks
.
in
.
au ca.)
iaxs
.
ix
.
au: (purus
.
am
.
t ad
.
ayitv a)

ale kumbhila a! kadhehi ka-
him
.
tae ese mah aA man
.
i A patthal A ukkin
.
n
.
aA n
.
amA akkhale
l aakAa ngulae sam asadite?

iuius
.
au
.
: (bhayam
.
n at
.
ayitv a)

pasdantu pasdantu bh adu-
aAmiss a! hage kkhu disassa kamman
.
o n
.
a kalle!

iiaruaxau
.
:

kim
.
n
.
u kkhu sohan
.
e bamhan
.
e tti kalia la n n a
pad
.
iggahe din
.
n
.
e?

iuius
.
au
.
:

an
.
adha dan
.
im
.
! hage

Sakk avad alaA v asike dhva- o.,
le. . .

ovir\au
.
:

p ad
.
acAcal a! kim
.
khu de amhehim
.
j ad puscid a?

s\

aiau
.
:

S uaa! kadhedu savvam
.
an
.
ukkamen
.
a. m a n
.
am
.
an-
tar a pad
.
ibandhit
.
t
.
ha.

iaxs
.
ix
.
au:

jam
.
autte an
.
avedi. . . bhan
.
a, bhan
.
a!

iuius
.
au
.
:

se hage j alaAbad
.
isA adhim
.
mascaAbandhan
.
A ov ae-
him
.
kud
.
umbaAbhalan
.
am
.
kalemi.

s\

aiau
.
: (prahasya)

visuddho d an
.
im
.
de ajo!

o.:c
iuius
.
au
.
:

bhat
.
t
.
a!

sahajam
.
kila jam
.
pi n
.
indidam
.
n
.
a hi tam
.
kamma vivajjan
.
aam
.
pasuAm alakaAkammaAd
.
alun
.
e
an
.
ukamp aAmidu eva sottie.

:,
(Enter the citys captain of the police with a man whose hands
are bound behind his back and two guards.)
cuaios: (beating the man) Hey, you bandit! Confess where
you got the kings signet ring, set with a valuable stone,
incised with his name?
xax: (acting fear) Have mercy, have mercy, my esteemed
brothers! Im not capable of such a thing.
iiisr cuaio: Perhaps the king gave it to you as a present,
thinking that you are a saintly brahmin?
xax: Hear me out now! Im a sherman living at Indras o.,
Descent. . .
sicoxocuaio: You thief! Did we ask you about your caste?
ioiici cairaix: S uchaka! Let him recount everything in
order. Stop interrupting him.
cuaios: As the brother-in-lawcommands. . . Confess, con-
fess!*
xax: I support my family with shing tackle such as nets
and hooks.
nioruii-ix-iaw: (laughing) A saintly profession! o.:c
xax: Lord!
It is said that whatever ones hereditary trade,
even if it be despised,
it must not be abandoned.
A learned brahmin, gentle with compassion,
can cruelly sacrice animals.
:,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia

s\

aiau
.
:

tado tado!

iuius
.
au
.
:

adhAekkaAdiase khan
.
d
.
aso lohidaAmasce mae kap-
pide. j ava tassa udalAabbhantale edam
.
ladan
.
aAbh asulam
.
a ngulyaam
.
pekkh ami. pasc a idha n
.
am
.
vikka aa dam
.
sa-
naante gahide bh avaAmissehim
.
. ittike d ava edassa agame;
adhun
.
a m aledha kut
.
t
.
edha v a!

s\

aiau
.
: (a ngulyakam aghr aya)

J an
.
aa! macchAodaraAsan
.
t
.
hi- o.:,
dam
.
ti n
.
atthi sam
.
deho. tadh a aam
.
se vsaAgandho. agamo
d an
.
im
.
edassa vimarisidavvo: t a edha r aA ulam
.
yeva gac-
chamha.

iaxs
.
ix
.
au:

gasca, n
.
ad
.
ha gan
.
t
.
hiAbhedaa!

(sarve parikr ama-


nti.)

s\

aiau
.
:

S uaa! idha mam
.
goulaAduv are appamatt a pad
.
iv ale-
dha j ava imam
.
jadhA agamam
.
a ngulaam
.
bhat
.
t
.
in
.
o uvan
.
a
tadyaAs asan
.
am
.
pad
.
icchia n
.
ikkam ami

unuau:

pavisadu autte s amiApas ad aa!

(sy alo nis


.
kr antah
.
.)
iiaruaxau
.
:

J an
.
a a, cil aadi autte.

ovir\au
.
:

n
.
am
.
avasalA ovasappan a l a an
.
o.

o.:c
iiaruaxau
.
:

vaas a, phulanti mama hatth a imassa vasan
.
in
.
o
pin
.
addhum
.
.

(purus
.
am
.
nirdisati.)
iuius
.
au
.
:

n
.
alihadi bh aduA bh aduke ak alaA m alake bhavi-
dum
.
.

ovir\au
.
: (vilokya)

. . . ese amh an
.
am
.
sale patte gen
.
hia l aaA
s asan
.
am
.
.

(purus
.
am
.
prati)

sa ul an
.
am
.
muham
.
pekkhasi
adhav a giddhaAsi al an
.
am
.
bal bhavisassi.

:oc
acr six: rui ioxcixc
nioruii-ix-iaw: Ok, ok!
xax: Now, one day I was chopping up a r ohita carp, when
I saw in its guts this ring gleaming with a jewel. After-
wards, as I was showing it around here for sale, you gents
arrested me. That is how I got it; now kill me or beat
me!
nioruii-ix-iaw: (smelling the ring) J anaka! There can be o.:,
no doubt, it has been in the guts of a sh. This is why it
reeks of raw esh. Its origin must now be investigated:
let us go to the royal court.
cuaios: Move along, lord pick-pocket! (All walk about.)
nioruii-ix-iaw: S uchaka! You two be vigilant and wait
for me here at the main gate until I inform his majesty
of the provenance of the ring, receive his orders, and
return.
noru: May the sisters husband be favorably received by his
majesty! (Exit the brother-in-law.)
iiisr: J anaka, the sisters husband is taking his time.
sicoxo: You must take into account that you have to wait o.:c
for the right moment to approach a king.
iiisr: Buddy, my hands are itching to throttle this wretch.
(Points to the man.)
xax: It is not right for someone addressed with the good
name brother to bring an untimely death.
sicoxo: (looking) . . . here comes our master with the kings
orders. (to the man) Youll either see the faces of your
family* or become an oering to vultures and jackals.
:o:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
(pravisya)

s\

aiau
.
:

siggham
.
siggham
.
edam
.
. . .

(ity ardh B
okte)
iuius
.
au
.
:

h a hade mhi!

(iti vis
.
adam
.
n at
.
ayati.) o.:,

s\

aiau
.
:

mu ncedha re mu ncedha j al A ovajvin
.
am
.
! uvava-
n
.
n
.
o se kila a ngulaassa agamo. amhaA s amin
.
a yeva me
kadhidam
.
.

iiaruaxau
.
:

jam
.
an
.
avedi a utte! JamaA vasadim
.
gamia. . .
khan
.
d
.
am
.
ca via pad
.
in
.
iutte

(purus
.
am
.
mu ncati)
iuius
.
au
.
: (sy alam
.
pran
.
amya)

bhat
.
t
.
a! tava kelake me jvide!

s\

aiau
.
:

utthehi! esa bhat
.
t
.
in
.
a a ngulaa A mulla A sammido
p aridosio vi de d avido.

iuius
.
au
.
: (saBhars
.
am
.
pragr
.
hya)

an
.
ugahide mhi.

o.,c
iiaruaxau
.
:

tadh a n
.
ama an
.
ugahide jam
.
s ul ado avad alia
hatthiAkkhandhe pad
.
it
.
t
.
h avide.

ovir\au
.
:

autt a! p alidosio kadhedi mahA alihaA ladan
.
en
.
a
ten
.
a a ngulaen
.
a bhat
.
t
.
in
.
o pad
.
hamaAbahuAmaden
.
a hoda-
vvam
.
.

s\

aiau
.
:

n
.
a ca tassim
.
mahA arihaAradan
.
am
.
ti bahuAm an
.
am
.
bhat
.
t
.
in
.
o takkemi.

unui:

kim
.
khu?

s\

aiau
.
:

takkemi tassa dam
.
san
.
en
.
a ko vi ahilasido jan
.
o bha- o.,,
t
.
t
.
in
.
a sum arido tti, jado tam
.
pekkhia muhuttam
.
padiA
gambhro payyussuaman
.
o sam
.
vutto.

:o:
acr six: rui ioxcixc
(enter the) nioruii-ix-iaw: Quickly, quickly, he. . . (in
mid-sentence)
xax: Oh! Im dead! (Mimes despair.) o.:,
nioruii-ix-iaw: Free him! Hey! Free the sherman! His
account of the rings origin checks out. Our master has
told me so himself.
iiisr: As the brother-in-law orders! Entering the house of
Death he has slipped out again through a crack. (He
releases the man.)
xax: (bowing to the brother-in-law) Master! My life is yours.
nioruii-ix-iaw: Get up! This reward, equal in value to
the ring, is to be given to you.
xax: (accepting it joyfully) I am favored. o.,c
iiisr: Favored to the extent of being taken down from
impalement and set upon an elephants back.
sicoxo: Sisters husband! The reward reveals that the king
must greatly value this ring with its precious stone.
nioruii-ix-iaw: I do not think that his majesty valued it
because of its precious stone.
noru: Why then?
nioruii-ix-iaw: I hazard a guess that its sight reminded o.,,
his majesty of some cherished person, because upon see-
ing it he, normally so composed, showed for a moment
a yearning.
:o,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
ovir\axau
.
:

s adhu mantidam
.
n
.
ama autten
.
a.

iiaruaxau
.
:

n
.
am
.
bhan
.
ami imassa kade mascali aAsattun
.
o
tti!

(iti purus
.
am sB as uyam
.
pasyati.)
iuius
.
au
.
:

bhat
.
t
.
a! ido addham tumh an
.
am
.
suman
.
oAmullam
.
bhodu

.
unuau:

ittike jujjadi.

s\

aiau
.
:

dhvara, mahattarako hi sampadam
.
piaA vaassako o.c
si me sam
.
vutto. k adambarAsakkhiam
.
ca amh an
.
am
.
pad
.
-
hamaAsohidam
.
icchadi. t a ehi sun
.
d
.
iaAs alam
.
gacchamha.

iti nis
.
kr ant ah
.
.
pravesakah
.
.
:o
acr six: rui ioxcixc
sicoxo: The sisters son has ably assisted him.
iiisr: I would say this sh-foe has benetted! (He looks at
the man with malice.)
xax: Master! Let half of it be your ower-money.
noru: The decent thing to do.
nioruii-ix-iaw: Fisherman, now you have become my o.c
best friend. Our new friendship calls for endorsement
by wine, so lets go to the tavern.
All go out.
End of the prelude.
:o,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
(tataf pravisaty ak asaBy ataken

Aks
.
am al a.)
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

n
.
ivattidam
.
mae payy ayaA n
.
ivat
.
t
.
anam acchar aA
titthaA san
.
n
.
ijjham
.
. t a j ava imassa r aA esin
.
o udantam
.
pa-
ccakh A karemi. Mena aA sambandhen
.
a sarraA bh ud a me
Sa untal a, t ae a etan
.
An
.
imittam
.
yeva sadit
.
t
.
haApurav amhi.

(parikramya purah
.
samant ad avalokya ca)

kim
.
n
.
u kkhu
usavam
.
Adin
.
e vi n
.
ir usavA arambham
.
via r aaAulam
.
dsadi.
adhav a atthi me vibhavo pan
.
idh an
.
en
.
a savvam
.
j an
.
idum.
kim
.
tu sahe adaro an
.
idavvo. bhodu. im an
.
am
.
d ava uj-
j an
.
a A v alin
.
n
.
am
.
tirakkarin
.
A pacchan
.
n
.
a p asa A parivattin
.

bhavia uv alahisse.

(tath a karoti.)
(tataf pravisati c utB a nkuram avalokayant cet
.
tasy as ca pr
.
s
.
- o.,
t
.
hato par a.)
iiaruax

a:

aambaAhariaAven
.
t
.
aa
jo usasio si surahiAm asassa
dit
.
t
.
h o a c uaAcch araa
chan
.
aAma ngalaam
.
va pekk ami.

ovir\

a: (upasr
.
tya)

hal a Parahudike! kin
.
n
.
edam
.
e ain
.
ma-
ntesi.

iiaruax

a:

sahi, c ud
.
aAladiam
.
pekkhia ummatt a parahudi a
bhodi.

ovir\

a: (saBhars
.
am
.
)

kadham
.
uvatthido mahuAm aso?

o.,c
iiaruax

a:

MahuAarie, tav ed anm
.
k alo eso madaAvibbha-
mA oggd an am
.
.

:oo
acr six: rui ioxcixc
(Enter Akshamala in an aerial vehicle.)
axsuaxaia: I have seentomy routine duties at the nymphs
bathing-place. Now let me see for myself how fares the
royal sage. Because of my friendship with M enaka I have
come to cherish Shak untala, and she herself has sent me
on this errand. (walks forward, looking around) How can
it be that the royal court seems unprepared for festivity
on a festival day? To tell the truth, I have the power to
know anything by meditative concentration, but I must
honor my friends wishes. Very well, concealed by my
spell of invisibility, I will nd out by standing beside
these two gardeners. (Does so.)
(Enter a servant girl examining a mango shoot, and behind o.,
her another.)
iiisr caioixii:
O spray of mango blossoms, seeing you,
the exhalation of the spring month,
with your green stalk tawny,
It seems to me that I see a seasonal blessing.*
sicoxo caioixii: (approaching) Dear Parabhrtika, what
is it you are saying to yourself?
iiisr caioixii: Friend, a cuckoo becomes intoxicated
when she sees a mango tendril.*
sicoxo caioixii: (joyfully) Has spring arrived? o.,c
iiisr caioixii: Madhuk arika, now is the time for your
songs intense with passion.
:o;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
ovir\

a:

sahi, avalambassa j ava aggaAp adaApad
.
it
.
t
.
hivi a bha-
via K amaAdevassa accan
.
am
.
karemi.

iiaruax

a:

ja mam a vi addham accan
.
aaAphalassa.

ovir\

a:

hal a! abhan
.
ide vi edam bhodi, jado ekkam ye-
va n
.
o duh aA t
.
hidam sarram.

(sakhyB avalambitam
.
kr
.
tv a
c utaBbha ngam
.
n at
.
ayati)

ammahe! appad
.
ibuddho vi c u-
daApasavo eso bandhan
.
aAbha ngaAsurah v adi.

(kapotakam
.
kr
.
tv a)

n
.
amo bhaavade maaraAddhaj aa!

arihasi me c uAa nkura!


o.,,
din
.
n
.
o K amassa gahiaAdhan
.
uassa
san
.
t
.
haviaAjuvaAlakkho
pacch akkhalio saro houm
.
!

(c utB a nkuram
.
ks
.
ipati.)
(pravisya rus
.
itah
.
ka ncuk.)
xa xcux: m a t avad anA atmaA j ne! deven apramukhata eva
pratis
.
iddhe vasantA otsave tvam atra ma njar A bha ngam
.
arabhase.
unui: (bhte)

pasdadu ayyo! agahidAatth a khu amhe.

xa xcux: hum! na khalu srutam


.
yuv abhy am
.
yad yath a v a- o.oc
santais tarubhir api devasya s asanam
.
pram an
.
kr
.
tam
.
tadA
asrayibhis ca? tath a hi
:o
acr six: rui ioxcixc
sicoxo caioixii: My dear, hold me while I stand on
tiptoe and worship the God of love.
iiisr caioixii: If I get half of the fruit of the worship.
sicoxo caioixii: My dear! That goes without saying,
for we are one in two bodies. (mimes plucking a mango
blossom supported by her friend) Oho! Even though the
mango blossom is as yet unopened it is fragrant as I
break its stalk. (making the pigeon gesture) Hail to the
crocodile-bannered God of love!
O mango shoot! I oer you to the God of love, o.,,
who has seized his bow,
May you become an infallible arrow
targetting young women!
(Throws the sprout.)
(Enter the enraged chamberlain.)
cuaxniiiaix: Stop it, you foolish girl! When the spring
festival has been expressly banned by his majesty, you
start plucking blossoms.
noru: (frightened) Forgive us, lord! We heard nothing of
this.
cuaxniiiaix: Hmph! How can you not have heard his o.oc
majestys command, which even the trees of spring and
those living in them have obeyed? For
:o,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
c ut an am
.
ciraAnirgat api kalik a
badhn ati na svam
.
rajah
.
,
samnaddham
.
yad api sthitam
.
kuravakam
.
tat korakA avasthay a,
kan
.
t
.
hes
.
u skhalitam
.
gate pi sisire
pum
.
sAkokil an am
.
rutam
sa nke sam
.
harati Smaro pi cakitas
t un
.
A ardhaAkr
.
s
.
t
.
am
.
saram.
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

n
.
a ettha sam
.
deho! mah aAppah avo r aA es.

iiaruax

a:

ayya, kadi dias a amh an


.
am
.
Mitt aAvasun
.
a rat
.
t
.
hi-
en
.
a bhat
.
t
.
in
.
o p adaA m ul ado pesid an
.
am, idha a klaA hare
pad
.
ikammam
.
appidam
.
. ado n
.
a kad a vi sudaApuravo eso
amhehim
.
vuttanto.

xa xcux: bhavatu, na punar evam


.
vartitavyam.
unui:

ayya, kod uhallam
.
n
.
o. jam
.
imin
.
a jan
.
en
.
a sodavvam o.o,
t a kadhedu ayyo kim
.
n
.
imittam
.
bhat
.
t
.
in
.
a vasantaAkomid
pad
.
isiddh a tti?

axs
.
ax

ai

a:

usavaAppi a r a an
.
o. ettha gurun
.
a k aran
.
ena hoda-
vvam.

xa xcux: bahul A bh utam etat, tat kim


.
na kathyate? asti
bhavatyoh
.
karn
.
aA patham
.
ay atam
.

Sakuntal aA praty adesaA
kaulnam?
unui:

ayya! sudam
.
rat
.
t
.
hiaA muh ado j ava a ngulaaA dam
.
sa-
n
.
am.

:;c
acr six: rui ioxcixc
The mango blossom, though mature,
will not put forth its pollen,
The amaranth, though poised, will not bud,
The cooing of the male koil falters in its throat
even though the winter has passed.
I fear that eventhe God of love, startled, puts down
his arrow, half-drawn from his quiver.
axsuaxaia: There can be no doubt about it! Mighty is the
royal sage.
iiisr caioixii: Lord, the royal brother-in-law Mitravasu
dispatched us for a few days from his majestys presence
to decorate the belvedere over there. That is why we had
no news whatsoever of this matter.
cuaxniiiaix: Very well, but do not do it again.
noru: Lord, we are curious. If we may know, please tell us o.o,
why his majesty has bannedthe vernal full-moonfestival.
axsuaxaia: Kings are fond of festivities. There must be
some weighty reason here.
cuaxniiiaix: It is well known, so why should I not tell
you? Has the scandal of Shak untalas rejection reached
your ears?
noru: Lord! We have heard of it from the kings brother-
in-law, up to the disclosure of the ring.
:;:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
xa xcux: tena hi svAalpam
.
kathayitavyam. yad a khalu svA
a ngulyakaA darsan ad anusmr
.
tam
.
devena satyam ud
.
haA
p urv a may a rahasi tatraAbhavat

Sakuntal a moh at praty a-
dis
.
t
.
eti! tad aAprabhr
.
ty eva pasc atAt apaAparigato devah
.
.
kutah
.
?
ramyam
.
dves
.
t
.
i, yath aAsukham
.
prakr
.
tibhir o.;c
na pratyaham
.
sevyate,
sayyA op antaAvivartanair vigamayaty
unnidra eva ks
.
ap ah
.
d aks
.
in
.
yena dad ati v acam ucit am
antah
.
Apurebhyo yad a
gotres
.
u skhalitam
.
tad a bhavati ca
vrd
.
aAvilaks
.
as ciram.
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

piam
.
me!

xa xcux: prabhavato vaimanasy ad utsavaApratis


.
edha iti.
unui:

jujjadi.

xiiaru\i:

edu edu bhavam
.
.

xa xcux: (karn
.
am
.
dattv a) ayam ita ev abhivartate devah
.
! o.;,
svaAkarm anus
.
t
.
hyat am. (iti nis
.
kr ante cet
.
ike.)
(tataf pravis
.
t
.
af pasc atBt apaBsadr
.
saBves
.
o r aj a vid us
.
akaf prath ar
ca.)
xa xcux: (r aj anam avalokya) aho sarv asv avasth asu rama-
n
.
yatvam ev akr
.
tiAvises
.
an
.
am. samutsuko pi

S akuntal am
.
prati priyaAdarsano devah
.
. ya es
.
a
:;:
acr six: rui ioxcixc
cuaxniiiaix: Then there is little left to tell. When his
majesty sawthe ring he regained his memory: It is really
true, I did marry mistress Shak untala in secret and reject
her in a t of delusion! And since then he has been lled
with remorse. How?
He despises enjoyments, o.;c
His subjects no longer approach him every day as
they wish.
He passes his nights tfully tossing back and forth
on the end of the bed.
When out of courtesy he makes
polite conversation
with the ladies of the inner chambers, he falters
in their names, and is ashamed for a long time.
axsuaxaia: I like the sound of this!
cuaxniiiaix: The festival is cancelled because of his ma-
jestys dejection.
noru: That makes sense.
oiisraci: Come, come sir.
cuaxniiiaix: (listening) His majesty is heading this way. o.;,
See to your duties! (Exit the servant girls.)
(Enter the king wearing a costume suitable to remorse, the
buffoon, and the portress.)
cuaxniiiaix: (looking at the king) Ah! The exceptionally
beautiful are sublime in any condition. Though he pines
for Shak untala, his majesty is fair to behold. He who
:;,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
praty adis
.
t
.
aAvises
.
aAman
.
d
.
anaAvidhir
v amaAprakos
.
t
.
he slatham
.
bibhrat k a ncanam ekam eva valayam
.
sv asA oparaktA adharah
.
cint aAj agaran
.
aAprat antaAnayanas
tejoAgun
.
ad atmanah
.
sam
.
sk arA ollikhito mah aAman
.
ir iva
ks
.
n
.
o pi n alaks
.
yate.
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

t
.
h an
.
e kkhu pacc adesaAvim an
.
id a vi Sa untal a jam
.
imassa kade kila tammadi.

a;

a: (dhy anaBmandam
.
parikramya) o.c
prathamam
.
s ara ngA aks
.
y a
priyay a pratibodhyam anam api suptam
anusayaAduh
.
kh ay edam
.
hataAhr
.
dayam
.
samprati vibuddham.
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

dis aim
.
se tavassin
.
e bh agaAdhe aim
.
.

vio us
.
axau
.
: (apav arya)

la nghido eso bh uo Sa untal aAv ade-
n
.
a. n
.
a an
.
e kadham
.
cikicchidavvo bhavissadi.

xa xcux: (upagamya) jayatu jayatu devah


.
. mah aAr aja! t avad
r aj naf pratyaveks
.
it af pramad aAvanaAbh umayah
.
yath aAk a-
mam adhy ast am
.
vinodaAsth an ani devah
.
.
i

a;

a: (pratih arm
.
prati) Vasumati, madAvacan ad am atyaAPi- o.,
sunam
.
br uhi. ciraAprabodh an na sambh avitam asm ab-
hir adya dharmA asanam adhy asitum. yat pratyaveks
.
itam
.
aryen
.
a pauraAk aryam tat pattrakam aropya dyat am iti!
iiaru

ai:

jam
.
devo an
.
avedi.

(iti nis
.
kr ant a.)
:;
acr six: rui ioxcixc
Rejects ostentatious ornamentation,
Wears a loose, single golden bracelet
on his left forearm,
His lower lip is reddened by sighing,
His eyes are languid with wakeful worries.
Because of his inherent brilliance
he does not appear wasted, like a great jewel
polished by abrasion.
axsuaxaia: Justiably Shak untala pines on his behalf,
though he shamed her with rejection.
xixc: (walks around slowly, lost in thought) o.c
This wretched heart at rst was asleep,
Though my doe-eyed beloved tried to wake it.
Now it has awakened to the grief of remorse.
axsuaxaia: The poor girls fate is much the same.
nuiioox: (aside) Hes suering another bout of the Sha-
k untala-disease. I dont know how he can be cured.
cuaxniiiaix: (approaching) Victory, victory tohis majesty!
Great king! The royal parklands have been inspected so
that you may visit them at your leisure.
xixc: (to the portress) V asumati, tell minister Pshuna in my o.,
name that because of prolonged sleeplessness it is not
possible for me to occupy the throne of justice today.
Let his honor send me a written report on whatever civil
cases he investigates today.
ioiriiss: As his majesty commands. (Exit.)
:;,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: P arvat ayana! tvam api svaAniyogam aAs unyam


.
kuru.
xa xcux: tath a! (iti nis
.
kr antah
.
.)
vio us
.
axau
.
:

kadam
.
bhavad a n
.
imakkhiam
.
. sampadam si-
siraA vicchede raman
.
e imassim
.
pamadaA van
.
e suham
.
vi-
hariss amo.

a;

a: vayasya, yad ucyate randhrA opanip atino narth a iti o.,c


tad avyabhic ari. pasya
upahitaAsmr
.
tir a nguliAmudray a
priyatam am animittaAnir akr
.
t am
anusay ad anurodimi c otsukah
.
surabhiAm asaAsukham
.
samupasthitam.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

cit
.
t
.
ha j ava. imam
.
dan
.
d
.
aam
.
c udaAmammadhae
p ad
.
ae.

a;

a: (saBsmitam) bhavatu. dr
.
s
.
t
.
am
.
brahmaAvarcasam. sakhe,
atr opavis
.
t
.
af priy ay ah
.
kim
.
cid anuk arin
.
s
.
u lat asu dr
.
s
.
t
.
im
vilobhay ami.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

n
.
am
.
khu bhavad a Medh avin
.
livi A kar san-
dit
.
t
.
h a: m ahavAman
.
d
.
ave imam
.
khan
.
am
.
pad
.
iv alassam
.
.
tahim
.
me cittaA phalae saA hatthaA lihidam
.
tatthaA bhode
Sa untal ae pad
.
ikidim an
.
ehi tti.

a;

a: dr
.
sam
.
me hr
.
dayaA sam
.
sth anam. tat tam ev adesaya o.,,
m adhavAman
.
d
.
apam.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

edu bhavam
.
.

(parikramatah
.
. Aks
.
am al anu-
gacchati.)
:;o
acr six: rui ioxcixc
xixc: Parvat ayana! You too see to your duties.
cuaxniiiaix: Very well! (Exit.)
nuiioox: You have got rid of the ies. Now that the winter
is over we can relax at ease in this pleasant grove.
xixc: My friend, the saying, Mishaps strike at weaknesses o.,c
is unfailing. Look
As I regain my memory through the signet ring
and longingly lament with regret
my beloved, baselessly rejected
The joy of the fragrant month of spring
is at hand.
nuiioox: Just a second. I will smite this sta upon that
mango-cupid.
xixc: Never mind. I have seen your brahminical potency.
My friend, seated here I will beguile my eyes with these
vines that somewhat imitate my beloved.
nuiioox: But surely you have just informed the painter
Medh avini: I will spend some time in the m adhavi
bower. Bring me the portrait of lady Shak untala that
I painted on a drawing board with my own hand.
xixc: Such is the condition of my heart.* Lead the way to o.,,
the m adhavi bower.
nuiioox: Come, Your Majesty. (They walk about. Aksha
mala follows.)
:;;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
vio us
.
axau
.
: (vilokya)

eso man
.
iAsil aApat
.
t
.
akaAsan
.
adho m aha-
vAman
.
d
.
avao vivittad ae n
.
saddam
.
s agaden
.
a via pad
.
iccha-
di piaA vaassam
.
. uvavisamha. nisdadu bhavam
.
.

(ubhau
pravisy opavis
.
t
.
au.)
axs
.
ax

ai

a: (lat am asritya sthit a.)


i

a;

a: (smaran
.
am abhinya) sakhe M adhavya, sarvam idam
.
smar ami.

Sakuntal ay af prathama A darsana A vr
.
tt ante yat
kathitav an asmi bhavate. sa bhav an praty adesa A divase
matA sampaA gato n ast. prathamam api na tvay a kad a
cit sa nkath asu tatraAbhavaty ah
.
krtitam
.
n ama. na khalv
aham iva mithah
.
Asam
.
vidam
.
smr
.
to si.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

n
.
a visumar ami. kim
.
tu savvam
.
kadhidam
.
tae
o.:cc
yyeva vuttam
.
. parih asaAviappo eso n
.
a bh udAattho tti. ra-
hassaAbhedaAbhrun
.
a mae vi mipApin
.
d
.
aAmandaAbuddhin
.
a
tadh a yeva gahidam
.
. avi a bhavidavvad a balavad.

axs
.
ax

ai

a:

evam
.
n
.
edam
.
.

a;

a: (dhy atv a) sakhe, paritr ayasva m am, paritr ayasva m am.


vio us
.
axau
.
:

kim
.
n
.
edam
.
disam
.
uvan
.
adam
.
? kad a un
.
a sapA
puris
.
a soaAbaddhaAdhiyy a honti? n
.
am
.
pav aden
.
a vi giro
nippakamp a.

a;

a: vayasya. nir akaran


.
aAviplav ay af priy ay ah
.
samavasth am
anusmr
.
tya balavad asvastho smi. s a may a
:;
acr six: rui ioxcixc
nuiioox: (looking) This m adhavi bower, furnished with
a jewelled stone bench, greets my dear friend with a
soundless welcome. Let us enter. Take a seat, sir. (Both
enter and sit down.)
axsuaxaia: (Stands by a vine.)
xixc: (acts remembrance) Madh avya my friend. I remember
it all. What I said to you the rst time I saw Shak untala.*
On the day I rejected her you were not by my side. Even
before, you never brought up her name in conversation.
Surely you, like me, did not remember what we said to
each other.
nuiioox: I did not forget, on the contrary, you told me o.:cc
everything that happened. You said it was a kind of joke,
not a fact. I, dimwitted like a clod of mud, afraid of
divulging the secret, took it at face value. Also, fate is
powerful.
axsuaxaia: That is true.
xixc: (daydreaming) My friend, help me, help me.
nuiioox: How have things got this far? How could the
fortitude of good men be aected by grief? Surely moun-
tains remain unshaken even by a storm wind.
xixc: My friend. When I remember my beloved reduced
to helpless panic, I am violently sick. She
:;,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
itaf praty adis
.
t
.
a o.:c,
svaAjanam anugantum
.
vyavasit a
sthit a tis
.
t
.
h ety uccair
vadati guruAsis
.
ye guruAsame
punar dr
.
s
.
t
.
im
.
b as
.
pa-
prasaraAkalus
.
am arpitavat
mayi kr ure yat tat
saAvis
.
am iva salyam
.
dahati m am.
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

ammahe dis kat
.
t
.
hA avatth a. imassa sant aven
.
a
aham
.
rame.

vio us
.
axau
.
:

atthi deva takko. ken
.
a tatthaAbhod ak asaAg a-
min a avahita tti.

a;

a: ka iva devat abhyo nyah


.
sambh avyate. Menak a kila
sakhy as te janmaApratis
.
t
.
h eti srutav an asmi. tatAsakhb-
his t am eva hr
.
t am
.
hr
.
dayam asa nkate.
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

ammo! moho kkhu eso vimhaan
.
o n
.
a un
.
a pa-
d
.
iboho.

vio us
.
axau
.
:

ja evam
.
t a atthi kkhu sam agamo vi k alen
.
a o.::c
tatthaAbhavade.

a;

a: katham iva?
vio us
.
axau
.
:

n
.
a kkhu m ad aApidaro bhat
.
t
.
iAvirahidam
.
duhi-
daram
.
ciram
.
pekkhidum
.
p arenti.

a;

a: vayasya.
svapno nu m ay a nu matiAbhramo nu
klis
.
t
.
am
.
nu t avat phalam eva pun
.
yam?
asannivr
.
ttyai tad attam es
.
a
manoArath an am aAtat
.
aAprap atah
.
.
:c
acr six: rui ioxcixc
Driven out by me, o.:c,
When she wanted to follow her own people
Commanded aloud: Stay!
by her fathers pupil,
who was like her father,
casting one more glance dimmed
by owing tears
at cruel me
All this stings me like a poisoned dart.
axsuaxaia: Ah! What agony. I delight in his pain.
nuiioox: There is, You Majesty, this conjecture. Her lady-
ship must have been carried o by some sky-goer.
xixc: Who other than a deity would be capable of this?
I was told that M enaka was the mother of your friend.
My heart believes her to have been taken by her friends.
axsuaxaia: Oho! His confusion was surprising, but not
his awakening to reason.
nuiioox: If that is so thenthere will eventually be a reunion o.::c
with her ladyship.
xixc: How so?
nuiioox: Her mother and father will not long endure to
see her separated from her husband.
xixc: My friend.
Was it a dream? An illusion? A fallacy?
A hard-won reward of virtue?
Departed beyond recall
It is become this boundless precipice
for my desires.*
::
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
vio us
.
axau
.
:

m a evam
.
bhan
.
a! n
.
am
.
khu a ngulaam
.
yeva o.::,
n
.
idarisan
.
am
.
. evam
.
yeva avassam
.
Abh avin
.
o acintan
.
y a sa-
m agam a honti.

a;

a: (a ngulyakam
.
vilokya) aye! idam
.
tad aAsulabhaAsth anaA
bhram
.
si socanyam.
tava sucaritam a ngulya n unam
.
pratanu mam eva vibhajyate phalena.
arun
.
aAnakhaAmanohar asu tasy as
cyutam asi labdhaApadam
.
yad a nguls
.
u.
axs
.
ax

ai

a: ( atmaBgatam)

sakhi, d ure vat
.
t
.
asi. e ain
.
d ava ka-
n
.
n
.
aAsuham
.
an
.
ubhav ami.

vio us
.
axau
.
:

bho vaassa! idam
.
a ngulaam
.
ken
.
a ugg aden
.
a
tatthaAbhode hatthaAsam
.
saggam
.
p avidam
.
?

a;

a: sr uyat am! yad a tapoAvan at svaAnagaraAgaman aya pra- o.::c


sthitam
.
m am
.
priy a saA b as
.
pam idam aha: kiyacA ciren
.

aryaAputro sm akam
.
sam
.
smaris
.
yat ti.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

tado tado?

a;

a: pasc ad im am
.
n amaA mudr am
.
tadA a ngulau nivesayat a
may a pratyabhihit am:
ekA aikam atra divase divase madyam
.
n amA aks
.
aram
.
gan
.
aya gacchasi y avad antam
t avat priye madAavarodhaAgr
.
haApraves
net a janas tava sampam upais
.
yat ti.
::
acr six: rui ioxcixc
nuiioox: Dont speak like that. Surely the ring itself is o.::,
proof. This is how fated, extraordinary reunions take
place.
xixc: (looking at the ring) Ah! This is the pitiable thing that
fell from that inaccessible place.
Your virtuous deeds, O ring,
Indeed are triingly rewarded,
Like mine.
You have fallen from her ngers,
enchanting with reddened nails,
where you had gained a place.
axsuaxaia: (to herself ) My friend, you are far away. Alone,
therefore, I revel in this pleasure for the ears.
nuiioox: My friend! How did you endeavour to get this
ring on to her ladyships hand?
xixc: Listen! As I set out from the penance grove to my o.::c
own city my beloved said this to me with tears in her
eyes: How long will my lord remember me?
nuiioox: Then? Then?
xixc: Then I placed this signet ring on her nger and told
her:
One by one, day be day,
Count a syllable of my name.
When you reach the end, my beloved,
Someone will come to guide you
to bring you to my womens quarters.
:,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
. . . tac ca moh ad d arun
.
am anus
.
t
.
hitam.
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

raman
.
o de vihin
.
a dam
.
sido maggo.

o.::,
vio us
.
axau
.
:

adha kadham
.
d ase puttassa rohidaAmacchassa
balisam
.
via edam a nulaam muhe pavit
.
t
.
ham
.
?

a;

a:

SacAtrthaAsalilam
.
kila vandam an ay as te sakhy a Ga n-
g aAsrotasi paribhras
.
t
.
am. bhavatu. up alapsye t avad etat
katham
.
nu tam
.
bandhuraAkomalA a ngulim
.
karam vih ay asi nimagnam ambhasi?
athav a,
acetanam
.
n ama gun
.
an na laks
.
ayen
may aiva kasm ad avadhrit a priy a?
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

puvvA avvaraAvirodh eso vutt anto v at
.
t
.
adi.

a;

a: aAk aran
.
aAparityakt a kad anupreks
.
an
.
y a bhavis
.
yati? o.:,c
(tataf pravisati phalakaBhast a lipiBk ar.)
iiiiAx

ai: (samant ad avalokya)



eso kkhu bhat
.
t
.
a. j ava n
.
am
.
uvasapp ami.

(upasr
.
tya)

jaadu, jaadu bhat
.
t
.
a! iam
.
cittaA
gad a bhat
.
t
.
in
.
.

(citraBphalakam
.
darsayati.)
vio us
.
axau
.
: (vilokya)

he he bho! sabh avaAmahur a aid khu.
s ahu vaassa s ahu. kim
.
bahun
.
a? s antA an
.
upavesaA sa nk ae
alavan
.
aAkud uhalam
.
mam
.
jan
.
aadi.

:
acr six: rui ioxcixc
. . . and committed that horror in delusion.
axsuaxaia: Fate showed you a pleasing way. o.::,
nuiioox: Then how did this ring get into the mouth of
that wretched carp as if it were a hook?
xixc: Your friend lost it in current of the Ganges as she
paid homage to the water of Shachi-ford. Now let me
rebuke it
How could you forsake that hand
with its tender ngers arched
and sink into the water?
But no,
An insentient thing cannot discern virtues,
Yet how did I spurn my beloved?
axsuaxaia: The beginning and end of this story are at
odds.
xixc: When will I see her again, whom I gratuitously o.:,c
spurned?
(Enter the artist with a painting board in her hand.)
airisr: (looking around) Here is His majesty, I will approach
him. (approaching) Victory, victory, Your majesty! I bring
the portrait of her ladyship. (Shows the painting board.)
nuiioox: (looking) Hey hey hey! Really quite a natural
beauty. Well done, my friend, well done. Why say more?
Believing that her soul has entered it, I feel an urge to
converse with it.
:,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

aho, vaassassa vattik aAreh ae n
.
iun
.
ad a! j an
.
e sah
aggado me cit
.
t
.
hadi.

a;

a: (nih
.
svasya) o.:,,
s aks
.
at priy am upagat am apah aya p urvam
.
citrA arpit am aham im am
.
bahu manyam anah
.
.
srotoAvah am
.
pathi nik amaAjal am attya
j ato smi re pran
.
ayav an mr
.
gaAtr
.
s
.
n
.
ik ay am.
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

aam
.
yeva savvam
.
pad
.
ivan
.
n
.
o jamhi vattuk am a.

vio us
.
axau
.
: (nirvarn
.
ya)

bho, tin
.
ho atthaA bhodo dsanti.
savv ao dam
.
san
.
ao. kadam a ettha dsadi Sa untal a?

axs
.
ax

ai

a:

mohaAdakkho tavass. avassam
.
n
.
a me paccakh a
sah.

a;

a: tvam
.
t avat katam am
.
tarkayasi?
vio us
.
axau
.
: (ciram
.
vilokya)

takkemi j a es a avaseaAsin
.
iddhaA o.:c
pallavam
.
asoaAladiam
.
sam
.
sid a sid
.
hilaAkesaAbandhA ovva-
mantaA kusumen
.
a baddhaA seaA bindun
.
a vaan
.
aen
.
a visesaA
n
.
amidaA s ah aim
.
b ahuA lad ahim
.
usasidaA n
.
vin
.
a vasan
.
ena
si parsant a via alihid a es a atthaAbhod Sa untal a. idar ao
saho.

a;

a: nipun
.
o bhav an. asty atra me bh avaAcihnam.
svinnA a ngulAniveso
rekh aApr antes
.
u dr
.
syate malinah
.
asru ca kapolaApatitam
.
laks
.
yam idam
.
vartikA occhv as at.
:o
acr six: rui ioxcixc
axsuaxaia: Oh! What skill in his companions brushwork!
I perceive my friend standing before me.
xixc: (sighing) o.:,,
At rst I rejected my beloved
when she stood before me.
Sketched in a portrait, I show her respect.
Ignoring the river in my path,
overowing with water,
I have come to yearn, alas, for a mirage.
axsuaxaia: He has just acknowledged all that I wanted
to say.
nuiioox: (inspecting) Three ladies can be seen. All of them
are beautiful. Which one is Shak untala?
axsuaxaia: The poor man is skilled at self-deception, my
friend is not actually here.
xixc: Which one do you think it is?
nuiioox: (gazing for a long time) I guess this one who seems o.:c
fatigued, sketched as leaning against the vine on the
ash oka tree, droplets of perspiration forming on her face
shedding owers from her loosened hair-tie, the vines
that are her arms letting their branches droop low, the
girdle of her garment untied, must be the lady Shak un-
tala. The others are her companions.
xixc: You are clever. There is the telltale sign of my love.*
A smudge of moist ngerprints
can be seen on the outlines,
And a tear, fallen from my cheek
can be spotted by the splaying of the brush.
:;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
Medh avini, ardhaA likhitam etad vinodaA sth anam. gaccha.
vartik am
.
t avad anaya.
iiiiA x

ai:

ayya m adhavva! avalambha cittaA phalaam
.
j ava
gacch ami.

(iti vid us
.
ak aya dattv a nis
.
kr ant a.)
vio us
.
axau
.
:

kim
.
avaram
.
ettha ahilihidavvam
.
?

o.:,
axs
.
aA x

ai

a:

asam
.
saam
.
jo jo sahe me ahiruido padeso tam
.
tam
.
alihiduk amo bhavissado tti takkemi.

a;

a: M adhavya, sr uyat am.


k ary a saikataAlnaAham
.
saAmithun a
srotoAvah a M alin
p adA ante nibhr
.
tam
.
nis
.
an
.
n
.
aAcamare
GaurAgurof p avane
s akhA alambitaAvalkalasya ca taror
nirm atum icch amy adhah
.
sr
.
nge kr
.
s
.
n
.
aAmr
.
gasya v amaAnayanam
.
kan
.
d
.
uyam an am
.
mr
.
gm.
vio us
.
axau
.
: ( atmaBgatam)

tadh a takkemi p uridam
.
an
.
en
.
a
cittaAphalaam
.
kuccA alaehim
.
t avas an
.
am
.
ti.

a;

a: M adhavya, anyac ca.



Sakuntal ay af pras adhanamabhi- o.:,c
prtam atra vismr
.
tam asm abhih
.
.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

kim
.
via?

axs
.
ax

ai

a:

van
.
aAv asassa tass a a soamallassa jam
.
an
.
usadisam
.
bhavissadi tti.

:
acr six: rui ioxcixc
Medh avini! The pleasure grove is half-nished. Go, fetch
the brush.
airisr: Noble Madh avya! Hold the drawing board until I
return. (Gives it to the buffoon and goes out.)
nuiioox: What else needs to be painted here? o.:,
axsuaxaia: I think, without a doubt, he wants to paint
all the places that my dear friend was fond of.
xixc: Madh avya, listen.
I must draw the river M alini
its sandy banks lined by pairs of wild geese,
The valley of the holy foothills of Him alaya,
father of Gauri, where rest yaks,
And beneath the tree from which hang
bark-garments
I want to sketch a doe rubbing her left eye
on the stags horn.
nuiioox: (to himself ) In addition I think he will ll the
painting with the bushy beards of ascetics.
xixc: Madh avya, another thing. I forgot an ornament Sha- o.:,c
k untala was fond of.
nuiioox: What was it like?
axsuaxaia: Something betting a forest-dweller and her
tenderness.
:,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a:
kr
.
tam
.
na karn
.
A arpitaAbandhanam
.
sakhe
sirs
.
am aAgan
.
d
.
aAvilambiAkesaram.
na v a saracAcandraAmarciAkomalam
.
mr
.
n
.
alaAs utram
.
racitam
.
stanA antare.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

kim
.
n
.
u atthaAbhod rattaAkuvalaaAsohin
.
a aggaA
hatthen
.
a muham
.
ov aria cakidaAcakid a via t
.
hid a.

(dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a)

he he bho! eso d ase putto kusumaAp ad


.
accaro mahuAaro
atthaAbhode vaan
.
aAkam alam
.
ahilasadi.

a;

a: nanu niv aryat am es


.
a dhr
.
s
.
t
.
ah
.
! o.:,,
vio us
.
axau
.
:

bhavam
.
yeva avin
.
dA an
.
us as v aran
.
e pahavadi.

a;

a: yujyate. ayi bhoh


.
! kusumaAlat aApriyA atithe, kim itaf
paripatanaAkhedam anubhavasi?
es
.
a kusumaAnis
.
an
.
n
.
a
tr
.
s
.
it api sat bhavantam anurakt a
pratip alayati madhuAkar
na khalu madhu vin a tvay a pibati.
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

ahij adam
.
khu v arido.

vio us
.
axau
.
:

pad
.
isiddhaAv am a es a j ad.

o.:oc
i

a;

a: evam
.
bhoh
.
! na me s asane tis
.
t
.
hasi. sr uyat am
.
tarhi
sam
.
prati.
:,c
acr six: rui ioxcixc
xixc:
My friend, I have not drawn the shirsha ower,
with its stalk xed to her ear,
and its laments hanging down to her cheek,
Nor the necklace of lotus bres,
mild like the rays of the autumn moon
draped between her breasts.*
nuiioox: Now why does the lady seem startled, shielding
her face with her ngers, as beautiful as red lilies? (look-
ing) Hey hey hey! This son of a slave, this ower-raider,
this bee, is hungry for her ladyships lotus face.
xixc: Go on, chase this impertinent vandal away! o.:,,
nuiioox: Only you, the chastiser of the wicked, are capable
of warding him o.
xixc: Thats right. Ho! You are a welcome guest to ev-
ery owering vine. Why are you tiring yourself itting
around here?
There waits your loving she-bee
nestling in a ower.
Although she is thirsty
She will not drink nectar without you.
axsuaxaia: What a graceful dismissal.
nuiioox: His kind can become stubborn when chased
o.:oc
away.
xixc: You are right! You will not abide by my command,
so hear me now.
:,:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
aklis
.
t
.
aAb alaAtaruApallavaAlobhanyam
.
ptam
.
may a saAdayam eva ratA otsaves
.
u
bimbA adharam
.
dasasi ced bhramara priy ay as
tv am
.
k aray ami kamalA odaraAbandhanaAstham!
vio us
.
axau
.
:

evam
.
tikkhaAdan
.
d
.
assa kadham
.
de n
.
a bh aissa-
di?

(prahasya, atmaB gatam)



eso unmattao kkhu! aham
.
pi disassa sam
.
saggen
.
a disaAvan
.
n
.
o via sam
.
vutto.

axs
.
ax

ai

a:

mam avi attan
.
o an
.
antaram gan
.
ehi j a aham
.
d a-
n
.
im
.
pad
.
ibuddh a.

a;

a: priye! sthito yam et avati? o.:o,


axs
.
ax

ai

a:

aho! dhre vi jan
.
e raso padam
.
karedi.

vio us
.
axau
.
:

bho, cittam
.
khu edam
.
.

a;

a: (saB vis
.
adam) vayasya, kim idam anus
.
t
.
hitam
.
pauroA
bh agyam?
darsanaAsukham anubhavatah
.
s aks
.
ad iva tanmayena hr
.
dayena
smr
.
tiAk arin
.
a tvay a me
punar api citrkr
.
t a k ant a.
(roditi.)
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

vaassa, sumaridam
.
tae pacc adesaA vim an
.
an
.
am
.
o.:;c
Sa untal ae sahe dit
.
t
.
ham
.
khu paccakham
.
amhehim
.
.

iiiiA x

ai: (pravisya)

bhat
.
t
.
a, deve KulaAppah ae parijan
.
en
.
a
antar a avacchin
.
n
.
o de vatti aAkaran
.
d
.
ao.

:,:
acr six: rui ioxcixc
If you, O bee, bite my beloveds lower lip
red like a bimba fruit,
as appealing as a virgin bud on a young tree,
that I tenderly drunk in a celebration of passion,
I will imprison you in a lotus!
nuiioox: With such harsh punishment how could he not
be terried of you? (laughing, aside) He really is stark
raving mad! I too have become tainted by his company.
axsuaxaia: Count also me who is now awakened.
xixc: My beloved! Is he still there? o.:o,
axsuaxaia: Ah! Love can overwhelm even a resolute man.
nuiioox: It is a picture.
xixc: (sadly) My friend, why show me such malice?
While I was enjoying the bliss of seeing her,
my heart absorbed,
seemingly before me
you, reawakening my memory,
once more made her into a painting.
(Weeps.)
axsuaxaia: My friend, I have indeed seen with my own o.:;c
eyes that you remember the disrespect you showed by
rejecting Shak untala.
airisr: (entering) Lord, your paintbox has fallen into the
hands of the entourage of Queen Kulaprabha.
:,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: bhavatu, vayam apy aks


.
am ah
.
samprati vartik aAkarma-
n
.
i.
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

bahuA man
.
n
.
a se KulaA ppah a. adha v a n
.
a edam
.
kim
.
ci. vipa ncie kkhu asannidh an
.
e ekaAtant u vi agghadi.

a;

a: vayasya, pasya. katham avisr amaA duh


.
kham anubha-
v amah
.
?
praj agar at khalAbh utas o.:;,
tasy ah
.
svapne sam agamah
.
b as
.
po pi na dad aty en am
.
dras
.
t
.
um
.
citraAgat am api.
iiiiA x

ai:

bhat
.
t
.
a, idam
.
pi d an
.
im
.
cittaApad
.
ikidam
.
Pi ngali-
aAmisso avahat
.
ht
.
hidam
.
yadanti.

vio us
.
axau
.
:

bhin
.
n
.
a d an
.
im
.
se as a!

a;

a: hum! (stanB antare hastam


.
niks
.
ipati.)
xiiaru\i:

jaadu jaadu bhat
.
t
.
in
.
!

vio us
.
axau
.
: (karn
.
am
.
dattv a)

avedha bho! Medh avin


.
im
.
ma-
o.:c
m
.
via anusarant uvatthid a anteAuraAvvaggh Pi ngalik a.

a;

a: vayasya, im am
.
raks
.
a priy aApratikr
.
tim.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

att an
.
aam
.
ti bhan
.
ahi!

:,
acr six: rui ioxcixc
xixc: Very well, I am now anyway not in the frame of mind
for painting.
axsuaxaia: He holds Kulaprabha in high regard. But it
means nothing. If a vipa nchi lute is not at hand, then a
single stringed lute is prized.
xixc: My friend, look. Why do I suer painwithno respite?
Wakefulness foils reunion with her in a dream;
o.:;,
tears will not let me see her in a painting.
airisr: Lord, Pngalika and her friends are on their way to
manhandle the portrait.
nuiioox: Now his hope is dashed!
xixc: Ah! (Places his hand on his chest.)
oiisraci: Victory, victory mistress!
nuiioox: (listening) Oh dear! Pngalika, the tigress of the o.:c
womens quarters, is upon us, tracking Medh avini like a
deer.
xixc: My friend, protect this portrait of my beloved.
nuiioox: You mean to say I should protect yourself.
:,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

sahi, es a pad
.
ikid vi de pad
.
ivakkhassa ala ngha-
n
.
a karadi.

vio us
.
axau
.
: (phalakam ad aya)

eso n
.
am
.
tahim
.
govemi ja-
ttha p ar avadim vajjia avaro n
.
a pekkhadi.

(drutaBpadam
nis
.
kr antah
.
.)
iiaru

ai: (pravisya patraBhast a)



jaadu jaadu devo!

o.:,
i

a;

a: Vasumati! na khalu devy agat a?


iiaru

ai:

bhat
.
t
.
a, pattaAhattham
.
mam
.
pekkhia pad
.
in
.
ivu-
tt a.

a;

a: k alaAj n a k aryA oparodham


.
me pariharati.
iiaru

ai:

deva, amacco vin
.
n
.
avedi. atthaAj adassa gan
.
an aA
bahulad ae ekkam
.
yeva poraA kayyam
.
avekkhidam
.
, tam
.
devo sod
.
hum
.
arihadi.

a;

a: Medh avini, v acyat am! o.:,c


iiiiA x

ai:

jam
.
bhat
.
t
.
a an
.
avedi.

(pattrakam
.
pras arya v aca-
yati) viditam astu devaA p ad an am
.
yath a DhanaA vr
.
ddha
iti yathA arthaAn am a van
.
ig v arApathA opajv nauAvyasane
vipannah
.
. sa c anA apatyah
.
. tasya kot
.
iAsataA sam
.
khy atam
.
vasu. tad id anm
.
r ajA artham apadyate. srutv a r aj a pra-
m an
.
am iti.
i

a;

a: ( aBkampitah
.
) kas
.
t
.
a khalv anAapatyat a. Vasumati! mah aA
dhanatv ad bahuA patnkena tatraA bhavat a bhavitavyam.
vic aryat am
.
yadi kad a cid apannaAsattv a k api tasya bh ar-
y a sy at.
:,o
acr six: rui ioxcixc
axsuaxaia: My friend, even this portrait is removed from
you, a foe.
nuiioox: (taking the board) I will hide it where none but
turtle-doves will see it. (Exit with a quick step.)
ioiriiss: (entering with a letter) Victory, victory to Your o.:,
majesty!
xixc: V asumati! Has the queen not come?
ioiriiss: Lord, she turned back when she saw me bearing
a missive.
xixc: She is mindful of timing and avoids interfering with
my business.
ioiriiss: Lord, the minister reports that because of the
large volume of aairs he investigated only one citizens
case. Your majesty should look at it.
xixc: Medh avini, read it!
o.:,c
sciini: As your majesty commands. (opens the document
and reads) Let it be known to his majesty that the aptly
named merchant Dhanavriddha* who tracked by sea
has perished in a shipwreck. He is without issue. His
wealth amounts to thousands of millions. This now falls
to the royal estate. Hearing this, may the king make a
ruling.
xixc: (shaken) It is a misery to have no children. V asumati!
Because he was wealthy he must have had many wives.
Enquire whether one of his wives may be pregnant.
:,;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
iiaru

ai:

deva, id an
.
im
.
yeva KesavaAset
.
t
.
hin
.
o duhid a n
.
i-
vuttaApum
.
savan
.
a j a a sun
.
adi.

a;

a: nanu garbhaf pitryam


.
riktham arhati. gaccha. evam
aryaAPisunam
.
br uhi.
iiaru

ai:

jam
.
deva an
.
avedi!

(prasthit a.) o.:,,


i

a;

a: ehy ehi t avat.


iiaru

ai: (nivr
.
tya)

iamhi.

a;

a: api ca tatraAbhav an vaktavyah


.
. kim anena sam
.
tatir asti
n ast ti.
yena yena viyujyante
praj ah
.
snigdhena bandhun a
sa sa p ap ad r
.
te t as am
.
Duh
.
s
.
yanta iti ghos
.
yat am.
iiaru

ai:

idam
.
n
.
ama ittham
.
ghosidavvam
.
.

(nis
.
kramya o.:cc
punaf pravis
.
ya ca)

deva, k ale ghut
.
t
.
ham
.
iva ahin
.
andidam
.
devaAs asan
.
am
.
mah aAan
.
en
.
a.

a;

a: (drgham nihsvasya) evam


.
santatiA cchedaA niravalam-
b an am
.
m ulaApurus
.
an
.
am avas ane sampadaf param upa-
tis
.
t
.
hante. mam apy ante P uruAvam
.
saAsriya es
.
a eva vr
.
tt a-
ntah
.
.
iiaru

ai:

pad
.
ihadam
.
asa nkidam!

a;

a: dhi n m am upasthitaAsreyo vam aninam!


axs
.
ax

ai

a:

asam
.
saam
.
sahim
.
yeva hiae kadua n
.
indido n
.
en
.
a
att a.

:,
acr six: rui ioxcixc
ioiriiss: Lord, just now we have learnt that his wife, the
daughter of the guildsman K eshava, has performed the
pregancy rite to ensure the birth of a son.
xixc: Well then the unborn child is entitled to the fathers
inheritance. Go, tell the honorable Pshuna so.
ioiriiss: As his majesty commands! (Departs.) o.:,,
xixc: Come back for a second.
ioiriiss: (returning) Here I am.
xixc: Tell his honor this too. What does it matter whether
he has children or not?
Proclaim that whatever dear kinsman
my subjects lose,
Dushy anta will take his place,
if they are free from sin.
ioiriiss: So it will indeed be proclaimed. (exits and re- o.:cc
enters) Your majesty, the people rejoiced in your procla-
mation as they do in timely thunder.*
xixc: (sighing deeply) This is how, when the last male of the
family, unsupported through the severing of the lineage,
passes away, wealth passes to another. When I die this
too will befall the glory of the Puru line.
ioiriiss: May this prospect not come to pass!
xixc: Shame on me for reviling the good that providence
brought to me!
axsuaxaia: No doubt he is blaming himself because of
my friend.
:,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a:
o.:c,
sam
.
ropite py atmani dharmaApatn
tyakt a may a n ama kulaApratis
.
t
.
h a
kalpis
.
yam an
.
a mahate phal aya
vasum
.
Adhar a k ala iv optaAbj a.
iiiiA x

ai: (janB antikam)



imam
.
pattakam
.
pesaanten
.
a kim
.
sum aridam
.
amaccen
.
a jam
.
pekkhia d ava bhat
.
t
.
in
.
o jal A
avaseo sam
.
vutto?

(vicintya)

adhav a n
.
a so abuddhiApura-
vam
.
pavat
.
t
.
adi.

a;

a: aho Duh
.
s
.
yantasya sam
.
sayam ar ud
.
h af pin
.
d
.
aAbh ajah
.
.
asm at param
.
bata yath aAsrutaAsambhr
.
t ani
ko nah
.
kule nivapan ani karis
.
yat ti
n unam
.
pras utiAvikalena may a pramuktam
.
dhautA asruAses
.
am udakam
.
pitaraf pibanti.
axs
.
ax

ai

a:

sadisam
.
khu de vavadh an
.
am! vaattho pah u ava- o.::c
r asu devsu an
.
ur uvaA puttaA jamman
.
a puvvaA puris an
.
am
.
arin
.
o bhavissadi tti.

(svaBgatam)

n
.
a me vaan
.
am
.
pad
.
ige-
n
.
hadi! adhav a an
.
ur uvam
.
yeva osaham ada nkam
.
n
.
iv are-
di.

a;

a: (sokB avegaBn at
.
itakena)
aAm ulaAsuddhaAsantati
kulam etat Pauravam
.
praj aAvandhye
mayy astamAitam anA arye
desa iva SarasvatAsrotah
.
. (sam
.
moham
.
gatah
.
.)
,cc
acr six: rui ioxcixc
xixc:
o.:c,
I have abandoned my lawful wife,
the foundation of my family,
though my self was embedded in her
She who will bear a great fruit,
just as does the earth
in which a seed is sown in the right season.
sciini: (aside) What did the minister have in mind when
he sent this missive, that, once he saw it, would dampen
his majestys spirits? (reecting) But no, he would not act
without forethought.*
xixc: Ah! Dushy anta has imperiled his ancestors.
After me, alas, who in our family can prepare
the oerings prescribed by the sacred law?
Surely my ancestors are drinking for water
the clear tears I shed,
I who am incomplete without ospring.
axsuaxaia: A characteristic oversight! A lord in the prime o.::c
of his life will settle his debt to the ancestors through
the birth of a worthy son by another queen. (to herself )
He cannot hear my words! Or rather, only the right
medicine can cure the disease.
xixc: (miming grief )
This P aurava lineage, pure from its beginning
comes to a close since I, unworthy,
have no ospring
Just as the River Sar asvati seeps away
in an unworthy desert. (Faints.)
,c:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
iaii;axau
.
: (saBsambhramam avalokya)

samassasadu sama-
ssasadu bhat
.
t
.
a!

axs
.
ax

ai

a:

id an
.
m
.
yeva n
.
am
.
n
.
ivvudam
.
karemi. adhav a ma-
hadhim
.
un
.
a devad ahim edam
.
dam
.
sidam
.
. n
.
a sakko mae
an
.
Aan
.
un
.
n
.
ad ae hatthaAsam
.
saggam
.
n
.
edum
.
. bhodu. jan
.
n
.
aA
bh aAosu ao dev ao yyeva tadh a karassanti. jadh a eso r aA es
t ae sahaAdhammaAc arin
.
e sam agamissadi.

(nabho valok-
ya, saBhars
.
am)

karassanti kadham
.
yeva tahi pekkh ami!
j ava imin
.
a vuttanten
.
a piaAsahim
.
samass asemi

(udbhr an-
takena nis
.
kr ant a.)
xiiaru\i:

abbamhan
.
n
.
am
.
abbamhan
.
n
.
am
.
bhoh
.
! abbam-
o.::,
han
.
n
.
am
.
!

a;

a: (sanaif praty asvasya, karn


.
am
.
dattv a) aye! M adhavyasy
ev artaAn adah
.
.
iiiiA x

ai:

tavass Pi ngali aAms an
.
am
.
muhe pad
.
ido bhavis-
sadi.

a;

a: Vasumati, gaccha madAvacan ad aAnis


.
iddhaAparijan am
.
devm up alabhasva.
iiaru

ai: tath a (iti nis


.
kr ant a.)
i

a;

a: paramA arthaAbhta iva bhinnaAsvaro br ahman


.
ah
.
. kah
.
o.::c
ko tra bhoh
.
.
(pravisya) xa xcux: aj n apayatu devah
.
!
,c:
acr six: rui ioxcixc
iirixui: (looking on with alarm) Wake up lord, wake up!
axsuaxaia: I will end his pain here and now. But no, the
High Gods have decreed this. Without permission I may
not lend a hand. Let it be. The gods, eager for their share
of sacrice, will arrange the royal sages reunion with his
wife. (looking at the sky, joyfully) I will watch how they
manage it. So let me comfort my dear friend with this
news. (Flies upwards.)
niuixo rui scixi: Sacrilege, sacrilege, help! Sacrilege! o.::,
xixc: (regaining consciousness, listening) Ah! It seems to be
Madh avyas call of distress.
airisr: The poor fellow must have fallen into the jaws of
Mistress Pngalika.
xixc: V asumati, go and admonish the queen in my name
for not restraining her retinue.
ioiriiss: As you wish. (Exit.)
xixc: The brahmins voice falters as if he were really afraid. o.::c
Who is in attendance?
(enter the) cuaxniiiaix: Command, you majesty!
,c,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: kim es
.
a M adhavyo m an
.
avakah
.
krandati?
xa xcux: deva, y avad avalokay ami. (nis
.
kramya sam
.
bhram at
punaf pravis
.
t
.
ah
.
.)
i

a;

a: P arvat ayana! na khalu kim


.
Acid atyayikam?
xa xcux: deva, n aivam.
o.::,
i

a;

a: tat kuto yam


.
vepathuh
.
? kim
.
tu
pr ag eva jaras a kampah
.
saAvises
.
am
.
tu s ampratam
avis
.
karoti sarvA a ngam
asvattham iva m arutah.
xa xcux: tat paritr ayat am
.
suhr
.
dam
.
mah aAr ajah
.
.
i

a;

a: kasm at paritr atavyah


.
?
xa xcux: mahatah
.
kr
.
cchr at!
o.:,c
i

a;

a: aye! aAnirbhinnA artham ucyat am!


xa xcux: deva, yo s av abhram
.
Aliho n ama pr as adah
.
. . .
i

a;

a: kim
.
tatra?
,c
acr six: rui ioxcixc
xixc: Why is that boy Madh avya wailing?
cuaxniiiaix: Your Majesty, I will go and see. (Exit and
return with alarm.)
xixc: Parvat ayana! Surely it is not a matter of life-and-
death?
cuaxniiiaix: No, your majesty. o.::,
xixc: Then what is he afraid of? But,
The tremor which before was brought on
by your old age, now your whole body
displays it exceedingly,
like an ashv attha tree in the wind.
cuaxniiiaix: So protect your friend, great king.
xixc: Protect him from what?
cuaxniiiaix: From great hardship! o.:,c
xixc: Ah! Say something that makes sense!
cuaxniiiaix: Your majesty, that palace called the cloud-
licker. . .
xixc: Whats going on there?
,c,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
xa xcux:
tasy agraAbh umer gr
.
haAnlaAkan
.
t
.
hair o.:,,
anekaAvisrantiAvila nghyaAsr
.
ngam
sakh a prak asA etaraAm urtin a te
sattvena ken api nigr
.
hya ntah
.
.
i

a;

a: (sahas otth aya) m a t avat! mam api sattvair abhibh u-


yante gr
.
h ah
.
. athav a bahuApratyav ayam
.
nr
.
patvam.
ahany ahany atmana eva t avaj
j n atum
.
pram adaskhalitam
.
na sakyam
praj asu kah
.
kena path a pray at ty
ases
.
atah
.
kasya nu saktir asti?
xiiaru\i:

dh ava bho!

a;

a: (gatiBbhedena parikr aman) sakhe, na bhetavyam, na


bhetavyam.
(nepathye) vio us
.
axau
.
:

kadham
.
d an
.
im
.
n
.
a bh aissam
.
? eso o.:c
mam
.
ko vi pacch aAmod
.
idaAsiroAdharam ikkhum
.
via thi-
raAbha ngam
.
yava karidum
.
icchadi!

a;

a: (saBdr
.
s
.
t
.
iBks
.
epam) dhanur dhanus t avat!
(pravisya s ar ngaB hast a Yavan)

jaadu jaadu bhat
.
t
.
a! edam
sarA asan
.
am
.
hatthA av apaAsahitam.

a;

a: (saBsaram
.
dhanur adatte.)
,co
acr six: rui ioxcixc
cuaxniiiaix:
From the spire on its highest point, o.:,,
reached by tame peacocks after taking many
breaks
your friend has been abducted
by some kind of an invisible end.
xixc: (jumping up) It cannot be! Even my home is invaded
by ends. Kingship is beset with many reversals.
From day to day it is not even possible to know
ones own unmindful lapses.
Who has the power to know in full
who among his subjects takes which path?
oiisraci: Please run!
xixc: (changing his pace) My friend, have no fear, have no
fear.
(offstage) nuiioox: How could I not be afraid? Someone is o.:c
strangling my neck from behind and is trying to crush
me like sugar-cane!
xixc: (casting a glance) My bow, my bow!
(The Ionian woman enters bow-in-hand.) Victory, victory,
Lord! Here is your bow and the wrist-guard.
xixc: (Takes up his bow and arrows.)
,c;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
xiiaru\i:
es
.
a tv am abhinavaAkan
.
t
.
haAson
.
itA arth
o.:,
s ard ulaf pasum iva hanmi ves
.
t
.
am anam
art an am
.
bhayam apanetum attaAdhanv a
Duh
.
s
.
yantas tava saran
.
am
.
bhavatv id anm.
i

a;

a: (saBros
.
am) katham
.
m am evam uddisati? tis
.
t
.
ha tis
.
t
.
ha
kulaA p am
.
sana! ayam id anm
.
na bhavasi. (c apam ad aya)
P arvat ayana! sop anaAm argam adesaya.
xaxcux: ita ito deva. (sarve satvaram upasarpanti.)
i

a;

a: (samant ad vilokya) s unyam


.
khalv idam.
(nepathye) vio us
.
axau
.
:

ahidh ava bho! aham
.
bhavantam
.
pe-
kkh ami. eso bhavam
.
mam
.
n
.
a pekkhadi. majj araAgahido
via unduro n
.
ir asoAmhi jvide sam
.
vutto.

a;

a: bhoh
.
! tiraskarin
.
Agarvita madyamastram
.
tv ampasya- o.:,c
ti. sthito bhava! m a ca vayasyaAsampark ad visv aso bh ut.
es
.
a tvadAartham
.
tam is
.
um
.
sam
.
dadhe,
yo hanis
.
yati vadhyam
.
tv am
.
raks
.
yam
.
raks
.
is
.
yati dvijam
ham
.
so hi ks
.
ram adatte
tanAmisr a varjayaty apah
.
.
(astram
.
sam
.
dhatte.)
,c
acr six: rui ioxcixc
oiisraci:
I, eager for the fresh blood from your neck, o.:,
will kill you as I hold you fast like a tiger does its
prey.
Let Dushy anta, taking up his bow
to allay the fear of the distressed be your
protection now.
xixc: (angrily) Is he mocking me? Stay where you are, stay
where you are, you disgrace to your family! Now you
will not prevail. (taking his bow) Parvat ayana! show me
to the stairs.
cuaxniiiaix: This way, this way, your majesty. (All come
rushing.)
xixc: (looking all around) But it is empty.
(behind the curtain) nuiioox: Hurry! I can see you. You
cannot see me. I have lost all hope of life, like a mouse
caught by a cat.
xixc: O you proud of your invisibility, my arrow will see o.:,c
you. Stand still! Take no comfort fromyour contact with
my friend. For you I draw this arrow,
Which will slay you who deserve death and
will protect the brahmin worthy of protection,
for a swan will take the milk
but discard the water mixed with it.
(Aims the arrow.)
,c,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
(pravisya sam
.
bhr anto vid us
.
akam utsr
.
jya M atalir vid us
.
akas
ca.)
x

araiiu
.
: ayus
.
man!
kr
.
t a saravy a Harin
.
a tav asur ah
.
o.:,,
sarA asanam
.
tes
.
u vikr
.
s
.
yat am idam
pras adaAsaumy ani sat am
.
suhr
.
jAjane
patanti caks
.
ums
.
i na d arun
.
ah
.
sar ah
.
.
i

a;

a: (astram upasam
.
haran) aye M atalih
.
! svA agatam
.
DevaA
r ajaAs arathaye!
(pravisya) vio us
.
axa: (nikat
.
am etya)

bho! aham
.
n
.
en
.
a pasuA
m aren
.
a m arido man
.
amhi!

araiiu
.
: (saBsmitam) ayus
.
man, sr uyat am
.
yad asmi Harin
.
a
bhavatAsak asam
.
pres
.
itah
.
.
i

a;

a: avahito smi.
x

araiiu
.
: asti K alaAnemiApras utir Durjayo n ama d anavaAga- o.:oc
n
.
ah
.
.
i

a;

a: srutaAp urvo may a N arad at.


x

araiiu
.
:
sakhyus te sa kila

Satakrator avadhyas
tasya tvam
.
ran
.
aAsirasi smr
.
to nihant a
ucchettum
.
prabhavati yan na saptaAsaptis
tan naisam
.
timiram ap akaroti candrah
.
.
,:c
acr six: rui ioxcixc
(Enter the agitated M atali releasing the buffoon, and the buf-
foon.)
x

araii: Your Majesty!


Indra has made the demons to be your targets, o.:,,
draw your bow against them.
Good mens eyes, mild with favor,
fall upon a friend, not cruel arrows.
xixc: (withdrawing his arrow) Oh! M atali! Welcome to the
charioteer of the King of the Gods.
nuiioox: (entering, coming close) Hey! This monster nearly
killed me!
x

araii: (smiling) Your honor, hear why Indra dispatched


me to you.
xixc: I am attentive.
x

araii: There is a demon lord called D urjaya, the spawn o.:oc


of Kalanemi.
xixc: I have already heard of this from N arada.
x

araii:
It is said that your friend Indra cannot kill him.
It is said that you can be his slayer in the forefront
of the battle.
The darkness of the night that the sun is powerless
to dispel
the moon can drive away.
,::
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
tad bhav an gr
.
htaAc apa ev ed anm Aindram
.
ratham adhiru-
hya vijay aya pratis
.
t
.
hat am.
i

a;

a: anugr
.
htam anay a Maghavatah
.
sambh avanay a. atha o.:o,
bhavadbhir M adhavyam
.
prati kim evam
.
prayuktam?
x

araiiu
.
: (saBsmitam
.
vid us
.
akam avalokya) tad api kathyate.
kuto pi kim
.
Animitt an manasAt ap ad ayus
.
m an may a vikla-
vo dr
.
s
.
t
.
ah
.
. pasc at kopayitum ayus
.
mantam
.
tath a kr
.
tav an
asmi. kutah
.
?
jvalati calitA endhano gnir
viprakr
.
taf pannagaf phan
.
am
.
kurute
pr ayah
.
svam
.
mahim anam
.
ks
.
obh at pratipadyate jantuh
.
.
i

a;

a: (jan B antikam) vayasya M adhavya! anA atikraman


.
y a
Divah
.
Apater aj n a. tad atra parigatA artham
.
kr
.
tv a madAva-
can ad am atyaAPisunam
.
br uy ah
.
:
tvanAmatih
.
keval a t avat
parip alayatu praj ah
.
adhijyam idam anyasmin
karman
.
i vy apr
.
tam
.
dhanuh
.
.
vio us
.
axau
.
:

jam
.
bhavam
.
an
.
avedi.

(iti nis
.
kr antah
.
.) o.:;c
x

araiiu
.
: ita ayus
.
m an.
iti parikramya nis
.
kr ant ah
.
sarve.
s
.
as
.
t
.
ho nkah
.
.
,::
acr six: rui ioxcixc
So take now your bow, mount Indras chariot, and go forth
to victory.
xixc: I am favored by Indras esteem. But why did you o.:o,
manhandle Madh avya in that way?
x

araii: (looking at the buffoon with a smile) Let me tell


you. I perceived that Your majesty was, for some reason,
depressed with regret. Thereafter I acted to awaken Your
majestys wrath. Why?
A re blazes up when its fuel is stirred,
a serpent expands its hood when it is threatened,
a man usually regains his own spirit
when he is roused.
xixc: (aside) My friend Madh avya! The decree of the Lord
of heaven cannot be outed. So informminister Pshuna
of what has transpired here and tell him in my name:
May your acuity alone
for now protect the subjects.
This strung bow is now employed
in another matter.
nuiioox: As his majesty commands. (Exit.) o.:;c
x

araii: This way, your honor.


All walk about and exit.
Thus ends the sixth act.
,:,
Act Seven:
The Absolution
(tataf pravisati N akal asik a.)
x

axai

asix

a:

an
.
attam
.
hi gurun
.
a N
.
araen
.
a jah a edesu yye-
va diasesu maccaA loado uttin
.
n
.
en
.
a r aesin
.
a Dussanten
.
a
bhaavado Purandarassa piA arin
.
a d an
.
avaA vahaA n
.
imittam
.
gantavvam
.
. j ava abbhaccia imam
.
hy apuccham an
.
o n
.
ik-
khivadi t ava yyeva mae vibuhaApaccakkham
.
ma ngalaAn
.
i-
mittam kim
.
pi pekkhan
.
aam
.
darasadavvam
.
. t a tumam
.
kam
.
pi l asiam
.
an
.
n
.
esia sa ngdaA s al ae agaccha tti. t a j a-
va l asiam
.
an
.
n
.
esemi.

(parikramy avalokya ca)



k a pun
.
a
es a gahidaAvaran
.
a pacch a harisidAukkan
.
t
.
hid a via ido ev
agacchadi?

(nipun
.
am avalokya)

kadham
.
pisaAsah C udaA
ma njar? t a j ava ed ae saha uvajjh aaAsamvam
.
gacch ami.

(iti pratip alayati.)


(tataf pravisati yath aBnirdis
.
t
.
a l asik a.)
c uraxa x;ai: (saBvismayam
.
saBhars
.
am
.
ca)

aho! mah aAppa-
h avo r aes Dussanto! (sB as uyam) aho, mah aAbalo so hado
Dujjao d an
.
avaA balo.

(vic arya)

adhav a Dussanto yyeva
jen
.
a s aradhiA duden
.
a yyeva an
.
eaA paharan
.
aA s ahas aim
.
vi-
kiranto khan
.
en
.
a yyeva n
.
ihado so DujjayaAd an
.
avaAbalo.

(nr
.
tyati.)
iiaruax

a:

sahi C udaAma njarie. ukkan
.
t
.
hid a via lakkhasi?

;.,
ovir\

a: (vilokya)

kadham
.
, P arij adaAma njar? sahi, savvam
.
kadhassam
.
. tumam
.
d ava kahim
.
patthida tti pucchis-
sam
.
?

iiaruax

a:

sahi, sa nkheven
.
a kadhassam
.
. aham
.
khu r ae-
sin
.
o Dussantassa d an
.
avaA vijaaA vavadesen
.
a ajja ma ngalaA
n
.
imittam
.
kim
.
pi pekkhan
.
aam
.
dam
.
sadi tti uvajjh aassa
an
.
ae ubhe yyeva sa asam
.
.

,:o
(Enter a celestial dancer.)
ciiisriai oaxcii: My teacher N arada has told me that,
these days, the royal sage Dushy anta, ascending fromthe
world of mortals, has gone to slay a demon at the bidding
of blessed Indra. After I saluted him and sang his praises
he charged me with staging a performance as a blessing
for good fortune in front of an audience of experts. Go
nd a dancer and come to the pavilion of dance! So now
I am looking for a dancer. (strolls about gazing) Who is
this coming my way, seemingly yearning and satised
at once, as if she had just received an ornament.* (looks
carefully) Why, its my dear friend Chutam a njari! Well,
I will bring her along to the teacher.* (She waits.)
(Then enters, as described, a dancer.)
Cuurax

a x;aii: (astonished and delighted) Oh! What great


power the royal sage Dushy anta has. (scornfully) Oh! The
mighty demon D urjaya is slain. (reecting) To be precise,
Dushy anta alone withhis charioteer, scattering countless
thousands of missiles, in a ash annihilated the powerful
demon D urjaya. (She dances.)
iiisr: My friend Chutam a njari. You seem lovelorn? ;.,
sicoxo: (looking) Is it you, Parij atam a njari? My friend, I
will tell you everything. But rst, let me ask, where are
you going?
iiisr: My friend, I will tell you in brief. I have been in-
structed by the preceptor to stage something celebratory
today on the occasion of the royal sage Dushy antas tri-
umph over the demon, so we are both going to see him.
,:;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
ovir\

a: (s B otkan
.
t
.
ham)

asi avasaro edassa. id an
.
m
.
pun
.
o
maccaAloam
.
patthide edassim
.
mah aAr ae kassa dam
.
sadi?

iiaruax

a: (sB asa nkam)



sahi, kim
.
Mahendassa man
.
oArad-
h a samp adia gado uda an
.
n
.
adha tti?

ovir\

a:

sahi, sun
.
u! ajja yyeva goA sagga A samaen
.
a varam
.
;.:c
DujjaaA d an
.
avaA jvidaA savvassaA sesam gen
.
hia j ava a tiasaA
vil asin
.
saA rasaA hia aim
.
avan
.
im ahippat
.
t
.
hido. ado a me
harisA okkhan
.
t
.
h an
.
am
.
k aran
.
am
.
.

iiaruax

a:

sahi, tae piam
.
n
.
ivedidam
.
jam
.
yeva uvajj aen
.
a
PuruA vam
.
sa A r aesin
.
o purado kayyam k adum an
.
attam
.
.
tam
.
yeva gdam
.
kadua ettha yyeva karemha.

ovir\

a:

jam
.
de roadi evam
.
tam
.
. jam
.
yeva gdam
.
mae
lavidam
.
tae v a saha n
.
accamha.

iiaruax

a:

sahi, evam
.
karemha.

(ubhe g ayatah
.
.)

aBvisaaBgaman
.
am
.
kam
.
can
.
a
an
.
n
.
am
.
ca saAr aam
.
al mahuAsamao
an
.
n
.
am
.
kun
.
a visan
.
n
.
am
.
p ad
.
ali e im a e bh ume.

(ity ante nartitv a nis


.
kr ante.) ;.:,
pravesakah
.
.
,:
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
sicoxo: (with longing) There may be cause for this. But
now that the king is leaving to the world of mortals, for
whom do we stage it?
iiisr: (concerned) My friend, did he leave after fullling
great Indras wishes or otherwise?
sicoxo: My friend, listen! This very day, early in the morn- ;.:c
ing he departs to earth, taking with him as a boon what
remained of the demon D urjayas lifeand the aec-
tionate hearts of the heavenly women. That is why I am
at once happy and lled with longing.
iiisr: My friend, you bring me glad tidings: we are com-
manded by the preceptor to perform before the royal
sage of the Puru lineage. Lets compose a song and sing
it here.
sicoxo: However you like. We can dance together to my
song or your recitation.
iiisr: My friend, that is what we will do. (Both sing.)
Springtime
turns one bee away from objects of sense :
towards illicit behaviour,
lls another with passion,
and makes another despondent,
with the redness of its grounds.
(They dance at the end and exit.) ;.:,
End of the prologue.
,:,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
(tataf pravisaty ak asaB y anena rath B adhir ud
.
ho r aj a M atalis
ca.)
i

a;

a: M atale! anus
.
t
.
hitaAnideso pi Maghavatah
.
satkriy aAvi-
ses
.
ad anupayuktam iv atm anam
.
samarthaye.
x

araiiu
.
: ayus
.
man, ubhayam apy aparitos
.
am. kutah
.
?
upakr
.
tya Hares tath a bhav a

l ;.:c
laghu satk aram aveks
.
ya manyate
gan
.
ayaty apad anaAsammit am
.
bhavatah
.
so pi na satkriy am im am.
i

a;

a: m a m aivam. sa khalu manoArath an am apy atibh u-


miAvart visarjanA avasare satk arah
.
. mama hi divaukas am
.
samaks
.
am ardhA asanA opavesitasya
antarAgataApr arthanam antaraAstham
.
Jayantam udvks
.
ya kr
.
taAsmitena
pramr
.
jya vaks
.
o hariAcandanA aktam
.
mand araAm al a Harin
.
a pinaddh a.
x

araiiu
.
: kim iva n ayus
.
m an amaresvar ad arhati. pasya
sukhaAparasya Harer ubhayaih
.
kr
.
tam
.
triAdivam uddhr
.
taAd anavaAkan
.
t
.
akam
tava sarair adhun a nataAparvabhif
Purus
.
aAkesarin
.
as ca pur a nakhaih
.
.
,:c
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
(Enter the king and M atali on a ying vehicle.)
xixc: M atali! Alhough I have obeyed Indras command, I
consider myself unworthy because of the high regard he
showed me.
x

araii: Your majesty, both of you are unrequited. How so?


After rendering such help to Indra ;.:c
you think it triing
when you consider his high regard.
He, for his part,
does not reckon this honor equal
to your great deed.
xixc: It is not so. The honor shown to me as I departed
greatly exceeded even my wishes. As I sat on half of his
throne before the gods
Indra, smilingly gazing at Jay anta,
who stood beside him,
secretly aspiring to this honorgarlanded
me with a wreath of heavenly coral-owers,
rubbing them against his chest daubed with
yellow sandal.*
x

araii: How could you not deserve it from the King of


the Gods? Behold,
Two things extricated the thorns,
the demonsfrom heaven
for Indra, who wishes for happiness:
your smooth arrows
and long ago the Man-lions claws.
,::
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: atra

Satakrator eva mahim a. pasya ;.:,
sidhyanti karmasu mahatsv api yan niyojy ah
.
sambh avan aAgun
.
am avehi tam svar an
.
am
kim
.
pr abhavis
.
yad Arun
.
as tamas am
.
vadh aya
tam
.
cet SahasraAkiran
.
o dhuri n akaris
.
yat.
x

araiiu
.
: sadr
.
sam
.
tav aitat. (stokam antaram attya) ayus
.
-
man! itaf pasya, n akaA pr
.
s
.
t
.
haA pratis
.
t
.
hitasya saubh agyam
atmaAyasasah
.
.
vicchittiAses
.
aih
.
suraAsundarn
.
am
.
varn
.
air am kalpaAlatA antares
.
u
sam
.
cintya gtaAks
.
amam arthaAtattvam
.
divaukasas tvacAcaritam
.
likhanti.
i

a;

a: M atale, asuraA samprah ar aA utsukena p urvam


.
d uram
adhirohat a na laks
.
ito may a svargaAm argah
.
. tat katamas-
min pathi marut am vart amahe?
x

araiiu
.
:
;.,c
triAsrotasam
.
vahati yo gaganaApratis
.
t
.
h am
jyotms
.
i vartayati cakraAvibhaktaArasmih
.
tasya vyapetaArajasaf Pravahasya v ayor
m argo dvityaAhariAvikramaAp uta es
.
ah
.
.
i

a;

a: tatah
.
khalu me saAb ahyaAantah
.
Akaran
.
o ntarA atm a pra-
sdati. (rathB a nge vilokya) sa nke meghaApathamavatrn
.
au
svah
.
.
,::
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
xixc: Therein lies Indras greatness. Look ;.:,
Know that when their servants succeed,
even in a great endeavour,
it is due to the honor
the great show their servants.
Would Dawn have the power to slay darkness,
if the thousand-rayed Sun did not place him
in the forefront of his chariot.
x

araii: That is worthy of you. (proceeds a bit further)


Your majesty! Look here, the splendor of your fame has
reached the vault of heaven.
The gods reecting upon the signicance
of your deed
paint it on the exteriors of the wishgranting vines
with the leftover makeup of the heavenly nymphs.
xixc: M atali, as I ascended yesterday, eager to ght the
demon, I took no note of the geography of heaven. In
which heavenly region are we travelling?
x

araii:
;.,c
This is the region of the vapor-free Prav aha-wind,
puried by the second step of Vishnu
which bears the celestial cascade
of the triple-streamed Ganges
and, with rays refracted in circles
makes the luminaries revolve.
xixc: So that is why my inner self and my inner and outer
senses are tranquil. (looking at the wheels) I think we have
descended to the region of clouds.
,:,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
x

araiiu
.
: (saBsmitam) katham avagamyate?
i

a;

a:
ayam araAvivarebhyas c atakair nis
.
patadbhir ;.,,
haribhir aciraAbh as am
.
tejas a c anuliptaih
.
gatam upari ghan an am
.
v ariAgarbhA odar an
.
am
pisunayati rathas te skaraAklinnaAnemih
.
.
x

araiiu
.
: ks
.
an
.
am urdhvam ayus
.
m an atmA adhik araA bh u-
mau vartis
.
yate.
i

a;

a: (adho valokya) M atale, vegA avataran


.
ad ascaryaA dar-
sanah
.
khalu sampadyate manus
.
yaAlokah
.
. tath a
sail an am avarohat va sikhar ad
unmajjat am
.
medin
parn
.
es
.
v antaraAlnat am
.
vijahati
skandhA oday at p adap ah
.
sandh anam
.
tanuAbh avaAnas
.
t
.
aAsalil a
vyakt a vrajanty apag ah
.
ken apy utks
.
ipat eva pasya bhuvanam
.
matAp arsvam anyate.
x

araiiu
.
: (saBbahum anam alokya) aho udagraAraman
.
y a pr
.
-
thiv.
i

a;

a: M atale, katamo yam


.
p urvA aparaAsamudrA avag ad
.
hah
.
;.c
kanakaAnis
.
yandaAsobh s am
.
dhya iva meghaAparighah
.
s a-
num an alokyate?
,:
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
x

araii: (smiling) How did you guess?


xixc:
Your chariot
;.,,
with ch ataka birds ying through
the gaps between its spokes,
with its horses tinged by lightning ashes,
its fellies damp,
betrays that it has passed above
clouds pregnant with rain.
x

araii: In a moment you will be in the world you rule.


xixc: (looking down) Because of our swift descent the world
of mortals appears strange. For
The earth seems to recede
from the emerging mountains,
the trees give up their concealment
by leaves as their trunks rise up,
the rivers,
deprived of water by their thinness,
made whole, become visible.
Look! It is as if has thrown up the earth
and brought it near to me.
x

araii: (looking respectfully) Ah, the earth is beautiful be-


yond compare.
xixc: M atali, which mountain is this, plunging into the ;.c
eastern and western oceans, resplendent, dripping with
gold like a wall of clouds at sunset?
,:,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
x

araiiu
.
: ayus
.
man, es
.
a HemaA k ut
.
o n ama kimpurus
.
aA par-
vataf, param
.
tapasvin am
.
siddhiAks
.
etram. pasya
Sv ayambhuvo Marcer yaf
prababh uva Praj apatih
.
surA asuraAguruh
.
so smin
saApatnkas tapasyati.
i

a;

a: (sB adaram
.
) tena hy anAatikraman
.
y ani srey am
.
si, pra-
daks
.
in
.
kr
.
tya bhagavantam
.
gantum iy ava.
x

araiiu
.
: prathamah
.
kalpah
.
! (avataran
.
am
.
n at
.
ayitv a) et av
avatrn
.
au svah
.
.
i

a;

a: (saBvismayam) M atale! ;.,


upod
.
haAsabd a na rathA a ngaAnemayaf pravartam anam
.
na
ca dr
.
syate rajah
.
aAbh utalaAsparsanatay a niruddhatis tav
avatrn
.
o pi ratho na laks
.
yate.
x

araiiu
.
: et av an eva

Satakrator ayus
.
matas ca vises
.
ah
.
.
i

a;

a: katamasmin pradese M arcA asramah


.
?
x

araiiu
.
: (hastena darsayan)
,:o
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
x

araii: Your majesty, this is Golden Peak, the mountain of


the kimp urushas, the greatest place for ascetics to attain
of spiritual power.
Prajapati, born
from the self-existent Marchi
the parent of the gods and demons,
practices austerities here with his wife.
xixc: (respectfully) Good fortune must not be overlooked.
Let us circumambulate and go to the blessed one.
x

araii: Our primary duty! (acting the descent) We have


descended.
xixc: (with amazement) M atali!
;.,
The fellies of the wheel make no sound,
no dust is seen to be set in motion.
Although your chariot has alighted it has gone
unnoticed,
it has not jolted because it has not touched the earth.
x

araii: That is the extent of the dierence between you


and Indra.
xixc: Which way to M arichas hermitage?
x

araii: (indicates with his hand)


,:;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
valmkA ardhaAnimagnaAm urtir uraga- ;.,c
tvagAbrahmaAs utrA antarah
.
kan
.
t
.
he jrn
.
aAlat aAprat anaAvalaye-
n atyarthaAsampd
.
itah
.
am
.
saAvy api sakuntaAnd
.
aAnicitam
.
bibhraj jat
.
aAman
.
d
.
alam
yatra sth an
.
ur iv acalo munir as av
abhyarkaAbimbam
.
sthitah
.
.
i

a;

a: namo smai kas


.
t
.
aAtapase!
x

araiiu
.
: (sam
.
yataBpragraham
.
kr
.
tv a) et av AditiAparivardhi-
taA mand araA vr
.
ks
.
akam
.
Praj apates tapoA vanam
.
pravis
.
t
.
au
svah
.
.
i

a;

a: aho vismayah
.
! svarg ad adhikaAnirvr
.
ttiAsth anam amr
.
-
taAhradam iv avag ad
.
ho smi.
x

araiiu
.
: (ratham
.
sth apayitv a) avatryat am!
i

a;

a: (sB abhinayam avatrya) bhav an, katham id anm? ;.,,


x

araiiu
.
: samyantrito yam aste rathah
.
. vayam apy avatar a-
mah
.
. (tath a kr
.
tv a) ita ita ayus
.
man. (ubhau parikramya)
ayus
.
man, dr
.
syant am atraAbhavat am siddhars
.
n
.
am
.
tapoA
vanaAbh umayah
.
.
i

a;

a: nanu vismay ad ubhayam apy avalokay ami.


,:
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
Where that sage stands facing the sun, ;.,c
immobile like a post,
His body half buried in an anthill,
wearing a second sacred thread made of
snake-skin,
his throat crushed by the coil
of a withered vines runner,
bearing a mass of matted hair covering his
shoulders, full of birds nests.
xixc: Homage to the great ascetic!
x

araii: (secures the reins.) Nowwe have entered the penance


grove of Prajapati, where the coral-trees are tended by

Aditi.
xixc: How amazing! I seem to be immersed into a pool of
nectar, a place of greater repose than is heaven.
x

araii: (stopping the chariot) Descend!


xixc: (acts descending) What now? ;.,,
x

araii: (both walk about) The secured chariot remains here.


I too will get down. (does so) This way, this way, Your
majesty. (both walk about) Your majesty, behold the pe-
nance groves of the perfect sages.
xixc: But I look upon both with wonder:
,:,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
pr an
.
an am anilena vr
.
ttir ucit a
satAkalpaAvr
.
ks
.
e vane
toye haimaAsahasraApattraAsubhage
naktam
.
Adivam
.
sadAvratam
dhy anam
.
ratnaAsil aAgr
.
hes
.
u vibudhaA
strAsam
.
nidhau samyamo
yat k anks
.
anti tapobhir anyaAmunayas
tasmim
.
s tapasyanty am.
x

araiiu
.
: utkars
.
in
.
khalu mahat am
.
pr arthan a. (parikrama-
tah
.
. ak ase) vr
.
ddhaAs akalya kim
.
Avy ap aro bhav an? (karn
.
am
.
dattv a) kim
.
bravs
.
i? es
.
a D aks
.
ayan
.
y a patiAvrat aA pun
.
yam
adhikr
.
tya pr
.
s
.
t
.
ah
.
, tasy as tad vy akarot ti pratip alyA ava-
sarah
.
khalu prast avah
.
. (r aj anam
.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a) asminn asokaA
p adape t avad ayus
.
m an ast am y avat tv am Praj aA pataya
aveday ami.
i

a;

a: yath a bhav an manyate (sthitah


.
) ;.oc
(nis
.
kr anto) x

araiiu
.
:
i

a;

a: (nimittam
.
s ucayitv a)
manoArath aya n asamse
b aho sphurasi kim
.
vr
.
th a?
p urvA avadhritam
.
sreyo
duh
.
kham
.
hi parivartate.
xiiaru\i:

m a khu m a khu cabaladam
.
karehi! si ngha, ka-
dham
.
kadham
.
yeva attan
.
o pakidim
.
dam
.
sesi.

,,c
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
In a forest of wishgranting trees,
they are used to maintaining the vital energies
by means of air,
in water blessed with thousands of golden leaves
they perform their twilight ablutions,
in jewelled caves they meditate,
in the midst of heavenly nymphs they practise re-
straint,
in the midst of that which other sages strive for
with their penances,
these sages perform their austerities.
x

araii: High-minded are the wishes of the great. (They


walk about; M atali calls in the air) Old Shak alya! How is
his honor engaged? (listening) What do you say? He has
been asked by

Aditi about the virtues of a good wife and
he is explaining them to her, therefore my petition must
await an opportune moment. (looking at the king) Sit by
this ash oka tree until I announce you to Prajapati.
xixc: As you wish. (Waits.) ;.oc
x

araii: (Exit.)
xixc: (acting a portent)
I have no hope for my desire,
O arm, why are you throbbing in vain?
Previously scorned good fortune,
turns into grief.
oiisraci: Dont! Dont misbehave! Lion, how you show
your character.
,,:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: (karn
.
am
.
dattv a) abh umir iyamavinayasya. ko nu kha- ;.o,
lv avinayam
.
nis
.
idhyate? (sabd B anus aren
.
avalokya, vis-
mayB abhinayaBp urvakam) aye! anurudhyam anas t apas-
bhy am ab alaAsattvo b alah
.
.
ardhaAptaAstanam
.
m atur
amardaAklis
.
t
.
aAkesaram
vilambinam
.
sim
.
haAsisum
.
k aren
.
ahatya kars
.
ati.
(tataf pravisati yath aBnirdis
.
t
.
aBkarm a t apasbhy am anurudh-
yam ano b alah
.
.)
n

aiau
.
:

jimbha! jimbha, le si ngha! dant aim
.
de gan
.
assam
.
.

iiaruax

a:

avin
.
da! ki tti n
.
o avaccaA n
.
ivvises aim
.
satt aim
.
vippakaresi? pavat
.
t
.
adi de sam
.
rambho. th an
.
e kkhu isiAja-
n
.
en
.
a SavvaAdaman
.
o tti kidaAn
.
amaAheo si.

a;

a: kim
.
nu khalu b ale sminn aurasa iva putre snihyati me ;.;c
manah
.
? (vicintya) n unam anAapatyat a m am
.
vatsalayati.
ovir\

a:

es a kesarin
.
tumam
.
la nghedi ja se puttaam
.
n
.
a
mu ncesi.

aiau
.
: (saB smitam)

ammahe! baliam khu bhde mhi!

(ity
adharam
.
dasayati.)
i

a;

a: (saBvismayam)
mahatas tejaso bjam
.
b alo yam
.
pratibh ati me
sphulingA avasthay a vahnir
edhopeks
.
a iva sthitah
.
.
,,:
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
xixc: (listening) This is no place for misdemeanor. Who ;.o,
can it be that metes out justice? (his gaze traces the sound,
acts surprise) Oh! It is a boy not young in strength of
character, being restrained by two female ascetics.
Striking a baby lion with his hand,
he drags it along,
its mane dishevelled by rough handling,
resisting,
half nished drinking from its mothers breast.
(Enter a boy, engaged as described, being restrained by two
female ascetics.)
no\: Open your jaws! Hey, open your jaws, lion! I want to
count your teeth.
iiisr asciric: Bad boy! Why are you hurting the animals
whoare nodierent thanchildrentous? Your vehemence
is increasing. Rightly the sages call you Sarvad amana.*
xixc: (pondering) Why should my heart take to this boy ;.;c
as if he were my own? (pondering) It must be that my
childlessness makes me fond of children.
sicoxo asciric: That lioness will pounce on you if you
will not release her son.
no\: (smiling) Oh, Im terried! (Bites his lip.)
xixc: (amazed)
This child seems to me a seed
of great brilliance,
like re in its spark-state,
waiting for fuel.
,,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
iiaruax

a:

vacchaa! mu nca edamb alam
.
mandam
.
. an
.
n
.
am
.
;.;,
de kl
.
an
.
aam
.
d aissam
.
.

aiau
.
:

kahim
.
se? dehi me en
.
am
.
!

(iti daks
.
in
.
aBhastam
.
pra-
s arayati.)
i

a;

a: katham
.
? cakraA vartiA laks
.
an
.
am anena dh aryate. tath a
hy asya
pralobhaAvastuApran
.
ayaApras arito
vibh ati j alaAgrathitA a ngulih
.
karah
.
aAlaks
.
yaApattrA antaram iddhaAr agay a
navA os
.
as a bhinnam iv aikaApa nkaAjam.
iiaruax

a:

suvvade, n
.
a sakko eso as asa A metten
.
a sa nj a-
midum. t a gaccha. mama kerae ud
.
ae Ma nkan
.
aassa isiA
kum araassa van
.
n
.
aaAcittido mat
.
t
.
iaAma urao cit
.
t
.
hadi. tam
.
se uv ahara.

ovir\

a:

tadh a!

(iti nis
.
kr ant a.)
;.c
n

aiau
.
:

t ava imin
.
a yeva kl
.
isam
.
.

aias: (vilokya hasati.)


i

a;

a: spr
.
hay ami durlalitak ay asmai. (nih
.
svasya.)
,,
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
iiisr asciric: Child! Let go of this baby lion! I will give ;.;,
you another toy.
no\: Where is it? Give it to me! (He stretches out his right
hand.)
xixc: What? He bears the mark of an emperor. For
His hand, extended to request
a thing he is enticed by,
its ngers webbed,*
shines like a solitary lotus,
the gaps between its petals not yet visible,
as it begins to open with the red glow
of the early dawn.
iiisr: My dear, it is not possible to restrain him with
promises. So go, in my hut there is a brightly painted
clay peacock belonging to the infant seer M ankanaka.
Fetch it for him.
sicoxo: As you say! (Exit.) ;.c
no\: For now I will just play with this one.
asciric: (Looking, laughs.)
xixc: I am drawn to this stubborn child. (Sighs.)
,,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
alaks
.
yaAdantaAmukul an aAnimittaAh asair
avyaktaAvarn
.
aAraman
.
yaAvacah
.
Apravr
.
ttn
a nkA asrayaApran
.
ayinas tanay an vahanto
dhany as tadAa ngaArajas a parus
.
A abhavanti.
r

aias: (sB a nguliBtarjanam)



bhodu! n
.
a mam
.
gan
.
ayasi!

(p ar- ;.,
svam avalokya)

ko ettha isiAkum ara an
.
am
.
?

(r aj anam
.
dr
.
s
.
-
t
.
v a)

bhaddaAmuha! ehi, mo avehi d ava imin
.
a dummohaA
hatthAaggen
.
a d
.
imbaAkarin
.
a b adham an
.
am
.
b alaAmanda-
am
.
.

a;

a: tath a! (ity upagamya) ayi mahars


.
iAputra!
evam asramaAviruddhaAvr
.
ttin a
sam
.
yam kim iti janmadas tvay a
sattvaAsam
.
srayaAsukho pi d us
.
yate
kr
.
s
.
n
.
aAsarpaAsisun eva candanah
.
.
r

aias:

bhodu, n
.
a kkhu aam isiAkum arao.

a;

a: ak ara A sadr
.
sam
.
ces
.
t
.
itam ev asya kathayati. sth ana A
pratyay at tu vayam atarkin
.
ah
.
. (sim
.
ham
.
mocayitv a yathB
abhyarthitam anus
.
t
.
hitam. b alaBsparsam anubh uy atma-
gatam)
anena kasy api kulA a nkuren
.
a ;.,c
spr
.
s
.
t
.
asya g atres
.
u sukham
.
mam aivam!
k am
.
nirvr
.
tim
.
cetasi tasya kury ad
yasy ayam a ng at kr
.
tinaf pras utah
.
.
,,o
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
Lucky are they, who
carrying their sons
become grubby with the dust
from their bodies,
whose teeth blossom forth in causeless laughter,
whose speech is delightfully indisinct,
who are fond of resting on their fathers laps.
asciric: (threatening with her nger) All right! You will ;.,
not heed me! (looking aside) Are any of the hermit boys
here? (seeing the king) Kind sir! Please come and free the
tormented lion cub from this unruly boy whose grip is
hard to loosen.
xixc: Indeed! (approaches) Here now, son of a great seer!
Why are you thus dishonoring
your self-possessed father
as a young cobra does a sandal-tree
with deeds out of keeping with a hermitage,
even though it pleases him
that beings take refuge in him?
asciric: Actually, this is no young seer.
xixc: His actions which bet his appearance betray him. I
was misled by relying on his surroundings. (He does as
requested by releasing the lion. To himself after touching the
boy.)
Such is my joy ;.,c
as my limbs touch this child
of someone elses family!
What delight must he bring to him
from whose body he has sprung.
,,;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
r

aias: (ubh av avalokya)



accharam
.
, accharam
.
!

a;

a: kim iva?
r

aias:

assa b alassa aA sambaddhe vi bhaddaA muhe sam
.
-
v adin
.
aidi tti vimhidamhi. avi a accantaA pariidassa via
appad
.
ilomo eso de sam
.
vutto.

a;

a: (b alam upal alayan) na cen muniA kum aro yam atha


ko sya vyapadesah
.
?
r

aias: PuruAvam
.
so.
;.,,
i

a;

a: (svaB gatam) katham ek A anvayo mama? atah


.
khalu
madAanuk arin
.
am atraAbhavat manyate. (prak asam) asty
etat Paurav an
.
am antyam
.
kulaAvratam.
bhavanes
.
u sudh aAsites
.
u p urvam
.
ks
.
itiAraks
.
A artham usanti ye niv asam
niyatA aikaAyatiAvrat ani pasc at
taruAm ul ani gr
.
hAbhavanti tes
.
am.
na punar atmaAgaty a m anus
.
an
.
am es
.
a vis
.
ayah
.
.
r

aias:

n
.
am
.
jadh a bhaddaA muho bhan
.
adi. accharaA sam
.
-
bandhen
.
a un
.
o imassa b alassa jan
.
an
.
ettha yyeva gurun
.
o
tavoAvan
.
e pas ud a.

a;

a: ( atmaBgatam) dattam
.
dvityam idam asa nk aAjananam. ;.:cc
(prak asam) tatraAbhavat kimA akhyasya r ajars
.
ef patn?
r

aias:

ko tassa dhammaA d ar aA paricc ain
.
o n
.
amaA heam
.
ge-
n
.
hissadi?

a;

a: (svaBgatam) iyam
.
khalu kath a m am eva laks
.
yAkaroti?
kim
.
t avad asya sisor m ataram
.
n amataf pr
.
cch ami? athav
any ayaf paraAd araAvyavah arah
.
.
,,
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
asciric: (looking at both) Amazing! Amazing!
xixc: What is?
asciric: I am amazed at the resemblance between you and
this boy, although you are not related. Moreover, he is
easy-going withyouas if youwere someone very familiar.
xixc: (caressing the boy) If he is not a young sage then what
is his name?
asciric: He is a descendent of Puru.
;.,,
xixc: (to himself ) What, he shares my lineage? So that is
why she thinks he resembles me. (aloud) The P auravas
follow an ultimate family tradition.
At rst they reside in stuccoed palaces
to protect the earth,
later they dwell among tree-roots,
where only ascetic vows are observed.
But mortals may not come here of their own accord.
asciric: It is as you say, sir. But because this boys mother
is related to a nymph she gave birth to him here in the
penance grove of the Father of the Gods.
xixc: (to himself ) I have been given a second reason for ;.:cc
suspicion. (aloud) Her ladyship is the wife of what royal
sage?
asciric: Who would utter the name of him who rejected
his lawful wife?
xixc: (to himself ) Does this tale refer specically to me?
Can I ask for the name of the boys mother? But no, it
is improper to concern oneself with anothers wife.
,,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
(pravis
.
ya mr
.
nBmayaBmay uraBhast a) ovir\

a r

aias:

SavvaA
daman
.
a! sa untaAlavan
.
n
.
am
.
pekkha.

aiau
.
: (saBdr
.
s
.
t
.
iBks
.
epam)

kahim
.
ajju?

(ubhe prahasite.)
iiaruax

a:

n
.
amaAs adissen
.
a chalido m aduAvacchal ao.

;.:c,
ovir\

a:

vaccha, Sa untal a bhan
.
adi: imassa kittimaAma ura-
ssa raman
.
adam
.
pekkha tti.

a;

a: (svaBgatam) kim
.

Sakuntal eti m atur akhy a? santi pu-
nar n amaAdheyaAs adr
.
sy ani. api n ama mr
.
gaAtr
.
s
.
n
.
ik eva n
ayam antena prast avo me vis
.
ad aya kalpate.
n

aiau
.
:

attike, loadi me bhadd alake ese ma ule.

(iti krd
.
ana-
kam adatte.)
ovir\

a: ( alokya, saBsam
.
bhramam)

ammo! rakkh aAkaran
.
d
.
ao
se man
.
iAbandhe n
.
a dsadi.

a;

a: alam avegena. nanv ayam asya sim


.
haAs avakaA mard at ;.::c
paribhras
.
t
.
ah
.
. ( ad atum icchati.)
unui:

m a khu n
.
am
.
alambit
.
t
.
h a! kadham
.
, gahidam
.
yeva
n
.
ena?

(saB vismayam uroB nihitaB haste paras B param ava-


lokayatah
.
.)
i

a;

a: kimAartham
.
pratis
.
iddho smi?
iiaruax

a:

sun
.
adu ayyo! mahaAppah av a es a khu Avar ai-
d a n
.
ama mahAosah imassa d araassa j adaAkammaAsamae
bhaavad a M aren
.
a din
.
n
.
a. edam
.
kila m ad aA pidaro att a-
n
.
aam
.
v a vajjia avaro bh umiApad
.
idam
.
n
.
a gen
.
hadi.

,c
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
(enter with a clay peacock in her hand) sicoxo xux: Sarva
d amana! Look at the pretty bird.
no\: (casting a glance) Where is Mama?* (Both laugh.)
iiisr: The similarity of the word has misled him since he ;.:c,
loves his mother.
sicoxo: Child, Shak untala says: Look how lovely this toy
peacock is.
xixc: (to himself ) His mothers name is Shak untala? But
then again, there are similarities of name. Like a mirage
it may lead to my ultimate disappointment.
no\: Auntie, I like this pretty peacock. (He takes the toy.)
sicoxo: (looking, agitated) Oh no! I cant see the amulet
on his wrist.
xixc: Dont worry. It must have slipped o as he wrestled ;.::c
the lion cub. (He wishes to pick it up.)
noru: Dont touch it! What, he has already touched it?
(Astonished, they look at one another, their hands placed
on their chests.)
xixc: Why are you trying to stop me?
iiisr: Listen, sir! This is a potent herb called Invincible
that Marcha gave to this boy at his birth ceremony.
Nobody other than his mother, his father and himself
can pick it up if it falls to the ground.
,:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: atha gr
.
hn
.
ati kim
.
bhavati?
iiaruax

a:

tado sappo bhavia an
.
n
.
am
.
dam
.
sedi.

;.::,
i

a;

a: atha bhavatbhy am
.
kad a cid asy af pratyaks
.
A kr
.
t a vi-
kriy a?
unui:

an
.
easo.

a;

a: (saBhars
.
am) tat kim
.
khalv id anm
.
p urn
.
am api mano-
ratham
.
n abhinand ami? (b alam
.
paris
.
vajate.)
ovir\

a:

Sa njade, ehi! imam
.
vuttantam
.
n
.
iamaA n
.
ivvud ae
Sa untal ae n
.
ivedamha.

iiaruax

a:

evam
.
karemha.

(iti nis
.
kr ante t apasyau.) ;.::c
n

aiau
.
:

mu nca mam
.
! j ava ajj uAsak as am gasc ami.

a;

a: putraka, may aiva saha m ataram nandayis


.
yasi.
n

aiau
.
:

mama khu t ade Dussante, n
.
a tumam
.
.

a;

a: (saBsmitam) es
.
a viv ada eva m am
.
praty ayayati.
(tataf pravisaty ekaBven
.
Bdhar a

Sakuntal a.) ;.::,
,:
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
xixc: What happens if someone does pick it up?
iiisr: Then it turns into a snake and bites the stranger. ;.::,
xixc: Have you seen this transformation yourselves?
noru: Many times.
xixc: (joyfully) Then why should I not rejoice in the ful-
ment of my hope? (He embraces the boy.)
sicoxo: Samy ata, come! Let us tell this to Shak untala who
has completed her religious duties.
iiisr: Lets go. (Exeunt ambo.) ;.::c
no\: Let me go! Im going to Mama.
xixc: Son, we will go and delight your mother together.
no\: My father is Dush-y an-ta, not you.
xixc: (smiling) This rebuttal is my proof.
(Enter Shak untala with her hair in a single braid.) ;.::,
,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia

saxuxrai

a:

vi araAk ale vi padittham
.
tam
.
SavvaAdaman
.
assa
osahim
.
sun
.
ia n
.
a me as aso attan
.
o bh aaA dheesu. adhav a
jadh a me AkkhaAm al ae acakkhidam
.
tadh a sambh avadi
edam
.
.

a;

a: (

Sakuntal am
.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a) aye! iyam atraAbhavat

Sakuntal a!
vasane paridh usare vas an a
niyamaAks
.
amaAmukh kr
.
tA aikaAven
.
ih
.
atinis
.
karun
.
asya suddhaAsl a
mama drgham
.
virahaAvratam bibharti.

saxuxrai

a: (r aj anam
.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a)

n
.
a kkhu ayyaAutto via. t a ko
n
.
u kkhu eso kidaArakkh aAma ngalam
.
d araam
.
me hatthaA
sam
.
saggen
.
a d usedi?

aiau
.
: (m ataram upetya)

ajjue! ese ke vi palake mam
.
m a- ;.:,c
n
.
use puttake tti alavadi.

a;

a: priye, krauryamapi me tvayi prayuktamanuk ulaApari-


n
.
amam
.
samvr
.
ttam. yato ham id anm
.
tvay a pratyabhij-
n atam atm anam
.
icch ami.

saxuxrai

a: (svaBgatam)

hiaa, samassasa samassasa! paharia
n
.
ivuttaA maccharen
.
a an
.
ukampidamhi devven
.
a. (saB har-
s
.
am) ayyaAutto yyeva eso!

,
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
Suax uxraia: I have heard that Sarvad amanas amulet re-
mained in its natural state even when it should have
changed, but I am not comforted about my fortune.
But maybe it is possible, as Akshamala has told me.
xixc: (seeing Shak untala) Ah! It is the lady Shak untala!
Wearing gray clothes,
her face drawn because of her religious restraints,
her hair tied in a single braid,
she, pure in character, is enduring
the long penance of separation
from merciless me.
suax uxraia: (seeing the king) He does not seem like my
husband. Then who is this, who deles my magically
protected son with the touch of his hand?
no\: (going to his mother) Mama! This is some human ;.:,c
stranger who calls me son.
xixc: My beloved, the cruelty that I showed you has re-
solved into a happy ending. For I now wish for you to
recognize me.
suax uxraia: (to herself ) My heart, take courage, take cour-
age! After striking me down, fate, its anger vented, has
taken pity on me. This is my husband!
,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a:
smr
.
tiAbhinnaAmohaAtamaso
dis
.
t
.
y a pramukhe sthit asi me sumukhi
upar ag ante sasinah
.
samupanato rohin
.
Ayogah
.
.

saxuxrai

a:

jaadu jaadu ayyaA utto. . . !

(ity ardhB okte b as


.
- ;.:,,
paBkan
.
t
.
h b as
.
pam
.
viharati.)
i

a;

a: priye
b as
.
pen
.
a pratis
.
iddhe pi
jayaAsabde jitam
.
may a
yat te dr
.
s
.
t
.
am asam
.
sk araA
p at
.
alA aus
.
t
.
ham idam
.
mukham.
n

aiau
.
:

ajjue, ke va ese?

saxuxrai

a:

vaccha, bh aaAdhe aim
.
me puccha.

(roditi.)
i

a;

a: (pran
.
ipatya.) ;.:c
sutanu hr
.
day at praty adesaAvyalkam upaitu te
kim api manasah
.
sam
.
moho me tad a balav an abh ut
srajam api sirasy andhah
.
ks
.
ipt am
.
dhunoty ahiAsa nkay a
prabalaAtamas am evam
.
Apr ay ah
.
subhes
.
v api vr
.
ttayah
.
.
,o
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
xixc:
By good fortune, fair faced one,
you stand before me,
the darkness of my delusion dispelled
by recollection.
At the end of the eclipse
the moon and the red star R ohini
are united.*
suax uxraia: Victory, victory, my husband. . . ! (She stops ;.:,,
mid-sentence, her throat chocked with tears.)
xixc: My beloved
Though the word victory is choked by tears,
I am victorious,
because I have beheld your face,
with its pale, unadorned, lips.
no\: Mama, who is this?
suax uxraia: Son, ask my fate. (She weeps.)
xixc: (falls to the ground.) ;.:c
O slender lady,
may the pain of rejection depart
from your heart;
somehow I was greatly deluded then.
A blind man shakes o even a garland
cast upon his head fearing it to be a serpent;
those in deep darkness act like this
even towards auspicious things.
,;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia

saxuxrai

a:

utthedu ayyaA utto. n
.
am
.
mama suhaA pad
.
iba-
ndhaam
.
pur aA kadam tesu diasesu parin
.
amA ahimuham
.
asi, jen
.
a sA an
.
ukkoso vi ayyaAutto ma tadh aviho sam
.
vut-
to.

(r aj ottis
.
t
.
hati.)

adha kadham ayyaAutten
.
a sum arido
aam jan
.
o?

a;

a: uddhr
.
taAvis
.
adaAsalyah
.
kathayis
.
y ami.
moh an may a sutanu p urvam upeks
.
itas te
yo b as
.
paAbindur adharam
.
paridh avam anah
.
tam
.
t avad akulitaApaks
.
maAvilagnam adya
k ante pramr
.
jya vigatA anusayo bhav ami.
(iti yathB oktam anutis
.
t
.
hati.) ;.:,

saxuxrai

a: (pramr
.
s
.
t
.
aB b as
.
p a n amaB mudr am
.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a)

ayyaA
utta! n
.
am
.
tam
.
a ngulam
.
!

a;

a: atha kim? asm ad adbhutA opalambh an may a smr


.
tir
upalabdh a.

saxuxrai

a:

samhidam
.
k adum
.
kkhan
.
en
.
a jam
.
tad a ayyaA
uttassa paccaaAkaran
.
e dullaham
.
me sam
.
vuttam
.
.

a;

a: tena hy r
.
tuA samav agam A asam
.
si pratipadyat am
.
lat a
kusumam.

saxuxrai

a:

n
.
a se vsas ami. ayyaAutto yyeva n
.
am
.
p aredu.

;.:,c
(pravisya) x

araiiu
.
: dis
.
t
.
y a dharmaA patnA sam agamena pu-
traAmukhaAdarsanena c ayus
.
m an vardhate.
,
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
suax uxraia: Stand up, my husband. In those days, surely,
some former deed of mine, a hindrance to my happiness,
was on the verge of bearing fruit, whereby you, though
compassionate, became so changed. (The king stands up.)
Then how did my husband come to remember me?
xixc: I will draw out the dart of sorrow and tell you.
O slender lady, once,
the tear that troubled your lip
was ignored because I was deluded,
now, I will wipe it away
as it clings to your tremulous eyelashes
and free myself from regret.
(Does as stated.)
;.:,
suax uxraia: (sees the ring as her tear is wiped off ) My hus-
band! Why, its the ring!
xixc: Of course! My memory returned when it was mirac-
ulously found again.
suax uxraia: It could have fullled my desire in a ash,
but I could not nd it when I needed to convince my
husband.
xixc: Then let the vine receive the ower to announce the
arrival of spring.
suax uxraia: I do not trust it. Let my husband wear it. ;.:,c
x

araii: (entering) Congratulations, reunited with your law-


ful wife and looking upon the face of your son, your
Majesty thrives again.
,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: suhr
.
tA sam
.
p aditv ad uttaraA phalo hi me manoA rathah
.
.
M atale, na khalu vidito yam

Akhan
.
d
.
alasy arthah
.
?
x

araiiu
.
: ehi, bhagav am
.
s te M arco darsanam
.
vitarati.
i

a;

a:

Sakuntale, avalambyat am
.
putrah
.
. tv am
.
puraskr
.
tya
bhagavantam
.
dras
.
t
.
um icch ami.

saxuxrai

a:

arih amy ayyaAutten
.
a saha samvam
.
gantum
.
?

;.:,,
i

a;

a: acaritam etad abhyudayaAk ales


.
u, ehy ehi! (sarve pari-
kr amanti.)
(tataf pravisaty Adity a saha ardhB asanaBstho M arcah
.
)
x

aicau
.
: (r aj anam avalokya) D aks
.
ayan
.
i,
putrasya te ran
.
aAsirasy ayam agraAg am
Duh
.
s
.
yanta ity abhihito bhuvanasya bhart a
c apena yasya vinivartitaAkarma j atam
tat kot
.
imat kulisam abharan
.
am
.
Maghonah
.
.
aoiriu
.
:

sambh avan
.
a se kkhu aid.

;.:oc
x

araiiu
.
: bh utalaA pate! etau putraA prti A pisunena caks
.
us
.
a
divaukas am
.
pitar av avalokayatah
.
. tad upasarpa.
,,c
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
xixc: My desire bears most excellent fruit, since it has been
achieved by a friend. M atali, did not Indra know of this
matter?
x

araii: Come, the reverend Marcha grants you an audi-


ence.
xixc: Shak untala, hold our son. I wish to see the reverend
with you going before me.
suax uxraia: Am I worthy of going with my husband? ;.:,,
xixc: It is customary on festive occasions, come come! (All
walk about.)
(Enter Marcha sharing a seat with

Aditi. )
xaicua: (looking at the king) Daksh ayani,
This is the lord of the earth, Dushy anta by name,
frontmost in the battles of your son Indra.
Because of his bow Indras sharp thunderbolt
has become an idle ornament.

Aoiri: His appearance is indeed honorable. ;.:oc


x

araii: King of the earth! The parents of the gods are


looking upon you with a glance that reveals a parental
fondness. Approach.
,,:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: M atale,
pr ahur dv adasadh a sthitasya munayo
yat tejasah
.
k aran
.
am
bhart aram
.
bhuvanaAtrayasya sus
.
uve
yad yaj naAbh agA esvaram
yasminn atmaAbhavaf paro pi purus
.
as
cakre bhav ay aspadam
brahmA anantaraAvisvaAyoniAsahitam
.
dvandvam
.
tad etadAvasi.
x

araiiu
.
: atha kim?
i

a;

a: (pran
.
ipatya) ubh abhy am api v am
.
V asava A niyojyo ;.:o,
Duh
.
s
.
yantaf pran
.
amati.
x

aicau
.
: vatsa, ciram
.
pr
.
thivm
.
p alaya!
aoiriu
.
:

vatsa, appad
.
iraho hohi!

saxuxrai

a:

d araen
.
a sahit a p adaAvandan
.
am
.
karemi.

aicau
.
: vatse, ciram aAvidhav a bhava!

Akhan
.
d
.
alaAsamo bhart a
;.:;c
JayantaApratimah
.
sutah
.
asr any a na te yojy a
PaulomApratim a bhava!
aoiriu
.
:

j ade, bhat
.
t
.
in
.
o bahuAmad a hohi! aam
.
ca de dehao
vacchao uhaaApakkham
.
ala nk aredu. t a uvavisadha.

aicau
.
: (ekB aikam
.
nirdisan)
dis
.
t
.
y a

Sakuntal a s adhv
sadAapatyam idam
.
bhav an
sraddh a vittam
.
vidhis c eti
tritayam
.
tat sam agatam.
,,:
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
xixc: M atali,
This is the couple, which the sages declare to be
the source of the twelvefold brilliance,*
which gave birth to Indra, the lord of the Gods
who take a share in the sacrice,
in which the Soul that transcends even
the self-born Brahma found a birthplace.*
x

araii: Assuredly.
xixc: (bowing) Indras servant Dushy anta bows to youboth. ;.:o,
xaicua: Child, long may you protect the earth!

Aoiri: Child, be peerless in battle!


suax uxraia: I worship your feet with my son.
xaicua: Child, long may you not be a widow!
With a husband like Indra
;.:;c
with a son like Jay anta,
there can be no other blessing than this:
Be like Paul omi!

Aoiri: My daughter, may your husband honor you. May


your son be an ornament to both of your families. Please
sit. (All sit with Prajapatis permission.)
xaicua: (pointing to one after another)
By good fortune,
faithful Shak untala, this perfect son, your Majesty,
faith, wealth, and law,
this triad is united.
,,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: bhagavan, pr ag abhipretaAsiddhif pasc ad darsanam ity


ap urvo bhagavato nugrahah
.
. pasyatu bhagav an
udeti p urvam
.
kusumam
.
tataf phalam
.
;.:;,
ghanA odayaf pr ak tadAanantaram
.
payah
.
nimittaAnaimittikayor ayam
.
vidhis
tava pras adasya puras tu sampadah
.
.
x

araiiu
.
: evam
.
visvaAguravaf prasdanti.
i

a;

a: bhagavan, im am aj n aAkarm
.
vo g andharven
.
a viv ahaA
vidhin opayamya kasya cit k alasya bandhubhir ant am
.
smr
.
tiAsaithily at praty adisann apar addho smi tatraA bha-
vatah
.
Kan
.
vasya. pasc ad en am angulyakaAdarsan ad ar u-
d
.
haAsmr
.
tir ud
.
haAp urv am anugato smi. tac citram eva me
pratibh ati.
yath a gajo n eti samaks
.
aAr upe
tasminn apakr amati sam
.
sayah
.
sy at
pad ani dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a tu bhavet prattis
tath aAvidho me manaso vik arah
.
.
x

aicau
.
: vatsa, alam atmA apac araA sa nkay a! sammoho pi
tvayy upapannah
.
. yatah
.
sr uyat am.
i

a;

a: avahito smi.
;.:c
x

aicau
.
: yad aiv

ApsarasAtrthA avataran
.
at pratyaks
.
aAvai-
klavy am
.

Sakuntal am ad aya Menak a D aks
.
ayan
.
Asak asam
agat a tad aiva dhy an ad adhigato smi Durv asasah
.
s ap ad
iyam
.
tapasvin sahaAdharmaAc arin
.
praty adis
.
t
.
a n anyath
eti. sa c a ngulyakaAdarsanA avas arah
.
.
,,
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
xixc: Blessed one, your grace is unprecedented: rst the
fullment of our wishes, then the sight of you. See,
The ower grows rst, then the fruit, ;.:;,
the clouds appear rst, then the rain,
this is the order of cause and eect,
but good fortune came before your grace.
x

araii: Such is the favor of the parents of the world.


xixc: Blessed one, I married this servant of yours by the
rite of mutual consent. After some time her kinsfolk
brought her to me. I rejected her because of a loss of
memory and oended against the reverend Kanva. Later,
I remembered that I had married her after I saw the ring.
This appears strange to me.
It is as if one were to deny an elephant
visibly before one,
then doubt once it has gone,
but seeing its footprints one perceives it,
such was the aberration of my mind.
xaicua: Child, stop worrying that you have done wrong!
You were deceived. Listen.
xixc: I am attentive.
;.:c
xaicua: When M enaka, descending from nymphs bath-
ing place, took the obviously frail Shak untala, and came
to

Aditi, I realized through meditation that the poor girl
had been rejected by her husband because of the curse
of Durv asas, and that the opportunity to end it was the
sight of the ring.
,,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
i

a;

a: (sB occhv asam) es


.
o ham
.
vacany an mukto smi!

saxuxrai

a: ( atmaB gatam)

dit
.
t
.
hi a aA k amaA pacc ades ayyaA
utto. n
.
a un
.
a sattam att an
.
am
.
sumar ami. adhav a n
.
a sudo
dhuvam an
.
n
.
aAhia ae mae s avo. jado sahhim
.
acc adaren
.
a
sandit
.
t
.
hamhi bhat
.
t
.
in
.
o a ngulaam dam
.
sehi tti.

aicau
.
: vatse, viditA arth asi. tad id anm
.
sahaA dharmaA
c arin
.
am
.
prati na tvay a manyuh
.
k aryah
.
. pasya
s ap ad asi pratihat a smr
.
tiAlopaAr uks
.
e ;.:,
bhartary apetaAtamasi prabhut a tav aiva
ch ay a na m urcchati malA opahataApras ade
suddhe tu darpan
.
aAtale sulabhA avak as a.
i

a;

a: yath a bhagav an aha.


x

aicau
.
: vatsa, kacAcid abhinanditas tvay a vidhivad asm a-
bhir anus
.
t
.
hitaAj ataAkarm a putra es
.
a

S akuntaleyah
.
?
i

a;

a: bhagavan, atra khalu me vam


.
saApratis
.
t
.
h a.
,,o
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
xixc: (draws in his breath) I am freed from blame!
suax uxraia: (to herself ) What a blessing, my husband re-
jected me without wanting to. But I cannot recall being
cursed. Surely I must not have heard the curse because
my heart was elsewheremy friends were so insistent
that I must show the ring to my husband.
xaicua: Child, you have perceived the truth. Therefore,
do not now show anger towards your husband. Look
You were rejected by your husband, ;.:,
made cruel by his loss of memory.
Now that his darkness has lifted,
sovereignty is yours.
An image does not take form in a mirror
if its brightness is dirtied,
but it easily does if it is clear.
xixc: As the blessed one says.
xaicua: Child, I hope you have accepted the son of Sha-
k untala, for whom I have performed the birth rites?
xixc: Blessed one, in him is supported my line.
,,;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
x

aicau
.
: tath a tat. bh avinam
.
cakraA vartinam enam ava-
gacchatu bhav an. pasya
rathen anudgh ataAstimitaAgatir aAtrn
.
aAjaladhif ;.:,c
pur a saptaAdvp am
.
jayati vasudh am aApratirathah
.
.
ih ayam
.
sattv an am
.
prasabhaAdaman at SarvaAdamanaf
punar y asyaty akhy am
.
Bharata it lokasya bharan
.
at.
i

a;

a: bhagavat a kr
.
taAsam
.
sk are sarvam asminn asam
.
s amahe.
aoiriu
.
:

im ae n
.
andan
.
aAmanoradhaAsampatte Kan
.
n
.
o vi d a-
va sudaAvitth aro karadu. Men
.
a a idha yyeva san
.
n
.
ihid a.

saxuxrai

a:

man
.
oAgadam
.
me mantidam bhaavade.

aicau
.
: sarvam etat tapah
.
A prabhav at pratyaks
.
am
.
tatraA
bhavatah
.
Kan
.
vasya.
i

a;

a: hanta! khalu na samabhikruddho guruh


.
. ;.:,,
x

aicau
.
: tath apy asau priyam asm abhih
.
sr avayitavyah
.
.
kah
.
ko tra bhoh
.
.
(pravisya)

sis
.
\au
.
: bhagavan, ayam asmi.
,,
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
xaicua: That is a fact. Knowhimtobe the future emperor.
Behold
Crossing the ocean with his chariot ;.:,c
his motion steady without jolts,
an unrivalled warrior he will soon conquer the
earth
with its seven continents. Here he is known as
Sarvad amana,
because he tames the animals by force,
he will become known as Bh arata,
because he supports the earth.
xixc: Since the blessed one performed his rites I can hope
for all of this for him.

Aoiri: Kanva too should be told in detail about how her


wishes have been fullled. M enaka is nearby.
suax uxraia: You have said what is my heart.
xaicua: All this is evident to his reverence Kanva through
the power of his penance.
xixc: Ah! The guru is not angry. ;.:,,
xaicua: Nevertheless he ought to hear the good news
from me. Who waits in attendance?
(entering) oisciiii: Your reverence, here I am.
,,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
x

aicau
.
: vatsa G alava, madAvacan ad id anm eva vih ayas a
gatv a tatraA bhavate sr A Kan
.
v aya priyam avedaya, yath a

Sakuntal a Durv asasah


.
s apaAvinivr
.
ttiAsamup agataAsmr
.
tin a
Duh
.
s
.
yantena pratigr
.
ht eti.

sis
.
\au
.
: yad aj n apayati bhagav an. (pran
.
amya nis
.
kr antah
.
)
x

aicau
.
: (r aj anam
.
prati) vatsa, tvam api sA apatyaA d arah
.
;.:cc
sam
.
nihitam
.
sakhyur

Akhan
.
d
.
alasya ratham aruhya svaA
r ajaAdh anm
.
pratis
.
t
.
hasva.
i

a;

a: yad aj n apayati bhagav an.


x

aicau
.
: vatsa,
kratubhir ucitaAbh ag am
.
s tvam
.
sur an bh avay alam
.
suraApatir api vr
.
s
.
t
.
y a tvatAprajA artham
.
vidhatt am
iti samam upak araAvya njitaAsrAmahimnor
vrajati bahuAtitho v am
.
sauhr
.
dayyena k alah
.
.
i

a;

a: bhagavan yath aAsakti sreyase ham


.
yatis
.
ye.
x

aicau
.
: vatsa, tad ucyat am. kim
.
te bh uyaf priyam upa- ;.:c,
har ami.
i

a;

a: yad ataf param


.
me bhagav an pras adam
.
kartumarhati,
tatah
.

,oc
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
xaicua: My child G alava, tell his reverence the illustri-
ous Kanva the good news in my words, namely that
Shak untala has been received by Dush-y an-ta whose
memory has returned at the end of the curse of Durv asas.
oisciiii: As your reverence commands. (Bows and exits.)
xaicua: (to the king) Child, mount your friend Indras ;.:cc
chariot which is right here with your son and wife and
set out for your own capital city.
xixc: As your reverence commands.
xaicua: Child,
May you cherish richly the Gods,
entitled to their share, with oerings;
may the King of the Gods in turn send rain
for your subjects;
thus, in like manner,
the greatness of your magnanimity
made visible by these favors,
may much time pass with your friendship.
xixc: Blessed one, I will strive for good with all my power.
x

aiicua: Child, say now, what further favor shall I grant ;.:c,
you?
xixc: If beyond this the reverend wishes to showme a favor,
then
,o:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
pravartat am
.
prakr
.
tiAhit aya p arthivah
.
!
Sarasvat srutiAmahat am
.
mahyat am!
mam api ca ks
.
apayatu nlaAlohitaf
punarAbhavam
.
parigataAsaktir atmaAbh uh
.
!
(iti nis
.
kr ant ah
.
sarve.)
saptamo nkah
.
.
sam aptam
.
c edam Abhij n anaBsakuntalB akhyam
.
;.::c
mah aBn at
.
akam.
kr
.
tih
.
srBpras adB as aditaBsarvaBvidyasya
mah aBkaveh
.
K alid asasya.
,o:
acr sivix: rui ansoiuriox
May the king be devoted to the welfare
of his subjects!
May Sar asvati be honored by the learned!
May Self-born Shiva, whose power encompasses
all,
put an end to my rebirth!
(Exeunt omnes.)
End of the seventh act.
The end of the play called ;.::c
The Recognition of Shak untala.
The work of the great poet Kalidasa
who attained all knowledge by the grace of fortune.
,o,
Ch ay a
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
The following is a Sanskrit paraphrase (ch ay a) of the Prakrit passages
(marked with

corner brackets

) in the play. References are to chapter


and paragraph.
:., arya! iyam asmi. aj n apayatu aryah
.
ko niyogo nus
.
t
.
hyat am iti.
:.; suvihitaAprayogatay aryasya na ki nAcit parih asyate.
:.:c evam
.
nv idam. anantaraAkaran
.
yam id anm arya aj n apayatu.
:.: tath a.
:.:, ks
.
an
.
aAcumbit ani bhramaraih
.
subhagaAsukum araAkesaraAsikh a-
ni, avatam
.
sayanti pramad a dayam an ah
.
sirs
.
aAkusum ani.
:.:; n unam
.
prathamam ev aryen
.
aj naptam
.
yath a <na> abhij n a-
naAsakuntal a n am ap urvam
.
n at
.
akam
.
prayogen adhikriyat am
iti.
:.oo ita itaf priyaAsakhyau.
:.o, hale

Sakuntale!
:.o, tvatto pi khalu t ataAk asyapasy asramaAvr
.
ks
.
ak af priy a iti tarka-
y amo yena navam alik aA pelav api tvam etasy alav alaA p uran
.
e
niyukt a.
:.;c na kevalam
.
t ataAniyoga iti. bahuAm ano y avan mam api. saho-
darAsneha etes
.
v asty eva.
:.;: hale

Sakuntale! udakam
.
lambhit a grs
.
maA k alaA kusumaA d ayi-
no gulmak a. id anm atikr antaA samaye pi vr
.
ks
.
an si nc amah
.
.
tasm ad anabhisandhitaAp urvo dharmo bhavis
.
yati.
:.;: abhinandanyam
.
mantrayathah
.
.
:.;o es
.
a v atA eritaApallavA a ngulbhis tvarayat va m am
.
bakulaAvr
.
ks
.
a-
kah
.
. y avad enam
.
sambh avay ami.
:.;, hale Anas uye! atipinaddhena Priyam
.
vaday a valkalena niyan-
trit asmi. tac chithilaya t avad enam.
,oo
cu

a\

a
:.c atra payodharaA vist arayitr
.
kam atmanah
.
yauvanam up alabha-
sva.
:., hale

Sakuntale! es
.
a t ataAK asyapena tvam iva sam
.
vardhit alin-
dake m adhavAlat a. preks
.
asv ain am. kim
.
vismr
.
t a te?
:. atm api vismaris
.
yate.
:., hale

Sakuntale! tis
.
t
.
h eh aiva muh urtakam
.
t avad bakulaAvr
.
ks
.
aA
sampe.
:.o kim iti?
:.; tvay a sampaAsthitay a lat aAsan atha iva me bakulaAvr
.
ks
.
akaf pra-
tibh ati.
:. atah
.
khalu Priyam
.
vad asi.
:.,: hale

Sakuntale! iyam
.
svayamA varaA vadh uh
.
sahak arasya tvay a
kr
.
taAn amadheyasya vanaAtos
.
in
.
o navaAm alik a.
:.,: hale! raman
.
ye k ale sya p adapaAmithunasya vyatikarah
.
sam
.
vr
.
-
ttah
.
. iyam
.
navaAkusumaAyauvan a. ayam api baddhaAphalatay
opabhogaAks
.
amah
.
sahak arah
.
.
:.,, hale Anas uye! j an asi kim
.
A nimittam
.

Sakuntal a VanaA tos
.
in
.
am
atim atram
.
pasyat ti.
:., na khalu vibh avay ami.
:.,, yath a VanaAtos
.
in
.
anusadr
.
sena p adapena sa ngat a navaAm alik a,
api n am aivam aham apy atmano nur upam
.
varam
.
labha iti.
:.,o es
.
a n unam
.
atmanas te cittaAgato manorathah
.
.
:.:cc aho. salilaA sekaA sam
.
bhr anto navam alik am ujjhitv a vadanam
.
me madhuAkaro nuvartate.
,o;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
:.:c, hale! paritr ayadhvam
.
m am anena kusumaA p at
.
accaren
.
abhi-
bh uyam an am!
:.:c ke av am
.
paritr an
.
e? Dus
.
s
.
yamtam akranda. r ajaAraks
.
it ani khalu
tapoAvan ani bhavanti.
:.:co n ais
.
a me purato tidhr
.
s
.
t
.
o viramati. tad anyato gamis
.
y ami.
:.:co h a dhik! katham ito pi m am anusarati.
:.::c na khalu kim
.
cid aty ahitam. iyam
.
punar naf priyaAsakh ma-
dhuAkaren
.
akulkriyam an
.
a k atarAbh ut a.
:.::, id anm atithiAvises
.
aAl abhena.
:.:: sv agatam aryasya!
:.::, hal a

Sakuntale! gaccha tvam ut
.
ajatah
.
phalaAmisram up ahara,
iha p adA odakam asty eva.
:.::; ten asmim
.
s t avat p adapaAch ay aAstal ay am saptaAparn
.
aAvedik a-
y am arya upavisya muh urtam
.
parisramam apanayatu.
:.::, hale

Sakuntale! ucitam
.
no tithiAparyup asanam. tad ih opavi-
s amah
.
.
:.::c kim
.
nu khalv imam
.
preks
.
ya tapoA vanaA virodhino vik arasya
gamany asmi sam
.
vr
.
tt a?
:.::: Anas uye! ko nu khalv es
.
a caturaA gambhrA akr
.
tir madhuram
.
priyam alapan prabhavantam
.
d aks
.
in
.
yam iva karoti.
:.::, sakhi! mam api kaut uhalam asty eva. tat praks
.
y ami t avad
enam.
:.::, aryasya no madhurA al apaAjanito visrambho mantrayati. kata-
mam
.
punar aryovarn
.
amala nkaroti? kim
.
Animittam
.
v a sukum a-
ren
.
aryen
.
a tapoAvanA agamanaAparisramasy atm a p atrAkr
.
tah
.
?
:.:: hr
.
daya, m a utt amya! yat tvay a cintitam
.
tad anas uy a mantra-
yati.
,o
cu

a\

a
:.::o saAn ath a dharmaAc arin
.
ah
.
.
:.:: hale

Sakuntale! yady adya t ata iha sam
.
nihito bhavet. . .
:.::, tatah
.
kim
.
bhavet?
:.:,c tata imam atithim
.
jvitaAsarvasven api kr
.
tA artham
.
kury at.
:.:,: ayi! apetam. kim api hr
.
daye kr
.
tv a mantrayathah
.
. na khalu
sros
.
y ami.
:.:,, arya! anugrahe py abhyarthan a.
:.:,, sr
.
n
.
otv aryah
.
! asti Kausika iti gotraAn amadheyo mah aAprabh a-
vah
.
r ajaArs
.
ih
.
.
:.:,; tam
.
sakhAjane prabhavam avagaccha. ujjhitaAsarraAsam
.
raks
.
a-
n
.
A adibhis t ataAK asyapo sy af pit a.
:.:,, pur a kila tasya r ajaArs
.
er ugre tapasi vartam anasya kim api j a-
taA sa nkair devair Menak a n am apsar a niyamaA vighnaA k arin
.

prahit a.
:.:: tatovasantA odayaAsamaye tasy a unm adayitr
.
r upam
.
preks
.
ya. . .
:.:, atha kim?
:.: punar iva vaktuAk ama aryah
.
.
:.:,: tena hi vic ariten
.
alam
.
. niyantran
.
A anuyogyas tapasviAjanah
.
.
:.:, arya! dharmaA caran
.
e py es
.
a parA adhno janah
.
. gurof punar
asy a anur upaAvaraApratip adane sa nkalpah
.
.
:.:,; Anas uye! gamis
.
y amy aham.
:.:, kim
.
Animittam?
,o,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
:.:,, im am asambaddhA al apinm
.
priyam
.
vad am ary ayai Gautamyai
nivedayis
.
y ami.
:.:oc sakhi na yuktam asramaAv asino janasy akr
.
taAsatk aram atithiA
vises
.
am
.
visr
.
jya svacchandato gamanam.
:.:o hale can
.
d
.
i! na te yuktam
.
gantum.
:.:o, kim iti?
:.:oo vr
.
ks
.
a A secanake dve me dh arayasi. t abhy am
.
t avad atm anam
.
mocaya, tato gamis
.
yasi.
:.:;: tena hi n arhat dam
.
ca r aj no ngulyakam
.
viyogaA k aritam
.
.
aryasya tava vacanena n am ais
.
anr
.
n
.
aiva mama. hal a

Sakun-
tale mocit asy anukampin aryen
.
a. atha v a mahA anubh avena.
kr
.
taj n ed anm
.
bhavis
.
yasi.
:.:;, n edam
.
vismaris
.
yate yady atmanaf prabhav ami.
:.:; hale! kim id anm
.
s am
.
pratam
.
na gacchasi?
:.:, arya anen akranditena pary akul ah
.
smah
.
. tad anuj anhi na ut
.
a-
jaAgaman aya.
:.:, asambh avitaAsatk aram
.
bh uyo pi t avat pratyaveks
.
an
.
aAnimittam
.
preks
.
an
.
aAnimittam
.
lajj amahe aryam
.
vij n apayitum. viditaAbh u-
yis
.
t
.
ho si nah
.
sam
.
pratam
.
yad id anm upac araAmadhyasthatay
apar addh ah
.
smas tan mars
.
ayasi.
:.:; hale

Sakuntale! ehi sghrataram! akul ary a Gautam bhavis
.
ya-
ti.
:.: h a dhik! uruAsthambhena vikal asmi sam
.
vr
.
tt a.
:.: bhoh
.
! dr
.
d
.
ho smi! etasya mr
.
gay aAslasya r aj no vayasyaAbh ave-
na nirvin
.
n
.
ah
.
. ayam
.
m
.
rgo yam
.
v ar aha iti. madhyam
.
Adine pi
grs
.
maAviralaAp adapaAch ay asu van
.
aAr ajs
.
u bhramyate. may a pa-
traAsam
.
karaAkas
.
ay an
.
i pyante kat
.
uk any us
.
n
.
ani giriAnadAjal ani.
,;c
cu

a\

a
aniyataA vel am
.
s ulaA m am
.
saA sakunaA m am
.
saA bh uyis
.
t
.
ham adya-
te. turaga A y ana A khan
.
d
.
kr
.
ta A sandhi A bandhan an am a ng an am
.
r atrim api n asti prak amam
.
sayitavyam. tato mama mahaty
eva praty us
.
e d asy af putraih
.
sakunaAlubdhakaih
.
karn
.
aAgh atin a
vanaA grahan
.
aA kol ahalena pratibodhye. et avat api me pr an
.
a
na nis
.
kr ant ah
.
. tato gan
.
d
.
A opari pit
.
ik a sam
.
vr
.
tt a. hyo sm asv
avahnes
.
u tatraAbhavato mr
.
gA anus aren
.
asramaApadam
.
pravis
.
-
t
.
asya kila t apasaAkanyak a

Sakuntal a n ama mam adhanyatay a
darsit a. s ampratam
.
nagaraAgamanasya sam
.
kath am api na ka-
roti. adya t am eva sa ncintayato vibh atam aks
.
n
.
oh
.
. tat k a gatih
.
.
y avad enam
.
kr
.
tA ac araAparikramam
.
kutra preks
.
ye. es
.
a r aj a b a-
n
.
asanaAhast abhir yavanbhif parivr
.
to vanaApus
.
paAm al aAdh arita
iv agacchati. tad y avad enam upasarp ami. bhavatu. a ngaAsam-
mardaAvihvala id anm
.
bh utv eh aiva sth asy ami. yata evam api
t avad visr amam
.
labhe.
:., bho r ajan! na me hastaf prasarati v a nAm atrakena j apyase.
:.:: kutah
.
kila svayam aks
.
y akulkr
.
ty asruAk aran
.
am pr
.
cchasi.
:.:, bhoh
.
! tvay a n ama r ajaA k ary an
.
y ujjhitv a t adr
.
s an krd
.
aA pras a-
d an vanaAcarA aikaAvr
.
ttin a bhavitavyam. yat satyam
.
pratyaham
.
sv apada A sakun A anugamanaih
.
sam
.
ks
.
obhita A sam
.
dhi A bandh a-
n am a ng an am anso smi sam
.
vr
.
ttah
.
. tat prasda! m am
.
varjaya!
ekA aham api t avad visramyat am.
:.:o atraA bhav an kim api hr
.
daye kr
.
tv a mantrayate. aran
.
ye may a
ruditam.
:.:c aj n apayatu bhav an.
:.:: api modakaAkh adik ay am?
:.: gr
.
htah
.
ks
.
an
.
ah
.
.
:.:o aj n apayatu bhart a.
:.: yad bhart aj n apayati.
,;:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
:.,: es
.
a khalv anuvacanaA dattaA karn
.
a ito dattaA dr
.
s
.
t
.
ir eva bhart a
tv am
.
pratip alayati. tasm ad upasarpatv aryah
.
.
:.,; atraAbhav anprakr
.
tim apannah
.
. tvam
.
t avad at
.
avto t
.
avmbhra-
ma y avan ssaAsr
.
g ala iva jrn
.
aArks
.
asya mukhe patis
.
yasi.
:. gaccha s am
.
pratam
.
d asy af putra!
:.; yad bhart aj n apayati.
:. kr
.
tam
.
bhavat a nirdh umako dam
.
saApratk arah
.
. tat s ampratam
etasmin av asaAp adapaAch ay aAparivr
.
te vit anaAsan athe asane ya-
th asukham
.
upavisatu bhav an y avad aham api sukh asanaAstho
bhav ami.
:.,: nanu bhav an agrato me tis
.
t
.
hati.
:., bhavatu. n asya prasaram
.
vardhayis
.
y ami. yad a t avat s a t apasaA
kanyak abhyarthany a tat kim
.
tay a dr
.
s
.
t
.
ay a.
:.,o tat katham etat?
:.,, yady api na K asyapasya mahaArs
.
er auras a duhit a tath api kim
.
tay a dr
.
s
.
t
.
ay a?
:.o: yath a kasy api pin
.
d
.
aAkharj urair udvejitasya tintilik an am abhi-
l as
.
o bhavati tath a strAratnaAparibh avino bhavata iyam
.
pr artha-
n a.
:.o tat khalu raman
.
yam
.
n ama yad bhavato pi vismayam
.
janayati.
:.o; praty adesa id anm
.
r upavatn am!
:.;c tena hi laghu parin
.
ayatu bhav an m a kasy api tapasvina i ngu-
dAtailaAcikkan
.
aAsrs
.
asy aran
.
yakasya haste patis
.
yati.
:.;: atha bhavantam antaren
.
a kdr
.
sas tasy as cittA anur agah
.
?
:.;, kim
.
khalu s a bhavato dr
.
s
.
t
.
aAm atrasy aiv a nkam arohatu?
,;:
cu

a\

a
:.; gr
.
htaAp atheyo bhavasi. katham
.
punaf punas tapoAvanaAgama-
nam iti preks
.
e.
:.c es
.
a cintay ami. . . m a khalu mam alkaAparidevitaih
.
sam adhim
.
bh a nks
.
h
.
. bhoh
.
! ko nya up ayah
.
? nanu bhav an r aj a?
:.: nv araAs
.
as
.
t
.
haAbh agam
.
t avat sv amy upaiti.
:.; jayatu jayatu bhart a. etau dvau r
.
s
.
iAkum arau prath araAbh umim
upasthitau.
:., ayam
.
pravesay ami.
:.,: ita ito bhavantah
.
.
:.:c ayam id anm anuk ul aAgalaAhastah
.
.
:.:co yad bhart aj n apayati.
:.::: prathamam aparib adham ast. r aks
.
asaAvr
.
ttA antena punah
.
s am
.
-
pratam
.
vis
.
adaAdarsin a vises
.
itam.
:.:: es
.
a cakr ak bh uto smi.
:.::, bhartah
.
! sajjo ratho bhartur vijayaA prasth anam udks
.
ate. es
.
a
punar nagarato devn am
.
sak asatah
.
Karabhaka upasthitah
.
.
:.::; atha kim?
:.::, yad bhart a aj n apayati.
:.::: jayatu jayatu bhart a. devya aj n apayanti agamini caturthe di-
vase putra A pin
.
d
.
ako d anako n ama upav aso bhavis
.
yati. tatra
drghA ayus
.
avasyam
.
sam
.
nihitena bhavitavyam.
:.::, Trisankur iv antare tis
.
t
.
ha.
:.::; s adhu! r aks
.
asaAbhrukam
.
m am
.
gan
.
ayis
.
yati.
:.::, tena hi yath a r ajA anur agen
.
a gantavyam
.
tath a gamis
.
y ami.
,;,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
:.:,: tena hi yuvaAr ajo smi sam
.
vr
.
ttah
.
.
:.:, evam etat!
,.:, sakhi

Sakuntale! api sukhayati te nalinApatraAv atah
.
?
,.:c kim
.
v a vjayato m am
.
sakhyau?
,.:, hal a

Sakuntale! anantaraj n a vayam
.
madanaA vr
.
tt antes
.
u. tath
api kim
.
tu y adr
.
sAtih asaA gates
.
u madanaA vr
.
tt antes
.
u k amaya-
m anasy avasth a sr uyate t adr
.
sam
.
ca laks
.
avahe. tat kathaya kim
.
A
nimittam
.
te yam ay asah
.
. vik aram
.
khalu paramA arthato j n atv
an arambhaf pratk arasya.
,.:; balav an ca me bhiniveso na ca saknomi sahas a nivartitum.
,.: sakhi sus
.
t
.
hu es
.
a bhan
.
ati. kim nv etam atmana upadravam
.
nig uhasi? anudivasam
.
ca parihyase ngakaih
.
. kevalam
.
l ava-
n
.
yamay ch ay a tv am
.
na mu ncati.
,.,: kasya v anyasya kathayis
.
y ami. kim
.
tv ay asayitr d anm
.
vo
bhavis
.
y ami.
,.,: ata eva no nirbandhah
.
. sam
.
vibhaktam
.
khalu duhkham
.
sahyaA
vedanam
.
bhavati.
,.,, yataf prabhr
.
ti sa tapoAvanaAraks
.
it a r ajaArs
.
ir mama darsanaApa-
tham
.
gatah
.
, tata arabhy odgaten abhil as
.
en
.
aitadAavasth asmi
sam
.
vr
.
tt a.
,., evam
.
yadi vo bhimatam
.
tat tath a mantrayeth am
.
m am
.
yath a
tasya r ajaArs
.
er anukampany a bhav ami. anyath a m am
.
si nca-
tam id anm s antyAudakena.
,.c Anas uye! d ureA gataA manmath eyam aks
.
am a k alaA haran
.
asya.
yasmin baddhaA bh av a, sa api lal amaA bh utaf paurav an
.
am. tat
tvaritavyam ev asy abhil as
.
am anuvartitum.
,.: yath a bhan
.
asi. sakhi dis
.
t
.
y anur upas te bhil as
.
ah
.
. s agaram
.
va-
rjayitv a kutra v a mah aAnady a gantavyam?
,;
cu

a\

a
,.: ka id anm
.
sahak aram atimuktaAlatay a pallavitum
.
n ecchati?
,. kaf punar up ayo bhaved yena sakhy a avilambitam
.
nig ud
.
ham
.
manoAratham
.
samp aday avah
.
?
,., nipun
.
am
.
prayatitavyam iti cintanyam
.
bhavet. sghram iti na
dus
.
karam.
,.o katham iva?
,.; sa r ajaArs
.
ir asy am
.
snigdhaAdr
.
s
.
t
.
iAs ucitA abhil as
.
a im ani divas ani
praj agaraAkr
.
sa iva laks
.
yate.
,.,c Anas uye! madanaAlekha id anm
.
kriyat am. tam
.
sumanoAgopi-
tam
.
kr
.
tv a devaAses
.
A apadesena tasya r aj no haste p atayis
.
y ami.
,.,: rocate me sukum araf prayogah
.
. kim
.
v a

Sakuntal a bhan
.
ati?
,.,: niyogo pi vikalpyate.
,.,, tena hy upany asaAp urvam atmanas cintaya kim api sulalitam
.
padaAbandhanam.
,., cintayis
.
y ami. avadhran
.
aAbhrukam
.
punar vepate me hr
.
dayam.
,.,; atmaA gun
.
A avam anini! ka id anm s aradyam
.
jyotsn am
.
atapaA
tren
.
a v arayis
.
yati?
,., niyojit a smi!
,.o: hal a cintitam
.
may a gtik a. asam
.
nihit ani punar lekhaAs adhan a-
ni.
,.o: nanv asmin suk A odaraA sukum are nalin A patre pattraA chedaA
bhakty a nakhair niks
.
ipta A varn
.
am
.
karos
.
i. tatah
.
sr
.
n
.
umo sy
aks
.
ar an
.
i.
,.o, sr
.
n
.
uta t avad en am
.
sa ngatA arth a na v a.
,;,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
,.o avahite svah
.
!
,.oo tava na j ane hr
.
dayam
.
mama punah
.
k amo div a ca r atrau ca,
nis
.
kr
.
pa tapati balyas tav abhimukhaAmanoArath any a ng ani.
,.o, sv agatam
.
yath aAcintitaAphalasy avalambino manoArathasya.
,.;c hr
.
daya! tath ottamy ed anm
.
na kim
.
cit pratipadyase.
,.;, itah
.
sil aAtalA aikadesam anugr
.
hn
.
atu vayasyah
.
.
,.;, labdhA aus
.
adhah
.
s ampratam upasamam
.
gamis
.
yati k alena.
,.;o k alen eti kim? pasya, meghaAn adA ahat am iva may urm
.
nime-
s
.
A antaren
.
a praty agatam
.
priyaAsakhm
.
.
,.; mah aAbh aga! dvayor api yuvayor anyonyA anur agaf pratyaks
.
ah
.
.
sakhAsnehaf punar m am
.
punaruktaAv adinm
.
karoti.
,.c tena hi sr
.
n
.
otu mah ar aj a.
,.: iyam nah
.
sakh tv am ev oddisya bhagavat a madanen edam
dr
.
sam avasthA antaram
.
nt a. tad arhasy abhyupapatty asy a
jvitam avalambitum.
,. hal a! alam antah
.
ApuraAvih araAparyutsukasya r ajaArs
.
er uparud-
dhena.
,.; vayasya bahuAvallabh ah
.
r aj anah
.
sr uyante. yath a nah
.
sakh ban-
dhuAjane socany a bhavati tath a nirv ahaya.
,.,c anugr
.
hte svah
.
.
,.,: hale mars
.
ayatam
.
lokap alam
.
yat kim
.
c asm abhir upac arA ati-
kramen
.
a visrambhaApral apin
.
bhir bhan
.
itam.
,.,: yena tan mantritam
.
sa mars
.
ayatu. anyasya janasya ko tyayah
.
.
paroks
.
am
.
ko v a kim
.
na mantrayati?
,.,, et avat a punas te tus
.
t
.
ir bhavet?
,;o
cu

a\

a
,.,o virama durlalite! et avadAavasthay api me krd
.
asi.
,.,; priyam
.
vade, es
.
a mr
.
gapotaka itas tato dattaAdr
.
s
.
t
.
ir utsuko n u-
nam
.
m ataramparibhras
.
t
.
amanves
.
ati. tat sam
.
yojayis
.
y ami t avad
enam.
,., nanu capalakah
.
khalv es
.
as. ek akin niyojayitum
.
na p arayasi.
tad aham api te anuvartitum
.
k arayis
.
y ami.
,.,, hale! anyatar a vo gacchatu. anyath asaran
.
asmi.
,.:cc yaf pr
.
thivy ah
.
saran
.
am
.
sa tava sampe.
,.:c: katham
.
gatam
.
eva?
,.:c na m ananye jane atm anam apar adhayis
.
ye.
,.:c; sakhAm atraAsaran
.
a kam
.
v a saran
.
ayis
.
y ami?
,.:c, na khalv aryam
.
, daivam up alabhe!
,.::: katham id anm up alapsye ya atmano ns am
.
paraAgun
.
air m am
upah asayati?
,.::o Paurava! mu nca m am
.
!
,.:: kad a?
,.::c madanA avas
.
t
.
abdho pi n atmanah
.
kanyak aAjanaf prabhavati.
bh uyo pi t avat sakhAjanam anum anayis
.
y ami.
,.::: Paurava raks
.
a vinayam. ita ita r
.
s
.
ayah
.
sa ncaranti.
,.:: Paurava! anicch aAp urako pi darsanaAm atraAsukhaAdo na te yam
.
jano vismartavyah
.
.
,.::; h a dhik! na me caran
.
au puromukhau prabhavatah
.
. ebhir aryaA
putrasya kuravakair vyavahit a pasc ad lat aAman
.
d
.
apakasya pre-
ks
.
is
.
ye t avad asya bh avA anubandham.
,;;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
,.:,c imam
.
srutv a na me sti vibhavo gantum
.
.
,.:,, aho! durbalaAsithilatay a prabhras
.
t
.
am api etan mr
.
n
.
alaAvalayam
.
may a na vij n atam.
,.:,o ato param asamarth asmi vilambitum. bhavatu. eten aiva
vyapadesen asy atm anam
.
darsayis
.
y ami
,.:,, a nga. ardhaApathe smr
.
tv aitasya hastaAbhram
.
sino mr
.
n
.
alaAva-
layasya kr
.
te sannivr
.
tt asmi. akhy atam iva me hr
.
dayena tvay a
gr
.
htam iti. tat ks
.
ip edam
.
m a muniA jana atm anam m am
.
ca
s ucayis
.
yasi.
,.:: kena?
,.:, k a gatih
.
!
,.:; tvarayatv aryaAputrah
.
!
,.:, k alaAks
.
epah
.
kusalah. yat te rocate.
,.:,: na t avad enam
.
pasy ami. pavanaAkampin a karn
.
A otpalaAren
.
un a
kalus
.
kr
.
t a me dr
.
s
.
t
.
ih
.
.
,.:, anukampit a bhaveyam. kim
.
punar na te visvasimi!
,.:,o es
.
a eva ta atyupak aro visrambhaAjanakah
.
.
,.:o, pratij n atam
.
manthara iv aryaAputrah
.
sam
.
vr
.
ttah
.
.
,.:o, bhavatu! prakr
.
ti A sth asmi sam
.
vr
.
tt a. lajje punar anupak arin
.

priyaAk arin
.
a aryaAputrasya.
,.:o asam
.
tos
.
en
.
a kim
.
karis
.
yasi?
,.:;c ary a Gautam!
,.:;: Paurava! es
.
a mama sarraA vr
.
tt antA opalambh aya t atasya dhar-
maAkan
.
yasy upasthit a. tad vit
.
apA antarito bhava.
,.:; aty ahitam. iha devat aAsah ay a tis
.
t
.
hasi.
,;
cu

a\

a
,.:;, id anm eva M alinm avatrn
.
af Priyam
.
vad aAmisr ah
.
.
,.:;o api laghukaAsant ap ani te ng ani?
,.:;; asti vises
.
ah
.
.
,.:; vatse, parin
.
ato divasah
.
. tad ehi, ut
.
ajam eva gacch amah
.
.
,.:;, hr
.
daya, manoA rathaA durlabham
.
janam
.
pr apya k alaA haran
.
am
.
karos
.
i, anusayaAvighat
.
t
.
itasya katham
.
te s ampratam. lat aAgr
.
ha-
ka! amantraye tv am
.
punar api paribhog aya.
.: Priyamvade! yady api g andharven
.
a vidhin a nirvr
.
ttaA kaly an
.
a

Sakuntal anur upaAbhartr


.
Ag amin sam
.
vr
.
tt a tath api na nirvr
.
-
tam
.
me hr
.
dayam.
., katham iva?
. adya sa r aj es
.
t
.
iAparisam apt av r
.
s
.
ibhir visarjita atmano nagaram
.
pravisy antah
.
Apura itoAgatam
.
smarati v a na v eti.
., atra visvast a bhava. na t adr
.
s a akr
.
tiAvises
.
ah
.
gun
.
aAvirodhino bha-
vanti. et avat punas cintanyam. t ata id anm imam
.
vr
.
tt antam
.
srutv a na j ane kim
.
pratipatsyata iti. . .
.o sakhi! yath a m am
.
pasyasi tath a t atasy anumatam
.
priyam
.
ca.
.; katham iv anumatam
.
priyam
.
ca?
. kim anyat. gun
.
avate kanyak a pratip adayitavy ety ayam
.
t avat
prathamo sya sa nkalpah
.
. tam
.
yadi daivam eva samp adayati
nanv apray asena kr
.
tA artho guruAjanah
.
.
., evam nv etat.
., sakhi avacit ani khalu baliAkarmaApary apt ani kusum ani.
.:c sakhi!

Sakuntal ay a api saubh agyaAdevat arcany a.
,;,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
.:: yujyate.
.:, sakhi! atithin eva niveditam.
.: sakhi! nanA ut
.
ajaAsamnihit a

Sakuntal a.
.:, am
.
adya punar hr
.
dayen
.
a na sam
.
nihit a.
.:o tena hi bhavatu et avadbhih
.
kusumaih
.
.
.:, h a dhik! eva sam
.
vr
.
ttam. kasminn api p ujA arhe par addh a s u-
nyaAhr
.
day a priyaAsakh.
.:c na khalu yasmim
.
s tasminsulabhaAkopa es
.
a Durv as a mahaArs
.
ir,
hut asa iva tvaritaAp adA oddh aray a gaty a gantum
.
pravr
.
ttah
.
.
.:: ko nyo huta A vah ad dagdhum
.
prabhavis
.
yati. Anas uye! gac-
cha p ades
.
u patitv a pras aday ainam
.
y avad aham arghA odakam
upakalpay ami.
.:, aho! avegaAskhalitay a prabhras
.
t
.
am agraAhast at pus
.
paAbh ajanam
me. tat punar api avaces
.
y ami.
.: sakhi sarraAbaddhah
.
kopa iva kasya so nunayam
.
gr
.
hn
.
ati. kim
.
ca punah
.
s anukrosah
.
kr
.
tah
.
.
.:, tasmin bahv etad api. tatah
.
kathaya katham iva.
.:o yad a nivartitum
.
n ecchati tad a vij n apito may a: bhagavan! pra-
thamaAbhaktim aveks
.
y ady atmaAprabh avaAvij n ataAs amarthya-
sya duhitr
.
Ajanasya bhagavat apar adho mars
.
itavya iti.
.:; tatas tatah
.
?
.: tatah
.
: na me vacanam anyath aAbhavitum arhati. abharan
.
A a-
bhij n anaA darsanena mama s apo nivartis
.
yate iti mantrayann
ev antarhitah
.
.
.:, sakyam id anm asvasitum. asti tena r ajaArs
.
in
.
a sam
.
prasthitena
svaAn amaAdheyA a nkitam a ngulyam
.
smaran
.
yam iti

Sakuntal a-
y ah
.
svayam eva haste pinaddham. tasmim
.
s ca svA adhne yam
up ayo bhavis
.
yati.
,c
cu

a\

a
.,c hale Priyam
.
vade! preks
.
asva preks
.
asva! v amaA hastA opanihitaA
vadan alikhit eva sakh bhartr
.
Agatay a cintay atm anam apy
es
.
a na vibh avayati kim
.
punar agantukam?
.,: hal a Anas uye! dvayor ev avayor es
.
a s apaA vr
.
tt antas tis
.
t
.
hatu.
raks
.
an
.
y a khalu prakr
.
tiApelav a sakh.
.,: ka id anm
.
t apA odakena navaAm alik am
.
si ncati.
., evam api n ama vis
.
ayaA par a nA mukhasy apy etan na viditam
.
yath a tena r aj n a

Sakuntal ay a anA aryat acaritavy eti.
.; pratibuddh api kim
.
karayis
.
y ami. na ma utthit ay as cintite-
s
.
u prabh ataA vy ap araA karan
.
yes
.
u hast af p ad a v a prabhavanti.
saA k ama id anm
.
k amo bhavatu, yena snigdhaA hr
.
day a sakhy
asatyaA sandhe jane padam
.
k arit a. atha v a na tasya r aja A rs
.
er
apar adho Durv asah
.
Akopo tra viprakaroti. anyath a katham
.
t a-
dr
.
so r ajaArs
.
is t adr
.
s ani vacan ani mantrayitv ait avatah
.
k alasya
lekhaA m atram api na visarjayati. ito ngulyam asy abhij n a-
nam
.
visarjay amah
.
. atha v a duh
.
khaAsle tapasviAjane ko bhya-
rthyat am. na ca sakhi A gamanena dos
.
a iti vyavasitam id anm
.
p aray amah
.
Prabh asaA nirvr
.
ttasya t ataA K asyapasya Dus
.
s
.
yantaA
parint am apannaA sattv am
.
ko pi

Sakuntal am
.
nivedayis
.
yati.
ittham
.
Agate kim
.
nu khalv asm abhih
.
kartavyam?
.,

Sakuntal ay af prasth anaAkautuk ani kriyant am.
.,c sakhi katham
.
nv etat?
.,: Anas uye. sr
.
n
.
u. id anm
.
sukhaAsayitaAvibuddh ay ah
.

Sakuntal ay as
sampam
.
gat asmi y avat t am
.
lajjA avanatam
.
paris
.
vajya t ataA
K asyapah
.
svayamabhinandati. dis
.
t
.
y a dh umA oparuddhaAdr
.
s
.
t
.
er
api janasya p avaka eva ahutif patit a. susis
.
yaApratip adit eva vi-
dy asocany asi me sam
.
vr
.
tt a. tad ady aiva rs
.
iA parigr
.
htam
.
tv am
.
bhartuh
.
sak asam
.
visarjay am ti.
,:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
.,: atha kena akhy atas t atasy ayam
.

Sakuntal aAvr
.
tt antah
.
?
.,, t atasya saran
.
am
.
pravis
.
t
.
asya sarram
.
vin a chandovaty a v ac a.
., katham iva.
.,; sakhi priyam
.
me, kim
.
tv

Sakuntal a nyata ity utkan
.
t
.
h aAs adh a-
ran
.
am
.
paritos
.
am samudvah ami.
., utkan
.
t
.
h am
.
vinodayis
.
y avah
.
. s ed anm
.
nirvr
.
t a bhavatu.
.,, tena hy etasmim
.
s c utaAs akhA avalambite n arikelaA samudgake
tanAnimittameva k alA antaraAks
.
am a ks
.
ipt a may a saAkesaraAgun
.
a.
t am
.
s tvam
.
hastaAsannihit an kuru y avad aham asy a mr
.
gaAgoro-
can am
.
trthaAmr
.
ttik am
.
d urv aAkisalay ani ma ngalaAsam alabha-
nA artham
.
viracay ami.
.o: Anas uye, tvaraya tvaraya! ete khalu Hastin apuraAg amina r
.
s
.
ayah
.
sajjbhavant ti.
.o, sakhi, ehi gacch amah
.
.
.o es
.
a s uryA odaya eva visarjit a prats
.
t
.
aA nv araA bh ajanak abhis t a-
pasbhir abhinandyam an a

Sakuntal a tis
.
t
.
hati. tad upasarp ava
en am.
.oo j ate! bhartur bahuAm anaAyuktakam
.
mah aAdevAsabdam
.
adhiga-
ccha.
.o; vatse vraAprasavin bhava.
.o, sakhi! sumajAjanam
.
te bhavatu!
.;c sv agatam
.
priyaAsakhyoh
.
. ito nis
.
datam.
.;: hal a

Sakuntale! r
.
jugat a bhava y avat te ma ngalaAsam alabdham
.
a ngam
.
kriyat am.
.;: ucitam idam api bahumantavyam. durlabham id anm
.
me sa-
khAman
.
d
.
anam
.
bhavis
.
yati.
,:
cu

a\

a
.;, sakhi na ta es
.
t
.
avye ma ngalaAk ale roditavyam.
.; abharan
.
A arham
.
r upam asramaA sulabhaif pras adhanair vipra-
kriyate.
.; vatsa H arta. kuta etat?
., hale! adbhutaAsam
.
pattih
.
s ucit a, bhartur gehe nubhavitavy a te
r ajaAlaks
.
mh
.
.
., sakhi! kaly an
.
in danm asi. kot
.
araAsam
.
bhav eva madhukar
pus
.
karaAmadhum abhilas
.
asi.
.o anupabhuktaAbh us
.
an
.
o yam
.
janah
.
. citraAkarmaAparicayen ed a-
nm
.
te nges
.
v abharan
.
aAniyogam
.
karoti.
.; jane vo nipun
.
atvam.
., hal a

Sakuntale avasita A man
.
d
.
an asi. paridhehi s am
.
pratam
imam
.
pavitram
.
ks
.
aumaAnirmokam
.
.
.,; es
.
a te anandaApariv ahin
.
a caks
.
us
.
a paris
.
vajam ana iva gurur upa-
sthitah
.
. tad ac aram asya pratipadyasva.
., t ata vande.
.:c: bhagav an! varah
.
khalv es
.
o, n ash
.
.
.::; j ate. j n atiAjanaAsnigdham abhyanuj n ataAgaman asi tapoAvanaA
devat abhih
.
. tat pran
.
ama bhagavath
.
.
.:: hal a Priyam
.
vade arya A putra A darsan A otsukay apy asramam
.
parityajanty a duh
.
khaAduh
.
khena me caran
.
au puromukhaf pra-
bhavanti.
.::, na kevalam
.
tava virahaA paryutsuk as sakhya eva. y avat tvay
opasthitaA viyogasya tapoA vanasy apy apeks
.
yam avasthA anta-
ram. tath a ca.
,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
.::c ullalati darbhaAkabal a mr
.
g parisr antaAnartan a may ur. apasr
.
-
taAp an
.
d
.
uApattr a dhunvanty a ng an va lat ah
.
.
.::: t ata, lat aAbhaginm
.
t avan m adhavm amantrayis
.
ye.
.::, e adhavi. praty ali nga m am
.
s akh aA mayair b ah ubhir adyaA pra-
bhr
.
ti d uraAvartin te bhavis
.
y ami.
.::o es
.
a dvayor api vo haste niks
.
epah
.
.
.::; ayam
.
janah
.
kasya sandis
.
t
.
ah
.
.
.::, t ata! es
.
ot
.
ajaAparyantaAc arin
.
garbhaAmanthar a mr
.
gaAvadh uh
.
.
yad asannaAprasavin bhavet tad a me kam api priyam
.
niveda-
yit aram
.
visarjayis
.
yatha.
.:,: ko nu khalv es
.
a m atr akr anta iva punar vasanasy antam
.
gr
.
hn
.
a-
ti?
.:,, vatsa kim
.
sahav asaAparity aginm
.
kaitavaAsneh am anves
.
asi? aci-
raApras utA oparatay a janany a vin a vardhito si/ id anm api may a
virahitam
.
tv am
.
t atas cintayis
.
yati. tat pratinivartasya.
.:: sakhi! na sa asrame cintanyo sti yas tvay a virahayanty a n
otsukkr
.
to dya preks
.
asva t avat.
.:, padmin A pattr A antarit am
.
vy ahr
.
t am
.
n anuvy aharati j ay am,
mukhA odvy ud
.
haAmr
.
n
.
alas tvayi dr
.
s
.
t
.
im
.
dad ati cakrav akah
.
.
.: sakhi! satyam eva nalin A patr A antaritam priyam
.
sahaA caram
apreks
.
am an
.
aturam
.
cakrav aky arasati dus
.
karam
.
khalv aham
.
karomi.
.:o ady api vin a priyen
.
a gamayati r atrim
.
vis uran
.
aAdrgh am
.
, hanta
gurukam api duh
.
kham as aAbandhas sahayati.
.:,; et avat khalv ev aitad vadh uAjana upadesah
.
.
.:,; j ate, evam
.
khalv avadh araya.
,
cu

a\

a
.:,, t ata kim ita eva priyaAsakhyo nivartante?
.:o: katham id anm
.
t atena virahit a kariAs arthaAparibhras
.
t
.
a karen
.
u-
k eva pr an
.
an dh arayis
.
ye.
.:o hale! etam
.
dve eva m am
.
samam
.
paris
.
vajeth am!
.:o, sakhi sa r aj a yadi pratyabhij n anaA mantharo bhavet tad asy
edam
.
tadyaAn amadheyA a nkitam a ngulyakam
.
darsaya.
.:;c a sandesen anukampit asmi.
.:;: m a bhais
.
h
.
. sneho v amam asa nkate.
.:; t ata, kad a nu khalu bh uyas tapoAvanam
.
preks
.
is
.
ye?
.:;; j ate, parihyate gamanaA vel a. tan nivartaya pitaram. atha v a
ciren
.
ais
.
a pitaram
.
na nivartayis
.
yati. tan nivartayatu bhav an.
.:;, t ato nirutkan
.
t
.
ho bhavis
.
yati, aham id anm utkan
.
t
.
h aA bh agin
sam
.
vr
.
tt a.
.: h a dhik! antarhit a

Sakuntal a vanaAr ajbhih
.
.
.:o t ata

Sakuntal aAvirahitam
.
s unyam iva tapoAvanam pravis avah
.
.
,.:: bhoh
.
! sam
.
gtaA s alik a. ten avadh anam
.
dehi t alaA gater visud-
dh ay ah
.
khalu vn
.
ay ah
.
svaraAsam
.
yog ah
.
sr uyante.
,.:o abhinavaAmadhuAlobhaAbh avitas tath a paricumbya c utaAma nja-
rm, kamalaAvasatiAm atraAnirvr
.
to madhuAkara vismr
.
to sy en am
.
katham?
,.: kim
.
t avad asy a gtik ay a api gr
.
hto bhagavat aks
.
arA arthah
.
?
,.:c gr
.
htas tvay a parakyair hastaih
.
sikhan
.
d
.
ake bhall ukah
.
. aAvtaA
r agasy eva n asti me moks
.
ah
.
.
,.:: k a gatih
.
!
,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
,.,: ita ito devah
.
.
,.,, es
.
o bhinavaAsam
.
m arjanaAramanyah
.
sam
.
nihitaAkapilaAdhenur
agniAsaran
.
A alindah
.
.
,.: devasya bhuvanaA paris
.
va ngaA nirvr
.
te catur A asrame kuta etat?
kim
.
tu sucaritA abhinandina r
.
s
.
ayo devam
.
sabh ajayitum agat a
iti tarkay ami.
,.,c aho! kim api v amA etaram
.
me nayanam
.
visphurati?
,.,: pratihatam ama ngalam! sukh ani te bhartr
.
AkulaAdevat a vitara-
ntu.
,.,, deva! prasann okhaAr ag a dr
.
syante svasthaAkary a r
.
s
.
ayah
.
.
,., deva! kut uhalatay a br
.
m
.
hit asmi. na me tarkaf prasdati.
,.,, bhartah
.
, darsany a khalu asy a akr
.
tir laks
.
yate.
,.o: hr
.
daya! kim evam
.
vepasi? aryaAputrasya bh avaAsthitim
.
smr
.
tv a
dhram
.
t avad bhava.
,.;o bhadraAmukha! vaktuk am a tis
.
t
.
h ami, na ca me vadanA avak aso
sti. katham iti?
,.;; n apeks
.
ito guruAjano nay a na c atra pr
.
s
.
t
.
a bandhavah
.
, ekA ai-
kena varite kim
.
bhan
.
yat am
.
ekamAekasmin?
,.; kim
.
nu khalv aryaAputra bhan
.
is
.
yati?
,.c hum
.
! p avako sya vacanA opaks
.
epah
.
.
,. hr
.
daya, sam
.
vardhit a khalu tav asa nk a.
,., j ate! m a muh urtakam
.
lajjasva. apanes
.
y ami t avat tav avagun
.
-
t
.
hanam. tato bhart a tv am abhij n asyat ti.
,.,, aho dharm apeks
.
it a bhartuh
.
! dr
.
sam
.
n ama sukhA opanatamstrA
ratnam
.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
v a, ko nyo vic arayati?
,o
cu

a\

a
,.,o h a dhik! katham parin
.
aya eva sandehah
.
? bhagn ed anm
.
me
d urA arohin
.
as a!
,.:cc idam avasthA antaram
.
gate t adr
.
se muh urtaAr age kim
.
v a sm a-
ritena s ampratam
.
tena? athav atm ed anim
.
me sodhanyo
sti vivadis
.
y amy etat. aryaAputra! athav a sam
.
sayita id anm
.
me
samud ac arah
.
. Paurava! yuktam
.
n ama pur asramaA pade sadA
bh avA ott anaA hr
.
dayam imam
.
janam
.
samayaA p urvam
.
prat ary
edr
.
sair aks
.
araif praty akhy atum.
,.:c, yadi param A arthataf para A parigrahan
.
a A sa nkin a tvay aivam
uktam
.
, tad abhij n anena gurun
.
a tava sandeham apanes
.
y ami.
,.:c, h a dhik! a ngulyaAs uny a me ngul.
,.:co na khalu te

SakrA avat are

SacAtrthA odakam avag aham an ay af
prabhras
.
t
.
o ngulyakah
.
?
,.:c atra t avad vidhin a darsitam
.
prabhutvam. aparam
.
te kathayis
.
-
y ami.
,.::c na khalu tatr aikaAdivase navaAm alik aAman
.
d
.
ape nalinApattraA
bh ajanaAgatam udakam
.
tava hastaAsam
.
nihitam ast?
,.::: tatAks
.
an
.
am
.
ca mama kr
.
takaAputro Harin
.
aka upasthitah
.
. tatas
tvay ayam
.
t avat prathamam
.
pivatv iti anukampin
.
opaccha-
nditah
.
. na punas te paricitasya hastA abhy asa upagatah
.
. pasc at
tasminn ev odake may a gr
.
hte pran
.
ayaAprak asaAp urvam
.
pra-
hasito si. bhan
.
itam
.
ca tvay a: sarvah
.
saAgandhe visvasiti dv av
apy atr aran
.
yak av iti.
,.:: mah aA bh aga! n arhasy et avan mantrayitum. tapoA vanaA sam
.
-
vardhitah
.
khalv ayam
.
jano nabhij nah
.
kaitavaysa.
,.::; atmano hr
.
dayA anum anena sarvam
.
preks
.
ase! ko nyo dharmaA
ka ncukaA pravesinas tr
.
n
.
aA channaA k upA opamasya tav anuk ar
bhavis
.
yati?
,;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
,.::: y uyam eva pram an
.
am
.
j antha dharmaAsthitim
.
ca lokasya, lajj aA
vinirjit a j ananti khalu kim
.
nu mahil ah
.
?
,.::, sus
.
t
.
hu t avat svacchandaA c arin
.
kr
.
t asmi y aham asya PuruA
vam
.
saA pratyayena hr
.
dayaA sastraA dh arasya mukhaA madhuno
hastA abhy asam upagat a.
,.:,, hum
.
! anena t avat kaitavena vipralabdh asmi. y uyam api m am
.
parityaktum icchatha. tat k a gatih
.
?
,.:,o vatsa

S ar ngarava! anugacchty es
.
a karun
.
aAparidevin
.


Sakuntal a.
praty adesaAkalus
.
e bhartari kim
.
v a putrik a me karotu?
,.:,: bhagavati VasuAdhe! dehi me vivaram!
o.: are kumbhraka kathaya kutra tvay ais
.
a mah aAman
.
iAbandha-
nA otkrn
.
aAn amA aks
.
aro r ajakyA a ngulyakah
.
sam as aditah
.
?
o., prasdantu prasdantu bhr atr
.
kaA misr ah
.
! aham
.
khalv dr
.
sasya
karman
.
o na kalyah
.
!
o. kim
.
nu khalu sobhano br ahman
.
a iti kr
.
tv a r aj n a pratigraho
dattah
.
?
o., j anth ed anm! aham
.

Sakr avat araAv asiko dhvarah
.
. . .
o.o p at
.
acAcara! kim
.
khalu te sm abhir j atif pr
.
s
.
t
.
a?
o.; S ucaka kathayatu sarvam anukramen
.
a. m ainam antar a pra-
tibandhs
.
t
.
ha.
o. yad abutta aj n apayati! bhan
.
a bhan
.
a!
o., so ham
.
j alaAbad
.
isA adibhir matsyaAbandhanA op ayaih
.
kut
.
um-
baAbharan
.
am
.
karomi.
o.:c visuddha id anm
.
ta ajvah
.
!
o.:: bhartah
.
!
o.:: sahajam
.
kila yad api ninditam
.
na khalu tat karma vivarjan-
yam. pasuAm aran
.
aAkarmaAd arun
.
o nukamp aAmr
.
dur eva srotri-
yah
.
.
,
cu

a\

a
o.:, tatas tatah
.
!
o.: ath aikaAdivase khan
.
d
.
aso rohitaAmatsyo may a kalpitah
.
. y avat
tasy odarA abhyantare etad ratnaAbh asuram a ngulyakam
.
pre-
ks
.
e. pasc ad ih aitad vikray aya darsayan gr
.
hto bh avaAmisraih
.
.
et av am
.
s t avad etasy agamah
.
adhun a m arayata kut
.
t
.
ayata v a!
o.:, J anaka! matsyA odaraA sam
.
sthitam iti n asti sam
.
dehah
.
. tath
ayam asya visraAgandhah
.
. agama id anm etasya vimarsayitav-
yam. tad etam
.
r ajaAkulam eva gacch amah
.
.
o.:o gaccha n atha granthiAbhedaka!
o.:; S ucaka! iha m am
.
gopuraAdv are pramattau pratip alayatam
.
y a-
vad idam yathA agamam a ngulyakam
.
bhartur upanya tadyaA
s asanam
.
prats
.
ya nis
.
kr am ami.
o.: pravisatv avuttah
.
sv amiApras ad aya!
o.:, J anaka, cir ayate khalv avuttah
.
.
o.:c nanv avasarA opasarpan
.
y a r aj anah
.
.
o.:: vayasya sphurato mama hast av asya pinaddhum.
o.:: n arhati bhr atr
.
Abhr atr
.
ko k alaAm arako bhavitum.
o.:, . . . es
.
o sm akam svaraf pr apto gr
.
htv a r ajaAs asanam. sakul a-
n am
.
mukham
.
preks
.
ase thav a gr
.
dhraAsr
.
g al an am
.
balir bhavis
.
-
yasi.
o.: sghram
.
sghram etam. . .
o.:, h a hato smi!
o.:o mu ncatam re mu ncatam j alA opajvinam. upapanno sya kil
a ngulyakasy agamah
.
. asmatAsv amin aiva me kathitam.
,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
o.:; yad aj n apayati abuttah
.
! YamaA vasatim
.
gatv a khan
.
d
.
am
.
c eva
pratinivr
.
ttah
.
.
o.: bhartah
.
! tava me jvitah
.
!
o.:, uttis
.
t
.
ha! es
.
a bhartr a ngulyakaAm ulyaAsammitaf p aritos
.
iko pi
te d apitah
.
.
o.,c anugr
.
hto smi.
o.,: tath a n am anugraho yac ch ul ad avat arya hastiAskandhe prati-
s
.
t
.
h apitah
.
.
o.,: avutta! p aritos
.
ikah
.
kathayati mahA arhaAratnena ten a ngulya-
kena bhartuf prathamaAbahuAmatena bhavitavyam.
o.,, na ca tasmin mahA arhaAratnam iti bahuAm anam
.
bhartus tar-
kay ami.
o., kim
.
khalu?
o.,, tarkay ami tasya darsanena ko pi abhilas
.
ito jano bhartr a smr
.
ta
iti, yatas tat preks
.
ya muh urtam prakr
.
tiAgambhrah
.
paryutsu-
kaAman ah
.
sam
.
vr
.
ttah
.
.
o.,o s adhu mantritam
.
n am avuttena.
o.,; nanu bhan
.
amy asya kr
.
te m atsyalik aAsatror iti.
o., bhartah
.
! ito rdham
.
yus
.
m akam
.
sumanoAm ulyam bhavatu.
o.,, et avad yujyate.
o.c dhvara, mahattarako hi s ampratam
.
priya A vayasyako si me
sam
.
vr
.
ttah
.
. k adambarAs aks
.
ikam
.
c asm akam
.
prathamaAsauhr
.
-
dam is
.
yate. tac chaun
.
d
.
ikaAs alam
.
gacch amah
.
.
o. nirvartitam
.
may a pary ayaA nirvartanyam apsarasA trthaA s am-
nidhyam
.
. tad y avad asya r ajars
.
er udantam
.
pratyaks
.
A karomi.
Menak aAsambandhena sarraAbh ut a me

Sakuntal a. tay a c aitanA
nimittam eva sandis
.
t
.
aAp urv asmi. kim
.
nu khal utsavam
.
Adine
,,c
cu

a\

a
pi nirutsavA arambham iva r ajaAkulam
.
dr
.
syate. athav asti me
vibhavaf pran
.
idh anena sarvam
.
j n atum. kim
.
tu sakhy a adara
antavyah
.
. bhavatu. es
.
am
.
t avad udy anaAp alinn am
.
tiraskarin
.
A
pracchann a p arsvaAparivartin bh utv op alabhis
.
ye.
o.; at amraAharitaAvr
.
ntaka ya ucchvasito si surabhiAm asasya, dr
.
s
.
t
.
as
ca c utaAks
.
araka ks
.
an
.
aAma ngalakam iva preks
.
e.
o. hale Parabhr
.
tike kim
.
nv idam ek akin mantrayase.
o., sakhi, c utaAlatik am
.
dr
.
s
.
t
.
v onmatt a parabhr
.
tik a bhavati.
o.,c katham upasthito madhuAm asah
.
?
o.,: madhuAkarike, tav ed anm
.
k ala es
.
a madaAvibhramA odgt an am.
o.,: sakhi, avalambasva y avad agraAp adaApratis
.
t
.
h apit a bh utv a K a-
madevasy arcanam
.
karomi.
o.,, yadi mam api ardham arcanakaAphalasya.
o., hale! abhan
.
ite py etad bhavati, yata ekam eva no dvidh aAsthi-
tam
.
sarram. aho! apratibuddho pi c utaAprasava es
.
a bandha-
naAbha ngaAsurabhir v ati. namo bhagavate MakaraAdhvaj aya!
o.,, arhasi me c utA a nkura dattah
.
K amasya gr
.
htaA dhanoh
.
. sam
.
-
sth apitaAyuvatiAlaks
.
af pasc atAskhalitah
.
saro bhavitum.
o.,, prasdatv aryah
.
! agr
.
htA arthe av am.
o.o: n atra sam
.
dehah
.
. mah aAprabh avo r ajars
.
ih
.
.
o.o, arya, kati divas a asm akam
.
Mitr aAvasun a r as
.
t
.
riyen
.
a bhartuf p a-
daAm ul at pres
.
it an am
.
, ih a krd
.
aAgr
.
he pratikarm arpitam. ato
na kad api srutaAp urva es
.
a asm abhir vr
.
tt antah
.
.
o.o, arya, kaut uhalyam
.
yad anena janena srotavyam
.
tat kathayatv
aryah
.
kim
.
nimittam
.
bhartr a vasantaAkaumud pratis
.
iddh eti?
,,:
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
o.oo utsavaApriy a r aj anah
.
. atra gurun
.
a k aran
.
ena bhavitavyam.
o.o arya! srutam
.
r as
.
t
.
riyaAmukh ad y avad a ngulyakaAdarsanam.
o.;: priyam
.
me!
o.;, yujyate.
o.; etu etu bhav an.
o.;, sth ane khalu praty adesaAvim anit api

Sakuntal a yad asya kr
.
te
t amyati.
o.: dr
.
s any asy as tapasviny a bh agaAdhey ani.
o., la nghita es
.
a bh uyah
.

Sakuntal aAv atena. na j ane katham
.
cikitsi-
tavyo bhavis
.
yati.
o.o yad deva aj n apayati.
o., kr
.
tam
.
bhavat a nirmaks
.
ikam. s ampratam
.
sisiraAvicchede rama-
n
.
ye smin pramadaAvane sukham
.
viharis
.
y amah
.
.
o.,: tis
.
t
.
ha t avat. imam
.
dan
.
d
.
akam
.
c utaAmanmathake p ataye.
o., nanukhalubhavat a medh avin lipiAkar sam
.
dis
.
t
.
a. m adhavAma-
n
.
d
.
apa im am
.
ks
.
an
.
am
.
pratip alayis
.
y ami. tatra me citraAphalake
sva A hasta A likhit am
.
tatra A bhavaty ah
.

Sakuntal ay af pratikr
.
tim
anay eti.
o.,o etu bhav an.
o.,; es
.
a man
.
iAsil aApat
.
t
.
akaAsaAn atho m adhavAman
.
d
.
apako viviktatay a
nih
.
sabdam
.
sv agaten eva pratcchati priyaAvayasyam. upavis a-
mah
.
. nis
.
datu bhav an.
o.:cc na vismar ami. kim
.
tu sarvam
.
kathitam
.
tvay aiva vr
.
ttam. pari-
h asaAvikalpa es
.
a na bh utA artha iti. rahasyaAbhedaAbhrun
.
a may
api mr
.
tApin
.
d
.
aAmandaAbuddhin a tath aiva gr
.
htam. api ca bha-
vitavyat a balavat.
,,:
cu

a\

a
o.:c: evam
.
nv idam.
o.:c, kim
.
nv idam. dr
.
sam upanatam
.
. kad a punah
.
satApurus
.
ah
.
sokaA
baddhaAdhairy a bhavanti? nanu prav aten api girayo nis
.
praka-
mp ah
.
.
o.:co aho. dr
.
s kas
.
t
.
A avasth a. asya samt apen aham
.
rame.
o.:c; asti deva tarkah
.
. ken api tatraAbhavaty ak asaAg amin avahit
eti.
o.:c, aho! mohah
.
khalu vismayanyo na punaf pratibodhah
.
.
o.::c yady evam
.
tad asti khalu sam agamo pi k alena tatraAbhavaty a.
o.::: na khalu m at aApitarau bhartr
.
Avirahit am duhitaram
.
ciram
.
dra-
s
.
t
.
um
.
p arayatah
.
.
o.::, m a evam bhan
.
a! nanu khalv a ngulyakam eva nidarsanam.
evam ev avasyam
.
Abh avino cintany ah
.
sam agam a bhavat ti.
o.:: sakhi, d ure vartase. ek akin t avat karn
.
aAsukham anubhav ami.
o.::, bho vayasya! idam a ngulyakam
.
ken odgh atena tatraAbhavaty a
hastaAsam
.
sargam
.
pr apitam?
o.::: tatas tatah
.
?
o.::, raman
.
yas te vidhin a darsito m argah
.
.
o.::o atha katham
.
d asy af putrasya rohitaAmatsyasya bad
.
isamiv aitad
a ngulyakam
.
mukhe pravis
.
t
.
am
.
?
o.::, p urvA aparaAvirodh es
.
a vr
.
tt anto vartate.
o.:,: es
.
a khalu bhart a. y avad enam upasarp ami. jayatu, jayatu bhar-
t a! iyam
.
citraAgat a bhartr.
,,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
o.:,, he he bhoh
.
! svabh avaA madhur akr
.
tih
.
khalu. s adhu vayasya
s adhu. kim bahun a? sv antA anupravesaAsa nkay alapanaAkut u-
halam
.
m am
.
janayati.
o.:, aho, vayasyasya vartik aA rekh ay a nipun
.
at a! j ane sakhy agrato
me tis
.
t
.
hati.
o.:,o ayam eva sarvam
.
pratipanno yad asmi vaktuk am a.
o.:,; bhoh
.
, tisras tatraAbhavatyo dr
.
syante. sarv a darsany ah
.
. katam
atra tatraAbhavat

Sakuntal a?
o.:, mohaAdaks
.
as tapasv. avasyam
.
na me pratyaks
.
a sakh.
o.:c tarkay ami y ais
.
avasekaAsnigdhaApallav amasokaAlatik am
.
sam
.
-
srit a sithilaAkesaAbandhA odvamatAkusumena baddhaAsvedaAbin-
dun a vadanakena vises
.
aAnamitaAs akh abhy am
.
b ahuAlat abhy am
ucchvasitaAnvin a vasanen es
.
atAparisr ant ev alikhit ais
.
atra-
bhavat

Sakuntal a. itar ah
.
sakhyah
.
.
o.: arya M adhavya! avalambasva citraAphalakam
.
y avad gacch ami.
o.:, kim aparam
.
atra abhilikhitavyam?
o.:o asam
.
sayam
.
yo yah
.
sakhy a me bhirucitaf pradesas tam
.
tam
alikhituk amo bhavis
.
yat ti tarkay ami.
o.:, tath a tarkay ami p uritam anena citraAphalakam
.
k urcA alak an am
.
t apas an am.
o.:,: kim iva?
o.:,: vanaAv asasya tasy as ca saukum aryasya yad anusadr
.
sam
.
bhavis
.
-
yat ti.
o.:, kim
.
nv atrabhavat raktaAkuvalayaAsobhin agraAhastena muk-
ham apav arya cakitaAcakit eva sthit a. he he bhoh
.
! es
.
a d asy af
putrah
.
kusumaAp at
.
acAcaro madhuAkaro traAbhavaty a vadanaA
kamalam abhilas
.
ati.
o.:,o bhav an ev avintA anus asi v aran
.
e prabhavati.
,,
cu

a\

a
o.:,, abhij atam
.
khalu v aritah
.
.
o.:oc pratis
.
iddhaAv am ais
.
a j atih
.
.
o.:o, evam
.
tks
.
n
.
aAdan
.
d
.
asya katham
.
te na bhes
.
yati? es
.
a unmattakah
.
khalu! ahamapydr
.
sasya sam
.
sargen
.
adr
.
saAvarn
.
a iva sam
.
vr
.
ttah
.
.
o.:o mam apy atmano nantaram
.
gan
.
aya y aham id anm
.
pratibu-
ddh a.
o.:oo aho! dhre pi jane rasaf padam
.
karoti.
o.:o; bhoh
.
, citram
.
khalv etat.
o.:;c smr
.
tam
.
tvay a praty adesaAvim ananam
.

Sakuntal ay ah
.
sakhy a dr
.
-
s
.
t
.
am
.
khalu pratyaks
.
am asm abhih
.
.
o.:;: bhart a, devy ah
.
KulaAprabh ay af parijan
.
en antarA avacchinnas
te vartik aAkaran
.
d
.
akah
.
.
o.:;, bahuAm any asya KulaAprabh a. atha v a n aitat kim
.
cit. vipa n-
cy ah
.
khalv asannidh ana ekaAtantur apy arghati.
o.:;o bhartah
.
, idam ap d anm
.
citra A pratikr
.
tam
.
Pi ngalik a A misr a
apahastitam
.
yatante.
o.:;; bhinn ed anm asy as a.
o.:;, jayatu jayatu bhartr!
o.:c apeta bhoh
.
! Medh avinm
.
mr
.
gm iv anusaranty upasthit an-
tah
.
ApuraAvy aghr Pi ngalik a.
o.:: atm anam iti bhan
.
a!
o.:, sakhi, es
.
a pratikr
.
tir api te pratipaks
.
asy ala nghany a kriyate.
o.: es
.
a enam
.
gopay ami yatra p ar avatm
.
varjayitv aparo na preks
.
a-
te.
,,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
o.:, jayatu jayatu devah
.
!
o.:; bhartah
.
, patraAhast am
.
m am
.
preks
.
ya pratinivr
.
tt a.
o.:, deva, am atyo vij n apayati. arthaAj atasya gan
.
an aAbahulatay ai-
kam eva pauraAk aryam aveks
.
itam
.
tad devah
.
sod
.
hum arhati.
o.:,: yad bhart aj n apayati.
o.:,, deva id anm eva KesavaAsres
.
t
.
hino duhit a nirvr
.
ttaApumsavan a
j ay a sr uyate.
o.:,, yad deva aj n apayati.
o.:,; iyam asmi.
o.:cc
idam
.
n ama atra ghos
.
ayitavyam. deva, k ale ghus
.
t
.
am iv abhi-
nanditam
.
devaAs asanam
.
mah aAjanena.
o.:c: pratihatam asa nkitam!
o.:c asamsayam
.
sakhm eva hr
.
daye kr
.
tv a nindito nen atm a.
o.:c; imam
.
pattrakam
.
pres
.
ayat a kim
.
sm aritamam atyena yat preks
.
ya
t avad bhartur jalA avasekah
.
sam
.
vr
.
ttah
.
? athav a na so buddhiA
p urvakam
.
pravartate.
o.::c sadr
.
sam
.
khalu te vyavadh anam. vayah
.
Asthaf prabhur apar asu
devs
.
u anur upaAputraAjanman a p urvaApurus
.
an
.
am anAr
.
n
.
o bha-
vis
.
yat ti. na me vacanam
.
pratigr
.
hn
.
ati! athav anur upam ev
aus
.
adham ata nkam
.
niv arayati.
o.::, sam asvasitu sam asvasitu bhart a!
o.:: id anm ev ainam
.
nirvr
.
tam
.
karomi. athav a mahatbhif punar
devat abhir etad darsitam. na sakyo may anA anuj n atay a ha-
staA sam
.
sargam
.
netum. bhavatu. yaj naA bh agA otsuk a dev a eva
tath a karis
.
yanti yath ais
.
a r ajars
.
is tay a sahaAdharmaAc arin
.
y a sa-
m agamis
.
yati. karis
.
yanti katham eva tatra preks
.
e. y avad anena
vr
.
ttA antena priyaAsakhm
.
sam asv asay ami.
,,o
cu

a\

a
o.::, abr ahman
.
yam
.
abr ahman
.
yam
.
bhoh
.
! abr ahman
.
yam
.
!
o.::; tapasv Pi nkalik aAmisr an am
.
mukhe patito bhavis
.
yati.
o.:, dh ava bhoh
.
!
o.:c katham
.
id anm
.
na bhes
.
y ami? es
.
a m am
.
ko pi pasc anAmot
.
itaA
siroAdharam iks
.
um iva sthiraAbha ngam eva kartum icchati!
o.:: jayatu jayatu bhart a! etac charA asanam
.
hastA av apaAsahitam.
o.:, abhidh ava bhoh
.
! aham bhavantam
.
preks
.
e. es
.
a bhav an m am
.
na
preks
.
ate. marj araAgr
.
hta iv onduro nir aso smi jvite sam
.
vr
.
ttah
.
.
o.:,; bhoh
.
! aham anena pasuAm aren
.
a m arito man ag asmi!
o.:;c yad bhav an aj n apayati.
;.: aj naptam
.
hi gurun
.
a N aradena yath aites
.
v eva divases
.
u mar-
tyaA lok ad uttrn
.
ena r ajars
.
in
.
a Dusyantena bhagavatah
.
PuranA
darasya priyaAk arin
.
a d anavaAvadhaAnimittam
.
gantavyam. y avad
abhyarcy emam
.
hy apr
.
cchyam ano niks
.
ipati t avad eva may a
vibudhaApratyaks
.
am
.
ma ngalaAnimittam
.
kim api preks
.
an
.
akam
.
darsayitavyam. tat tvam
.
k am api l asik am anves
.
ya sa ngtaAs a-
l ay am agacch eti. tad y aval l asik am anves
.
ay ami. k a punar es
.
a
gr
.
htaAvaran
.
a pasc add hars
.
itA otkan
.
t
.
hit ev eta ev agacchati?
katham
.
priyaA sakh C utama njar? tad y avad etay a sahA op ad-
hy ayaAsampam
.
gacch ami.
;. aho! mah aA prabh avo r ajars
.
ir Dus
.
yantah
.
. aho, mahaA balah
.
sa
hato Durjayo d anavaAbalah
.
. athav a Dus
.
s
.
yanta eva yena s arat-
hiAdvityen aiva anekaApraharan
.
aAs ahas ani vikiran ks
.
an
.
en aiva
nihatah
.
sa DurjayaAd anavaAbalah
.
;., sakhi, C utaAma njar. utkan
.
t
.
hit eva laks
.
yase?
;.o katham, P arij ataA ma njar? sakhi, sarvam
.
kathayis
.
y ami. tvam
.
t avat kutra prasthit eti praks
.
y ami?
,,;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
;.; sakhi, sa nks
.
epena kathayis
.
y ami. aham
.
khalu r ajars
.
er Dusyan-
tasya d anavaAvijayaAvyapadesen adya ma ngalaAnimittam
.
kim
api preks
.
an
.
akam
.
darsyata ity up adhy ayasy aj nay obhe eva
sak asam.
;. asd avasara etasya. id anm
.
punar martyaAlokam
.
prasthita eta-
smin mah aAr aje kasya darsyate?
;., sakhi, kim
.
Mahendrasya manoArath an samp adya gata ut an-
yath eti?
;.:c sakhi, sr
.
n
.
u! ady aiva goAsargaAsamayena varam
.
DurjayaAd anavaA
jvitaAsarvasvaAses
.
am gr
.
htv a y avac ca tridasaAvil asin saArasaAhr
.
-
day any avanim abhiprasthitah
.
. atas ca me hars
.
A otkan
.
t
.
h an am
.
k aran
.
am.
;.:: sakhi, tvay a priyam
.
niveditam
.
yad ev op adhy ayena Puru A
vam
.
saAr ajars
.
ef puratah
.
k aryam
.
kartum aj naptam. tad eva gtam
.
kr
.
tv atr aiva kurvah
.
.
;.:: yat te rocata evam
.
tat. yad eva gtam
.
may a lapitam
.
tvay a v a
saha nr
.
ty avah
.
.
;.: aAvis
.
ayaAgamanam
.
kam
.
can anyam
.
ca saAr agam alim
.
madhuA
samayah
.
/ anyam
.
karoti vis
.
an
.
n
.
am
.
p at
.
aly asy a bh umy ah
.
.
;.o m a khalu m a khalu capalat am
.
kuru! sim
.
ha, katham
.
katham
ev atmanaf prakr
.
tim darsayasi.
;.o jr
.
mbha! jr
.
mbha, re sim
.
ha! dant ani te gan
.
ayis
.
y ami.
;.o, avinta! kim iti no patyaAnirvises
.
an
.
i sattv ani viprakaros
.
i. pra-
vartate te sam
.
rambhah
.
. sth ane khalv r
.
s
.
i A janena Sarva A da-
mana iti kr
.
taAn amaAdheyo si.
;.;: es
.
a kesarin
.
tv am
.
langhayati yady asy af putrakam
.
na mu ncasi.
;.;: aho balyah
.
khalu bhto smi!
;.;, vatsaka! mu nca etam
.
b alam
.
mr
.
gA endram
.
! anyam
.
te krd
.
ana-
kam
.
d asy ami.
,,
cu

a\

a
;.;o kutra sah
.
? dehi ma enam!
;.;, suvrate, na sakya es
.
a asv asaAm atren
.
a sam
.
yamitum. tad gaccha.
m amaka ut
.
aje Ma nkanakasya rs
.
iAkum arakasya varn
.
akaAcitrito
mr
.
ttik aAmay urakas tis
.
t
.
hati. tam asy op ahara.
;.c tath a!
;.: t avad anen aiva krd
.
is
.
y ami.
;., bhavatu. na m am gan
.
ayasi. ko tra r
.
s
.
i A kum arak an
.
am? bha-
draA mukha! ehi, mocaya t avad anena durmocaA hast A agren
.
a
d
.
imbaAkarin
.
a b adhyam anam
.
b alaAmr
.
gendram.
;. bhavatu, na khalv ayam r
.
s
.
iAkum arah
.
.
;.,: ascaryam, ascaryam!
;.,, asya b alasy asam
.
baddhe pi bhadraAmukhe samv adiny akr
.
tir
iti vismit asmi. api c atyantaAparicitasy ev aApratiloma es
.
a te
samvr
.
ttah
.
.
;.,, PuruAvamsah
.
.
;.,, nanu yath a bhadraAmukho bhan
.
ati. apsarah
.
Asam
.
bandhena pu-
nar asya b alasya janany atr aiva guros tapoAvane pras ut a.
;.:c: kas tasya dharmaAd araAparity agino n amaAdheyam
.
grahs
.
yati.
;.:c, Sarvadamana! sakuntaAl avan
.
yam
.
pasya.
;.:c kutra m at a.
;.:c, n amaAs adr
.
syena va ncito m atr
.
Avatsalakah
.
.
;.:co vatsa,

Sakuntal a bhan
.
ati: asya kr
.
trimaAmay urasya raman
.
yat-
vam
.
pasy eti.
,,,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
;.:c attike, rocate me bhadr alaka es
.
a may urah
.
.
;.:c, aho raks
.
aAkaran
.
d
.
akam asya man
.
iAbandhe na dr
.
syate.
;.::: m a khalv enam alambis
.
t
.
h ah
.
! katham
.
, gr
.
htam ev anena?
;.::, sr
.
n
.
otv aryah
.
. mah aAprabh av ais
.
a khalv Apar ajit a n ama mahA
aus
.
adhir asya d arakasya j ataA karmaA samaye bhagavat a M ar-
cena datt a. et am
.
kila m at aApitar av atm anam
.
v a varjayitv aparo
bh umiApatit am
.
na gr
.
hn
.
ati.
;.::, tatah
.
sarpo bh utv anyam
.
dasati.
;.::; anekasah
.
.
;.::, sam
.
yate, ehi. imam
.
vr
.
tt antam
.
niyamaAnirvr
.
t ay ah
.
sakuntal ay ah
.
niveday avah
.
.
;.::c evam
.
kurvah
.
;.::: mu nca m am! y avan m atr
.
Asak asam
.
gamis
.
y ami.
;.::, mama khalu t ato Dus
.
yantah
.
, na tvam.
;.::o vik araA k ale pi prakr
.
tiA sth am
.
t am
.
SarvaA damanasy aus
.
adhim
.
srutv a na me asv asa atmano bh agaAdheyes
.
u. athav a yath a me
ks
.
aAm alay akhy atam
.
tath a sambh avyata etat.
;.::, na khalv aryaAputra iva. tatah
.
ko nu khalv es
.
a kr
.
taAraks
.
aAma n-
galam d arakam
.
me hastaAsam
.
sargen
.
a d us
.
ayati.
;.:,c m atah
.
! es
.
a ko pi parako m am
.
m anus
.
af putraka ity alapati.
;.:,: hr
.
daya, sam asvasihi sam asvasihi! prahr
.
tya nirvr
.
ttaA matsaren
.

anukampit asmi daivena. aryaAputra ev ais


.
ah
.
!
;.:,, jayatu jayatv aryaAputrah
.
. . . !
;.:, m atah
.
ka ev ais
.
ah
.
?
cc
cu

a\

a
;.:,, vatsa, bh agaAdhey ani me pr
.
ccha.
;.:: uttis
.
t
.
hatv arya A putrah
.
. nanu mama sukha A pratibandhakam
.
pur aA kr
.
tam
.
tes
.
u divases
.
u parin
.
am A abhimukham asd, yena
sA anukroso py aryaAputro mayi tath aAvidhah
.
sam
.
vr
.
ttah
.
.
;.:: atha katham aryaAputren
.
a smr
.
to yam
.
janah
.
?
;.:o aryaAputra! nanu tad angulyakam.
;.: samhitam
.
kartum
.
ks
.
an
.
ena yat tad aryaA putrasya pratyayaA
karan
.
e durlabham
.
me sam
.
vr
.
ttam.
;.:,c n asya visvasimi. aryaAputra ev aitat p arayatu.
;.:,, arh amy aryaAputren
.
a saha sampam
.
gantum?
;.:oc sambh avany asya khalv akr
.
tih
.
.
;.:o; apratiratho bhava!
;.:o d araken
.
a sahit a p adaAvadanam
.
karomi.
;.:;: j ate, bhartur bahuA mat a bhava. ayam
.
ca te dehaA jo vatsaka
ubhayaApaks
.
am ala nkarotu. tad upavisata.
;.:;: sarve Praj aApatyAabhimatam asanam upavisanti.
;.:, dis
.
t
.
y aAk amaApraty adesy aryaAputrah
.
. na punah
.
saptam atm a-
nam
.
smar ami. athav a na sruto dhruvam anyaAhr
.
dayay a may a
s apah. yatah
.
sakhbhy am aty adaren
.
a sam
.
dis
.
t
.
asmi bhartur
a ngulyakam
.
darsay eti.
;.:,: anay a nandan aAmanoArathaAsampatty a Kan
.
vo pi t avac chrutaA
vist arah
.
kriyat am. Menak eh aiva san
.
n
.
ihit a.
;.:,, manoAgatam
.
me mantritam
.
bhagavaty a.
c:
Notes
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
Bold references are to the English text; bold italic references are to the
Sanskrit text. An asterisk (*) in the body of the text marks the word or
passage being annotated.
:.: The eight forms of

Siva (as
.
t
.
aBm urti) are: :. re, :. the oering
(havis n.), ,. the sacricer (hotr f.), . sun, ,. moon, o. space,
;. earth, air.
:.:c Here I print the particle n
.
u, preceded by a nasal, and followed
by edam
.
, reduced to a bare n
.
enclosed by two center-dots,
although one could argue that it really is in sandhi with the
preceding nasal and/or the following edam
.
. The alternative of
hyphenating n
.
seemed potentially too confusing in viewof the
negative particle n
.
a, even though the Kashmirian text usually
would write n
.
a edam
.
. I also opted against compounding as in
adhav a.
:.:, The most natural interpretation of this verse is that the ladies
are kind because they make themselves even more beautiful by
such graceful adornment.
:.:o An allusion to

Sivas mythological feat of chasing the sacrice
(yaj na) eeing in the guise of a deer.
:.,c Uneven / udgh atin: This is commonly translated as churned
up, but it is also possible to interpret as rising. This might
even be contextually more suited: the king is rising to a higher
plane of being by entering the environs of the sacred hermitage.
His actions there have consequences that are more far-reaching.
:.o; To the right / daks
.
in
.
ena: see P an
.
ini :.,.,: enap a dvity a for the
use of the accusative in conjunction with an adverb in -ena.
:., Verandah: Cf. G ath asaptasat d, alim
.
dae vasio: he spent the
night (vasio) on the verandah [by the gate], alim
.
do bahirdv a-
raprakos
.
t
.
hah
.
.
:.,; The king is here worried she may be a brahmin, and thus be-
yond his marital aspirations. In the Mahabh aratas version of
c
xoris
the tale Shak untala explicitly boasts to him that she is superior,
for she has inherited her mothers power to y. InKalidasas tale
she lacks this power, she is more human than divine

Apsaras.
:.:co Pat
.
B antaren
.
a: Moxiii-wiiiiaxs dictionary alleges that this
is probably a mistake for pat
.
antam
.
, thus standing on the edge
of her garment, which seems very improbable.
:.::, The king is not of course lying. The expression oce of
dharma (dharm adhik ara) is a transparent metaphor for the
duties of the king, and the P aurava he means is of course his
own father who bestowed the crown upon him. Similarly Ve-
davit might have been his name.
:.:,, The sage in question is the warrior sage Visv amitra.
:.: Lit. the moment is taken [by me], which might either intend:
I await, or, Its now or never! The king does however delay
his revelation.
:.,, Probe the commanders frame of mind: lit. I will follow the
commanders thoughts.
:.o: Or strBratna might here stand for Lakshmi, the Goddess of
beauty and fortune. Thus: you who care not even for the
Goddess of beauty and fortune.
:.:: Cakk ak: I take the term as intending both the epic wheel-
guard (cakra B goptr
.
), a warrior who protected the chariots
wheels and a goose (cakrB a nk).
:.::o Ajj u: This form is not given in most dictionaries. The com-
monly encountered Ajjuk a normally denotes a courtesan.
:.::: It is also possible that what is meant is the fourth day after
today.
:.::, Trishanku: The mythical king stuck midway between heaven
and earth. See R am ayan
.
a :.,;oc.
,.o K amay ana-: On the originality of this unusual present partici-
ple see Goooaii & Isaacsox (:cc,:,;c).
c,
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
,., H ava is one of the ten types of coquetry.
,., A ngaBrecitB ardhe: This reading appears to suggest that Sha-
k untala has shyly shrunk away from Dushy anta.
,.:c, King: the word aryaputra denotes both king and also hus-
band.
,.::, I take the khalu as an interrogative particle. The Bengali recen-
sion makes the question clearer by reading katham in place of
tath a (p ada b).
.:, Considerations of ritual purity forbid her to just pick up the
owers that have fallen to the ground.
.,, Or emend: gun
.
d
.
a, cf. the Bengal recension.
.o Prats
.
t
.
a: =a ngkr
.
ta.
.::, Or: someone dear.
,.::, P an
.
ini :.:.,: t apasaBvr
.
ddh a = vr
.
ddhaBt apas a.
o. Brother-in-law: The police captain is the kings brother-in-law.
o.:, The Prakrit form

sakula

can in Sanskrit be either sakula,


family, or it can remain sakula meaning sh; hence: you
will see sh-faces again. If this pun is intended, the guard is
insulting the shermans family.
o.; Seasonal blessing: or an instant blessing. The red and white
colors are auspicious signs of the fertility of spring.
o., The rst gardeners name, Parabhrtika, means female cuck-
oo.
o.,, Or, if the word sam
.
sth ana is interpreted in consonance with
the other recensions the sense would be rather such (i.e. the
painting) is the abode of my heart.
o.,, The Bengal recensions reading is here smoother: sarvam idam
.
smar ami

Sakuntal ay ah
.
prathamaBdarsanaBvr
.
tt antam
.
.
o.:: The Kashmirian recension presents the syntactically most di-
cult version of this verse, the predicate (vidheya) being predom-
co
xoris
inant. It is possible that the Mithil a recensions sudat (ne-
toothed for tad attam) is original, for there exists ample moti-
vation for redactors to remove it. The rhetorician V amana had
taught that the grammatical form sudat is unacceptable (K a-
vyB ala nk araBs utraBvr
.
tti ,.:.o;: sudatyB adayah
.
pratividhey ah
.
.) In
p ada c an original reading of s asannivr
.
ttyai sudat mam ais
.
a
can account for all of the variants. Note how appropriate is
the use of ne-toothed for the juxtaposition with the cli
precipice.
o.:: The king means that the buoon might just have noted that he
has smeared the sketch of Shak untala by repeatedly touching
it out of aection. Kalidasas phrasing makes it sound as if he
is talking about the signs of love-making.
o.:,, Note that the colors of these two ornaments are red and white,
the colors of an Indian wedding.
o.:,: Dhanavriddha means abounding in wealth.
o.:cc This at least is the sense the redactor presumably intended.
The dictionaries do not seem to give this sense for ghut
.
t
.
ham
.
,
however.
o.:c; Kax;iiai reads as soaBbuddhiBpuravam
.
.
;.: gahidaBvaran
.
a pacch a: an emendation by Burkhard. I am un-
certain of the precise signicance of varan
.
a here; perhaps it is
a gift, or a favor.
;.: The sage N arada is celebrated as a great authority on music
and dance.
;.:: The courtly circumlocution implies that Indra removed the
garland from his own neck.
;.o, Sarvad amana means All-tamer.
;.; Webbed ngers were considered the mark of a universal em-
peror.
c;
rui iicocxiriox oi suax uxraia
;.:c The Prakrit phrase used by the second nun in the previous
speech was sa untaBlavan
.
n
.
am
.
which the boy is interpreting as
Sa untala. . . .
;.:, R ohini is the star Aldebaran.
;.:o, Twelvefold brilliance: The twelve months.
;.:o, Soul: The V amana incarnation of Vishnu.
c
Index
i

axsuasas iixc
Sanskrit words are given in the English alphabetical order, according to the
accented CSL pronunciation aid. They are followed by the conventional
diacritics in brackets.
ablutions, ,,:
acuity, ,:,
advertisement, :c;
aerial chariot, ::
aesthetic sentiments, ,c
aesthetics, ,,
aairs, :,;
age, :
air, ,,:
alarm, ;,
aloe, ::,
altar, :;:
amulet, ,:, ,,
Anas uya (Anas uy a), ;:, ;,, :,
;, :,;, ::, :,, :,, :;,
:,, :,,, :c,, ::,
ancestors, ,c:
animals, ,:, ,,,
antelope, ,,, ,,, ,,
anthill, ,:,
archery, ,
arrow, o:, :,:
ascetics, ::,, ,:;
ashes, :,,
Ashvaghosha (Asvaghos
.
a), ,,
astrology, ,
astronomy, ,
attainment, :o,
audience, ,:, ,,, ,:;
austerities, ,:;, ,,:
authority, c;
av asa ( av asa), :c,
b akula (bakula), ;:, ;,
banner, ,,
bark
-cloth, ;:, ,:
-garment, o,, ;:
bear, :c;
beards
bushy, :,
beasts of prey, :c,
beauty, :
bees, ,,, ;,, :o;, :,:, :,,
begetter, ,
belly, :,
Bh arata, :
birds, :c,, ,:,
black antelope, ,,
bliss, :,,
blossoms, ,,, ,
boar, ,,, :c,
bodies, ,:, :c,
bodyguard, ,,
boulder, :;:
bow, ,,, :c,, :,:, ,:,
-bearer, ,,
-string, o,, :,:, :,
bowl, :o;
boy, ,,,, ,,;
Bodhisattva, ::
bracelet, :,;, :,, :,,
brahmin, ,c,, c
braid, ,,
breasts, ;:, ,, :,,, :,,, :,:, ,,,
:c
ixoix
breath, ,
bride, ;,
-groom, ;,, ,
brilliance, ,, :c,, ,,,
brush, :,
brushwork, :;
bud, :,,
bualoes, :c,
business, :,;
buttocks, :c:
cakes, :c,
canal streams, o;
canopy, :c,
caravan-train, :,,
carp, :,
caste, :, ::;
cat, ,c,
caves
jewelled, ,,:
celibacy, ,
center-dots, c
cerebration, ::;
ceremony, ::,
birth, ,:
chakravaka (cakrav aka), :c,
chakravaki (cakrav ak), :c;
champion, :
character, ,,:, ,,
characters, :,
chariot, o:, ,,, ,:,
charioteer, ,::
chatterbox, ::;
cheeks, :,,, :,
chemistry, ,
chief queen, ::
child, :::, ,,,
childlessness, ,,,
children, ,:, ,,,
citizen, :,;
city, ,,
claws, ,::
cloister, :,,
cloth, ,,
clothes, ,,
clouds, :o:
region of, ,:,
comedy, :
command, :,:
companions, o:, ::,, :;
company, :,,
complications, :;:
concentration, ,
condence, ::,
consorts, :,:
constellation, ::
contamination, ,,
conversation, o,, :c,, :,,
copses, o,
coral-trees, ,:,
cottage, :o,
courtesy, :, :,:
cramp, ,,
creator, ,:, ::,
crescent, ::
crests, o:
crown prince, ::;
cud, :c,
cure, :;
curiosity, ,, ::,
curse, :,, :c, ::, :,, ::, :,,, ,,,,
,,;, ,o:
dance, c;
Dandin (Dan
.
d
.
in), ,,
::
i

axsuasas iixc
darbha (darbha), o;, ::;, :,:, :,,
:,;, :c:
darkness, ,::, ,:,
daughter, o,, o,, ,, ,, :,;
death, :o,, ,c,
debt, ,
declaration, ::;
decorum, ,, ::,, :;, :,;
deed, ,::
deer, ,,, :c,
delay, ::,
demeanor, :
demons, ::,, :,:, :;:, ,::, ,:;, ,::
denial, :o,
departure, :,,
desire, ,
devotion, o,
Dhanapala (Dhanap ala), ,,
Dhanavriddha (Dhanavr
.
ddha),
:,;
Dhara (Dh ar a), ,,
dharma (dharma), ::,
diculties, :o,
disappointment, ,:
disease, :,;
dismissal, :,:
distrust, :o,
disturbance, ::;
dolt, :c;
door-keeper, ::,
doubt, ;,
downpour, :o:
drama, :
dramaturgy, ,
drawing board, :,
dream, ,, :,,
dress, o;
droplets, :;
D urjaya (Durjaya), ,::
durva (d urv a), :,
Durv asas (Durv asas), :;,, :,, ,,,,
,o:
Dushy anta (Dus
.
yanta), ;;, :::,
::,, :,:, :,, :c,, ::,, :,,
co
dust, ,:
duties, o,, ::,
eagerness, ,,
ear, ,
ears, o:
earth, ,, ,:,, c,
eavesdrop, :,,
eclecticism, c
eulgence, :c,
elephant, :c,
-lore, ,
emaciation, :,,
emperor, ,,,
end, :o,
enjoyment, ,,
entertainment, :
enthusiasm, :c;
entourage, :,,
equestrian science, ,
erotic sentiment, ,:
escarpments, o,
esteem, ,:,
expectation, ;
experts, ,:;
eyebrow, :,
eyelashes, :o,
eyes, :c:
face, ;,, :o,
::
ixoix
family, ,c,
tradition, ,,,
fans, :,,
fantasy, ,
fate, o,, :,,
father, o,, ,,;
fawns, o;, :c,, :,,, ::;
fear, ::,
feet, ;,, :,,
fellies, ,:,
laments, :,:, :,:
ne-toothed, ,o
nger, ,
ngernails, ::,, :,
re, ,,,
rewood, ::, o,, ;:
rmness, :,,
ower, :;
-arrows, :,,
-bandit, ;;
bed, :,:
-raider, :,:
-tree, o,
footprints, :,,
ford, ,:
forebody, ,,
forest
creeper, ;:
-dweller, :,
girl, ::
ranger, :c,, :c,
fortune, :,, ,:;
foundational emotion, ,c
frond, ::,
fumigants, :c,
funerary libations, ::
gambling, ,
Ganges, ,:,
garden vine, ;:
garment, :,;, :;, c,
gate, ::,
way, o;
gathering, ,,
G autami (Gautam), ;, ,,, :,:,
:,:, :c,, ::,, :,
gemology, ,
general, :c,
gentleness, :
geography, ,:,
gift, ,
girdle, :;
girl, :o;
glances, :c,
Gods, ,:, ;;
of love, ;
Golden Peak, ,:;
goose, c,
grammar, ,
grammarians, ,,
grief, :,,
groom, ;
growl, :,:
guest, ;,, :,:
guildsman, :,,
guru, ,,,
Hamsap adika (Ham
.
sapadik a),
::,
harvest, ::;
heart, ;,, :,,, :;:, ,,,
heaven, ::,, ,::, ,:,, c,
hem, :,;
herb
potent, ,:
:,
i

axsuasas iixc
herd, ,,
hermitage, ::, o:, o,, ,,, :c;,
::;, :::, ::;, ,:;, ,,;
-dweller, ;:
hermits, ::,
hero, ,
hesitant, :;:
Him alaya, o,, ::,
honor, ,::
hook, :,
hooves, ,:
hope, ,:, :,,
horns, :c,
horror, :,
horse-cart, ,,
hostility, :::
human, ,,
hunting, :c,, :c,, :c;
dress, :c,
husband, ,,
imperfection, ,
inclinations, ;,, ;
independence, ,:
Indra, o:, ,::, ,:,, ,:;, ,:,, ,::,
,:,, ,:;
inammation, :,;, :;
ngudi (i ngud), o,, ::,, :c,
inheritance, :,,
inhibition, ;:
inmates, :::
instruction, :c,
Invincible, ,:
invisibility, ,c,
Ionian women, ,,
jackal, :c;
jasmine, ;,, :::
jaws, :c;, ,,,
jest, ,, ::;
jewel, ::,
joints, :c,
journey, ::;
joy, :,,
justice, :, ,,,
juxtaposition, ,o
Kalanemi (K alanemi), ,::
Kanva (Kan
.
va), o,, :c,, ::,, :,,
K ashyapa (K asyapa), o,, o,, ;:,
;,, ,, :::, :::, :;, :,,, :,,,
::,, ::,, :,,
K aushika (Kausika), ,
K eshava (Kesava), :,,
killing, :
kindness, :o;
kinsfolk, :,:
Kulaprabha (Kulaprabh a), :,,,
:,,
ladies, :;, :,:
languor, :,,
lap, :,,, ,,;
laughter
causeless, ,,;
leaves
golden, ,,:
hut made of, ;,, ,,
letter, :,;
lexicography, ,,
life-breath, :,:
limbs, :c,, :,,
lineage, ,:,, ,,,
lion, ,,,, ,,;
cub, ,:
lioness, ,,,
literati, ,:
:
ixoix
lotus, :,,, :o;
lotus bers, :;
love, :
-in-separation, ,:
letter, :;:
-making, c;
lovers, :,,
lovesickness, ::
lunar day, ::,
lute, :,,
m adhavi (m adhav), ;,, :,,, :c:
Madh avya (M adhavya), :c;, :::,
::,, ::,, :::
malady, :,;
Malava (M alava), c
male
last, :,,
malice, :,,
M alini (M alin), o,, :,,, :,,
Mama, ::,
M ammata (Mammat
.
a), ,,
man
resolute, :,,
Man-lion, ,::
mango, ;,, ::
manuscripts, ,;
marital aspirations, c
marked by death, :,
marriage, ;
melancholy, ::,, :,,
melody, ,,, ,,
memory, :,,
menace, :,:
M enaka (Menak a), ,, ,,,
merchant, :,;
merit, o,, ::,
metallurgy, ,
medicine, ,
milk, ,c,
minister, ,:,
minstrels, ::,
mirage, :;, ,:
misdemeanor, ,,,
missiles, ,:;
missive, :,;
mistress, :o:
Mithila, ,;
money, :
monster, ,::
moon, ;,, :,,, :;, :,:
-ford, o,
mortals, ,
mother, ::, ,:, ,,
motion, ,:;
mountains, ,:,
-streams, ,,
mouse, ,c,
movements, ;
music, c;
musta (must a), :c,
name, ,,,
-seal, ,
N arada (N arada), ,::, ,:;
narrative, ::
nasal, c
navam alika (navam alik a), o,,
;,
neck, ,,
necklace, :,:
nectar, :,:
pool of, ,:,
news, ,,,, ,o:
nonsense, :c;
:,
i

axsuasas iixc
nymph, ,, ,,,
oblations, ::,, :,;
obstacle, ,,
ocean, :::, ,:,
oil, ::,
origin, :o,
ornaments, o;, :o:, :,
pain, :,,
paintbox, :,,
painting, :,, :,,
board, :,
palaces, ,,,
parallelisms, ::
paralysis, :c:
parasites, :c,
pardon, :,:
parent, ,, ::,
parrots, o,, :,
passion, ::,, :,,, :,
p atala (p at
.
ala), ,,
path, ::,, :;
patriarch, o,, ;,, :,:
patriline, ,
P aurava (Paurava), :, ::
peacock, ,,,, ,:
peahen, :,
penance, ::;, ,,:, ,,, ,,,
grove, o,, ;,, ,,, ,,, :c,, :,,
,:,
peril, ,:
permission, :,;
person, :o,
perspiration, ,, :;
perturbation, ,,
physiognomy, ,
picture, :,,
Pngalika (Pi ngalik a), :,,
Pshuna (Pisuna), ,:,
plantain petals, :,,
plaques, :
pleasure, :, :c:
grove, :,
plot, ::
structure, :
poem, :,
politics, ,
pond, :;
portentous twitch, o;
portrait, :;, :,,, :,;
post, ,:,
pot, ,
potency, :,:
power, :,,
powerless, :;:
Prabh asa (Prabh asa), o,
Prajapati (Praj apati), ,:;
Prakrit, ,;
Prakrit grammarians, ,,
Prav aha-wind, ,:,
preceptor, ,:;
precipice, :,
predecessors, ::,
pregancy rite, :,,
pretext, ::;, :o:
priests, :,:
Priyamvada (Priyam
.
vad a), ;:, ;,,
;, :,:, :,,, :;, :,, :,,,
:,, :c:
promise, :o,
prospect, :,,
protection, ;;, :::, :,,
protector, ::;, :,,
providence, :,,
:o
ixoix
provisions, ::;
public, :,
purication, ,,
Puru, o,, ;;, ::,, :,,, ,:,, ,,,
queen, :,;
mother, ::,
question, ,, ,
rain, ,:,
rays, :,,
R aghavabhatta (R aghavabhat
.
t
.
a),
,;
rebuttal, ,,
recension, ,
recreation, :c;
refuge, :,,, :,,, ,,;
regard, ,::
region
heavenly, ,:,
regret, ,:,
reins, o;
rejection, :,
religion, :
religious duties, ;, ,,
religious labor, ;,
remedy, :,;
remorse, :o,
resemblance, ,,,
respect, :;
retinue, ,,
righteousness, :, :,:
ring, :,, :,, ,,;
rite, ;,, ,,,
ritual leftovers, :,
ritual oering, ,:
river, ::,, ::, :;
rock, ::,
romances, :,;
roots, o;, :,,
royal apartments, ;:
royal duties, :c,
royal estate, :,;
royal sage, ,
ruling, :,;
rustic, ::,
sacred law, ,c:
sacrices, o,, ::,
S agaranandin (S agaranandin),
,
sages, ::,
perfected, ,:,
Samy ata (Sam
.
yat a), ,,
sand, :,,
sandal, ,::
-tree, ,,;
scars, :,
scent, :o;
scholiasts, ,:
scion, ::
scribal errors, ,:
sea, ::
season, ,,
seed, ,,,
seer, o,, ,,,, ,,;
self-deception, :;
separation, ,,
servility, :o,
Seven-leaf tree, ;,
shade, ,,, :c,, :,,
Shak alya, ,,:
Shak untala (

Sakuntal a), o,, o,,


;,, ;,, ;,, :, ,, ,, ,:, ,,,
:;
i

axsuasas iixc
,,, ,,, :::, ::,, :,:, :,,, :,;,
:,, :;, :,;, :o,, :o;, :;,,
:;;, :;,, :,, :;, :,, :,:,
:,,, :,,, :,,, :c:, :c,, :c;,
:c,, :::, ::,, ::,, :,,, :,,,
:,,, ::, :,, :,,, :,,, co
shami (sam), :,
Sharmshtha (

Sarmis
.
t
.
h a), :,;
Sharngarava (

S ar ngarava), :,,
:,;, :,,, :c:, :c;, ::,, :,
shells, :
shipwreck, :,;
shirsha (sirsa), ,, :,,
Shiva (

Siva), ,,
shoulders, :,,
shrubs, :o;
shy amaka (sy amaka), :c,
sight, :,;
signet ring, :,
signs, c;
sky, ,,
slave, :c,
sleep, ,,
sleeplessness, :,
snake, ,,
soldiers, :c,
Somarata (Somar ata), ::,
son, ,,
song, ,,
sorcery, ,
spark-state, ,,,
spectator, :,, ,:
speed, o:
spirit, ,:,
spiritual liberation, :
spokes, ,:,
spray, :,,
spring, ,
stammering, :o,
steps, :,;
stone slab, :;
stones, o,
stranger, ,,, ,,
stratagem, ::
string, :c,
subjects, ,:,
submarine re, :,,
subtle plan, :,
success, ;;
summer, ,,
sun-crystals, :c,
suspicion, :,;
swan, ,c,
syllables, :, :,o,
symmetry, ::
tamarind, ::,
tangle, ,,
target, :c;
tears, :,
teasing, :c:
teeth, ,,,, ,,;
temperament, :c;
tendril, ;,
terrain, ,,
textual criticism, ,
thicket, :c;
thorns, ,::
throat, :::, ,:,
throne, ,::
throttling, :::
thunder
timely, :,,
thunderbolt, :::
:
ixoix
tidings, ,:,
toy, ,,,
tragedies, :,
tranquility, :
transformation, ,,
transgression, :,:
transitions, :
treasure, ,
tree, :,,
-roots, ,,,
wishgranting, ,,:
Trishanku (Trisa nku), ::,
troublemakers, :,:
truth, ;,
turtle-doves, :,;
twang, :,:
twilight, ,,, ,:
union, :,,
universal emperor, o,
universe, ,:
ushra (usra), :,:, :,;
V amana, ,,
vandal, :,:
V asumati, :,;
vault of heaven, ,:,
Vedas, :
Vedavit, c,
vehement, :::
verandah, c
version, ,:
vice, :c,, :c;
victory, :::, ,:,
vine, ;,, :o,, :;, :,:
bower, :,,
wishgranting, ,:,
virtues, :,
Vishnu (Vis
.
n
.
u), ,:,
visitor, ,
vital energies, ,,:
Vish akha (Vis akha), ::
voices, ::;
volume, :,;
vows, ;, ,,,
war, :
warrior, ;,
water, ,,, ;,, ,:,
waterings, ,
wealth, :
weapon, o,
wheel-guard, c,
whining, ::;
wicked, ;;
wife, :,;, :,,, ,c:, ,,,
lawful, ,,,
wild beasts, :c,
wild rice, o,
wilderness, :c,
wind, :,,
wish, :o,
women, ,:,
woodland, ,,
world, ,:,
of mortals, ,:,
wrath, :,,
yak-tail, o:
Yay ati (Yay ati), :,;
yearning, :,;, :,,
youth, ;:
zenana, :,
:,