TABLE OF TENSES

Type Of Sentence (+) ve Statement

Tense

Sentence Structure Sub + V1 + …. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Examples He speaks. She speaks. I speak. You speak. We speak. They speak.

Uses To speak about Daily/Regular Actions Frequent Actions, Habits Universal/General Truths Customs/Traditions Scheduled Activities

Examples

Simple Present

    

(-) ve Statement

Sub + does/do + 1) He does not speak. not + V1 2) She doesn’t speak. + …. 3) I don’t speak. 4) You don’t speak. 5) We don’t speak. 6) They don’t speak. Does/Do + Sub + V1 +…. 1) 2) 3) 4) Does he speak? Does she speak? Do you speak? Do they speak?

SIGNAL WORDS Always, every day, every month, every week, daily, never, normally, often, seldom, generally, sometimes, usually, frequently, occasionally, rarely, once a week, twice a month, once in two days, etc.

Yes/No Question

‘Wh’ Question

‘Wh’ word + 1) What does he speak? does/do + Sub + 2) How does she speak? V1 + …. 3) When do you speak? 4) Why do they speak?

1) She teaches Mathematics. 2) I drink milk daily. 3) The sun rises in the east. 4) They speak English fluently. 5) People celebrate Diwali grandly. 6) He visits his parents once a month. 7) They often meet at the café. 8) I usually take rotis at night. 9) Our boss rarely smiles. 10) Barking dogs seldom bite. 11) He never tells the truth. 12) The football match starts at 10 am tomorrow. 13) Ramesh doesn’t smoke. 14) These children don’t go to school. 15) Does she sing well? 16) Do you like old movies? 17) What does he want? 18) Why do you waste your time? 19) How much does this cost? 20) Who sends you money?

Present Continuous

(+) ve Statement

Sub + is/am/are 1) He is speaking. + Ving + …. 2) She is speaking. 3) I am speaking. 4) You are speaking. 5) We are speaking. 6) They are speaking. Sub + is/am/are 1) He is not speaking. + not + Ving + 2) She is not speaking. …. 3) I am not speaking. 4) You are not speaking. 5) We are not speaking. 6) They are not speaking. Is/Are + Sub + Ving + …? 1) 2) 3) 4) Is he speaking? Is she speaking? Are you speaking? Are they speaking?

  

To speak about actions going on now. To speak about temporary actions going on these days. To speak about pre-planned future actions. SIGNAL WORDS At the moment, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now, these days, nowadays, etc. VERBS NOT USED IN THE CONTINUOUS TENSE Agree, believe, doubt, forget, know, mean, recognize, recollect, remember, suppose, think, understand, want, wish, desire, need, see, smell, hear, taste, notice, like, dislike, love, hate, prefer, feel, forgive, appear, seem, deserve, depend, possess, contain, belong to, consist of, own, have

1) 2) 3)

He is speaking at the conference now. Radha is cooking in the kitchen. Promod is always complaining about petty things.

(-) ve Statement

Yes/No Question

4) Don’t disturb me. I am studying now. 5) Listen! Someone is climbing up the stairs. 6) Look! All are beating up the small boy. 7) We are planning to go abroad. 8) They are visiting holy places. 9) I’m learning English these days. 10) Nowadays, people are opting for overseas
jobs.

11) They are holding an exhibition here next
week.

‘Wh’ Question

‘Wh’ word + is/are + Sub + Ving + …?

1) What is he speaking? 2) Where is she speaking? 3) When are you speaking? 4) How are they speaking?

12) He is not paying attention to the lecture. 13) I am not working there now. 14) She is not doing anything right now. 15) They are not willing to come here.

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Tense

Type Of Sentence

Sentence Structure

Examples

Uses (=own), etc. The above verbs are usually used in the Simple or Perfect tenses.

Examples

16) Is Suresh writing the exam? 17) Are you going there now? 18) What is the boy doing in the room? 19) Where are you working? 20) How far are they going? 21) When are you meeting her? 22) Why is the girl crying? 23) Who is seeing you this evening? 24) What is happening there? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)
I have just spoken to your father about it. He has just gone out. The members have just concluded their meeting. These students have already written the test. Don’t pay him money. I have already paid him. I am happy now because I have won the case. He has not yet finished his work for the day. I haven’t met him till now. They haven’t informed us so far. So, we are worried.

Present Perfect

(+) ve Statement

Sub + has/have + V3 + …..

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

He has spoken. She has spoken. I have spoken. You have spoken. We have spoken. They have spoken.

(-) ve Statement

Sub + has/have 1) He has not spoken. + not + V3 + …. 2) She hasn’t spoken. 3) I have not spoken. 4) You haven’t spoken. 5) We haven’t spoken. 6) They haven’t spoken. Has/Have + Sub 1) Has he spoken? + V3 + …? 2) Has she spoken? 3) Have you spoken? 4) Have they spoken? ‘Wh’ word + has/have + Sub + V3 + ….. 1) 2) 3) 4)

To speak about actions completed in the immediate past. To speak about actions that completed in the past but have a connection with the present. To speak about actions those have not happened till now (in the negative). SIGNAL WORDS Already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now, etc. NOTE: When the time of a past action is mentioned, use the Simple Past Tense and not the Present Perfect Tense.

Yes/No Question

‘Wh’ Question

What has he spoken? How has she spoken? Why have you spoken?  I have completed my degree in 2006. Where have they  I completed my degree in 2006. spoken?

10)We have never been to the US. 11)Have you finished lunch? 12)Has Anand invited you to the party? 13)Has he come? 14)Have you ever been to Delhi? 15)What have you done with this? It is not
working.

16)Why have you come late? 17)Where have you been till now? I was waiting
for you.

Present Perfect Continuous

(+) ve Statement

Sub + has/have 1) He has been speaking.  + been + Ving + 2) She has been speaking. …… 3) I have been speaking. 4) You have been speaking.  5) We have been speaking. 6) They have been speaking. Sub + has/have + not + been + Ving + …… 1) He has not been speaking. 2) She hasn’t been speaking. 3) I have not been speaking. 4) You haven’t been speaking. 5) We haven’t been speaking.

For an action that started in the Past, continued over a period of time into the Present and is still going on. If such an action as stated above has been completed in the Present and does not continue at the time of speaking, we usually use the Present Perfect Tense.

18)Who has told you this? 19)How has your friend written his exam? 1) Vikram has been speaking for an hour. 2) She has been working in the garden since
morning.

3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

I have been trying to contact my friend for two weeks. We have been designing the programme the whole week. Our neighbours have been living here since 1996. They have been calling us all day. We have been learning English for a month. They have not been answering our calls for two days.

(-) ve Statement

SIGNAL WORDS all day, for 6 years, since 2003, how long?, the whole week

9) I haven’t been doing anything since morning. 10)Madhavi has not been attending classes 6

Tense

Type Of Sentence

Sentence Structure

Examples

Uses regularly.

Examples

6)
Yes/No Question Has/Have + Sub + been +Ving + …..

They haven’t been speaking. Has he been speaking? Has she been speaking? Have you been speaking? Have they been speaking?

11)Have you been using these medicines for
long?

1) 2) 3) 4)

12)Has your brother been coming home late? 13)Has the boss been looking for me? 14)What have you been doing since morning? 15)How long have they been living here? 16)Since when has Sudha been working in this
office?

‘Wh’ Question

Simple Past

(+) ve Statement

‘Wh’ word + 1) What has he been has/have + Sub speaking? + been + Ving + 2) How has she been ….. speaking? 3) How long have you been speaking? 4) Since when have they been speaking? Sub + V2 + …. 1) He spoke. 2) She spoke. 3) I spoke. 4) You spoke. 5) We spoke. 6) They spoke. Sub + did + not + V1 + ….

17)How have you been handling this problem? 18)How long has he been waiting for her? 19)Why have you been shouting? 20)Where have they been learning animation? 21)Who has been troubling her? 22)What has been happening here?
1) 2) 3)  4)  5) 6) NOTE: If such a past habit or daily/ 7) regular action continues even in the 8) present, use the Simple Present 9) Tense and not the Simple Past Tense. 10) 11) NOTE: Usually, when we talk 12) about past habits or daily/regular 13) actions in the past, we use 14) Used to + V1 instead of Simple Past Tense(V2). 15) 16)  I used to visit my uncle daily 17) last year. 18)  He used to smoke a lot.  For an action that happened at a point of time in the Past. For a past habit. For daily/regular actions in the past. SIGNAL WORDS yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday, etc. She spoke the truth. I met my cousin yesterday. They went out two minutes ago. We saw him at the theatre the other day. Meena did not meeet her parents last Friay. These boys didn’t write the exam. They didn’t answer because they didn’t know the answer. Did you ask him for money? Did the students protest against the college authorities? Did Kamala invite you yesterday? Why did you fight with your brother? Where did the children go? How did they perform at the competition? What did you do last week? When did she complete her degree? Who told you the truth? Who organized this function? What happened at the college yesterday.

(-) ve Statement

Yes/No Question

Did + Sub + V1 +….

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 1) 2) 3) 4) 1) 2) 3) 4)

He did not speak. She didn’t speak. I didn’t speak. You didn’t speak. We didn’t speak. They didn’t speak. Did he speak? Did she speak? Did you speak? Did they speak? What did he speak? How did she speak? When did you speak? Why did they speak?

‘Wh’ Question

‘Wh’ word + did + Sub + V1 + ….

Past Continuous

(+) ve Statement

Sub + was/were + Ving + ….

(-) ve Statement

Sub + was/were + not + Ving + ….

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 1) 2) 3)

He was speaking. She was speaking. I was speaking. You were speaking. We were speaking. They were speaking. He was not speaking. She was not speaking. I wasn’t speaking.

 

 

To speak about an action going on at a point of time in the Past. For an action going on when another action happened in the Past. (In such cases, we use the Past Continuous Tense for the action going on and the Simple Past Tense for the other action) I was writing the test when the inspectors came in. When two actions were going on simultaneously at a point of time in the past, we use the Past Continuous Tense for both the actions and combine them using

1) We were listening to the radio all evening yesterday. 2) The light went out while I was reading. 3) When I saw him he was playing with some kids. 4) I was thinking about it when he called me. 5) Please don’t take it seriously. I was just kidding. 6) The children were shouting when the teacher entered the class. 7) She was watching TV at 5 o’ clock last evening. 8) They were insulting him while he was serving them. 9) I was not doing anything when he came to

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Tense

Type Of Sentence Yes/No Question

Sentence Structure Was/Were + Sub + Ving + …? ‘Wh’ word + was/were + Sub + Ving + …?

Examples

Uses ‘while’. Pradeep was studying while his friends were chatting. SIGNAL WORDS when, while, then, at 5 o’ clock, etc.

Examples my house. 10) Suresh was not practising his lessons when I met him. 11) We were not copying when the invigilator saw us. 12) The boy wasn’t talking to anyone then. 13) The students weren’t listening to the lecture in the class. 14) Was he working there? 15) Were you speaking to the boss then? 16) Were the brothers quarrelling with each other last night? 17) Was it raining there yesterday? 18) What was she doing when you met her? 19) Why were you laughing while he was talking to you? 20) How were they playing when you saw them? 21) Where were the children going late last night? 22) When were they fighting? 23) Who was talking to you last night? 24) Who were quarrelling on the street at that time? 25) What was happening when you went there?

4) 5) 6) 1) 2) 3) 4) 1) 2) 3) 4)

You were not speaking. We weren’t speaking. They weren’t speaking. Was he speaking? Was she speaking? Were you speaking? Were they speaking? What was he speaking? Where was she speaking? Why were you speaking? How were they speaking?

‘Wh’ Question

Past Perfect

(+) ve Statement

Sub + had + V3 + …..

(-) ve Statement

Sub + had + not + V3 + ….

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 1) 2) 3) 4)
1) 2) 3) 4)

He had spoken. She had spoken. I had spoken. You had spoken. We had spoken. They had spoken. He had not spoken. She hadn’t spoken. I had not spoken. You hadn’t spoken. We hadn’t spoken. They hadn’t spoken. Had he spoken? Had she spoken? Had you spoken? Had they spoken? What had he spoken? How had she spoken? Why had you spoken? Where had they spoken?

Yes/No Question

Had + Sub + V3 + …?

For an action that had taken place before another action in the past. (In such cases, the Past Perfect Tense is used for the earlier action and the Simple Past Tense is used for the later action.) NOTE: If only one past action is stated or understood from the context, the Simple Past Tense should be used for that action and not the Past Perfect Tense.  I had completed my work last night.  I completed my work last night.  SIGNAL WORDS already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day, etc.

‘Wh’ Question

‘Wh’ word + had + Sub + V3 + …..

1) She had already finished the work when I met her. 2) We had just completed our dinner when they came in. 3) The train had left when they reached the station. 4) Gopal had informed many people about it before we stopped him. 5) I had been there twice before last summer. 6) I could not meet her because she had gone to her mother’s place. 7) They had despatched the goods before we sent them a reminder. 8) She had not done anything when we went there. 9) They had not gone far when they met with an accident. 10) I hadn’t finished my work when my friends dropped in. 11) Had she spoken to the boss when you met her? 12) Had they made all the arrangements before the boss came in? 13) Why had he come before his brother came? 14) Where had they spoken before they spoke at the university? 15) Where had she worked before she joined here? 16) Who had informed them about it before you did?

Simple Future

(+) ve Statement

Sub + will + VI 1) He will speak. + …. 2) She willl speak. 3) I will speak. 4) You will speak. 5) We will speak. 6) They will speak.

 

To express the future as a fact. To say what we think or believe will happen in the future. (With expressions like ‘I think’, ‘I believe’, ‘Probably’, etc.)

1) He will speak with the manager tomorrow. 2) You will need this money on your return journey. 3) I will call you later. 4) Sunil will be thirty in a week. 5) I’ll wait for him.

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Tense

Type Of Sentence (-) ve Statement

Sentence Structure Sub + will + not + V1 + …. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Examples He will not speak. She won’t speak. I won’t speak. You won’t speak. We won’t speak. They won’t speak. 

Uses To speak about an action that we have decided to do at the time of speaking. SIGNAL WORDS in a year, next …, tomorrow, later, etc. 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26)

Examples I think, she’ll go to the party. I believe everything will be fine soon. Probably, they will call us tonight. The board will announce the results next month. I will not go there. I won’t do it again. She will not write this test. Deepak won’t visit his parents again tis month. Will you attend the meeting? Will he finish the work in time? Will they wait for you? Will your parents be happy with your performance? What will you do now? Where will she go now? How will they come here? How much money will you pay them? Why will they misunderstand us? Who will tell you the right way there? Who will become the next Prime Minister of India? What will happen next? What will happen to your aged parents if you leave them now?

Yes/No Question

Will + Sub + V1 1) Will he speak? +…. 2) Will she speak? 3) Will you speak? 4) Will they speak? ‘Wh’ word + 1) What will he speak? will + Sub + V1 2) How will she speak? + …. 3) When will you speak? 4) Where will they speak?

‘Wh’ Question

Future Continuous

(+) ve Statement

Sub + will + be + Ving + ….

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

He will be speaking.  She will be speaking. I will be speaking.  You will be speaking. We will be speaking. They will be speaking.

(-) ve Statement

1) He will not be Sub + will + not speaking. + be + Ving + 2) She won’t be speaking. …. 3) I won’t be speaking. 4) You won’t be speaking. 5) We won’t be speaking. 6) They won’t be speaking. 1) 2) 3) Will + Sub + be 4) + Ving + …? 1) Will he be speaking? Will she be speaking? Will you be speaking? Will they be speaking?

For an action which will be going on at a time in the future. For actions in the future which are already planned but are less definite as they are expected to happen in the normal course of things. (As a routine or casual event.) For an action that the speaker thinks is happening now.

SIGNAL WORDS next week, tomorrow, then, at that time, etc.

Yes/No Question

‘Wh’ Question

‘Wh’ word + will + Sub + be + Ving + …?

What will he be speaking? 2) Where will she be speaking? 3) When will you be speaking? 4) Why will they be speaking?

1) Don’t come to my house at 11 o’ clock tomorrow morning. I will be watching the serial then. 2) He will be speaking at the conference tomorrow. 3) I must leave now. My brother will be waiting for me. 4) Don’t call him now. He will be talking to the Director. 5) Naresh will be leaving for Mumbai next week. 6) I will be visiting a doctor at that time. 7) Shravan will not be attending the meeting on Monday. 8) They won’t be coming with us to the party. 9) Don’t worry. They won’t be waiting for us. 10) I won’t be doing anything then. 11) Will they be coming with us? 12) Will she be speaking at the meet? 13) What will you be doing tomorrow morning? 14) Why will they be meeting the officer? 15) Where will Latha be giving her lecture this Friday? 16) Who will be entertaining the guests?

Future Perfect

(+) ve Statement

(-) ve Statement

Sub + will + 1) He will have spoken.  To speak about actions which have + V3 + ….. 2) She will have spoken. will be completed by a certain 3) I will have spoken. future time. (Usually, with ‘by + 4) You will have spoken. a future time expression’) 5) We will have spoken. 6) They will have spoken. SIGNAL WORDS by Monday, in a week, by the 15th , 1) He will not have etc. Sub + will + not spoken. + have + V3 + 2) She won’t have spoken.

1) We will have finished our syllabus by the 20th of this month. 2) The team will have completed the project by next Wednesday. 3) I will have written the test by then. 4) They will have lived here for five years by the end of this month. 5) She will have worked here for 3 months by this week-end. 6) The Directors will have finalized the deal in a

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Tense

Type Of Sentence ….

Sentence Structure 3) 4) 5) 6) 1) 2) 3) 4)

Examples I won’t have spoken. You won’t have spoken. We won’t have spoken. They won’t have spoken. Will he have spoken? Will she have spoken? Will you have spoken? Will they have spoken?

Uses

Examples week. 7) She will not have done the work by Tuesday. 8) The children won’t have finished their lunch by then. 9) Will they have completed the job by tomorrow morning? 10) Will she have made all the arrangements by the time the guests drop in? 11) How long will you have stayed here by next March? 12) How many projects will the students have done by the end of the course? 13) How many years will you have worked here by this year-end?

Yes/No Question

Will + Sub + have + V3 + …?

‘Wh’ Question

1) What will he have spoken? 2) How will she have ‘Wh’ word + spoken? will + Sub + 3) Why will you have have + V3 + ….. spoken? Where will they have spoken?

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