P. 1
Finite Element Book

Finite Element Book

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04/06/2015

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1-0 elements are broadly classified based on the load applied on them as spar or
truss element for axial load, torsion element for torque load and beam element
for bending in one or two planes through neutral axis/plane. Stiffiless matrix of
each of these elements can be derived based on the well known relations in
strength of materials.

(a) Truss element

or

E,A,L

0' = PIA = E E = E u I L
P= (A ElL) u =Ku

2 P, U

.•••• (4.1)

is the familiar relation for axial load carrying element fixed at one end
and load applied at the free end with displacement 'u' at the free
end 2.
In general, if loads PI and P2 are applied at the two ends of an element

resulting in displacements UI and U2 at these two ends, stress is
proportional to (U2 -UI)

Then,

-PI =P2 =( :E)(u2 -ul)

••••• (4.2)

In matrix notation, {:J = [K :J

where

..... (4.3)

(b) Torsion element

~1        2 ~~

CHAPTER 4 DISCRETE (I-D) ELEMENTS

87

From strength of materials, T = G8
J L

or T = ( ~ ) 8 = K 8

is the familiar relation for torsion load carrying element fixed at one end

and torque applied at the free end with rotation '8' at the free end 2.

For a general element on which torque loads TI and T2 are applied at

the two ends and corresponding rotations are 81 and 82, torque is

proportional to (82 -8,).

Then,

In matrix notation, {~ }=[K]{  }

where,

••••• (4.4)

(c) Beam element

6EI

131

From simple beam theory, forces and moments required at the two ends
ofa beam in X-Yplane to give,

(i) VI = 1 and V2 = 81 = 82 = 0

and
(ii) 81 = 1 and VI = V2 = 82 = 0 are given in the figures with upward
forces, counterclockwise moments, and corresponding
displacements and rotations as +ve.

12E1

IT

12EI

IT

2 ~ 6EI

------------------------}!j!

L

88

FINITE ELEMENT ANAL YSIS

Similar values can be obtained for the conditions

(i) V2 = 1 and VI = 91 = 92 = 0

and

(ii) 92 = 1 and VI = V2 = 91 = 0

Arranging these values in matrix form,

PI

VI

MI

=[K] 91

P2

v2

M2

92

12 6L -12 6L

where,

[K]= EL~

6L 4L2 -6L 2L2
-12 -6L 12 -6L

6L 2L2 -6L 4e

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