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Finite Element Book

Finite Element Book

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FEM
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Published by: balvinder on Dec 23, 2013
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04/06/2015

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Partial differential equation is an equation involving one or more partial
derivatives of an unknown function of two or more independent variables.
Order of the highest derivative in the equation is the order of the equation. The
partial differential equation is termed linear if the dependent variable (unknown
function) and its partial derivatives are of first degree. The equation is termed
homogentous if each term of the equation contains either the dependent
variable or one of its derivatives.

Some important linear partial differential equations in fluid dynamics are:

1. I-D wave equation

2. I-D heat conduction equation

3. 2-D Laplace equation

4. 2-D Poisson equation

5 .. 3-D Laplace equation

a2

u

2 a2

u

--=c --

at?

&2

k

where a=--
(pCp)

CHAPTER 11 COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

A single partial differential equation can have more than one solution.

Unique solution of a partial differential equation, corresponding to a given

physical problem, depends on additional information like:

(a) Boundary comlitions: values of the required solution on the boundary
of some domain

(b) Initial conditions: values of the solution, when time t is an independent
variable, at time = o.

Superposition : For a homogeneous linear partial differential equation with

known solutions UI and U2, any linear combination of these solutions is also a

solution.

i.e.

u = CI UI + C2 U2 is also a solution,

where CI and C2 are constants.

Any PDE which is linear in the highest derivative is termed as quasilinear .

Ex:

where

Using

and

A Uxx + B uxy + C Uyy = F(x, y, u, ux, Uy)

au

au

a2

u

u =-. u =_. u =--
x Ox' y Oy' xy

Ox Oy

= uxx dx + uxy dy

= Uxy dx + Uyy dy

eq. (11.1) can be rewritten as l

B

~Jr }~F}

dy

dx dy u

yy

duy

For a non-trivial solution,

..... (11.1)

A (dy)2 -B (dx)(dy) + C (dxi = 0 or

A( ~ r

-B( ~ J + C =0

295

296

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

This can be expressed in matrix form as

ABC

dx dy 0 =0
o dx dy

d [B±~B  -4AC]
which gives ~ = =-------=
dx

2A

..... (11.2)

Characteristic curves, represented by this equation, can be real or imaginary
depending on the value of (B2

-4AC).

Partial differential equations (PDEs) (in particular, governing equations in
fluid dynamics) are classified into three categories:

Elliptic,

when B2 -4AC < 0

.

a2

u a2

u

[Laplace equation, -2 + -2 = 0

ax ay

02U 02U

Poisson equation, -2 +-2 =f(x,y)]
ox oy

Parabolic, when B2 -4AC = 0

[Heat equation, ': a( ~ ) and

a > 0]

Hyperbolic, when B2 -4AC > 0

[2nd

order Wave equation,

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