Researchers don't think there's any question that the discovery of a gene which appears to be linked to many types

of cancer is really exciting and the best news for the public in a long time. The gene is involved in a high percentage of human cancers and its discovery 5 might eventually lead to the development of a new anti-cancer treatment. In normal cells this gene, named MTS1, acts as a brake during the cell division process. But the researchers have found that the cell is missing in about half of the tumor cells they studied, allowing 10 uncontrolled division of cells to take place, and the resulting spread of the cancer. This discovery could be exploited in two ways, either by supplying the missing gene through gene therapy or by copying its function 15 in a drug. Of course, this is not the first gene to be found that can suppress tumors; in fact it's the eleventh or twelfth. However, because of its seemingly wider presence, or absence, the knowledge of its existence could lead to a cure for some types of cancer. 

Questions

1. What is the purpose of this passage? A. To show ways how cancer can be cured. B. To discuss about a new gene that has been found. C. To show how the new gene was found. D. To discuss anti-cancer treatment. 2. Why is the discovery good news for the public? A. It is involved in many cancers. B. It will cure cancer. C. It is the first of its kind. D. It may help researchers find a cure for cancer. 3. What does MTS1 do? A. It stops cells dividing. B. It kills tumors. C. It promotes cell division. D. It spreads with the cancer. 4. How might the discovery be used in the future? A. It can be used as a drug. B. It will be used as cure for cancer. C. It can be given to cancer patients. D. It can copy the function of a drug. 5. What does the author imply about the new discovery? A. It is exciting, but too involved. B. It is only one of eleven or twelve such genes. C. It may result in a cure. D. It only suppresses half of the tumors found. Shirts which stay wrinkle-free are now being produced in Japan and the US. Until now, the only solution for people in a hurry has been permanent press shirts, which didn't need ironing after washing or wearing. But they were made of polyester. The new ones don't need 5 ironing either, but they are a combination of the comfort of cotton and the wrinkle-free convenience of polyester. Polyester shirts became popular in the 1960s because their threads stabilize fabrics. Wrinkles form when the space between the fabric's 10 molecules contracts during washing or wearing. Polyester acts as girders holding the fabric's molecules in place. Unlike the most popular material for shirts, cotton, though, polyester doesn't breathe, let through air, and it can't absorb perspiration.

15 So, the new blends of cotton and polyester and the specially treated cottons will be a big hit, having a much bigger impact than permanent press did. The only problem is the shirts still have a slightly rubbery feel, from the resin the fabric is coated in. However, manufacturers promise that eventually resin-treated cotton shirts will also feel 20 just like cotton.  

Questions View Answers

1. What is the main topic of this passage? A. Permanent press. B. Polyester. C. Wrinkle-free shirts. D. Shirts in Japan and the US. 2. What is the main difference between the new and old shirts? A. They don't need ironing. B. They are wrinkle-free. C. They are convenient. D. They are more comfortable. 3. Why did polyester shirts become popular? A. Because you could wear them straight after they dried. B. Because they absorbed perspiration. C. Because they were stronger. D. Because they held the molecules in place. 4. An example of the advantages of cotton over polyester is A. it feels like rubber. B. it is permanent press. C. it breathes better. D. it wrinkles less. 5. What do you feel the author's attitude to the new shirts is? A. He would buy one now. B. He would wait a short while before buying one. C. He prefers permanent press. D. He thinks traditional cotton shirts are probably better. One of the factors in global warming is carbon monoxide. The more carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, the less the atmosphere is able to clean itself. The result is a warming of the atmosphere, the so-called global warming, and possibly ozone damage. 5 Earlier, it was found that carbon monoxide was concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere, and could be attributed to deforestation. Huge areas of forest and grasslands in South America and Africa have been burned, putting carbon monoxide into the atmosphere. Recently, however, 10 the Southern Hemisphere has been found to be clean, while the Northern Hemisphere is more polluted than expected. The latest research was done during the northern winter. The high levels in the Northern Hemisphere could be because of this. In winter 15 carbon monoxide is destroyed more slowly. There are also more fires burned in winter, and possibly industrial processes work harder. It could also reflect the ever-increasing number of cars on the roads. Optimists hope that the reason why the North has overtaken the South as the major area of carbon monoxide is that at last the burning 20 has stopped, or at least slowed down. 

Questions

1. Which of the following is the best title for the passage? A. Global warming. B. Carbon monoxide in the atmosphere. C. The warming of the atmosphere. D. Ozone damage. 2. Which of the following is NOT a reason for carbon dioxide? A. Ozone damage. B. Burning of forest. C. Traffic. D. Industry. 3. According to the author which of the following is a reason why in winter there is more carbonmonoxide in the atmosphere? A. Fewer factories are working. B. There is a decrease in the amount of traffic on the roads. C. Central heating means there are fewer fires nowadays. D. Carbon monoxide is not absorbed so fast. 4. Why are the optimists happy? A. People are buying more cars. B. There is more carbon dioxide in the North. C. They are possibly burning fewer forests in the Southern Hemisphere. D. Industry must be doing better. 5. What is the attidude of the author towards the new findings? A. He is biased in favor of the South. B. He is neutral. C. He agrees with the optimists. D. He is worried about the North. What are the keys to career success? Our background? Our education? Maybe. But they only affect our careers; they by no means guarantee success. If there is any guarantee of success, and that is questionable, it is through one's own intrinsic qualities, one's own hard work 5 and a constant reassessment of one's goals. A recent study in the US showed that something between 10 and 20% of the Harvard College Class of 1958 have lost their jobs in the past ten years. So, not only the best education but also the best 10 possible social background cannot guarantee career success. If these people, mainly men, had not believed their background was an insurance to success in life, and if they had searched for ways to make new and better-quality contributions to their work, they 15 wouldn't now be out of work. Anyone can succeed, and anyone can fail, and in terms of one's career this is very important to recognize. As long as one has goals and one takes action to achieve these goals, then one can be said to be following a successful career strategy. 

Questions

1. Which of the following would be a suitable title for the passage? A. Career Success B. Background and Education C. The Guarantee of Success D. Our Intrinsic Qualities 2. As used in line 4 the word "intrinsic" means A. financial. B. hard-working.

C. basic. D. physical. 3. What does the author imply the reason is why the Harvard graduates lost their jobs? A. Their lack of insurance. B. Failure to work hard. C. Bad luck. D. Failure to improve their own abilities. 4. What is the way to a successful career strategy? A. Good education. B. Having goals. C. Good background. D. Hard work. 5. What is the author's attitude to having a good education? A. It cannot guarantee career success. B. It is better than changing one's goals. C. It is better than having a good background. D. It is a good insurance to life and work. American beer is probably, together with French beer, the most maligned beer in the world. Americans possibly care more for liquor and the French definitely like their wine. But now American beer is making a comeback; it's pushing foreign imported beers off supermarket shelves 5 and is even causing ripples in markets abroad. And the secret to all this is the microbrew. Inspired by a campaign for real ale in Britain, which was successful at keeping mass-marketed beers from destroying the small, local breweries, 10 the microbrew started in the 1970s on the west coast. However, in the 80s, affluence brought about a change in spending and in taste, this time for the more expensive foreign beers. But now the micros are back. 15 Basically all the microbrew is a more flavorful, speciality beer, not mass-produced but produced in smallish quantities by a small brewery and often sold locally. Samuel Adams sells in New England, Redhook Ale in Seattle and Brooklyn Lager originally of course from New York, also sells in Japan. They are spreading their small wings. 20 People are learning that beer can come in a myriad of tastes and colors, and it can be fresh and inexpensive, just so long as it is a microbrew. 

Questions

1. What is the main point the author is trying to make? A. American beer is as maligned as French beer. B. Americans care for liquor more than beer. C. The microbrew is helping American beer become more popular. D. The secret of foreign imported beers is the microbrew. 2. Why did they start producing microbrews on the west coast in the 1970s? A. To compete with foreign beer. B. To compete with the mass-produced beers. C. The breweries were too small. D. There wasn't enough real ale. 3. What does the author give as the reason why Americans preferred microbrews to foreign beers? A. It was cheaper. B. There were too many foreign beers on the supermarket shelves. C. Foreign beer has too many flavors.

D. Microbrews are found everywhere. 4. What is NOT a reason for the success of the microbrew? A. Color. B. Price. C. Mass-production. D. Flavor. 5. What best describes the author's attitude to the new beer? A. It's good for America and Americans. B. It's important to the less affluent. C. It's best as a draft beer. D. It has too many flavors and colors. Adam Smith thought up the principle of division of labor two centuries ago. Well, to be honest, he couldn't be said to have invented it; the principle was used by the ancient Egyptians to build the pyramids. He was however the person who put it down in writing, and it became 5 the classic principle on which the Industrial Revolution was based. Now, it's time for Adam to move over. Re-engineering has appeared and appears to be taking over from the old principles. If you want to make a good company a better one, you need re-engineering. 10 The book by Michael Hammer and his co-author, Re-engineering the Corporations, calls for radically changing the way most companies are run. No longer should work be divided into different tasks, but instead the whole process of work has to be re-conceptualized. That is if a company wants to achieve more than an acceptable increase 15 in productivity and profits. Today business is no longer a series of functions, but a process of work that requires a horizontal setup. There should be team work. New procedures and new strategies should be continually established. 20 Information technology must be fully utilized. Above all, production should be geared towards serving customers better and taking full advantage of new technologies. Re-engineering involves a totally new approach to business, one which if achieved will lead to steady, even sensational, improvements in performance and consequently in 25 market share. 

Questions

1. What is the main topic of the passage? A. Adam Smith B. The division of labor C. Corporations D. Re-engineering 2. What does the author imply about Adam Smith? A. That he was instrumental in helping start the Industrial Revolution. B. That he wrote the principle of the division of labor. C. That he created the principal on which the Industrial Revolution was based. D. That he wrote about the ancient Egyptians. 3. What doesn't re-engineering call for? A. The process of work should be re-conceptualized. B. Work should be divided into different tasks. C. The way companies are run should be changed. D. Business should be managed in a different way. 4. What is the most important factor in re-engineering? A. Team work B. New strategies C. Information technology

D. The customer 5. Which of the following best describes the author's attitude to re-engineering. A. It is too sensational. B. It is too new. C. It is extremely useful. D. It is too steady. The United States of America comprises probably the greatest mixture of nationalities and races to be found anywhere in the world. The fact that most of these people entered the country as immigrants and later were awarded naturalization is a leading factor behind 5 both the growth and philosophy of what has become one of the greatest nations of all time. Without immigration the US would have remained an insular, second-class country which despite its size, or maybe because of it, would nowadays be rated with Russia, India or Mexico. 10 Very important to this immigration is the diversity. Firstly, the majority of immigrants came from Europe. Then, they came mainly from the American continent. Finally, Asia has become the area from which most immigrants come, that is if we don't count illegal immigrants, for if we include these the Americas still supply the largest number 15 of people coming into the country. Of course, we must not forget the large number of Africans that were brought over as slaves and have remained to become full American citizens. We can say that this variety of peoples truly does represent the whole 20 world; we can even find Australasian immigrants. And it is this diversity that has certainly created many, still unsolved, problems, but it has also created a truly world nation, one that has been able to draw on the intrinsic skills and qualities of every nation of the world. 

Questions

1. Which of the following is the best title for the passage? A. Nationalities in the US B. Immigration to the US C. The Greatest Nation of all Time D. Races of the World 2. Why in the opinion of the author has the U.S.A. become a great country? A. There have been so many immigrants. B. There has been great growth. C. Becaue of its philosophy. D. Immigrants have been granted naturalization. 3. According to the passage from which continent do most people coming to the US come from? A. Asia B. America C. Africa D. Europe 4. What do we understand the author to mean by the word 'even' in line 20? A. He is saying there is an especially large amount of Australasian immigrants. B. He is saying that only Australasians are not immigrants. C. He is saying that there are possibly some Australasian immigrants. D. He is emphasizing the fact there are Australasian immigrants too. 5. What is the tone of the passage? A. Criticizing. B. Condemning. C. Praising.

D. Doubting. Many forces, hospital managers, medical practitioners, parents too, continue to increase pressure to do more outpatient surgery for children. The emphasis on faster operating room turnaround time, more effective 5 use of space and personnel and the presumed resulting cost reduction are commonly sought goals. These goals are important for all patients, but especially for the pediatric patient, who being much younger is free from systemic disease and requires simpler, shorter surgical procedures, and a shorter convalescence. 10 Despite many advantages pediatric outpatient surgery can have problems. Since children are usually healthy and usually recover from surgery, some doctors may assume that all such patients are outpatient candidates. There may be delays and inappropriate scheduling caused by rush, 15 by inappropriate consultation and previously undiagnosed diseases. However, nearly all problems can be solved by proper patient selection. Many more patients than at present can undergo outpatient anesthesia, reducing the separation time of the child from the family. The advantages 20 listed above will be enhanced when combined with appropriate postoperative discharge criteria and out-of-hospital care. Everyone will benefit: the child, the family, the physician, the hospital staff and even the third party payer. 

Questions

1. What is the main purpose of the passage? A. To force hospital managers to increase outpatient surgery for children. B. To emphasize faster operating room turnaround time. C. To inform parents about outpatient surgery. D. To put forward reasons in favor of pediatric outpatient surgery. 2. Which of the following is NOT one of the aims mentioned in the passage? A. More personnel. B. Quicker use of operating rooms. C. Better use of available space. D. Saving costs. 3. What does the author imply by saying that some doctors assume that all children can be outpatients? A. They may forget about other patients. B. They may make a mistake. C. They may think all patients are not healthy. D. They may be in a rush. 4. The audience for this passage could most likely be? A. Hospital managers B. The parents of pediatric patients C. Physicians D. The Department of Health 5. What is the author's attitude towards more outpatient surgery for children? A. He is against. B. He thinks it unlikely to happen. C. He is in favor. D. He thinks there are too many problems. A major challenge to management in the late 1970s and early 1980s was the need to increase the productivity of American business. Before that, the productivity growth rate of US industry had begun to fall behind Japan and even Western Europe. If the country's economy was 5 to go forward a radical

change in productivity was called for. But to return to the high productivity growth rate of the years when the US was still the world leader required many changes and solutions to problems. Management, for a start, had to be revitalized, rethought 10 out. The energy problem, both the shortage and the high price, had to be solved. Business operations as a whole had to be improved. Above all, efficiency, basically the efficiency of the management since it directly affects the efficiency of the labor force, had to be improved. This meant better efficiency in employing all the 15 necessary resources, whether they be natural, human or financial. 

Questions

1. What is the main idea of the passage? A. The increase of productivity in the US. B. A comparison of productivity rates in the US, Japan and Western Europe. C. The need for changes in US productivity. D. The US economy. 2. Which country or continent was probably the world leader in productivity in the early 1970s? A. The US B. Japan C. Western Europe D. Germany 3. According to the author what was the problem with American management? A. They were short of managers. B. It lacked effectiveness. C. They had a poor education. D. There were too many problems. 4. What does the author imply will happen if the management is not efficient? A. More workers will have to employed. B. All resources will have to be better. C. The workers will be inefficient. D. Directors will take over the management. 5. What does the author feel is the most important way to increase productivity? A. A combined use of all the necessary resources. B. Close cooperation between management and labor. C. The return of the economy to its previous position. D. More effective management. re is one planet that still fascinates and teases scientists, mainly because it doesn't have an atmosphere to obscure observation, yet it is not big enough for sufficiently accurate telescopic observation. The fact that it is also very close to the sun also makes it difficult 5 for astronomers. However, space telescopes have told us a lot more about Mercury. It is rather similar to Earth's moon, and to Mars. There are mountainous areas dotted with craters and large valleys which are uncratered. 10 The moon's valleys have fewer cracks and the ridges are smoother. Mercury's valleys are filled with volcanic rocks, similar to on the moon, yet there is no evidence of volcanoes, even extinct ones, on Mercury, as there is on both Mars and the moon, and of course here on Earth. 15 So, scientists presume the valleys on Mercury were caused by different things, that is to say not by volcanoes, but by very large meteorites, which also caused the cracks in the terrain and left the ridges rough and uneven. More and better photos of Mercury are needed to prove 20 what are at present at best only hypotheses.

Questions

1. What is the topic of this passage? A. The planet, Mercury. B. Observation of Planets. C. The earth's moon. D. Astronomers' difficulties. 2. Why does one planet still tease scientists? A. Because it has an atmosphere which obscures observation. B. Because it is so small. C. Because it is too close to the sun. D. Because it is difficult for space probes to get close to. 3. What is true about Mercury but not true about the moon or Mars? A. The valleys are filled with volcanic rocks. B. There are hilly regions. C. The valleys are uncratered. D. There are no volcanoes. 4. What does the author imply space telescopes can do better than land-based telescopes? A. Show the volcanoes on Mercury. B. Show more of the planet, Mercury. C. Show what caused Mercury's valleys. D. Show the meteorite which hit Mercury. 5. What can we infer from the passage that astronomers still need to get more detailed observation of Mercury? A. Larger space telescopes. B. More hypotheses. C. Better or more space telescopes. D. More ways to prove hypotheses. What biologists refer to as succession usually begins as a result of natural destruction, such as by fire or flood. It can also be caused directly by man; he is responsible for the destruction of a lot of the world's nature.. Succession, sometimes called secondary 5 succession, will occur when species of nature are destroyed and the land is left alone to recover. During the early decades of the settlement of North America a lot of beech-maple forest in New England was cut down to make way for 10 farming. However, as is well-known in American history, very many settlers moved west, abandoning their farms. Secondary succession then began in the fields that were left untended. At first, stronger grasses and weeds appeared in the fields. Then, shrubs started growing, followed by a re-emergence of some trees, like junipers and pines. 15 Eventually, beeches and maples were able to grow protected by the other trees, and after a time what was open land had become once again forest. This is still happening in New England and in many other parts of 20 the world. This does of course mean that there is still hope for our planet, just so long as people keep on moving as they have throughout history. The only real problem is the great amount of time needed to achieve complete secondary succession. 

Questions

1. What is the best title for the passage? A. The Destruction of Nature B. Secondary Succession

C. Man's Destruction of Nature D. Biologists' Succession 2. Which of the following is NOT according to the passage a cause of the destruction of nature? A. Fire B. Man C. Flood D. Climate 3. What was NOT a reason for the start of secondary succession in New England? A. Settlers moving west. B. Forests being cut down. C. Farms being abandoned. D. Land being left untended. 4. What is the reason the author gives for the eventual re-growth of the beeches and maples? A. Shrubs grew around them. B. Grasses made the earth stronger. C. Other trees sheltered them. D. The forest re-emerged. 5. What's the tone of this passage? A. Optimistic. B. Inconclusive. C. Pessimistic. D. Neutral. Science as we know it today can be said to have started with the ancient Greeks, with the likes of Herodotus, Aristotle and Theophrastus, all of whom lived from 300 to 500 years before Christ. 5 Their findings were still valid two millenniums later, when science was reborn with the Renaissance following the Dark Ages when after the fall of Rome, roughly 1000 years after the Greeks created their scientific theories, science and learning were forgotten during the ravages of war and disease which enveloped the whole of the then 10 civilized world. Geology, even mineralogy, can be traced back to the Greeks. They recognized that the position of the land and sea had changed and that a great length of time had been necessary for these changes. They believed 15 the world was round, that the orbits of planets were also circular and they noticed that heavy objects fell faster than light ones. So, more sciences than one can be said to have begun with the Greeks. Of course, all their learning might have disappeared for good during 20 the six or seven centuries of the Dark Ages. But the Arabs were also interested in science, and they were at the edge of the Dark Ages, so they were able to preserve the findings of the Greeks, translating some of their work and even building on it. When science finally took root again in the Middle Ages it was based very much on the 25 ideas and work of the Greeks. 

Questions

1. What's the main point the author is making in this passage? A. Much of Greek science was lost in the Dark Ages. B. The Arabs copied the Greek ideas. C. Much of modern science is based on the work of the ancient Greeks. D. The findings of the ancient Greeks were re-found a millenium later. 2. According to the passage what was the reason science had to make a recovery? A. The Renaissance.

B. The Arabs. C. The Roman Empire. D. The Dark Ages. 3. According to the passage which of the following was NOT among the findings made by the Greeks? A. The changed position of the land and the sea. B. The relation of the moon to the earth. C. The shape of the earth. D. The way the planets went round the earth. 4. Why were the Arabs able to preserve the findings of the Greeks? A. They were not so badly affected by the Dark Ages. B. They were not a part of the Roman Empire. C. They made their own discoveries. D. They liked copying other people's work. 5. What might the next part of the lecture be about? A. Science as we know it today. B. Arab scientists and science. C. The development of science in the Middle Ages. D. Other scientific findings. Thomas Jefferson disliked the deference in the early American buildings to the architecture of Georgian England, which served as a constant reminder of monarchial tyranny and the bloody years of the War of Independence. He aspired to a more timeless architecture, based at 5 first on his favored Renaissance styles, which in turn were based on the architecture of ancient Rome. What made Jefferson's buildings especially American was the way they were integrated into the landscape. His beloved home, Monticello, 10 was pushed into a hilltop so that its spreading service wings would not obstruct the sweeping panorama of the Blue Ridge Mountains visible from the house. The building became a part of the hill and made possible views of tilled lowlands to the east and a rugged wilderness that stretched to the west. 15 All of Jefferson's buildings were created with a clear view to utility and with a special relationship to the landscape. He favored grassy terraces with views if possible to the mountains. But his buildings also showed his idealism, to serve as examples of good architecture, 20 which usually meant the architecture of classical antiquity, which was for him the architecture of a republic. 

Questions

1. What is the purpose of the passage? A. To show how American architecture has been based on English architecture. B. To introduce various types of American architecture. C. To explain how republican architecture came into existence. D. To describe Thomas Jefferson's taste in architecture. 2. In what way were Jefferson's buildings very American? A. They were built on mountains. B. They were a reminder of the War of Independence. C. They blended with the natural environment. D. They were loved by Americans as homes. 3. What was NOT true about Jefferson's buildings? A. They were very practical. B. They were copies of English architecture. C. They were a part of the landscape.

D. They often had lawn terraces. 4. What does the author feel Jefferson considered a good architect? A. Someone who followed his own ideals. B. Someone who designed mainly public buildings. C. Someone who only copied classical architecture. D. Someone who cared more for beauty than practicality. 5. What is the tone of the passage? A. Against Jefferson's style. B. Critical of his love of classical architecture. C. Regretful he did not follow the style of the English. D. Neutral. Americans have in the past century assumed that their schools will be comprehensive, especially at the secondary, or high school, level. Stated another way, there has always been broad agreement in American society that public education will not follow a strictly defined 5 course of study, but instead will offer a variety of options from which students may choose. Comprehensiveness has been a corollary of the American decision to educate the mass of the nation's children and youth, without systematically 10 winnowing out the academically less qualified. Providing education for such a heterogeneous group of students has necessarily involved taking account of various levels of intelligence, various career aspirations, various interests, and various levels of social experiences. 15 Comprehensiveness in education has not implied fragmentation in the school's curriculum. Instead, it has affirmed that schools must provide options that reflect the diversity of interests and abilities of their students, while still concentrating on the fundamental learning skills." 

Questions

1. What is the main topic of the passage? A. Secondary education. B. Comprehensive education. C. High school education. D. Public education. 2. What do most Americans think about public education? A. It should offer a variety of subjects to choose from. B. It should be strict. C. It should be well-defined. D. It should gradually eliminate the less qualified. 3. How does comprehensivess compare with the way children are taught in the US? A. It is different. B. It is opposed. C. It is similar. D. It is less effective. 4. What is not mentioned in the passage as being taken into account when providing education for a mixed group of students? A. Levels of intelligence. B. Financial background. C. Career aims. D. Interests. 5. What has comprehensiveness done to American education? A. Encouraged schools to teach fundamentals.

B. Brought education to the mass of children and youth. C. Caused fragmentation. D. Made schools provide choices for students. No modern nation has ever constructed a foreign policy that was acceptable to its intellectuals. True, at moments of national peril or national exaltation, intellectuals will feel the same patriotic emotions as everyone else, and will subscribe as enthusiastically to the common 5 cause. But these moments pass, the process of disengagement begins, and it usually does not take long before it develops into alienation. Public opinion polls generally reveal that the overwhelming majority of ordinary citizens, at any particular time, will approve of their government's foreign policy; among intellectuals, this majority tends 10 to be skimpy at best, and will frequently not exist at all. It is reasonable to suppose that there is an instinctive bias at work here favorable to government among the common people, unfavorable among the intellectuals. 15 The bias of the common man is easy to understand: he is never much interested in foreign affairs; feelings incline him to favor his own government against the governments of foreigners; and in cases of international conflict, he is ready to sacrifice his self-interest for what the government assures him to be the common good. The persistent 20 bias of intellectuals, on the other hand requires some explaining. 

Questions

1. What is the main idea of the passage? A. That a country's foreign policy does not include the ideas of its intellectuals. B. That intellectuals are biased. C. That intellectuals do not easily accept their country's foreign policy. D. That intellectuals follow the same line as other people regarding foreign policy. 2. According to the passage when might intellectuals feel love for their country? A. When their country is being criticized. B. When they become enthusiastic about the common people. C. When they become emotional. D. When their country is in danger. 3. According to the opinion polls mentioned in the passage which of the following in not true? A. A vast majority of normal people approve of their country's foreign policy. B. At times most citizens think their country's foreign policy is acceptable. C. A very small majority of intellectuals might approve of their country's foreign policy. D. Quite often a majority of intellectuals did not approve of their country's foreign policy. 4. Which of the following reasons is not given for why the common man nearly always accepts the foreign policy of his country? A. He is not very interested in foreign affairs. B. He is prepared to fight to defend his government in times of conflict. C. He usually supports his own government against other governments. D. He accepts the need to make sacrifices in times of war. 5. What might the topic of the next paragraph be? A. An explanation of why intellectuals are biased. B. The biases of intellectuals. C. A comparison of the biases of the common man and the intellectual. D. How the common man might sacrifice his self-interest. The Vietnam Memorial, that long, low wall with the name of every veteran killed in the conflict incised upon it, stands near the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC. Completed in 1982, it symbolized more than anything else that the nation was regaining its equilibrium about the war 5 and was coming to regard the Vietnam veterans with the same respect that it accorded to veterans of prior wars. By 1982

the American public were noticing their own altered feelings about Vietnam, which were not only significant in themselves, but they were likewise part of a massive social change in the United States during the decade 10 after the war: the renaissance of conservatism. This shift especially affected politics, social structure, economics and theology. The highlight of the period was the election of a conservative president, the confirmation of the country's ideological trend and of its respect for conservative values, such as the Vietnam war, which had been 15 the liberals' nightmare, something for which they had little to no respect. 

Questions

1. What would be the best title for the passage? A. Symbol of Change B. The Vietnam Memorial C. Memorials in Washington DC D. The Completion of the Vietnam Memorial 2. What did the Vietnam Memorial signify about the way the American public felt about the Vietnam war? A. They felt that equality would come at last. B. They felt they should also respect veterans of other wars. C. They were beginning to accept what happened in the war. D. They could not yet regard Vietnam veterans in the same way as they did other veterans. 3. What did the date of completion of the memorial signify about the feelings of the American public? A. It signified that they realized themselves that their attitudes had changed. B. It signified that they realized they should be able to see the names of those killed in the war. C. It signified that they wanted social change. D. It signified that they were now significant members of society. 4. According to the passage what did the rebirth of conservatism not affect? A. Politics B. The structure of society C. Personal finances D. Religion 5. What can we not infer from the passage about feelings towards the Vietnam war? A. That the liberals had opposed it. B. That veterans of the war had no respect for it. C. That conservatives supported it. D. That people could learn to respect America's participation in it. In the 1980s the symbolic figure crystallized by the media was the "yuppie." The term was an acronym for the young, upwardly mobile professional man or woman. What distinguished the yuppies was that, rather than rebelling against the system, they preferred to exploit 5 it for personal advantage. Newsweek magazine hailed 1984 as the "Year of the Yuppie" and devoted a special report to the yuppie phenomenon, which tended to describe yuppies as a collection of lively oddities. We are told that yuppies, 10 male and female, are interested not only in their economic but also in their physical well-being. They spend a good many hours exercising; at the same time, they find food, especially exotic food, more important than do most Americans. They make their dining, to use a slang expression, a "class act." The same holds true for the way they dress, and how 15 they conduct themselves. The success of their efforts to climb both the business and social ladder can be advanced or retarded by the scarf around their neck or the cut of their hair. The opposite is on image and the image is the opposite of romantic. The image, which they fabricate as necessary, is what will take them to the top. Or 20 that's what they think!

Questions

1. Which of the following is not used in the passage to describe the yuppie? A. Young B. Exploitative C. Rebellious D. Professional 2. According to the passage the magazine Newsweek regarded yuppies as A. a group of unusual people. B. collectors of odd things. C. people who like being different. D. really great people. 3. As used in line 14 a "class act" implies that the author thinks A. yuppies like to act B. yuppies like to eat unusual and exciting food. C. yuppies have studied how to behave D. yuppies use slang when they go out 4. The author implies in this passage that A. yuppies will succeed B. yuppies are not good people C. yuppies come from rich families D. yuppies might not get to the top 5. Which of the following best describes the author's attitude? A. Noncommittal B. Amused C. Critical D. Favorable 1. What is the topic of the passage? A. National educational programs B. Professions for women C. The role of women D. The necessity for a special educational program for women 2. Who are most likely to be the readers of this text? A. Members of the U.S. Senate B. Women C. Teachers D. College Administrators 3. As used in line 6 "properly qualified" means A. they already have a profession B. they can use their education is a profession C. they have enough basic education for continuing their education D. they have already completed their education 4. What was not mentioned as being permitted for mothers to do? A. To study part-time B. To do all their studies at home C. To do research at home D. To do some study on their own 5. What do we infer is the author's attitude to women's need for education? A. Women need education to help their country. B. Women need education to find their own place in society.

C. Women need education to bring their intelligence and ability into the professions. D. Women need education for all the above reasons. As part of the American Revolution, many, if not most, Americans also wanted a cultural break with Europe. European art, culture, and society were attacked as being "aristocratic." They were seen as a threat to the ideal of democracy. They were described as being decadent, 5 degenerate, and debased. Benjamin Franklin, a man who had close personal ties to Europe and who had often been honored there for his intellectual brilliance, characterized England on the eve of the Revolution as a bad influence on American society and morals. The art of America, like the country, would need a fresh start. This view of European 10 culture, that it was decadent and rotten, was to remain strong in the United States for a long time. From the other side came an argument about American culture that was to be repeated again and again over the years. This argument, the 15 so-called elitist or aristocratic position, was that republican America, the new democracy of the common man, could not possibly support the finer things in life. The rise of the common man could only mean a decline in art and culture. 20 Europeans, of course, sided with this view. They, the Americans, had no aristocracy, and so would have no appreciation of the artistic aspects of life that view was flawed, as can be easily seen by observing the growth of an American culture despite everything the Europeans and their elitist followers in America said, because its believers 25 confused the artist in society with his patron, the person who employs him, which used to be the aristocracy. However, in the United States, artists made a name for themselves largely without the need of patrons, and thus American culture was born. 

Questions

1. Which of the following is the best title for the passage? A. Aristocratic European Culture B. The Birth of American Culture C. The Threat to Democracy D. The American Revolution 2. In which part of the passage can we find the American attitudes which were critical of European culture? A. In paragraphs 1 and 2 B. In paragraph 1 C. In paragraph 3 D. In all three paragraphs 3. According to the passage Europeans felt that American culture would not succeed because A. Americans would not have time to develop a culture. B. American elitist views were better. C. Americans despised European culture. D. Americans confused artists with their patrons. 4. Benjamin Franklin probably A. preferred to live in Europe. B. thought the revolution would have a bad influence on American society. C. was an artist. D. supported the view that Americans should make their own culture. 5. What is the tone of the passage? A. Pessimistic B. Noncommittal C. Optimistic

D. Regretful Footracing is a popular activity in the United States. It is seen not only as a competitive sport but also as a way to exercise, to enjoy the camaraderie of like-minded people, and to donate money to a good cause. Though serious runners may spend months training 5 to compete, other runners and walkers might not train at all. Those not competing to win might run in an effort to beat their own time or simply to enjoy the fun and exercise. People of all ages, from those of less than one year (who may be pushed in strollers) to those in their eighties, enter into this sport. The races are held on city 10 streets, on college campuses, through parks, and in suburban areas, and they are commonly 5 to 10 kilometers in length. The largest footrace in the world is the 12-kilometer Bay to Breakers race that is held in San Francisco every spring. This race begins 15 on the east side of the city near San Francisco Bay and ends on the west side at the Pacific Ocean. There may be 80,000 or more people running in this race through the streets and hills of San Francisco. In the front are the serious runners who compete to win and who might finish in as little as 34 minutes. Behind them are the thousands 20 who take several hours to finish. In the back of the race are those who dress in costumes and come just for fun. One year there was a group of men who dressed like Elvis Presley, and another group consisted of firefighters who were tied together in a long line and who were carrying a firehose. There was even a bridal party, in which the 25 bride was dressed in a long white gown and the groom wore a tuxedo. The bride and groom threw flowers to bystanders, and they were actually married at some point along the route. 

Questions

1. The main purpose of this passage is to A. encourage people to exercise B. describe a popular activity C. make fun of runners in costume D. give reasons for the popularity of footraces 2. As used in line 1, the word "activity" is most similar to which of the following? A. pursuit B. motion C. pilgrimage D. expectation 3. The word "cameraderie" as used in line 3 could be best replaced by which of the following? A. games B. companionship C. jokes D. views 4. The phrase "to a good cause" in line 4 could be best replaced by which of the following? A. for an award B. to reward the winner C. for a good purpose D. to protect a wise investment 5. Which of the following is NOT implied by the author? A. Footraces appeal to a variety of people. B. Walkers can compete for prizes. C. Entering a race is a way to give support to an organization. D. Running is a good way to strengthen the heart. 6. The word "beat" as used in line 6 could be best replaced by which of the following? A. incline

B. overturn C. outdo D. undermine 7. As used in line 8, the word "strollers" refers to A. cribs B. wheelchairs C. wagons D. carriages 8. In what lines does the author give reasons for why people enter footraces? A. Footracing . . . and exercise. B. People of all ages . . . in length. C. The largest . . . 34 minutes. D. Behide them . . . a firehose. 9. The word "costumes" as used in line 21 most likely refers to A. outfits B. uniforms C. cloaks D. suits 10. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in this passage? A. Some runners looked like Elvis Presley. B. Some runners were ready to put out a fire. C. Some runners were participating in a wedding. D. Some runners were serious about winning. 11. A "bystander" as used in line 26 refers to which of the following? A. a walker B. a participant C. a spectator D. a judge 12. Which of the following best describes the organization of this passage? A. chronological order B. specific to general C. cause and result D. statement and example The Stone Age was a period of history which began in approximately 2 million B.C. and lasted until 3000 B.C. Its name was derived fromthe stone tools and weapons that modern scientists found. This period was divided into the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic Ages. 5 During the first period, (2 million to 8000 B.C.) the fist hatchet and use of fire for heating and cooking were developed. As a result of the Ice Age, which evolved about 1 million years into the Paleolithic Age, people were forced to seek shelter in caves, wear clothing, and develop new tools. 10 During the Mesolithic Age (8000 to 6000 B.C.) people made crude pottery and the first fish hooks, took dogs hunting, and developed a bow and arrow, which was used until the fourteenth century A.D. 15 The Neolithic Age (6000 to 3000 B.C.) saw humankind domesticating sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle, being less nomadic than in previous eras, establishing permanent settlements, and creating governments. 

Questions

1. Into how many periods was the Stone Age divided? A. 2

B. 3 C. 4 D. 5 2. Which of the following was developed earliest? A. the fish hook B. the fist hatchet C. the bow and arrow D. pottery 3. Which of the following developments is not related to the conditions of the Ice Age? A. farming B. clothing C. living indoors D. using fire 4. Which period lasted longest? A. Paleolithic B. Ice Age C. Mesolithic D. Neolithic 5. Which of the following periods saw people develop a more communal form of living? A. Paleolithic B. Ice Age C. Mesolithic D. Neolithic 6. The author states that the Stone Age was so named because A. it was very durable B. the tools and weapons were made of stone C. there, was little vegetation D. the people lived in caves Hot boning is an energy saving technique for the meat processing industry. It has received considerable attention in recent years when increased pressure for energy conservation has. accentuated the need for more efficient methods of processing the bovine carcass. Cooling of an 5 entire carcass requires a considerable amount of refrigerated space, since bone and trimmable fat are cooled along with the muscle. It is also necessary to space the carcasses adequately in the refrigerated room for better air movement and prevention of microbial contamination, thus adding to the volume requirements for carcass chillers. 10 Conventional handling of meat involves holding the beef sides in the cooler for 24 to 36 hours before boning. Chilling in the traditional fashion is also associated with a loss of carcass weight ranging from 2% to 4% due to evaporation of moisture from the meat tissue. 15 Early excision, or hot boning, of muscle prerigor followed by vacuum packaging has several potential advantages. By removing only the edible muscle and fat prerigor, refrigeration space and costs are minimized, boning labor is decreased and storage yields increased. 20 Because hot boning often results in toughening of meat, a more recent approach, hot boning following electrical stimulation, has been used to reduce the necessary time of rigor mortis. Some researchers have found this method beneficial in maintaining tender meat, while others have found that the meat also becomes tough after electrical stimulation. 

Questions

1. Which of the following was not mentioned as a draw back of conventional methods of boning? A. storage space requirements B. energy waste C. loss of carcass weight D. toughness of meat 2. Hot boning is becoming very popular because A. it causes meat to be very tender B. it helps conserve energy and is less expensive than conventional methods C. meat tastes better when the bone is adequately seared along with the meat D. it reduces the weight of the carcass 3. Carcass chiller means most nearly A. a refrigerator for the animal body B. a method of boning meat C. electrical stimulation of beef D. early excision 4. Early excision means most nearly A. vacuum packaging B. hot boning C. carcass chilling D. electrical stimulation 5. The toughening of meat during hot boning has been combated by A. following hot boning with electrical stimulation B. tenderizing the meat C. using electrical stimulation before hot boning D. removing only the edible muscle and fat prerigor

Hampir semua jenis bacaan pada Reading Section pada TOEFL Test mengandung pertanyaan tentang Main Idea atau ide pokok dari bacaan. Pertanyaan biasanya dituliskan dengan menggunakan redaksi yang berbeda, namun pokok dari pertanyaannya sama, yaitu mencari ide pokok. Beberapa redaksi kalimat yang biasanya muncul seperti: "identify the topic", "subject", "title", "primary idea", atau "main idea". Pertanyaan-pertanyaan jenis ini (mencari ide pokok) menuntut Anda untuk mencari poin utama yang ingin disampaikan oleh penulis pada bacaan. Biasanya, ide pokok dapat ditemukan pada paragraf pertama. Apabila bacaan hanya terdiri dari 1 paragraf, coba identifikasi kalimat pertama pada bacaan dan tentukan ide pokoknya. Berikut ini salah satu contoh soal Reading Section yang mengharuskan Anda mencari atau menemukan ide pokok bacaan. Contoh Soal I Basketball was invited in 1891 by a physical education instructor in Springfield, Massachusetts, by the name of James Naismith. Because of the terrible weather in winter, his physical education students were indoors rather than outdoors. They really did not like like the idea of boring, repetitive exercises and preferred the excitement and challenge of a game. Naismith figured out a team sport that could be played indoors on a gymnasium floor, that involved a lot of running, that kept all team members involved, and that did not allow the tackling and physical contact of American-style football. Pertanyaan: What is the A. The B. The C. Physical D. The main life idea of history education origin of James of and of this passage? Naismith sports exercise basketball

Jawaban yang benar dari contoh soal diatas adalah pilihan jawaban D. The origin of basketball.

Pembahasan Kalimat pertama dalam bacaan diatas membahas tentang "the invention of basketball". Jadi, kalimat tersebut kemungkinan merupakan topik utama dari bacaan. Pada kalimat-kalimat setelahnya, pembahasan masih ditekankan pada sejarah atau awal mula olahraga basket. Kalimat kedua hingga seterusnya masih membahas seputar sejarah atau awal mula olahraga basket. Selanjutnya, Anda harus mengecek setiap pilihan jawaban yang mendekati kata kunci "the invention of basketball". Pilihan jawaban A salah karena bacaan tidak ditekankan seputar kehidupan James Naismith meskipun nama James Naismith disebutkan pada awal kalimat, namun redaksi kalimat tidak menekankan kehidupan James Naismith. Pilihan jawaban B juga salah karena terlalu general atau terlalu umum. Pembahasan dikhususkan pada olahraga basket, bukan olahraga secara umum. Pilihan jawaban C juga terlalu umum karena hanya menyinggung tentang physical education danexercise saja, sedangkan bacaan sudah jelas-jelas menyinggung masalah olahraga basket. Pilihan jawaban D benar karena passage atau bacaan diatas lebih menekankan atau menonjolkan sejarah dari olahraga basket. Sampai disini, admin MuhaiminAbd berharap sudah ada bayangan yang Anda dapatkan mengenai cara menjawab soal Reading khususnya dalam mencari atau menentukan ide pokok dari bacaan. Apabila bacaan terdiri dari lebih dari 1 paragraf (2 paragraf atau lebih), perhaikan kalimat pertama dari setiap paragraf untuk menentukan ide pokoknya. Contoh Soal II Early maps of the North American continent showed a massive river that began in the Rocky Mountains, flowed into the Green Salt Lake, and from there continued westward into the Pacific Ocean. This river, named Buenaventura River, on some maps rivaled the Great Mississippi river. This mythical river of course does not exist. Perhaps an early mapmaker hypothesized that such a river probably existed; perhaps a smaller river was seen and its path from the Rockies to the Pacific was assumed. As late as the middle of the nineteenth century, this river was still on maps and explorers were still searching for it. Pertanyaan Which of the A. Early B. A A Comparison D. Jawaban yang following would be the best Maps of Non-Existent River the Buenaventura and Rivers in contoh soal II diatas title for North the passage? America on Maps Mississippi Rivers Mythology jawaban B. this

of

benar

dari

adalah

pilihan

Pembahasan Pada soal-soal yang mengandung lebih dari 1 paragraf dalam 1 bacaan, pastikan bahwa Anda benar-benar membaca dan mengerti arti dan maksud dari setiap kalimat pertama untuk setiap paragraf untuk menentukan subject, title, atau main idea. Pada contoh soal ini, kalimat pertama dari paragraf pertamamembahas tentang a river on early maps of North America. Jika Anda hanya membaca paragraf pertama saja, maka dapat dipastikan bahwa Anda akan memilih pilihan jawaban A. Sedangkan pilihan jawaban A pada soal diatas merupakan pilihan yang salah atau hanya sebagai pengecoh saja. Faktanya, massive river on maps of the North America yang dimaksud itu hanyalah peta fiktif atau dengan kata lain, daerah itu tidak ada di dunia ini. Hal tersebut diperjelas pada kalimat pertama di paragraf kedua, This mythical river of course does not exist. Jadi, inti dari paragraf diatas adalah maps of North America yang ternyata hanyalah fiktif belaka. Pilihan jawaban B benar karena hal tersebut sesuai dengan fakta yang tertulis pada bacaan. Pada awalnya, penulis membahas mengenai daerah (massive river) yang terletak di North America, namun yang lebih ditekankan disini adalah keberadaan dari massive river itu ternyata tidak ada atau hanya fiktif belaka. Untuk lebih memahami strategi untuk menentukan ide pokok dari bacaan, silahkan perhatikan penjelasan

dibawah: Berikut ini adalah cara untuk mengidentifikasi pertanyaan:
     

What is the topic of the passage? What is the subject of the passage? What is the main idea of the passage? What is the author's main point in the passage? With what is the author primarily concerned? Which is the following would be the best title?

Berikut ini merupakan cara untuk menemukan atau menentukan jawaban yang benar:

Jawaban dari tipe pertanyaan ini pada umumnyadapat ditentukan dengan melihat (memahami/mengerti) maksud dari kalimat pertama dari setiap paragraf. Perhatikan kalimat pertamanya.

Berikut cara menjawab pertanyaan jenis ini:
   

Baca dengan seksama setiap kalimat pertama dari setiap paragraf. Temukan (tentukan) tema atau ide dari setiap kalimat pertama pada setiap paragraf. Pastikan bahwa Anda telah benar-benar menemukan ide pokok kalimat dengan membaca sisa paragraf. Perhatikan perubahan-perubahan pembahasan (jika ada). Eliminasi atau singkirkan pilihan jawaban yang salah (keluar dari pembahasan, bertolak belakang dari pembahasan, dan/atau tidak sama sekali disebutkan dalam bacaan), dan tentukan pilihan jawaban pengecoh. Ingat, setiap soal TOEFL pasti mengandung pilihan jawaban pengecoh yang hampir benar, namun jika diperhatikan, ternyata pilihan jawaban tersebut ternyata bukanlah jawaban yang dicari.