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0 Fax: +49 7072 9168.88 http://www.de e-mail: email@example.com. Germany Copyright 2007.de Fourier Source Published by DIgSILENT GmbH.: +49 7072 9168 .DIgSILENT GmbH Heinrich-Hertz-Strasse 9 D-72810 Gomaringen Tel. All rights reserved.03.2007 Fourier Source 2 . TechRef ElmFsrc V1 Build 331 30. Unauthorised copying or publishing of this or any part of this document is prohibited.
1. available since version 13. Typical applications are: • • Harmonic voltage or current sources for modelling harmonic injections Small signal analysis.1 The element dialog in PF Figure 1: The data and diagram pages in the ElmFsrc dialog. It can be connected to any other dynamic PowerFactory model. Two methods for generating a time domain signal from the specified spectrum are supported by the Fourier source. For the input of data at every harmonic frequency. thus realizing harmonic voltage or current sources. especially to voltage or current source models. Figure 1 shows the data and diagram pages of the element dialog.1 Introduction 1 Introduction The Fourier Source Element (ElmFsrc) of DIgSILENT Power Factory. The element may be used in both the balanced and three phases RMS simulation and in the three phases EMT simulation as well. These are • General Fourier series Fourier Source 3 . allows the definition of periodical signals in the frequency domain. additional “cells” need to be appended. calculation of transfer functions 2 Element description 2. The user may define minimum frequency and a frequency step size of the harmonic spectrum.
A0 the dc component and Ai and ϕi the amplitude and phase of the ith –harmonic. periodic signal is immediately shown in time.e ⎜ N ⋅T S ⎠ n=0 ⎝ (2) ⎛ 1 ⎞ N −1 y0 (tn ) = y0 (n ⋅ TS ) = ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ ∑ Y0 (ω k ).1 Fourier Series Modelling Approach When the “Fourier Series” approach is selected. which can lead to slow calculation times in case of many specified frequencies. (2) and (3): ⎞ N −1 ⎛ 2π − j ⋅ω k ⋅ n ⋅TS ⎟ Y0 (ω k ) = Y0 ⎜ k ⋅ ⎟ = ∑ y0 (n. the iFFT must be carried out only once at the beginning of a transient simulation why computational resources are used more efficiently.TS ).2 Modelling approaches 2. Unlike the Fourier Series approach.2. many cosine-terms must be evaluated at every time step during a transient simulation. The input parameters vary according to the selected calculation approach. However. This introduces an interpolation error.2. While dc-component and frequency step are always to be specified in both cases.2 Fast Fourier Transform Modelling Approach In this approach PF calculates the output signal waveform yo by means of the inverse Fast Fourier Transform (iFFT) algorithm. the resulting output signal yo is a discrete time function and its time step will generally not match the simulation step size. as shown in (1): y0 (t ) = Ao + ∑ Ai ⋅ cos[2π ( f min + (i − 1) ⋅ ∆f ) ⋅ t + ϕ i ] i =1 n (1) where ∆f is the frequency step. This means that for each simulation time step the value of yo has to be interpolated.e j ⋅ω k ⋅n⋅TS ⎝ N ⎠ k =0 (3) Fourier Source 4 . the output signal yo is calculated by means of a Fourier series. However. as described below.and frequency domain on the “Diagram” page of the input dialogue box. For checking purposes. which is applied to the discrete spectrum. the specified.2 Element description • Inverse FFT Both methods are briefly described in the following sections. 2. yo defined by (1) is a continuos time domain function and realizes an ideal time-domain signal based on the specified spectrum. This interpolation error can be reduced by applying an over-sampling factor. 2. a minimum frequency is additionally required for the Fourier Series approach and an oversampling factor for the FFT one. The FF Transform pair is defined by Eq.
3 depicts an example of the FFT modelling approach. By modifying the oversampling factor in the data page. (8) Twindow determines the minimum frequency of the discrete frequency spectrum Twindow has no relationship to the maximal frequency. Factors between 5 and 20 seem to be appropriate in most cases. i. Fig. Furthermore.3) helps the user to select a suitable oversampling factor. The default value for the oversampling factor is 10 and the user may increase it as necessary. the sampling frequency must be chosen in such a way. the windowing time only. that with an increasing oversampling factor also the number of samples computational time. that no superposition of subsequent harmonic spectrums (aliasing) will occur (comply with the sampling theorem). The following variables correspond to the FFT definition of (2) and (3): TS = 1 Twindow = fS N (4) tn = n ⋅ TS f0 = (5) 1 Twindow = 1 f = S n ⋅ TS n 2π n ⋅ TS (6) ω 0 = 2π ⋅ f 0 = (7) ⎛ 2π ⎞ ω k = k . it must be pointed out.2 Element description Subscripts and (N-1). The diagram page in the element dialog (see Fig. Due to the time The maximal frequency is related to the sampling frequency fs. With the zoom tools the user may analyse whether the aproximation is good enough or a higher oversampling factor is still required. the curve in the diagram is automatically updated. The curves on the right side are a zoom near the peak value of those on the left side. i. Therefore. Ts as defined in (4). However. the frequency resolution or frequency step. to the sampling time sampling. where n and k represent the discrete time tn and discrete frequency ωk respectively and are permitted to range between 0 N is the number of samples.e. N increases and consequently increasing Fourier Source 5 . the FFT results in a periodic sequence of uniformly spaced frequencies with a period fs = 1/ Ts. PF enables the user to specify this ratio by means of the oversampling factor OSF (see Figure 2) defined in (9): OSF = fS 2 ⋅ f max (9) where fmax is the maximal frequency of the spectrum.ω 0 = ⎜ ⎟⋅k ⎜ n ⋅T ⎟ S ⎠ ⎝ As it can be seen from (6).e.
009 0.012 Figure 2: Influence of the oversampling factor. This period corresponds to the inverse of the frequency step defined by the user. This interpolation lets introduce an additional selection criterion for the oversampling factor.40 -1.60 -1.00 0.060 0.100 -2.3 Parameter Definitions Table 1 summarizes the parameter definitions of the Fourier Source Element (ElmFsrc).00 -1. whereas Table 2 shows the output signals.00 -1. the oversampling factor may be determined as following: OSF = 1 2 ⋅ f max ⋅ Tstep (10) 2. the output value of yo is linearly interpolated between those values resulting from the iFFT. Regardless of whether the time discrete output signal yo is a finite-length sequence or a periodic sequence.00 0. It seems reasonably.80 -2.2 Element description 1.000 0.00 -1.080 3rd Armonic with Serie: Output 3rd Armonic with FFT /overspl_10: Output 3rd Armonic with FFT /overspl_20: Output 3rd Armonic with FFT /overspl_30: Output [s] 0.(6) not be in any case smaller than the simulation step size Tstep and therefore. that the sampling time Ts in Eq. For each transient simulation time step. DIgSILENT Fourier Source 6 .011 3rd Armonic with Serie: Output 3rd Armonic with FFT /overspl_10: Output 3rd Armonic with FFT /overspl_20: Output 3rd Armonic with FFT /overspl_30: Output [s] 0.20 0.00 -1.010 0.040 0.020 0. the FFT treats the N samples of yo as though they characterise one period of a periodic sequence.008 0.
2 Element description Table 1: Parameter Definition of the ElmFsrc Parameter Loc_name Dc_com Delta_f Overspl F_min Ampl_ Phase_ Description Name DC – Component Frequency Step Oversampling Factor (only for the FFT option) Minimum Frequency (only for Fourier Series option) Amplitude Phase Unit -Hz -Hz -Grads Table 2: Output signals of the ElmFsrc Parameter Yo Time Description Output signal Time Unit -s Fourier Source 7 .
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