NEW YORK CARL FISCHER 1918 . GARDNER Theory. Author of Essentialsof Musk and of Rhythmic Principles Tonal Notation.o MUSIC A COMPOSITION METHOD OF NEW HARMONY BY CARL E. etc.

N\uS 30b"3 OCT 2t 1918 y Copyright. 191 8 BY CARL New FISCHER York International Copyright Secured .

the student progressionsof the of the modernists learns all the forbidden but when theorists. mechanician. the student and vitality not an in music a removed and usuallybe^ tive conserva- comes. subject has been " taught by of series of rules too ously ingeni- by academicians all spontaneity in the student. period of study the time when. and are of relative values. somewhat of the old enlightened. in This doing. educators have of Modem and psychologists " abandoned the old ways age of teaching It has the method of startingevery student. himself. in make they can One and appreciate of the most enter into the attractiveness is in music conspicuous examples composition. it is to be expected that there will be extremists the creators this of some among of our products of who have and the music. regardless of the mechanism very of the are and with personality come the rudiments be subject at hand. art form.PREFACE. to the combinations turning to the works and even works of the older masters. and Furthermore. subject.the futuristic those and such see a time. the result method and of chords correct artistic. sometimes of the order unintelligible. DuKiNG the past few years the art creations we have in the seen the beginningof arts a reactionary sciences. such art seen as period in At we and teaching of. but artist. was to him disobeyed them of whether not. he is confronted m with parallel perfect . endowed with almost to recognized that to few persons sufficient enthusiasm bridge to over this irksome. which the there is no student no writes after chain of chords meaning. who gave the or and rules. above the bass.and guiding him student his set of so made a series of don^ts which often inhibited to express Instead allowing the student old method in his self woe the expression. "indirect" of teaching harmony consists to to giving the matically" "grampart is construction formulating rules according another. their one progression Usually a The bass given and result is a the student mechanical inclined writes the chords correctness inevitable is mathematically one in which the student than who the will be The more infinitely successful chain no sense who is in All musicallyinclined. but of futility many upheaval is encouraging to of our pedagogicalmethods. For fear that a the pedagogy '^ student a would matical" gram- errors.

The following thesis in mind. In this method. the desired goalsand the prevalent method of teaching is a menace are and then a geniusescapes. he happens to the child to express himself with whatever vocabulary have. be composers. E. the most important. fifths. progressions ad infinUum. of a fourth or fifth in same ei cetera two or more direction.criticism. Grammar be the initialpresentaprocedure. the author hopes to make the studyof harmony not the dry and difficult which so many proclaim but an attractive subject it. has its place in any scheme of results will not be argued. only where the direct method fails because in such places the personal in print. augmented progressions. We children to write letters until such would not think of forbidding our time as they had learned the entire contents of an imabridgedWebster Rather we encourage and had learned allthe rules of English grammar.iv PREFACE. much by a studyof the changesgoing on Music pedagogs can profit of the way of presenting other subjects. "direct" method Our thesis in the of music composition is sure teaching to is. to appreciate. aid. Spontaneity. and appreciation nor interest. and interpret will bringabout such Whether or not the study of music grammar. factor is often necessary. text has been written with the above Rules and don'ts have indirect method been avoided in resorted to so far as seemed The possible. cross-relations.000. in a startling are minority. if. Although there are approximately 450. in this text. in the methods other many have benefited by taking cognizanceof data which modem subjects and pedagogyhave psychology The come. G* Cambudge..000 and Milton 10. unresolved dissonances.000 words in the English used but 15. 191 7 . but allcan be trained cannot All students of composition the works of composers. interest. the work has not failed. Mass. for her sympathetic C. extends his gratitude to his wife. of presentation permit spontaneity subject. Gardner. but the author and appreciation.allow and encourage the student to compose.but its placeshould not necessarily tion.Marion affectionately and suggestions. Shakespeare language. and selfexpression. but geniuses Now to these three qualities. imderstand. alone. believes that The Dillon author no has been such sacrificewill accrue.If the order and manner the object Even of the work has been accomplished. academic considerations are sacrificed to spontaneity. to offer.

The Dominant Qiord Triad. and Inversions.Group VI. The Tonic and Elementary Form i Triad 4 Root Position and I Inversions. Group 2 3 4 14 Exercises. PART I. Ninth. 6 28 Exercises. Ninth. Seventh. Seventh. Group ni. and Inversions.Group Vn. Group The V. Group The Melodic Line 16 17 Group Exercises. Group Exercises. Seventh. 8 9 Exercises. The Mediant Chord 8 40 42 Triad. The Major Seventh Chord Chords 29 30 Sufertonic Triad. IV.CONTENTS. Exercises. Ninth. The SuiBDOMiNANT Position and Root 5 Chord 21 22 Inversions. The Superdominant 7 Chord 35 36 Triad. Seventh. 12 Exercises. Group Exercises. and Inversions. Group Vni. and Inversions. Paob """ Ul To THE Teaches vii xiv Introduction Vocabulary of Chords xiv in the Mixed in the CoD^Miss CoD^Miss Compass Chapter of the Voices of the Voices Quartet xvii String Quartet xviii xviii of the Pianoforte I. Exercises. and Inversions. The Subtonic 9 45 Chord 48 Triad. X. Cadences II. Recapitulation The Minor Mode 11 and 10 52 Suggestions r 54 58 62 Exercises. DC. Exercises. Seventh. Ninth.Group y .

Suspension. Intermezzo. Variation 18 Group Exercises. Group XVI. Melodies from Bach's Exercises Chorals 136 147 Miscellaneous Exeroses on Figured Bass Mode 152 152 152 153 154 154 155 Triads Principal of the Major All the Triads of the Major Mode Triads of the Minor Mode Inversions of the Triads Seventh Chords and Inversions Transition Altered Chords Miscellaneous Appendix D. Appoggiatura. Eleventh and T^ikteenth Chords and Modernities 89 PART Xrv. The Various 14 op Styles Writing loi (Pianoforte. Exercises of 156 156 Technical Terms 159 Definitions . B. Group 17 Exercises. The Rondo and the Episode.) of Duplication Factors 15 107 Exercises. and Tones.vi CONTENTS. Group XV. 116 Introduction.Organ Point. XX. The The Sonata Mixed Form and 128 Free Forms Music. 132 Pot-pourri. 97 100 Transition ^ . Group XIII. XIX. Modulation and 11. Exercises. Form and Coda 117 125 125 127 XVin. Group 12 XII.Orchestra. . Binary and 107 Ternary 16 Forms 107 Exercises. Group XVII. Chapter XI. Alteked 72 Chords with Altered Fifths 73 74 Chords Italian Sixth Chord German French Sixth 76 78 79 Chord Sixth Chord Sixth Chords Additional Augmented 80 82 Neapolitan Sixth Chord Other Altered Chords 13 83 8S Exercises. Compound Non-Chordal Exercises. NeighboringTonej Anticipatory. C.Program Appendix Appendix Appendix A. StringQuartet. Fantasia. Paob Non-Chosdal Tones 64 Pasang. Retardation.

p. the student's places in the exercises. the followingresults obtained ". but tonic.TO The author realizes of THE TEACHER.at firstglance. show in the material. (^^ J.the average will object to the method presentationin the opening chapters. f[m "SH -^- i -"* f -"- J. -""- i ^ i i i n -B"- I f for solo voice with (^. Harrison. in certain first objection will be to the limited scope given the student in the second chapter. W. vu . to the use it may ear be argued that some will desire should other chord no than of other chords there The be objection for by here the student is assertinghimself. teacher The that. possibilities (a. harmonized for four voices with tonic chord. 8. of Boston.) The same arranged accompaniment (tonicchord).) Exercise i.

harmonized for four voices.VIU TO THE TEACHER. ( ^^^^^^^ I 1^ E E ^ fe 1^=^ J 3i ^^ i (a.-i I I tlu' ipittfe ^ c. ^^ x?- :^ -"s^ trt . :g S* r m S- r r 1^ The same arrangedfor piano solo. It Ex. p. S 1 1^ m (S H: I J -^ :"(. 2. 8. -^^^^ifmri'\m'f} rfiri^^ .) Exerdse 2.

^. j V ^_:^ ^ ^I'lh'yi'j/ . ( "l .i////v/fiMi'f ^ J -J.) Exercise 3. (^. harmonized for four voices. p.) The same amnged for solo voice and acoompaniment "^H^H (a.TO THE TEACHER. J:. 8.

p. ^^ I ^ . (5.harmonized for four voices. m Ex. 8. -U ^p ^ ir ^ijW^: f=^ I : r if r f=f I W/'m^ ''i'(W^'i' ivM/^^f/^ LJ^ ^p J J J p . (a. f 11 .TO THE TEACHER. 4.) The same arrangedfor solo roice and accompaniment.) Exercise 4.

^^ ^ f ^=^ 4^Jt all* -""i*"S"a" ^ I " I " " """"" .TO THE TEACHER. ai M fc=t -O. I "^ i ^^ ""5^ -(S2- II i ( ?^ r f" The same f5" #- (5. XI I " i ^ I J .) harmonized for solo voice with accompaniment.

reached the chapterwhich explains Mr. with which Mr. howall students with good comparatively has been tried. expect ever. non-chordal tones appear in some but these are spontaneous and their use should be encouraged before the student has even such tones. justifies of the versions. The same twenty-five lessons than a chapter each of which requires fourteen chapters. triads in secondary by comparison. must objection the three the second triads in principal etc. In spite thirty-five of lecture hours. To be sure.considerable was are all the work logical. The author's class had the difference in the number whole made few mistakes. Harrison is a professional The and such skilled instrumentalist and the average we therefore cannot results from satisfactory has obtained the method student. The S3rstems author believes that the student of have a knowledge of thorough and of intervalsand their inversions. the author gave an class the final examination paper set by Harvard College experimental To prove for the firstyear This be met harmony class of approximately seventy-two hours of hours of lectures.of scales (both theoretical and . and the preparatory ground thoroughly tials of Music Theory covers has or should composition already rhythm. The author's Essen^ practitional).xu TO THE TEACHER. of lectures. chapter. the economy in time of this method. Harrison handled this material ingeniousness the existence of the chapterin its present form. be advanced results from whom A second as objection may that the method text books is not cover as rapid most. devoted to introductory pages found in most the rudiments of music such as of harmony. The average in from fifteen to chord structure and progression text book covers material is covered by this text in chapters.the author's class as and was originality displayed It will be noticed that no are a The class at Harvard has 1914. This arises from the fact that most the the firstchapter. The author. no more in other text books.

xiii such of material within the pages of a text book of composition seems out place. . student has chosen A will These be foimd not melodies for and In harmonization are chosen to from after found to Bach's the are graded 14. designed be used be completed from worked the out Chapter works of Appendix composers B will melodies harmonized various to which are be or according those who directions.TO THE TEACHER. first few each are used in is method perhaps time. In Appendix Chorals. A bass exercises D terms for consists Appendix of these of a list this of technical with for the definitions. in case. the term chosen practically self-explanatory. desire to Appendix supplement terms C the contains melodic graded work.

INTRODUCTION. In affixed to figuresand not augmented of the the original numeration figuringthe altered triads. cipher is affixed The small Roman is affixed to a numeral diminished to denote triad. Triads Major Mode. i vir I iiO of the m+ Form IV VI Triads Ascending of the Melodic i a "^- fe II ^ IV Melodic Minor. i ViO vir I III+ Form of the Triads of the Descending ^ a I ^ ii" III Mode. I V119 . the chords denote Arabic are figured. small figuresdenote to denote Roman minor to a triads. denotes plus sign is interval. it is given for reference. are arrangements and of the chord are factors such most as to show the of the "spellings'* not the necessarily of the effective factor distributions. VOCABULARY OF CHORDS. of whether regardless of the or triads is retained the normal the alteration has changed to formation the triad. IV ^ SL i vn VI Seventh Chords of the Major i C h ^m "7 III7 ^m 1V7 xlv # ^ Th. VI VII" of the Harmonic Minor i a -*5"- ^ 75 1 V Minor. In the followingvocabulary. The student is not The expected chords memorize vocabulary. -^- i 1^ ^ "22L -^- I CI Triads II III IV Mode. an plus sign (+) The an largeRoman also numeral Arabic augmented triad. chord a factors. Large numerals A denote Roman numerals major triads.

of the Melodic Minor. XV s"eventh Chords of the Harmonic Minor Mode. t CIu nil rail ^ct.70 i 17 Chords Seventh of the Ascending Form of the Melodic i a i I7 Chords i II7 of the I m+n IV. vir 9 Ninth Chords of the of the Melodic i a ^ i i" II* m. IV. 11^7 of the V7 Ninth j22. vn. -^Sr VI o I vnOg Ninth of the Harmonic Minor s^ ^ a g I i" ^E in+ 9 IV -"- i 9 n^9 of the o VI viiO 9 Ninth Chords AscendingForm of the Melodic Minor. ^m c u9 Chords ii" nil ^ IV" Mode. i a I lA hi m+7 1V7 1^ Minor. Ig IV7 II ^- Is VI. Major Mode. IJJ VI7 YVP. ]^ Vu -"s- ^1 "nOii rvu viu .INTRODUCTION. h5^ VlO^ VHO7 Seventh DescendingForm i a I^ I7 Chords I III7 Major Mode. Eleventh Chords of the GL i "49 . VI 9 vn. -"s- i a I 9 1 # II 9 m=m=x m+c DescendingForm IV 9 I VjO 9 Minor.

VI IS I. i ^ Inversions of a Triad: 2z: ist inversion. 2nd inversion. m+is Via Vli. vnOj. 2nd inversion. i" "i" Chords rvia Minor Mode. 4fh inversion. 2nd inversion. 3rd inversion. vnO IS Thirteenth of the Harmonic i a H^l-^^ I IS A i ivi.xvi Eleventh Chords INTRODUCTION. -yd inversion. xst inversion. iiOi. of the Harmonic Minor Mode " i a III ""ii Chords of the ni+^u Major Mode ivu Vu VIu VIlOu Thirteenth i "" C ^m "lis ^m Vi. Inversions of a Seventh Chord: ist inversion. i Inversions of Ninth Chord: a f 3: "i9- i i two s "^ -O. are i vx t forma 1 of melodic minor 1 *The eleventh and thirteenthchords of the . -"^ i i ^ "z?" ^ m c i 1 omitted.

lil^llSl Chords with lowered fifths: Augmented Chords: Sixth "th d * etc. T-g p^i" C V "+ I g i-g I" u 1. a ^ii^anO"# a a ii" CtlV7 a#iig J ii""J^ a#iVj "* "# Mixxd "# Qvartbt. U\ c V rr^^ IV.-^ ""^ "1+ '* li'. xvu an Obviously.INTRODUCTION. Bass Compass op thb Voicbs in thb Soprano Ako Tenor ^^ZH i m ^l .^ /" . \A Jft J4^^ r "X'ltCVIt c^C#^ fe NeapoUtui6lli ^ V^ \ % Other altered Chords: Ij{2LJ etc. m isolated eleventh or thirteenth chord is ambiguous its various inversions. ife l"^ (g"ii^ i|g ljig Chords with raised fifths: " etc.

. ^^ Bva alt.XVIU INTRODUCTION. 'CeUo ^ Compass of the I Pianoforte. Compass of the Voices in the String Quartet. VioUn (ist and 2nd)/:zz Viola J52.

complete musical eight long measures or Periods are A sentence is called short less a a period and usually consists of sixteen more or measures. or The Half to Cadence progression of tonic is at subdominant the end of any harmony The dominant harmony. It is used effectively extend normal a The Plagal Cadence This (also called is a Church Cadence. arbitrarily phrases and typicalfigurefollows: theorists call theorists make here. divided figures. is at end of a phrase also to than the the last phrase of length of period. cadence is effective after the final cadence ecclesiastical music. usually VI use IV preferablyin occasionally first inversion. The *Soine construction of into sections. a half a cadence an imperfect cadence. The Authentic to Cadence tonic (alsocalled Final Cadence) is harmony. FORM. period. the Ecclesiastical chord in Cadence. t Some not distinction between Deceptive Cadence and Avoided Cadence. Elementary Form. 4. and 5 in the imperfect chord. phrase Cadence Its effective a phrase other than 3.MUSIC COMPOSITION. 1. use harmony cadence a is called complete cadence. voice when soimds factor 3 or tonic The authentic preceded by subdominant effective 2. CHAPTER CADENCES AND ELEMENTARY I. but this need be considered . of a The of the authentic is is at the end from use period. the The a progression may from dominant authentic chord when is the cadence be its perfector root imperfect* perfectwhen both outer tonic arranged uppermost cadence with in voices. the last period. and Amen to Cadence) progression of subdominant the tonic chord. False Cadence to some Deceptive is a (also called dominant and Avoided other Its a Cadencef) than effective progression from and the harmony other chord I.

Ex. Phrase 2. 6. Period continued. i. Semi-phrase Or Section. \r Semi-phrase. Semi-phrase. ic A i i\^r:r\if!l^\^r^ oommence periodmay upon fractional part of the measure is deducted from the last measure fractional part of a measure. Semi-phrase. ir Phrase 4. T ^v i . ^ mftkW Figi3e.iij:^f"fnirpLU The division of following a is sometimes period Period. i^-j. Section " r Phrase 3. for the commencement required a The of a riod pe- of the period. i. Phrase " 2. Andante Pniod* Section Fhiaae by Mazas.MUSIC COMPOSITION. 2. chosen by theorists: Phrase i. I Period continued.

following diagramdemonstrates: Diagram i. repeating device is called Extended Cadence. Compares in period punctuation. with A constructed period as follows is not Diagram Period of 12 imcommon: 2. not final. " 5 "sy: A E7^ it EBSO "i ^ Fmal Cadence. Cadence. rhythmic grouping.) A periodin the Minuet of Sonata I by Beethoven is added period shows two the above structure but to this twelve-measure Such a measures by the final cadence. coalesce to some extent in the harmonization and but one well marked The other than the final cadence. . The ^:f[^^^ t-^ u 1 "^ 1 1/ f i divisions of such and typical as simple periods are shown in the devices: marked by either or allof the following are preceding examples the smaller and melodic line. should appear. Cadence. Division 3. primitive. Division 2. "u I* ^. Cadence.) (not final. is fragmentary divisions are well marked the composition and therefore the smaller divisions should To avoid a fragmentary efifect. (not final. Division i. Full Cadence in final. Where cadence. cadence.CADENCES AND ELEMENTARY FORM. Compares with semi-colon punctuation. measures.

Period Division 2. 3. These terms may be applied small to two balancing to two balancing divisions. TRIAD.. Like poetry. For an example expansion.e. it is necessary to double one of the triads for four voices. For an example see Beethoven's Sonata. No. 10. Division 3. of the triad. The use of these terms in this sense must not be confused with their use in the structure of the fugue. divisions. The Scherzo from as Beethoven's follows: Sonata III shows a ^teen-measure periodconstructed Diagram I Division i. Its root has are itsthird finality. largedivisions and even to two balancing periods. i. but and fifthhave less finality In tones whollyinactive in this relationship. The and its perfect third {mi). t:itE3 The " A ?T: g a " "a i" 3S as i" iK four-measure third division shows perfectcoalescence been of two groups. . diagrams of the construction CHAPTER THE TONIC n. distinguish and recognize various cadences. The tonic triad in the chord is consonant and inactive in effect. and well marked and less marked The student should also be of to make required various simpleperiods. It is called a major triad. For an example of interpolation. interpolation of expansion. its major major mode consists of the tonic {do). of 16 measures. the divisions of a simplemusical period balanced one are another and the first division is called antecedent and the following against division consequent. Op. writing of the tones must be sounded by two voices. Beethoven's see Sonata. of contraction see Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsodies. fifth {so). structures as Such have considered above may be varied the devices of Exercises. Op. The teacher should to the student require play several periodsof simpleconstruction between pointout the phrases. by and contraction. 10. one i.'3. No.4 MUSIC COMPOSITION.

with frequently be doubled. the triad appears doubled root and doubled third. because of the well established fact that the two can adjacentvoices which interval are tenor and bass. SCSL -^ Second inversion: 12L ^ ^ etc. . =g= -27- sasL -^- -iz.or Voice itisadvisable for the Factor five may In this case. T :i3 -^. jQ-"5"-"9"WPS" -fSr r^"^- jO-9- First inversion: SL SL etc.. ISL Jo:. omitted in major and minor chords.* an i. ties. certain be the other factors may restrictions. Open : or etc. to avoid subtle- of an close position. : Half-open or etc. j The factor of the chord most doubled is the root. la this text the term " " includes close position half-open position.THE TONIC TRIAD. ^ -tsl JQ. :a- Zl jSf.a. with either tripled root. by the largest separated the tonic triad in close position for four voices Various ways of writing root best be with doubled follow: (I Root ^ -"" " :22: h"^ -"fi. musical use affectsthe materially spacing to beginner and result. but. arrangement of voices in which the three upper voices do not exceed the compass Such an arrangement always results in good spacing octave. rffi: 22: -"- -w 12L -^- 12 * Some writers applythe followingterms to the following arrangements : 2z: 3S Close: etc. ^ position: etc.e.

unison.)Beethoven.) Mozart. '^ Our first consideration is a families" will assist the student in these fundamental and progressions be considerations of connections. Symphon t l^yTFlt^ ^ Weber. Voices should not cross.) Rhein t mt use p of the tonic chord An predominates. The student's ear will show readily more desirable arrangements. $ i etc. :etc. (^. The method pursued each chord be made. 8. good soprano to which should be added a harmonic progressions and connections logical good bass. ^s. Ex. 'Cello.No.)Beethoven. Although the above arrangements of the six-fourchord have doubled root. t ^ G Minor -^ and Clarinet. Invention. resorted to until in part writinghas experience gained. {d. are more prominentin outer voices than in inner voices. As we proceed. f " (/) Banner. 8. such as consecutive and concealed filths and octaves. of no however. Fifth Symphony. impor- ^^Granrniatical" errors. the chord is more effectivewith doubled fifth. must by this text of treating of correlating the chords and placingthem in their proper separately. consisting period. From a melodic the standpoint. Star-Spangled i ^ be m ^ Die Wacht am m r^4U J ^ Weber.MUSIC COMPOSITION. Third " Symphony. . 1^^^ I 1^ i^etc. entire other chords than the tonic would often the In all compositions. Sonata letc. chord gives material with which of but a single A vocabulary yery little be done with this material than at first to work. Sonata II. Some ot the above the arrangements sound thin. Motives consisting of the tones of the tonic chord may be found in the following quotations: {a. Although this device been of voices is presentin crossing should not the works of great composers. r I (B. but much more can of various melodic arrangements might be supposed. two outer voices are the most tant. I. Strings (c.) Bach. monotonous.

' X Ex. Ex. following ways quotations which the from standard chord has compositions been handled serve to show in tonic by famous Gounod's Faust ( transcribed from orchestration ). f\i VsRDi's ^ ^ II Trovatore ( transcribed X X from orchestration ). Pl. lO. G. with a cross (x) are non-chordal and are explained in Chapter PoNCHiELLi's X Dance of from the Hours from Gioconda X ( transcribed orchestration \ . 'ill r J'l. ^ I. The tones marked lo.THE TONIC TRIAD The various composers.

French Folk Song. theyshould be hannonized with the tonic chord. each part in playeach exercise singing student may compose melodies founded upon the tonic chord and harmonize them. EnglishGame. The harmonizabe for solo pianoforte. -^ ^ # ("" ^ -$ ^ t5"- I ir"J J J ts' Xli d d I ^ the student should The i9- it ^ ^ # I After the exercises have been criticizedand corrected by the teacher. ^ German Folk 1 Song.8 MUSIC COMPOSITION. ifa i f^f^^ f-J p^"^ i B^m English Game. . melodies should be sung usingthe sol-fa syllables after following tion which. ExERCTSES. s[ny=E^^^ 3. iSfe v^^^- ^ 3E=p: lv^ 1=t r r CI t=|: "*^'-it |"rTj 4. solo voice with pianoforte accompaniment. The teacher's criticism of this original work will do much to clear misunderstandings. Group 1. turn. I. may on The for four voices.

in the bass. be tripled. I. ex. IS. . When must the triad. CHORD. progress Next to either. The 7th scale step (theleadingtone) has strong tendency diatonically to the tonic. frequently third (leading tone) is almost never factor five is omitted in the dominant doubled writing.I. V. to the tonic the tonic and mediant. it midway between Its progression final. The use of the six-four chord on all degrees of the scale should restricted to the isL Where same four progressions: following or preceded and followed by root position first inversion of the 2nd. I|. active factor in the chord fifth of the dominant and it progresses triad progresses supplyingthe third in the tonic triad. major triad and is therefore formed like the tonic triad (with major third and perfect but fifth).: I. I. the The upward The root mediant thereby chord of the dominant a the fifth of the tonic chord root assimies dual character to in the dominant chord. Where the tonic six-four chord precedesthe dominant chord at cadence. le. the chord. to the tonic is more chord in importanceand frequency of occurrence which is foimded upon may is The the dominant dominant chord a the fifth scale step.it may stationary Such The the root tone stationary is called "common tone." of the dominant chord the is the factor most less frequentlyand fifth. etc. I". scale step Situated is characterless (the supertonic) regards to its tendency.with tendency to the tonic chord.: 12. upward The downward The 4th scale step (thesubdominant) has strong tendency diatonically to the third of the tonic triad.CHAPTER THE DOMINANT in. 6th scale step (the submediant or superdominant)has strong in tendency downward The 2nd to the fifth of the tonic triad.This chord is consonant active. ex. the but in an (called "cadencing progression") a progresses the tonic remain upper voice. which is inactive as triad is The leadingtone is the to most normally to the tonic. All the tones triad are of the scale other than those one which or more constitute the tonic of the tones of the active in their tendencytoward tonic triad. dominant triad occurs The second inversion of the less frequently be than the I|. or I. in four voice root doubled.




yd. Where
ex. stepwise,

the bass of the six-four chord is approachedand






4ih. Where
over progressing

the six-four chord




succession of chords
-^" -V


ex. stationary bass,




succession of chords in the firstinversion, it is usually advisable chords and alternating
not be doubled.

to double the root in

the third in the

chords* but the
that the

is not principle

of sufficient to importance

remaining the rule nullify
triad to tonic

tone leading

of the dominant Various arrangements of the progression shown in the following are example.


















the mdodic melodic






imply certain progressions
end of a

For example: progressions. do

at the progression

oi it to composition
All the





harmonizations with triads of possible chromatic alterations) or the above are and vuMV. In the midst V-IV, m-IV V-I, V-vi, vnM, ra-I, m-vi, vn**-vi, the above melodic progression be harmonized V-i but V-vi is frequently of a period, may advisable. Progressions of less frequent vnM, m-I and m:-vi are rence, occurused. In this chapter, and vn"-vi, V-IV, ra-IV and vn"-IV are rarely the dominant implies

tonic harmonies.

melodic progression (without modulation

student should


milydominant and tonic harmonies.





The and

fifthscale step is a factor in both the tonic and dominant
be harmonized therefore,



with either chord.

of Principles

and coherence usually variety govern the choice. of a tone in the melody, it is frequently advisable, Upon the repetition for the sake of variety, tone. to change the harmony upon the repeated A valuable last chord of the dominant Such
a a use

of the tonic six-four chord is upon

the third from the

periodif the melody permits.This chord is followed by

chord which progresses^ to the tonic triad in root six-fourchord may be called a "cadencial six-four."


Ex. 13.

TSr "i9-


i i

The cadendal six-four chord may




be written without its root:

or "^"




as analyzed



chord, may, of

course, be


sixth chord but its

effectis that of the cadendal

six-four. should be avoided in chord

Parallel and consecutive fifthsand octaves See progressions. The
page 23.

following exampleshould

be studied: 17th CenturyChoral.


r r






J i J













Open position may

be used

in the following exercises. occasionally




Exercises, Group









ft f^* j






French Folk











i -1
5. Reharmonize







the exercisesin

Group I,page 8, usingthe dominant
triad will





the tonic.

firstinversion of the dominant

be necessary in most placesbecause the nature of the melodies cause the dominant triad is used in root position. consecutive octaves when The
measure Vo should be used in the penultimate

of each exercise.

The To




triad may be added the seventh (ofthe root) and the resultant All seventh chords are dissonant and chord is called a seventh chord.

active in dissonant The most

varyingdegreesaccordingto structure and character. The factors of a chord are best approached by contrary motion.

seventh chord is the dominant.

of seventh chords with omitted thirds are found in standard by chords in which however.) "V -9-"5"- ic. The the triad with a more student's attention is directed to the fact that root tripled and the triad latter has characteristicthan plaintive the former while the former is more The decided and final. -J5?- Not cases infrequently. 1^T!^ -gy -"-^-fl. Attention from the is further directed to the fact that the tonic chord resulting The resolution is wholly satisfactory above resolution is incomplete. thus: {a.OL "w m no I doublingof factors in a seventh chord is necessary in four voice writing. Its tendencyis greater than that of the dominant seventh. normallyresolves to the tonic triad. The dominant seventh chord seventh. .lack the character possessed compositions. Sevenths in all chords seventh in the dominant The downward.) doubled. The student should avoid this arrangement until experience has been gained. fifthin the seventh chord may be omitted and the root in which case the resultant tonic triad will be complete. -i9-(9-or -^- isr ^ or -lar . Notice however. (leading an resolves to the tonic but in upper it may voice. the dissonant chord resolves to the third of the tonic triad.) 3: "i9tS?- -1^ ^ etc.Such chords. (3. The root in the bass tone) resolves upward diatonically.THE DOMINANT CHORD. remain stationary.) (d. where improvedvoice leading the third is not omitted but their use is justified thereby in part writing results. the ear supplies The the differencein effectbetween with doubled root. normallyresolve diatonically The triad because of the additional active factor. 13 The dominant seventh chord is fonned with major triad and minor and isthe onlychord thus formed. The third fifthis free to resolve either up or down diatonically. the missing fifthin the tonic triad.

2. V. . (c. Resolve the dominant seventh chord to and incomplete) (complete the tonic triad in all major keys. 3.) m " /9- a m I D ^ .) g"'^ -^- i ^ " g"-ig" C g"- i the w mM Bb * " i a " I| V7 I h G I V- I 4.) dominant incomplete (a. J.9- [ I PF ""-' VJ 1" I 1^ r T f i I i fe fe F=f n P le Group f 12 ExERasES. V.) seventh chord: (b. II " s"- CI| 3. 18. G IJ V7 V Fill in the bass and tenor in the usingthe following progressions. i^ Ex. Fill in the upper voices in the (fi. 1.) (a. II . . 125 i " n-i Jlj _a.. Harmonize seventh chord melodic fragmentsusing the dominant following completeor incomplete: ^. the following Study carefully example.) "i9 progressions: following (c.14 MUSIC COMPOSITION. ^- ^J g r J r " J T^TT 1 i T r J ' r J i I i r V".o - - . II ^' . ^ r Vt S t"-i " .

sions occa- Study factors may and compare (^') (b) be omitted the resolutions: following (^") -d2- id. fifth. the above manner. fS?- -"-"- jSL -J5J- -f9-fi?"25^ -"- jSl etc. chords are the ninth (ofthe root)and the All ninth chords-are dissonant active. would sound fragmentaryand "choppy'* material for because of the final cadences of the dominant which result from the resolution to tonic seventh and ninth chords. 19. dominant is. The To any seventh chord Dominant Ninth Chord. The writing less frequently the seventh two factor most and omitted frequently the third. diatonically same major mode is a major ninth and factors of the dominant rem.aining as ninth chord resolve in the ninth chord in the seventh chord. their tendency(downward diatonically). in close Ninth more usually The position.) " i Ex. must The when contains five factors. Harmonize the following melody: F. however. have all the tones of the diatonic melodies containing harmonizing that the fourth and sixth scale steps progress according scale providing Such melodies harmonized in to. On occasionally and the root doubled.THE DOMINANT CHORD. The ninth of the dominant in the The manner resolves downward.by effective in open position far. one of which be omitted is the rare for four voices. Schubert.the most frequently used ninth chord. resultant chord and than be added may is called a ninth chord. . IS S. V9 8 V? ^ a All the tones of the scale have of the chords which now appearedas factors in we one now or more have thus far been and considered.

i6 MUSIC COMPOSITION.) {^') i C 22: m C I Vn the ^^ F 12 V. . Fillin the upper voices in the (*) following progressions: (":. It is more a pulse. (VJ)frequently sion The second inver- (Vt) is less restricted upon a approachthan is the second inversion is an a triad and may resolve to either I or I". or Resolve the dominant ninth chord in open close position to the tonic triad in all major keys.) I D g g 1^ I E mm 12 Vp I C I Vn : IJ V" 3. Group 1. Inversions of Dominant Seventh Chord. are The and dominant seventh chord has three inversions which notated in figured the following example: -(9iS"- m jOL ^m "". The use of the third inverhomophonicstyle strong pulsethan upon weak does noty of course.) the the dominant ninth chord following using fragments (*. Exercises. The inversions of the ninth chord do not occur conunonlyalthough theymay be used effectively. of occurs. The firstand second inversions used in may be used upon the finalcadence but they are less frequently sion than in pol)rphonic style. same manner as factors resolve in the inversions in the in root The position. 2.l-^-H n A factor should seldom be omitted in The inversion first vi an inverted seventh chord. 12 V. Harmonize (tf. 4. The third inversion (V2) effective upon effectivedissonant and resolves to le. result in finality.

3rd inversion. introduced with judiciously A good melodic lineis produced by diatonic progression ik^ and chromatic steps. 23. :^ L i Fixed unison.) {b. (". -^9- 4th inversion. :sL {c. 17 w jO^ JQ. 24. ist i '^- -ZSL I etc. But this is a dissonant. 22. -"2. ^ -"?- i is desirable: Hence. -"?- I 'O IS to a fixed The student should avoid a dissonant resolving unison: i Ex.THE DOMINANT CHORD. "^- m Si -^- J^.) -"- -jSL 11^. Ex.devoid of monotony but uniformlyconstructed.) ^^ 2nd inversion. Bach. the use of open for inverted position ninth chords i Ex. inversion."i2- -ffl. U3 he: -"5"- I :s: y ^t 5z: -^- i Composershave resolved must leading accompany a dissonant to a a voice fixed unison but skillful such progression. passing The Melodic Line. . .

and to any tone usuallyimply an obligation to return remarks apply only to harmonic progressions and not to cases All the foregoing where of the same skipsare made in a voice part during the repetitions harmony. Skips to the sixth or fourth scale stepsare safer when made from below. therefore.x8 Smooth MUSIC COMPOSITION. however. whole.therefore. the use melody is produced by diatonic or chromatic progression but such progression used exclusively becomes monotonous and should. orchestration). The frequency of the occurrence of skips dependsupon the character a of the compositionas and effect. wide leapsin any direction within the interval of the leap. are. scale should seldom figure on turn on or the seventh scale step and a downward scale figure should seldom turn the sixth fourth scale steps. the tendencies of active scale steps are increased when approached along the scale line in the same direction as their resolutions.upon the of the melodic tones. 25. In general. A skip from above increases the tendency of the leadingtone to resolve upward to the tonic. upward for striving a thematic voice part when therefore. upon the particular Skipsin a melodic line produce a rugged and vigorous effect and a adapted to When strong bass part in a rhythmicallywell-marked is in rugged style a composition as the tendencies of the scale steps must be good melodic line. of Quotations follow showing applications the tonic and dominant chords. an and. of the active scale steps normalizes their tendencies. the tendency of the seventh scale figure overcome may the scale step and an upward scale figure of the sixth or fourth overcome tendency may scale step.upon rapidity the desired voice part in hand. Skips to the leadingtone should seldom be made from below but from above. Skips from below will be found in compositionsbut these require careful manipulation. f f .or to a opposed to a lyrical style. X Ex. in which case an increased tendency results. On the other hand. From Gounod's Faust from (trans. be alleviated by of skips. composition. A downward borne in mind. Sustentation. D I I ^ fTTif J"IT- I t^ ^ I f fi.

19 XX X dp W^ ( :^=?c EH S t=t =T o o i '^1 ' I r ^ rfi iff c**it-" J ' ' II "te i i ^.THE DOMINANT CHORD. J If Mascagni's from (trans. CavalUria " " 11 From Rusticana orchestration). .

""11 ? "s' "- . 27. '^ i ^ w " i ^a ^ sfe^ I==tI " " " I "" b=^ b 1 X ^^\fl^^ P^N fcrf: "X t [^ " m|. t=t S ^^ ""S*-r "^ ^ ^ O O " ^ d te " H It- c r cif^^ ii ^tf From Bizet's Carmen from orchestration). (transc Ex.30 MUSIC COMPOSITION.

add two more 5. Resolve the dominant seventh chord in its third inversion in all major keys. Resolve the dominant seventh chord in its second inversion to the tonic triad in all major keys.THE DOMINANT CHORD. (transc. Group f . 2. 28. Resolve the dominant seventh chord in its firstinversion (VJ) to (Vf) the tonic triad in all major keys. ExERasES. Ex. 21 From BsLLiNi's Norma from orchestration). the tonic triad (lo) 4. 5. To the following and bass)and resolve them to five-voicetonic chords: voices (tenor . three-voice chords. Fillin the upper voices in the (*. (Va) to 3.) ^ o (") ^^^fi" Eb lt3E Bb -^Sh im C -^- "JBL -^- ISL -^- H Vo I Vo I Vg lo Vg L * Vji le V. " I ist inv. 3rd inv.) following progressions: {c. 4th inv.

like the tonic and the dominant triads. The subdominant a scale step) its major third and major triad and consists of root (fourth chord but not final. use the dominant seventh or ninth chord in the firstinversion in the measure penultimate of each exercise. and flexibility the above progressions are. of course. The fourth and sixth scale stepsdo not. 3rd inv. Rehannonize root pos. 6. fifth. Neither is it obligatory normal alwaysfollow their or theymay upward diatonically sometimes even advisable to harmonize their normal these tones with dominant harmony when they follow tendency. by means. CHAPTER THE SUBDOMINANT IV. (^0 (^) (^0 ^^ee\\ ^^-^^^=Mi C Vq C Vq C root Vg pos. namely the subdominant chord and the chord. Its root and the active fourth and sixth scale steps respectively. Common subdominant the most in other connections has giventhe no triad common. . therefore. the exercises in Group I.page 8. They may progress nor progress by skip. progression triad would be to the tonic thus: triad. chords with which both the fourth and sixth There are two important scale steps may be harmonized. It is a consonant its perfect althoughit has not which the definite activity third are characterizes the dominant triad. tendency. We deduct that the logical of the subdominant would. ^ "s: -^- 32: ^ or ^^ To root : position -^9- i5"- 22: m IV IV ^d IV in the above The last progression of use hymns and called the Amen example is often appended at the close Cadence or the Plagal Close. supertonic triad is. CHORD.12 MUSIC COMPOSITION. the firstof which is to be considered in this chapter.

even It is from this concurrence of two keys that the discordance arises. when in succession. thus: scale of C an upper part i Ex. "7S-i9 . conjunct. objectionable student will notice that in the for this harshness[j|was due to the fact that "the upper thought the reason while in if to the lower another. Concealed fifths. the movement of the parts. "i9- S 15L . Various of IV-V progressions shown in following example. because they sound similar to consecutive fifths. etc.fiL i IV 22: "rr -i9-(9- I IV V- IV Vo IV V. this is always the case chords are situated a second or a seventh apart and in such progressions "fifths" and "octaves" frequently arise.) -^- (O -f9- w i^ . "^ octaves s: 32: -^-"- SL I one etc.THE SUBDOMINANT CHORD. (*. several fifths as. . # Ex. triad to the dominant progression where the roots of there is no common tone. St. 33 triad is its progression are A the more idiomatic of the progression subdominant to the dominant chord.^Z. ^ f9- 1Z." Consecutive fifthshavq is disjunct. and. objectionable arise when motion to a any voices progress thus: fifth.22. 82. SO. the one moves key part progresses be added which givesa perfect fifthat each measure.. the other in G.insteadof being the discordance none the less exists.. the prohibition to introduce consequently.OL I itfollows that one ^ "" ^ ^"75 s: -^ ^- part willbe in C. -""^- . Consecutive a and unisons a are objectionable only because their use converts * four voice into progression three voice progression with of the melodies doubled. perfect two from any interval other than a fifthin parallel Ex. -Gf- 1^ . in For example. been used effectively by great composers but should be avoided by the student. objectionable The Consecutive fifths are Cherubim because they often sound harsh and primitive.

may be When the tonic is repeated the harmony may change. Concealed fifths and dghths as a between chords having a common tone are not. arisewhen Concealed octaves. harmonizations of diatonic mekxiies with the vocabulary guidance to logical of chords thus far given. although. Like the tonic and dominant the subdominant triads. S3. thus: Ex. however. frequently the restrictionsas the V2* are onlymajor triads in the major mode. especially voices. such as the leading Factors havingstrong tendency tone. the following text will serve.it is usually advisable (where pracobjecticmable. with The tonic i^do) harmonized other the tonic or the subdominant triad. As a The three triads which have been considered do should be harmonized be harmonized with usually the tonic triad when itis precededby dominant harmony. rule. It should . They are are Triads also the Primary Triads. sextet and quintet composition. although with the tonic triad. such a progresaicm is found in the works of standard writers.consecutive and concealed Obviously. sevenths and ninths in chords. is true. froin voices two progress any interval other than an octave in paralld any an motion to octave.in some cases. This principle arisesfrom the fact that dominant harmony followed by subdominant harmony is seldom effective. octaves and unisons through the reinforcement of melodies and chord factors by one or more The same of pianc^orte.should not be doubled in four- part writing. ^ etc -"r -^-jy -i^ -jgr -^- in orchestral writing. second inversion is subject to the same more used. objectionaUe because they soond similar to consecutive octaves.and.be sacrificed to this principle. one triad has two The the firstinversion beingthe inversions. As first or last tone of a melody. Pages in often called the Principal standard works can be found containing few. arising for the present. position. compass should not. in a lesserdegree. Harmonic vdce leading and spacing. no other chords than those thus far considered. tical) to in outer avoid them. allthe tones of the major scale and They comprise therefore sufficientto harmonize any diatonic melody. Consecutive by leading fifths avoided by doubling and octaves may also be advantageously some factor other than the root in one or both of the chords of the progression. abound instruments.24 MUSIC COMPOSITION.it will be remembered. the upper voices in contrarymotion to the bass. Consecutive root fifths and octaves are avoided between two chords in the roots of which are situated a second or a seventh apart.

tone (tt) 1^ The leading Tones which skq" in a melody are usuallyharmonized with the same harmony subdominant this cannot be as successfully done now although of chords. Otherwise it should be harmonized with subdominant harmony. 6 IVe seventh triad.THE SUBDOMINANT CHORD. exception Do may be harmonized with tonic harmony in the above The above mdodic V-IV. of melody because of the ineffectiveness be harmcmized as fragmentwould therefore ^ ^ Ex. is harmonized with dominant harmony. progression foflows: V-I-IV-IV. The dcmiinant (so)may be harmcmized with either tonic or dominant harmony. ^ a "B"CMiM of tlM vm praftnbloto thatc diords of tli*rvsolotioii to tonic of thi domiuint fiaaUty diord tpvinglyotoept as tliaponnltiaata and ninth chorda^ It !" period. It (see be harmonized harmony in allits progressions. or is harmonized The supertonic (re) The mediant The with dominant with tonic ninth chord. "S Bach. it descends diatonically may may be harmonized with with dominant footnote below). vocabulary oomplcte as later when the student has the C IV- In cases similar to the following an is made. IV serath of a r i etc. . When so is repeatedthe harmony may change.* (mi) is harmonized subdominant seventh or (fa)wherever ninth chord harmony. or ^ J. be harmonized with wherever it descends diatonically The superdominant (la) may dominant ninth chord (seefootnote below).

where all the tones of the skipsdo not belongto occur Passages with skips frequently in chord which be grouped logically.do should be harmonized be harwith dominant.26 MUSIC COMPOSITION. etc. fragment: If a m The can be harmonized as follows: I-rV-IV-rV or I-I-IV-IV. be harmonized preceding phrase on the dominant In a progression of successive sixth chords. they must such For the and good chord progression melodic example. progression The should following quotations be studied. Ex. 87. do may monized . following melodic fragment: -j)^r^Jcommences on is governed not -only by phrase consideration but by the consideration of chord progression. the former harmonization phrase commences upon tion new phrase commences upon the third quarter.either harmonization is available. new if a is available. the latter harmonizathe midst if the fragment is in preferable. of a phrase.with subdominant. is the second quarter note.it is usuallyadvisable to double the third be doubled Fifths may in alternating chords and the root in the remaining chords. In the midst monized with tonic harmony if the preceding so is harof a phrase.Principles of phrasing the same case. but if so is harmonized with tonic harmony. do may new do and so finishes a if voice leadingprofits thereby. following govern passages. If a with subdominant. in such a phrase chord. carefully Belli Ni*s Norma. .

and bass. exphraseending is usually preferable of course.avoided in all the parts. alto." use of inversions. Bach. of writing. The followingarrangement with doubled third is good: i 9^ nant ^ " ' -^- jSk.are good. The bass should be good chord progression that is. S. for "fifths" and "octaves. Augmented skips(^\ J - -f9- \ should be. phraseof a period. and ninths are not to be the leading tone. The inner voices should be made with interestingis melodically ble compati- and coherence. wholly soprano. Because of the tonic chord. not too "skippy. page as $). sevenths. is available position) In as for voices." This necessitates the frequent "flowing. frequently then the third. diminished skips ^m tone need however. -"2- phrasesin a melody before it. for the present. tenor. A subdominant endingis not often harmonizing phrase able. it is advisable to write almost At this time. upon upon a ninth chord. tonic and dominant phrase endings are availdesirable." the Remember that the root is the factor most next doubled. this style dispersed harmony (open as well close as position(see footnote. resolve within the not The second tone of a diminished The skipshould usually common stepwise: skip ^^Watch off the be retained unless desired.THE SUBDOMINANT CHORD. J7 J. fifth.a domjof the finality It is advisable to mark where the melody permits cept. doubled. The dominant triad seventh or to the dominant phrase endingis usually preferable the last .

Jl| t l^fiX'J E J Jlr I r f I ji'' f^ J ii|J f J J ij -.N-f-J r J ^ 4. Folk Song. ^4 I ^ J J ^ o fE.a8 music composition. Exercises. 3. ^^^^^ \i . . l^t'jJiiNjjIr^ . H. English Folk Song. Asoending major scale. ^ II Transpose to Gemuui all major keys. BKRTtin. Group t " 6. \" ^ . French Folk Song. Andante espressivo.

tonic and ninth chords are less useful than seventh The those first seven exercises with in to work desiring Appendix given bass. that each melody The "singable. be harmonized. Write page the complete Cadence sometimes the ninth." seventh a melodies is should then chord.) (^. Its cadencing resolution is not very (^. however.to These chord compass. the result of passing subdominant part of the harmonic even Unaltered chords.5"- i VIlO IV7 This chord is not VllO IV7 YIlO IV7 VllO IV7 available at present. the seventh. the dominant triad. chord harsh dissonant.) (^0 i Doubted Tone.sometimes several diatonic to and The to melodies. It is a subdominant and therefore an uncommon major seventh satisfactory. -o " s or as a Major tones seventh than as a chords occur more frequently as passing chords architecture. tion atten- phrase grouping and is balance. leas unsatisfactory. -49- ZSL ja. voice the judiciousmixing of stepwise Be sure with progression skips. chord is constructed chord. should compose i). leading Ton I ''i I "2^ \" A'' ^ ' H etc. 29 6. h5" 1 "9 1 . pa3dng etc. Use sometimes student (IV V I) in all major keys (seeCadences. C may now be worked out by . ^ gp I ^ -tS^ ej -fSr I etc.THE SUBDOMINANT CHORD. like the subdominant Its and The are tonic seventh the above remarks is what some- to the tonic seventh applicable cadencing resdution.

It is a consonant* be the root or triads. would suppose we triad. The three chords secondary may be being called by the same namely. The most use is with the third in the soprano." the three principal names as chords.) ^ ^ ^^ m i "V -9- is- II I II I u I" The and a a student will notice that in the first progression. a paraUel octave fifthresult. thus: of the (". preceding chord supertonic doubled. .JO CHAPTER THE SUPERTONIC V.dominant. preceding factor three triads. tonic. and subdominant. The supertonic triad di"Fersin structure from considered. It consists of root a the groupedinto three main "families. Upon examiningthe factors of the supertonic that its natural tendencywould be to the tonic triad. The faulty from Bach show good examples of progression n-I. In this chapter we enter upon the studyof the chord first to belonging the so-called "secondary" chords. CHORD.) z: (c. but unlike doubled.) (^. The chord supertonic fore the three triads hereto- its minor third and its perfect (re) chord but active. freely thirds in minor triads are better than in major triads. following quotations *Tlie minor triad ia as accepted a consonance by the modern ear. to the subdominant belongs family. Doubled effective the fifthmay may be fifthand is called Like the the minor triad. and parallel in the second doubled third in the tonic triad fifth and a parallel progression result. The third progression is not although it results in a doubled third in the tonic triad.

fifthbelow)the root of the first The of the progression is the supermost tonic chord resultsin the n-V.makes the cadencing progression. in the factors in the upper voices to remain stationary the bass. II of the supertonic chord to dominant harmony progression of the subis to the same harmony as the idiomatic progression between the supertonic and a relationship dominant.thus establishing them in the same subdominant chords and placing family group. fi I "g -^II flg rt/: "g- I I V 1 II V 1 II The following example demonstrates triad may become the factors of the tonic superdominant in the ninth factors chord by aUowing how while the root. 3. The exercises in group 6 should be be harmonized scale step (re) now may The "S"" Xn It Chapter idiomatic again harmonized.THE SUPERTONIC CHORD. therebysimplydela3ring chord. A natural to another chord the root of which a chords is the so-called in which a is situated This chord gresses profourth above (or a chord.* supertonic scale tendencies of the factors in the -% " g-F I "" 2Z ^ -^- I ^ =-"^g g^ ^- etc. the t riad inversions of are supertonic governed by the same ^The further as the inversions of other chords and therefore need no principles explanation. progression of the supertonic chord cadencingprogression Common use one used. with V or The second be har- u. for a largenumber of progression is one This progression cadencingprogression. frequently its factors and has allbut upset the scale tendencies of giventhe chord as a whole a tendency to dominant turn harmony which in resolves to the tonic. Fa may .

Notice that the seventh in the to the diord. 46. :^ I or # -a- i 22: -ZL 3: I etc.32 MUSIC COMPOSITION. by the skq" in the resolves upward diatonically voice may remain in an ui^r but stationary (a. IV be harmonized or n to according its progression. to according La with Vq. itsroot of a third. This very useful and minor commonly used chord is formed by addingthe triad: supertonic seventh of the root to the i It is a dissonant and active chord. * ninth supertonic Its structure chord than the dominant less frequently and resolution follow.) m Ex. y. cadencing (^. position.r+^ % I 9i g I etc I "7 "^9- I occurs "^9- "7 II7 "7 The ninth.) w -"" g JSL. I "7 2: I seventh "7 The supertonic seventh chord may or also resolve to the dominant ninth chord. with may V79 Vo. monized etc.) bass^it makes (^. IV or n its progression. . Its normal resolution is to the dominant chord and resolution) (cadendng resolution V7-I. resolves downward or upon paper. looks no differentfrom the Its seventh resolves downward its fifth diatonically.* downward its third diatonically.) the progression.) ic. position. its normal downward chord is the inactivetonic bnt as a dissonant seventh in the tapertonic is destroyed and it becomes an active tone with a tendency diatotdcallj immobility active leading tone. ^1 m jOL -^- i 117 JOL. The Supertonic Seventh Chord. etc. (^. Ig g.

49.) IS z: # Is i ^ etc.)4th inversion.) 2nd inversion.)3rd inversion. s Ex. frequently Resolutions follow: (a./^ -u jx ^.THE SUPERTONIC CHORD. : g g ^ I ^ "g ^ iijV litV7 iiaVo ninth supertonic chord do not ^ ii^ iijV The iiS Va Vg inversions of the occur.) 3rd inversion. ^^ etc. -^-^- S i -tf"- "Z?" "Z?- i n" IQ T -"" ii( X*0 Tfl i5"III AIQ 'e i III **0 i ^^ The chord supertonic ni-n are may I-n and not the progressions although IV-n is better than profrequent. XX .) ist inversion. -fS-Gh {b. The inversions of the (a. 33 W (*) (":. (^.)2nd be artificiall accented. inversion. chord follow: (c. . ^ir/ (transcnbed). 4S- ^ ^ etc. follow: Quotations ^ ^ Balfe's X . JSL- :^ 22: etc. 3: s-"""" I i ^S.) ist inversion. Progression gression follow any triad n-I V. (^. z " Bohemtan . -"^ In a succession of dissonant chords be usually on the strongest dissonant chord measure or should the strongestbeat of the seventh supertonic (d.

Ho GavotU. A . " I ?i V.CoULUi W\M''S'i I 11J117V . .34 MUSIC COMPOSITION.

.THE SUPERTONIC CHORD. final cadences n-V-I. 3 J J Jll' J g s Adapted from Br/iHMS. Group K 7. i'i ijh^ii. iz=" d ^ f ^ (i Write ist. J^ Itf^*^' t "^- J J J I p ^^ te 2. in all major keys as follows: 2fid. 35 Exercises. 4ih. Ht-V-I. Adapted from Bkbthovbn. Brahms. Ht-Vt-I. Ht-Vo-I. ^ ^ 1-^ J IJ ^s J i . II nr-^TrJ^TqiigJi^^ir^ J.n\i Adapted i from he Schumann. yd.

superdominant in the midst of phrases. the tonic in the above phraseendingwith The effective position of the triad superdominant is with its and third in the soprano.36 CHAPTER THE SUPERDOMINANT VI. the chord is weak with itsfifthin the soprano should seldom be used with its root in the soprano. following id. like the supertonic upon the sixth scale step is." We is not have seen that the alwaysdesirable as V-I has finality and consequently progression a phrase ending excq"tfor the last phrase. . as however.) qP ^ ^ ^ I g" rtf ^ I--"L " fi"s is 1 SC^ : ^- II etc. It belongs and is very useful to the tonic family* V-vi phrase. jGL V VI V VI V7 VI Vq VI of the dominant The resolution is the most chord. * A few theorists placethis chord in the subdomioant in placed that bat funiljr. it is herein '"stitute family. and progressions be preceded gression VI may by I. we vocabulary. Progression forms '^ as the last chord of a a Deceptive Cadence. CHORD. . * seventh chord to the triad superdominant dominant seventh resolution of the non-cadencing important triad is not restricted It occurs to the above use. triad.A. If. ProThe I-vi is better than vi-I. vi-I should be avoided. n or V and occasionally by m or IV. Various of progressions V-vi are shown (c. The triad secondary a minor triad.) in the example. a phrase ended heretofore necessary Now may to follows: because ^^ of the as a it was harmonize and it with V-I of infrequency V-IV progression harmonize most the undesirableness of IV with the addition of the triad to superdominant our phraseending.) (t. vi. frequently vi-V and vi-IV are available. as it is more commooljrused as " for the tonic chord.A normal progression of vi is to n.

In where we hear the superdominant seventh chord. 66. The cadencingprogression of the superdominant seventh chord is to the supertonic chord. It is constructed like the seventh chord (minortriad and minor seventh). a 1% of vi2 is quoted from non-cadendng progression Bach Choral: Ex. many Its as it were. u YI7 u YI7 II YI7 117 YI7 117 The of the cadencing progression inversions foUow: VlJ A II Yl| II VI.thus: be TL. cases we hover. 37 triad need no explanation. supertonic Progression V-vi isbest with both chords in root position. The invendoiis of the tendency to suggest modulation.THE SUPERDOMINANT CHORD. Because of supertonic the frequent its use oLthis seventh chord formation as a supert"mic chord. between two to keys. . The superdominant less frequently than the ^venth chord occurs dominant and supertonic seventh chords. cadencing progression a majortriad use on other scale has degrees a effectuates a modulation may but its cadencing to progression a minor triad in such a manner as to retain the original manipulated tonality.

and rarely the seventh scale stq" where it descends descends diatonically. IlJ V- ninth superdominant foUow: ingprogressions The use of the chord* is not common. II Vli "7 VI. (d. . and sixth scale steps additional chord for harmonizing third. VI.quoted from the same choral: VI. The foUowingquotations The addition of the *Samt theoristscoosldNr tht tonic seventh chord t ninth chord without sopefdominant root. (a.38 A MUSIC COMPOSITION. II" The Their ninth superdominant foUow: cadencing progressions inversions of the chord are used. Cadenc- Ex. should be carefully studied.occasionally (seldomthe latter. (^.) ist inversion. rarely and inversion.) chord to our vocabuJary superdominant an gives the first.)4th inversion. (c) 3rdinversion. of VI9 cadencing progression is. the fifthscale stq" where it however). diatonically.

Ex. ei. Dxcius Ex. IJ t (i6th Century). N. . f i :" ^ ^ Ail t: (g r Notice two fourth or i VI ? N. ^ ^ ?2: -C.S.THE SUPERDOMINANT CHORD. / r r Ia \1 3i i n M ^m ^^ i 1 i ' i ^ I IV V^" VI Vo(l7)n"f Yj V. Most direction in any voice part should be avoided for the theoristsforbid such skips but they are foimd in many works. /c\ ^ ::^ -fi. Bach. 60. i ^ IVa lo i V^ IV(7. e^"esame dallyin the woriu of modem composers. f MX" VI i r of a skips of a fourth skips a in the bass in measure 5 and 6. Two or more of fifthin the present.B. /T\ i -C. 39 ).

J. Group 8. Haydn. . A A I F i r f r VI r i4 f ^ ExERasES. JiJ^^ r r jN J J JM- JiJ r r nr r ). /T\ i^i' f' J. Dachstbim (i6th Centmy). 1.MUSIC COMPOSITION. I r J. ' j^' r A r J. Franz Schubb"t. jij i "! fir r J|JJ J Ji*". W. ' f' " J.

Bach. i4"j J j3iJ^Paa^-a f^^ i^"f^'Jir tP- i m Lr^r 01 ^iffcir r JJi j3|J*rJiLrf ^^ J.''J|J n JOHAMNKS BftAHMS. 41 F."ficiZf E Jir ri^'^u Jir rM JiJ. J'J l. Bach. " J. S. 5^^ M * II.J i g feE ^ ijf"*JjmJ|. If rff JiJ J r rir r -' 1 4. BfKf dblssdhn-Baktholdt.i.THE SUP"RtK)MINANT CHORD.. . S.

preceding secondary triad is consonant but third and.like the two islessconmion triads. It belongs to the dominant family and progresses normally to the tonic.4" MUSIC COMPOSITION. the key of the relative minor m-vi progressioii m elodic in its descending fonn. gested The . CHORD. Progressions to the tonic follow: family 25: S i etc. This minor use t^an that of the other triads. -lo- m HI 32: VI i is 8ii|^- III has tonal ambiguity. CHAPTER THE MEDIANT VII. The mediant with minor active. It does the dominant chord at the finalcadence although not frequently displace it was used in this manner in the Romantic Period. Its triad is formed. perfect fifth.

y (*. (". 'i9- :SL ZSZ3 i ^^^" !*"~^"W^BIP . 2: s: zz: 22: i 1117 1117 1117 The inversionsof the mediant seventh chord with follow: resolution cadencing * m s: ^ -fi" "J etc.) (c.) i etc. Its cadendng resolution commonly as the supertonic chord. 43 The inversions of the triad follow: Bach.THE MEDIANT CHORD. IS to the superdominant ia. 1^ I i "% iii2 seventh chord I Vfl ni" VI V" The mediant is formed with minor seventh like the and superdominant seventh chords.) 22: -^- seventh chord is to the (*. i "x. It is somewhat more supertonic useful than the superdominant seventh chord but does not occur as seventh chord.) (O etc 1117 n 1117 VI 1117 Yi resolution of the mediant A useful non-cadencing tonic.

) commonly used. ISt ^^ 2nd inversion. inversion.) ii\ 22 ^ K. IIIq vi y I rt 2: UIq yi IIIq Tig IIIq ViJ quotations. Study the foUowing Bach. fi\i. (c) Its cadencing resolution (*. =^ fif ^^ I I 3rd inversion. Bach. Ex. m 5tlis. 22: I i IIIq The inversions of the mediant ninth chord foUow: id) -^- "3^ " Ex. The mediant ninth chord is not follows: (a.^ V^ iii^vi . -g- i IIIq ^1 yi7 IIIq vi IIIo TI Its tonic resolution foUows: 221 i " ^ i etc.. 4th inversion. f'"^frTrr.44 MUSIC COMPOSITION. 70. '^ etc.

B. " r J Ji r'r VI J :^=sz: j. I. or vi and occasionally by n IV. V. 72.j j.a.THE MEDIANT CHORD. S. . / ^ i I VI =. It progresses to any chord.j i^ " jO.j j. ^ II r Sfi/ III RoSENMULLER (17th Century). i Ex. J. i ^ I f ^m . Bach.^=^ 1 I V"/ g" "g i 'I I V" III II" The mediant or chord may be preceded by I. ^ 2. m Ex. Bach. Groxtp 9. 3^ ^ f J J U J J nr J P f 1 " 3 f i I i f"=f VI ^ (i N. 73. Sfi/ m. S. Progression gress prooccasionally best to vi. 45 Early i8th Century Choral. Exercises. E ^^ I J. or IV and may V-ra is better than ra-V.

^^-4^ r t^ J Jij J J J ' "'^^ /C\ ^^ Decius. 19- -^ ^ -"$^ i9""- 221 -^ i X z^ From -i9- a choral of the 17thCentury. E^ -^-"S'- -"!5"- -""- ns ^ 8. tf^ I^xGll 7. ^^ 6. Bach. ^AJ4J [f 5. S. i 3 -"s"- :^ "^ 3 at- ? an From old choral. t=t -"5ii"fi ?!^ F=* ^ /C\ J JJ J If'' 3 -^" " -tf* 3^ i i i ROSENMULLB^. zz ^ i . m r If rsf F r r r i=F r rif r r r i iW\ I "rr r r ir*n 4. J.46 MUSIC COMPOSITION. " rg eJ 15"- ? /5N E E lr-1" "g' t g.

/9S ^^ 1 1. ^^ ^^ 12. iI E g" gi fr^ c" A ^ " "gi^ " ^ ^ /T\ i I -tf^ /T\ ^3 -^ ^ "(9- t^ 1=t :s: -"5"- I GOUDIMEL. I t=\. 47 O. From /5S a choral of the i6th Century. -i9 fi"- J J|JJjJ "^If fM'^ From a "(9- a choral of the z/th Century. /TS JIJ^ ^)r. " t g s 1^- E 5^ ^ .THE MEDIANT CHORD.] J "i9 "^ E) e) -^ ISL t=|: E g* "I 3 -"S" ^ g^ -"5'-r I Century. -II. 10. From a choral of the i6th 15"- f Rf^ /T\ ? ^ 3 /T\ i -Til' "^ 3 -75^ -"Sl g^ ^ E^ \ " " ^^ fi* P 13. ^b 16. J -S^- . ^ Major ?z: ^ "^ Jrif Jir rifi-a SL -IS^ Scale. rj g^ """ m 3 2^ i E 221 -(5^ I Dachstein. Luther.

a from of root the preceding six triads.CHAPTER THE SUBTONIC Vm. to preferable position. and its diminished (ti)." Unlike doubled The as the three upper same a factors of the dominant facts have without chord progress in the manner. These seventh The factors of the triad seventh led many root. The triad di"fers in formation and and consists active. in four-voice composition. CHORD. It is dissonant its minor third. or minor.it is best with fifth is frequentlydoubled as a but the doubled fifth should The root. undesirable as a musician often find The doubled normal resolution of the subtonic triad is non-cadendng to the tonic triad. 32: -^"?y Tpr I i TI18 . but that the subtonic triad is named by its fifths The subtonic are chord the and same belongs to tones as the dominant family. triad is never written with doubled third. theorists to call this triad ''dominant chord all the other root the subtonic triads. The subtonic chord is a very common chord and a useful one. by many. VIlO I VIlO I The root firstinversion of the triad is considered. and is called fifth. Notice diminished are triad. be avoided will much because possible doubled fifth as it has definite tendency. named that the other triads major by their thirds.

ninth chord.^." by theorists a Its factors tones corresponding in the dominant normally resolve.is good. the effect. I IV (vii"2)I The passing tones. however. Its factors the same tones as the upper some four factors of the dominant ''dominant like the chord. 77. however. 49 The second inversion of the triad is unusual. The subtonic seventh chord is the mildest dissonant seventh chord of the major mode. ninth chord ninth chord and is called without root.THE SUBTONIC CHORD. A progression fifth is usually from a diminished fifth to a perfect undesirable. # i I -r^- 2z: VlA . ^ Subtonic are The Seventh Chord.of passing its use.to the tonic -19- 2: l^S. in terms of families. are of sufficientimportanceto upset the effectwhich would be presentwith the passing tones removed. The Bach Some a theorists forbid contains vn^ as a result. Ex. -9- fifth. and plagal is I-IV-V-I. however. from quotation foUowing tones. Ex. i -9-(9- 22: A from progression a fifthto perfect a diminished . 78.

while true. 81. is not a the lattercriticbm. former criticismcould apply well to the dominant isan academicism. itisundesirable. chord and and that where it b used.so MUSIC COMPOSITION. . . It is criticizedas being ''overworked" and that much can be accomplished with it with as a minimum of The technique. The resolution of vn\ cadencing is not common.^. 82. -^- -. VlA III viA III Examples of the inversions of vn^7 with their resolutions foUow. to tonic Ex.^Z m 1. that too much subtonic harmony It is true. H Their resolutionsfcUow: cadencing i Ex. Notice that this nonnal resolution is non-cadendng. follow: Quotations .because proofof goodcraftsmanship. vn""2 vn^t I^ viio. of a lack of technique and not for effect. 3: :Z2: "i9- zr 13L "^" -^- i i criticism from jCL. others.^ The subtonic chord in both modes has suffered much theorists although it has been and is being used by masters.however.

85.i. ^y 63.i'ii'iV r . ( ^^ r " J f r ^ IJ. ^^^ I Yi .^^. Bach. 2: m I i .i. 84.^-^^ -j. SI ).^^j-i^ s s 1 p ^ n^ N"/ Yi Vo I IVYiigl V I Voir(vii8)I V-7 I Choral of the Earlyi6th Century. J J I f f n VI frif i ^ rij- m T I " "=^ "" IVa Vo I V IV vnj I Choral of the Early17 th Century.THE SUBTONIC CHORD.. i^^ Ex.S.

Bach. 7^rj-n . 86. DONIZBTTI. SCHUBKRT. S.s" IflJSIC COMPOSITION. iiJ(Va)le iiS 117 V I Iv(viiD I X IVJ(ii|) III (VJ) I Exercises. ^^ I. ^ u E s f ^ r r s Mr' I^ ^ ^ i G. Ex. J. ^ ^ fr I """ VI " (3. Group 10. F.

^^ fe^CJr rir rr^J j^j Pir j Ji .if r -^- f J- 3 -tf 1^ +^J J'J7777^I ^^ JTJ^IJ-JJJ. (Mf f ^ jiJ J j. Thbodors Lack. ^ ^ William Byrdb.i^ g ^ 4. "": f^ r r 1^^ ^JI J AdesU ^ Fideles. m I ""^ 3S==t: J J J "ij ^- J i* -^- J J ^ ^ij j.I 6. 53 Sl ^ ^ r r I* "^ ^^ ^ 3.THE SUBTONIC CHORD.

all the seventh chords.the practical ninth triads. 87. Ex. be g "V "JBL SL . J J J J J . chords and inversions in the major mode have been considered and the student should now All the diatonic be capableof harmonizing any major diatonic melody.r II ffJTi r " CHAPTER IX. SUGGESTIONS. A table follows showing the chords with which each scale step may harmonized.T^iJ r |J J J j^ ^J r ^^ I ^ f r iJ J J J fp^ M^i RECAPITULATION r " ^ AND JI LJ' [. BoiBLDIBtT.54 MUSIC COMPOSITION.

are perfect fifths and octaves in outer voices when are objectionable progress to the fifth or octave by skips. V. to IV. A table of chord cannot is valuable onlyas progressions a a mechanical guideand be given as a a law. IV. vn^. V-vi is best with both chords in root position. Awkward melodic an Consecutive Concealed both parts skips. vi. nearly alwaysthe result of non-chordal ninths ninth chord Remember that IV7 and should be used I7 are unconunon and that some of the other chords sparingly. vi. Such but tablet in a there is stability onlyin foUows: the event is governed by natural laws and change generalization of a change in scale system. n. The different stages in the evolution of music of chord generalization influence such families. possible to n. the principal member may progress to a member but the reverse The subdominatU subordinate of this should be avoided. m. of which these tones formations are are vii^o*" Io" IVq." perq"ective . The dominant familytrends to the tonicfamily.is to root position or second inversion. The generalization is as familytrends to the dominant family. m. occasionally progress to progress progress to to may may TV may V may VI progress to progress to progress progress to to may vn^ may V. so and are H. Uke the eye. vn^ occasionally to vn^ occasionally seldcMBu to n. V. I. occasionally seldom to I. n. 55 The table is not for example:V? complete.vn*. m. IV. preferable fifths and octaves undesirable. "See ChapterXIII.vi. re. of use or relative The table is not planned to show the relative frequency importanceof the chords. I. vi. The first Progression inversion of vii?. then diminished triads.major triads are given firstfollowed by minor ninth then seventh chords and lastly.n.RECAPITULATION AND SUGGESTIONS. should be avoided. The ninth respective chords Such tones. The following table I may n m shows chord progressions. vn^ seldom to IV. to vn*.such as augmented intervals and skips greater than octave. vi. The tonicfamilyis free. chords. V. t "and the ear. and viq. triads. to vi. m. occasionally seldom to n. I. occasionally seldom to IV. IV. Within a family. to I. V. is listedonlyonce in the table but it may be used to harmonize any tone which is a factor in the chord. m. toon *eccowod"tee ' itself to new and unrelated hannonies. The tones which are not listedas ninths in ninth chords are do. I. m. V.

In the dominant seventh and ninth chords. . ? V7 ftg a I (^ ^ C ^ V. 88.the resolution tendency of the sevenths and ninths is analogous to the scale tendencies of these downward diatonic tones. thus: changed. MUSIC COMPOSITION. major triads. which remain stationary factor seven or nine may progressions. Factors forminga dissonant intervals resolve are best approachedin contrarymotion. the best chord factors to double. perfect root may be omitted in the tonic six-fourchord. The however. These principles of good voice leading. usuaUy better than doubled thirds. Modulatory Modulatory Modulatory f etc. In some chord is the or. especially The six-four. same. subtonic triad presents to the general an exception principles the third in the subtonic triad is the best factor a thirds in minor chords than in to double.S6 Avoid compass. for writing Extremes of any voice any lengthof time in the extremes of a voice compass are more intonated where easily sure Be approached stepwise. fifth. Roots fifths are that each part is singable.) Stationary7th i "^- IZL \ " ^s * Ex. b lit V7 V11O7 C V7 fS Vf iiOft V "See tSee ChapterXIV. The fifthin the six-four chord is usuaUy the best factor to Avoid The best factor for omission is the in double. be enharmonically {a. in general. Diminished The by contraction: i """- and nine is tendency of chord factors seven as the case or inactivity stronger than the normal scale activity may be. Doubled are. cadencing doubling tendencyfactors. Chapter* XII and XIV. are subservient to principles of doubling.the mediant seventh and ninth chords. A tonic six-fourchord is sometimes written at the cadence with omitted third. and the subtonic seventh chord. It is better to double of doubling.

) Modulatory* a: etc. 00. Such a device should Ex. thoroughly experienced Most voice and all end with the tonic in the highest compositions end with the tonic in the lowest voice (rootposition).) Stationary9th \4 fil-\-^l^^ f i Modulatory * ^^^ I C J V.! compositions The penultimate either ti or re. Robert Franz's GtUe NacM is quoted as an example of a composition endingwith the fifthin the "See melody: ChapterXIV. usually (a. VI V7 B"V7 factor seven Occasionally. sometimes tone of a melody is usually /a but seldom la.) Modulatory * Ex. 'iA=M=^ ^ "" m=^ C V" ^ C V7 b ij I E V. chromatically: or nine may progress upward stepwise. Schumann's Warum is quoted as an sOy occasionally voice: with the third in the highest example of a composition ending Rarely. tSMChapUrXIII. S7 (6. in composing. (6.factor seven onlybe used by one or nine is quitted by leap. .RECAPITULATION AND SUGGESTIONS.

v. vn". MODE. CHAPTER THE MINOR X. u**.01+.n. The greaterthan octave. VI. V. vi". IV. fixed unison. iv. The modes differencein the triad formations between may be Mode seen the of by a comparison the numerical major and symbols: minor Major I. i. n^ III+. IV. Voice A dissonant should not be resolved to a leading governs are the choice of omissions and duplications. i. cially espe- in ninth chords. V. dose. (primitive) i. a of a harmony or repetition bass note from weak to a strong pulse. VH. m. . vi". VI. Dissonant chords Avoid the most effectiveupon a strong pulse. The preferable Open position from its root by an be separated ninth in ninth chords should usually interval of at least a ninth. iv. Harmonic Minor Melodic Minor Ascending Melodic Minor Descending V.is in addition to the real ending. when used. equidistant Avoid groupingthe two upper voices and the two lower possible. vi. The voices with alto or a wide interval between tenor the two the alto and an should seldom soprano and be separated by an interval groups. HI. n".58 MUSIC COMPOSITION. plagai When as is keep the voices as nearly usingopen position. vn*^. is usually for strong dissonant chords. Exercises 8-16 in AppendixC are now available.





the hannonic fonn of the minor mode should be the composing, and descending) used are workingbasis. The melodic forms (ascending for melodic purposes althoughadvantagesin part writing principally from the use of chords of melodic minor formation, accrue frequently vi^ and VII should be avoided where monotonality is desired. A comparison of the triads of the major mode with those of the harmonic In minor shows

triads which


V and vn^. alike,

All other

triadsdiffer. The harmonic

minor mode

has two minor triads (i and


major triads (V and VI), two diminished triads (n" and vn^) and one augmented triad (III+). An augmented triad is formed with major third and augmentedfifth.

chord is dissonant and active.

Augmented intervals resolve by expansion.
All that has been said of the chord in the minor mode.

in major is applicable progressions mode than

augmented intervals are

to be found in the minor


found in the


In the harmonic

minor mode,



exists between

scale steps six and


augmented fifth between

three and seven, and an augmented fourth between four and seven. Melodic progressions of all augmented intervals should be avoided by those not The in part writing. experienced avoided but some augmented fourth and fifthare easily difficulty is often experienced with the augmented second. The difficulty exists in progressions V-VI and n^-V. In

V~VI, progression

double the third in VI instead of the root,thus:

instead of n^-V, lead the upper voices downward progression voice. The bass should be led the common tone in the same retaining upward to avoid concealed fifthsand octaves. In






6o If a tone in the



melody is harmonized
with V

with n^ and progresses




is harmonized





solutions are


Ex. 04.



"r '




("" i

" .", A


The student needs harmonize




to enable him to


further comments

melodies in the melodic minor


which should be avoided and avoid them factor The


the gressions proand logical leading differin with the in both shows

seventh and ninth chords in the harmonic

minor mode

formation from
of exception

chords in the major mode corresponding seventh chord which The is the

the dominant


Their treatment

is similar, however.

table following

the construction of each.
chords which (Parentheses signify never used.)

used. rarely


chords which signify








plus n^ plus III+ plus IV plus V plus VI plus yifi plus

[major 7th] minor 7th (major 7th) minor 7th minor 7th (major 7th) diminished 7th


plus plus plus plus plus plus

[major 9th] minor 9th (major 9th) (major 9th) minor 9th 9th] [augmented minor 9th



ninth chord in the minor mode

is called the ''chord of ninth chord.

the minor ninth" and is the most The chord of the minor

used frequently

ninth is often used in the

major mode


instead of the sixth scale step) The

be studied.


should following quotations


Coniectttivcfifths(incontrary motion) appear betwaan tha atadant far tha praaaot* to ba avoidad bjr

and basa*

Soeh aoDMcotivaa













" i'

v-ul t

f^=^ f



J. Crugbr.

Ex. 06.














"JJ|J ji^



nia I [jr.B. Bble vi

iv II




iiiviiiv I V

vio IV






6s MUSIC COBfPOSITION. A I Exercises. I io(iV7)V VI VoVc7. 07. U^ ivo ^^i|' nio lo VI rv cu ~ "" 1V5 viig V I ni^iv^ iig """ jvn(7. . Group ii.B. French Folk Song.4'~-n-i i E I j^4. C iia Ifl 117 vug !" -J Vn V IV n V7 1117 iig in Va viig I] io(vii8)(ivt)V2 x xi^J V . y"y in I [^.i iiOoV - I I (i4) VJ I VI(nOJ)V i.

^ E cj-!" H f r )^^ i ffi P ^^ ^p fe^ r r iM "y"" 6.THE MINOR MODE. r Jlf r 1^" ^'^ ^ ^r 'Vi i 9. i^ ^ -^ ^^^ ^m w 4.^^JJ73|J II f^l^T^lJTj^U F^g^ Exercises 17-31 in AppendixC are now available. Gabrixl-Makib. . ^^p ^ jlJP^MlJJJ^lJipm^ ^.

passing may be embellished thus: M *^CI or (accented) 4r 00*^ cji"^ separated by the interval of a Between two two chordal tones fourth may be inserted thus: diatonic X tones.Passingtones are spmetimes repeated: g^rrrrh^" * Notice that the " is a ^ctor of the tonic chord and is therefore. Non-chordal which tones are tones which are not factors of the chord in and tones (accented as passing they sound. PASSING non-chordal tone which is approached and direction. hence: j /K X or | may be embellished thus: ^^ a 4 1' V *^ - I V Between two chordal tones separatedby the interval of hence: third may be inserted X a diatonic tone. anticipatory organ point and various A compoiuidnon-chordal TONE IS a tones. tones. neighboring retardations. ^hence: passing #^ CI IV may be embellished i The t I m ^iv as conunon. TONES. etc. unresolved neighboring appoggiaturas. .64 CHAPTER NON-CHORDAL XI. passingtones do not necessarily r\ chromatic X X tonality. accented passingtone The in is more effectivethan the unaccented tone passing but it is not than figure the a downward effectivein an upward passingtone is more Chromatic affect figure. An accented passing tone is one quitted which in stepwise the same the factor of the chord to chord. It is more tone is one which is in an upward scale figure. tones.An imaccented passing is attacked with the sounded Between on of the chord. the latter portion two chordal tones separatedby the interval of fg f a major second may be inserted a chromatic passingtone. delaying thereby effectivein a downward than scale figure which it progresses. They are classified unaccented). paaeing toii9. not ttrictly tpeaking. tones. suspensions.

" J. etc. (". The upper tone neighboring an rarely augmented second. is by most A non-chordal tonq similar to the following: ^m CI- theoristscalled an tone ''passing which ambiguity a Others prefer to callit appoggiatura." approached by skip. is usually diatonic but the lower tone neighboring is more minor a frequently does not second below the chordal tone.NON-CHORDAL TONES. may and may be the upper or lower adjacent tone to the chordal be at the distance of either a major or a minor second.) "^ i i ( Ex. necessarily . TONE. 08." The former name isfree from the "unaccented characterizes the latter name. A NEIGHBORING also Called ''auxilliaiy tone/'is an a unaccented This non- non-chordal tone which embellishes chordal tone tone chordal repeated tone. (gf C I- gJ* f=f -vs and the accented passing tone appoggiatnra is that the former is approached by leapand is consequently unprepared while the latter enters preparedalongthe scale line. The double occurs appoggiatura frequently as an AnscUag. J nH f Q! I etc. 6S with the occurring chord The afpoggiatura is an accented non-chordal tone chord and downward resolving to the or chromatically diatonically factor which it delays. A chromatic tone neighboring affect the tonality. The appoggiatura resolves upward (usually a minor second). m I d'i. occasionally the upper and lower adjacenttones precedea chordal Frequently and these non-chordal tones are called by most tone (unprepared) The differencebetween the theoriststhe double appoggiatura.

usually third. GI" Tones Neighboring The are Vt I G v.x GruppeUoor X X turn isa group of chordal tones and non-chordal /^ XX /% X X X X thus: etc. Some theorists call such a non-chordal tone a "changingtone. Bach.) (delayed X (unresolved. Bach. neighboring The the UriU are also ornamental of the applications An tone unkesolved neighboring tone is an unaccented non-chordal a and quitted of diatonically approached by skip. . the praU-triUy and tnarderUf tones.66 HUSIC COMPOSITION. passing TONE a An is an imaccented the chord with It may which it soimds but factor in the chord which follows. of which it is not ward downpart. VI sometimes repeated." because of the custom as an among misleading other theoristsof defining a changingtone term tone to foreign The is accented ANTICIPATORY tone. be approached or by skip diatonically A SUSPENSION is a chord factor sustained from a one chord into the chord following chord. neighboring tones.and resolved diatonically the daring sustenance to a factor of the second chord of the second . resolution.) thus: etc. IV.

The delayed tone should not shown and in figured the foUowingexamples: /^ Ex. Percussion usually ticm. 1f^n Less M Vic. T^ s -^ i i 8 Stt^iension 4-3: 102. by some theorists. Preparaand resolution should be in the same voice part. are duringpercussion occurs on an accent.percussion.The the suspension frequently. ai^)ears a nd is sustained the first as a chordal tone (called to preparation) foUowing chord downward and progresses diatonicaUy to the (calledresolution) (calledpercussion) the ocmsonant tone of the second chord which was by delayed suspension.NON-CHORDAL TONES. a retardation. 67 100. ** suq)ension except in the progression is which in Chapter 12. suspension resolving upward is called. i -a^ sr I i 1^ 9-8: Suspension 101.r ir r is resolved upward diatonicaUy. J C ^ ft o 8 IV V m Ex. errors" are Grammatical not alleviated by the cl the German Sixth Chord to dominant be present in any other voice part Various suspensions at the distance of the interval of a second. A A A A r or " A A A A etc. over showing forms with the bass and the second figureshowing the interval which the suspension The tone of su^)ension the chord factor which is delayedby the suq[)ension. harmony explained The suspensbn is figured the firstfigure the bass with Arabic figures. "\ tei C IV 2: 4 V .

' 1 jQ-(9- A m SL The inverted. inversion becomes 5 4 ^ . iii^ The suq)eiision 6-5 does not form a dissonant at and percussion is therefore not as effectiveas suspensions 9-8 and 4-3.B. second inversion. .68 MUSIC COMPOSITION. The 6-5 with suspension ^* 6HS. 104. is altered when the second chord of the suspension is of suspensions figuring becomes second The firstinversion of the su^)ension and the 9-8 7-^ 6-6 . ^=^ Suspensibn 6-5: -SL I i V] o 0 I V [ N. J I 1 m lie The above examplemay be as analyzed an in the bass anticipation or as a suspension in the three upper voices. in any voice part and A suspension occur may voices simultaneously: suspensions may occur in two or three /^ Ex. a dissonant factor is retained: Occasionally i 106. The suspension 4-3 with the second chord in itsfirst inversion the second chord in its is figured 9^. mversion is figured first ^^.second inversion 6-6 ^ .

B. iij] Three of the suspensionare irregular progressions common: the lower neighbor. it^. iiij] ^^duAJ'^m TV H 11 IVo IJV. The same with X passingtones. 69 C II II I Vo VI. [ALff. Interpolating X and. XX 108.NON-CHORDAL TONES. To another tone of the chord. C V .

" I Sh i f 109. homophoniccompositions.chords related and unrelated be related.ji Ex. has produced a dramatic effect Schubert.jij j. .* and sometimes The to the tone the firstand last chords must tonic or organ tone the pointis usually may be reiterated or dominant in his Erl King. jij J. The both. ^^^ I i C V IV The organ point is a retained tone in (usually the the bass)during occur. ^ 72nd measure. etc. retention of which. . especially tones an ^Modern conpoten use frequently Non-chordal form the submediant as an organ pofatf.70 MUSIC COMPOSITION. of compodh important part of the majority tions. chord at " Resolutioo. Changing the 3rd. the dominant organ pointin upper voices: by using sustained.i. 110.nj.

great of analysis the stepping-stones The tones.Vjj:ijfj'|jj|jjjjj|jj Ex. 112.NON-CHORDAL TONES. less restricted after studying modulation. Bach (Musette). successful in analysis becomes benefidal. Schubert (Andante). a well-trained to success. S. amount Musical are experience. . "^_^^^_ Pianoforti J. '. 7" Many subtleties non-chordal enter tones into and ear. following For quotations analysis work show the application Songs more of the non-chordal Wards are more further The and Mendelssohn's WiihotU recommended. a logical harmonization rules and a of a melody taining con- are of little assistance.

jijJ nrji^^fp t (B^ Review i Examples 51. J J i^^f 2. rif fjrtJir j j ri^-S^^ J. 60. a. 71. Exercises. AH J J i i J "g^ ^ i i i J.ii M*gnjTr]ijTr]^jiJif rrrifii^rir . Bach. 52. iSgiifii^ftifninu^ I F. nj^u.86. "I i I 3 rJJ.ya MUSIC COMPOSITION. Bach. i^\r^ K*-^ JiJ. S. 83. 95. Group 12. 0 and 97. SCHUBULT. S. J.

Bach. or more Tones to are altered for one chromatically of four reasons: (ist) to produce smoother (3rd) modulate. S. S. In a-minor J. Schubert. The fifthof triads is frequently altered. Bach.f i^^ ^ CHAPTER ALTERED Xn. The triad is more the raised than frequently The other roots. S. 73 F. ^m " " " ^m rr n r r (^1 " ^-^^ J.(2nd)to add esthetic interest. CHORDS." Jirc. r r rirr ijjir irr r r . purposes. 6. of scale tones. voice leading and (4th) to increase or alterthe tendency Altered factors should seldom be doubled. ncjf 7. and the second scale step in both modes are frequently third in a chord is frequentiy altered for modulatory . Bach. root of the subdominant The sixth scale step in major mode lowered. f fir f ' rjjifr'ii J.ALTERED CHORDS. 4.

(5) Neapolitan (i) Raised The fifthmay Fifth. . The raised factor has strongtendencyupward chromatically. iVft^. a. Raised fifthsin other chords result in modulation or faulty voice leading.V. Sixth Chord.II ^ 0 I 6+ -^- -"h r 1 rfO 1" 1" I 1 #0 1 4C X II 6-f I n?H IV 5+ IVJ+ Vft+ VJ+ Vg+ fe ^^ Ex. and Vls+ "^"1 chord containing the fourth scale step. chord containing the seventh scale step. and no (without the 7th)in the major mode and iv.and 05^ to a chord containing Vl+ and Vf + have tendency Vs-f. "^- I 5+ i VII 6-f a iv"+ VI "Wherever a scale tone is followed by itschromatic alteration. (3) German Sixth Chord. (2) Italian Sixth Chord. V7. ^H^^t^^ If Ex. In allother from above. IV7.* be s^proacfaed In the should augmented fifth the sixth scale step. n The mediant VI and VI7 in the minor mode. (4) French Sixth Chord. 1 1 3.b.74 The most common MUSIC COMPOSITION. VI5+ and YlJ^ Vl2+ have tendency to a chord containing ambiguous chords and have some tendency to changethe mode to tonic major. major mode. |tfe! I "^^^ "^- 118. altered chords are: (i) Chord with raised fifth. triad in harmonic minor may be considered a normal scale chord.} and n^ have tendency to a a has tendencyto mode. In the minor the second scale step. * - '*'^ Ii^^ I". I5+ has tendencyto a chord containing the third scale step. aie The dominant seventh chord and ninth chord with lowered fifthare available: "See ChapterXIII. be raised one-half step in the following chords: I. or noii-chordal) (chordal the alteration should take placein the same voice in which the unaltered tone cases an appears. Vo.IV. otherwise a cross rekUian results.

The majorare the following: an augmented ^ "tes"C rVorii iiorV Y i i resultsby resolution otyvP The following augmentedsixthin C major: chord with doubled leading tone. tendency minor effecta modulation. normally *8ce the . The most the outer effective alteredchords are those in which two voices (usually various voices)form sixths in the key of C augmented sixth. 114.) (^. exeeptkm" c to modulate. The m^K jta? normally c in a sixths in augmentationof the remaining the key of C major normallyeffecta modulation. jCL 221 -T^- m %' fcfe ^ vii. 75 (".) {b. and has augmented sixth: following The augmentaticm m d the HtSL sixths in the key of remaining example 136.* minor are: The various augmented sixths in the key of (^ Ex.ALTERED CHORDS. m 22: IV or i ^ or }^ M m The I V II vii" II" following augmented sixth in a c minor: /kl"b-jtg The normallyresults by resolution in chord with is not common doubled leadingtone.) ^^(^^(^^1^^ Ex.i VJ^i m C Brahms Vjbl made effectiveuse of the dominaiit ninth cfaoid in major and minor with altered fifth. 116.

118. vii**of isthe factor most frequently doubled. CIVo+V iiq+Iq iio^. The Italian Sixth Chord. (2) This chord consists of from the bass. 6th Chord Ex. ^This chord is like the dominant theoristsit is considered as the root. 1 19.76 MUSIC COMPOSITION. .iiiviig+ I seventh chord with lowered ciVo+V and fifth without I viig^. Original Same follows: ist inversion=Itatiaii with raised root. major third and augmented sixth reckoning in the Italian Sixth Chords major mode are as follows: ^ dzzz C m -i9- I I as ^- IV0+ 110+ T118+ are The Italian Sixth Chords in the minor mode follows: (I Ex. fifth(present The original third) The use of The normal resolutions of the Italian Sixth Chord are as follows: etc. i C a -WWSI F II IV i in both modes is not common. By KMne such. /" % 5="rz2E: -"S"- i i V118+ as ^ m "^"i+ m Many theoristspresent the Italian Sixth Chord Chord.

) g or bi I tf" ^E .a. although sixth chord in Unless care an inner voice. The characteristic Italian Sixth Chord key is therefore IVo^. the diminished third is found instead of the resolve by contraction. Diminished intervals or c IV 0+ Jf " p. and such chords are often ambiguously Root Position *' and " ItalianSixth Chord in Second Inversion. progressions The student willnotice that the melodic linemay suggestthe use of the chords with itis not unoonunon to find the upper factorof an augmented augmented sixth. vnS^ in both most has power effecta modulation of a to the subdominant key.V IV0+ and . 77 Other for txamfiti as well as other doubUngs. V" in the above The fifths fonn progressions the basis for academic to the objection of the Italian Sixth Chord in other than itsnormal position. are possible non-modulatoiy piogressioiis (*. ""P- iw IVa+CorcV7 I C IVo+ 12 ore 4 Modernists would not scoffat the harsh but highly dramatic progression: following Such not vocal. are instrumental. a modulation to the relativeminor to may result.ALTERED CHORDS. . inv.) using no+. augmented soth.) (". be taken in modes (Seeexamples 132 and 157. The root position and the second inversion of the ItalianSixth Chord are occasionally called "Italian Sixth Chord in used. i etc." In these two positions.

(c. -^9jS. "i9-"or g H?1g-{H ^ |K. the German used in root Sixth Chord is occasionally position called the ''German and is ambiguously and in second inversion.) thus: factor. Ex. theorists do The characteristic Gennan have C vii**5+ C IVJ+ and augmented fifths. with the addition of the is like the Italian Sixth Chord as a fifthof the bass (a. nj^-in. Like the Italian Sixth.) (*.^" I ^ fc ^' t^^ or or ^ -2^^SL zz: "Wrg ' is Z i x.) jg -09- (rf. IVSt and ivS''" the fifths in progressions to avoid the fifths. Sixth Chord *Uk" in Root Position. root and V?." etc. also in third inversion.) (^.) w (O i Ex. Original Same follows: "= with raised root.g' g ClVg^VorlJ The ii|^-iiiorIo vii0|tl civJ+VoriJ viiOg+i fifthsin the above progressions are coimtenanced.) m^^ Ex.) chord (*. without is oontidcrsd as tach \i$aoms thaorista. \ U ^i^ -^Sh -^ 22. (3) The This chord Gebman Sixth Chord. Sixth Chord as Many theoristspresent the Gennan Chord. Some Sixth Chords.) -""g" -9- (*. 126. inversion German 6th Chord. consider these chords German Resolutions follow: {a. especially parallel resolved to II and ^ with suspension are frequently 6-5.78 MUSIC COMPOSITION. 1st. ^Jte \^ Sixth Chord Doubling of factors in the German voice is not necessary in four writing. 124. 125 m most fe " ^ " ^ i ^ Altered iy7 1" ite? 1 e that not c IV7 ivj+ Sixth Chord Notice is iv?"'". g fc K^ 9- \ \^ -w- I i JO.) (/) (^. Similarly.vn^lt ~I and vn^l^ -I are tolerated. respectively.) (4. .

The in of a factor doubling four voice writing.) ISL 2Z -(9"i^- (/. 79 3rd inversion.) {".^"^- 41^ j" "^- ^^ ivT . -9"zy -^- -ar % -"9- -(9- i i fr^ . 2nd inversion. Original Same Sixth Chord with raised follows: 2nd inversion French 6th chord.) id. 3rd.^2. :k isr sc: I form the XlOJ.) g .) (*.) (A.) (^. Root Position.IV.) (jr. Notice that the augmented sixths in the Italian and German .^. g i: U -f9- ^f=ffl or or -^9- jO^ V ""^nor k . a- A^n -tf?- ?^ 22: i CnttVorlJ TnO||Ioorni V|t I c il""StVoriJ Vtt i . ^^ Ex. with the addition of the is like the Italian Sixth Chord as a fourth of the bass chord thus: factor. in the French Sixth Chord is not necessary Resolutions follow: (a.a. n and vn" (inmajor) and iv and vn^ (inminor) whereas the chords corresponding augmented sixths in the French Sixth Chords form the following vn" n^ and V (inmajor) and and V (inminor). -49- # jsl Y\"^^ i I i% =1 JQ- I -O- "W- Iefc c as "75^ I -bis^ iiO|t v|t = Many theoiists present the French Chord.ALTERED CHORDS.r"|t Sixth Chords following chords. ^ 22: iva+ V| (4) The This chord French Sixth Chord. 128. n.

Fourth- An effective augmented sixth chord which is not included in the above groups isthe dominant seventh chord in the thus: in its third inversion. The progression fifths the parallel the French Sixth Chords is another way of avoiding mentioned heretofore.a- I cvy . majormode with raised fifth "49- i . 132. " "=p: i J- :zl I I ^ ^ V - k^ 7 ^ 2: B" c f"^ iv"+ ivj" l^ are. 1 -v ^ -V tg 1^ I tfg^ ^ -"- g -V " H 22: k "*=: lA "^- % ifi 81 I lA I of both the German and French Sixth Chords other than Progressions the normal progressions of the (seeprogressions given are possible ItalianSixth Chord). The Italian. ist inversion." tively respec- "Chord "" of the Augmented Sixth/' Augmented Chord of the Sixth. P Ex. 3rd inversion." Root position. and French Sixth Chords of the German Sixth to may progress one to another.Fifth- and Third" and ''Augmented Chord of the Sixth. The names of the same but are preceding augmented sixth chords have little significance way valuable in the as that all names Some text books refer to them and Third.8o MUSIC COMPOSITION. Position. firstinversion and third This chord may be used in root positipn. German. called the "French Sixth Chord in Root inversion and is ambiguously etc.

.v is: i I V " bo " " 1^ I cvjt^.* The mediant chord may be altered to an augmented sixth as follows: above chord is formed with i^3 etc. The chord is more useful as the sharpsupertoniq in the major mode than as the subtonic in the minor mode. Palmer. ^ etc. H. The augmented sixth chord following formation is available: The double augmented fourth major third.ALTERED CHORDS. 8l The dominant chord in the minor an mode with lowered seventh in its It con- third inversion also forms sbts of effective augmented sixth chord. Ciii|t V? mtj: ii| be altered in such two The tonic seventh chord may between a manner that an augmented sixth appears of this chord is the most *Sm of itsfactors. R.doubly augmented fourth and augmented thus: sixth. The root position satisfactory. IV. -/I O. This chord has been named the "American Sixth Chord/' by Mr. augmented second. and augmented sixth.published by The John Chofdi Co. PaloMr't TJk40ty i/Mutic.

-8S^ !^ Tg- ig: I*: z i i -^- crb 5# Such chords IV as a and lit require careful in|t resolution. -b^a i Vifi ^^^(W third is the factor most frequently doubled as in the above original The altered factor may be doubled and in this respect. thus: altered {4 *f. logical treatment " a smooth and approach of the key are Notice that the two most salienttones altered.8a MUSIC COMPOSITION. the jcxamples. Ex. (5) The This chord is an Neapolitan Sixth Chobd. and is chord in the minor mode supertonic formed with minor third and minor sixth. 139. root position Root position. Sixth Chord differsfrom altered factors altered factor in the Neapolitan The in other chords.thus: The to tonic six-four or . Sixth Chord normally Neapolitan progresses ^'^minant harmony. thus: and in second inversion. ^m -f9- Ex.2nd -t^ inversion. II g -9- I It is occasionally used in The chord may be used in the major mode. IZ.

but oomposltion should See Chopini Prelodefnumber vocal oonpoeition. . Vocoul Potltkni. l"g ""^ "" IK biio -"^ i a biio V V|t Second Inrertioii. ifg I ^ -^r IK 2Z: i etc. (*.ALTERED CHORDS.) (^. I I may " "^t vib ""3i.the firstis the practical. to French i ii^obV" root.^ VJi. """- -^- 22: U I b^ biio g I^ I bg biio 1 1'^ fe H etc.) I^ r"Hg~^+^i="-^^ ^^ etc m aiiO "1^ \^ Ob BootPMitlMi. v. 6th. doubled -JSl \ te no^.oj^ "# i^j^ "# most Of the various inversions of the *Th" chord. be avoided in aufmentod fourth in the but is poMiblein instrumental so. 83 Five vdoes. 141. in the minor mode Factors three and five in the chord supertonic be raised one-hslf step as follows: a iiog i.

\ " " \y . V 11^8 ist. l^^. Tlie altered chord in the second written as an in the progression above augmented sixth chord: Ex.. . (A. 146.) W (*.) etc.OL i i examplemay be Ex.) MUSIC COMPOSITION.) (I.) (c. inv. ^j^ n/Q |"" tTg ^ *^^^ ^ " ^ g/p "'^' ji/g n^ ji/r" -O. (*.a.84 follow: Progressions (a. The subdominant seventh chord in the in the minor major mode with raised root and the chord supertonic are mode with raised third in first inversion useful chords: (". "t^ "fe "# " I "" B# Pint Inrenioii.lOtt .) 3: "^-^- (*.) jg Itfg P li{g Ex.) ^ .

8S The subdommant mode seventh chord with raised root and third in the minor is available: ^h in analyziiig altered chords is often experienced because of enharmonic Difficulty and editors to notate in a way which It is customary among composers offersthe least difficulty to the instrumentalist and vocalistin reading. For example. Slop. bl^nr^n. etc. carefully IftvocoHon to TSCHAIKOWSKY.ALTERED CHORDS. " 12 iioj la Sec ClnpCtrXIII .* approached from e the notation is likely to be as follows: The should following quotations be studied. if the d-sharpin the tenor part be notation. the second progression in Example 144 is chosen.

.' " r" ' - "=* ^_ i (" ^ Ex. Andante Cantabile from StringQuartet I Tschaikowsky.86 MUSIC COMPOSITION. i ^ ^ i BtillVj iiit 4:: i r v" V J^ "^ " r -^ ^^ s ^9 f i"t f ^ "^ ^"+ . 160. 161. Op. Ex. ^^ Ip^ "tb fjiri^j-:^ J etc LOBSCHHORN. 52. J. Op. 1 1.










etc. etc.



ivj+liPlt 1^6+





Variations,Op. 29.


m 14'''' [





Exercises, Group



indicated below; progressions

major I5+, vi, Us+, VI+, I. B major I,IV5+,V, V?+, I. d minor i, IV5+, V, VI, VI5+,V", i. F major I,IV, n, 1I5+ V, VIb, I. b minor i, IV5+, V, Vf bi i.
chords: following

Resolve the

* M





viio 0+


^ IV0+







f# ITa+

3. Resolve the

chords: following

" ip^

iV *,. i"*




t iii.' It



PW^ ^



11J+ Bl^ n^"iX



Resolve the

chords: following



I*i; l"iiV II. iVt ilit^i^




ii|tG viiO|t




iiO|t g V|t

chords in all major and minor keys; firstto 5. Resolve the following the dominant triad and second to the tonic six-four chord:









Notate the

indicated progressions F

below: f minor
g minor


major iia+, !".
I. major vii**e+,

I. major V|t,

V7. bn**e,
V. uPi\,


i. V|t,

d minor

vii^o+, i.


I". major VS"*",
i. V|tH, IV". majorra|t,


major nS^,I^.
I. major vn^^t,

b minor


major #IV,V.
V. #11", V. #iv2|y


b minor


vii^+, i.


IV. major I51,



J^. major VDP|t
altered chords

Additional exercises on

in Group 14. given




admitted no such chord formation as Theorists of the past generation entered as a suspension that of a ninth. The factor of a ninth alwa3rs or other non-chordal tone and
as such. To-day,ninth chords analyzed and take an important in the used without preparation are freely place musician'svocabulary. admit of no such chord Some theorists of the present generation was



those of the eleventh and thirteenth. intervals with of

posers comNevertheless,


called ultra modem harmonic


The sogrowingindependence. in to-day is opening new possibilities

structure,and onlytime can tellwhether or not the choidal of the criticism radicalismof thismusic willbecome established. In spite
the best of the "ultra" finds its way conservative, halls, and, in many cases, to the hearts of the audience. The well of identity chords of the elventh and thirteenth
to be to the concert

of the


not, as ]ret,

enough established


in four voice


because of the fact that too many chord factors must be omitted. itis not advisable of these chord formations, # Because of the immatiuity for the student to attempt to use them at the presenttime. chords which oplythe skilledcraftsman should use.



average most ultra of the modem which follow show music have been intention Those examples which the modem ear readily grasps. 55. tones. Op. 166.for AfUicipaiians In example: C "PnUitlMd V7 - (II) bf Arthur P. I N m etc. often result in an eleventh chord formation.90 MUSIC COMPOSITION. t^ I ^ t . becomes an eleventh in the following dominant chord I The prc^pressions follow none of the academic rules for suspensions or other non-chordal these are eleventh chords. Schmidl (capyrifht). No. Obviously. factor eleven in the chord figured vi^Jmay be But the ''3"in the above suspension as a suspension analyzed 4-3. Edward MacDowsll. !." ^^ Ex. " 23rd measure (fe ^ ig6+ 6+ Tonic organ point or I "" example 155. The formation of the dominant eleventh and thirteenth chord follows: Quotationsfrom the avoided. .

58. ^ zg This is followed tonic triad. Many of the progressions. MODEKNTtlES. 6) uses Sch3rtte thirteenth chord formation: following b Ex. 168.ELEVENTH AND THIRTEENTH CHORDS AND MODERNITIES. Similarly. differ so radically from the two composition established systems (polyphony and homophony) that it is aiq"arent that an entirely new theorymust ensue. thus: poggiapura OUivier in his PhatUdsie a^ i^^P Ex. of an anticipation the mediant formation. in V-I progression the results in a dominant 13th chord (op. this which will doubtless be in the near dominant chord factor future. 91 Godowsky in his free arrangement of Rameau's Sarabande uses the in the penultimatemeasure above anticipation with considerable suggestion of a dominant eleventh chord. the d has considerable chordal importanceand as unhesitatingly analyzed a also be is figured 13 " In other non-chordal tone. accepts the d A tone such may the or analyzedas a neighboring Schyttenumber. ninth chord as readily an by the dominant seventh chord which resolves to the as a Many theorists would analyze this chord the ear as mediant more " in the first inversion)but overtone. Modernities in musical . on an uses Wagner's Die Meisiersinger with considerable chordal significance.no. 157. "| " r (g T c vf " - i " This choid is precededby the tonic six-four and resolves to the tonic triad in root posidon.

i tself. solution possible seed for thought. . Cross relation is also ignored to a great extent. but Beethoven. each in his time. vocal composition.which dictate our of many acoustical phenomena. by masters of the diatonic school. not Nature. of however.Ravel. by far. The ultra iqx"n the princq"les takes a new modem road. Theo.C3nJl Debussy Elgar. however.Brahms. is a theory of ''horizontal" composition Counterpoint restricted. The principal to such beingfreely are now objection isfoimded upon the fact that an augmented interval melodic progressions interval to sing. for the time honored shows absolute disregard and a host of others.suffered similarly of their critics. Augmented steps and skipsare also forbidden by academicians but used by composers. Fifths justify have been used. but is the more this Bach.rizing present time upon which are modernities are hazardous.and while drawingupon both the polyphonic and homq"honic concepts. The comprising serious compositions of the homophonic school draw considerably more and concepts of the contrapuntal school. it travels new at the paths. other cases by Richor Scott.^2 MUSIC COMPOSITION.by certain "vertical" considerations. while much newer of the condenmation is the diatonic system. where tonality and even demand such consecutives. to the glorification in the use of The science of physics as well as the growingfreedom chord formations and dissonant chords prove that it is oiur ears.Sibelius. repeating simplyhistory conunon. and effectively Beethoven. is a difficult restriction for a logical therefore. Adverse criticism of modernists is. and it is. not are The few theories herein set forth intended to furnish rules or offeredonlyas a princq"les and of ultra modem as but technique. Harmony is a theory vertical composition certain horizontal considerations. and Wagner.and used effectively. not. Unresolved dissonances are frequent in modem music and the treatment of dissonances is very free. Strauss. the methods.and are now being used freely including by who are infinitely and thinkers than their greater geniuses composers critics. Schdnberg. ''rules"of the academicians. is. be of the modem cannot compositions groupings accounted for by the rules of polyphony or homopbony and in many ard A glanceat a page in a score the rules are broken. at best. lessvague. or disapproval ai^roval Consecutive fifths have been the bugbearof theoristssince the formulation of rules of under justified is more or and coimterpoint.

contrapuntal and from horizontal concepts other than those of the older school.) W *e: -""- I :S: lil|i% li II To the diatonic etc. Several new chords may a result from the whole-tone scale. . tThe terms tonic. in the place chords founded upon the g-sharp may serve of a diatonic dominant :t suppose (^.) Tg-^-^' (^. ex- isin the key of C with a frequent of the use composition whole-tone scale. The whole-tone scale is popularwith oiu: modernists: Ex.subdominant. pedal and frequentreturn in tonal center is maintained by frequently of such devices to the diatonic system.. For ample. 169. tonic chord. much music but have what "conservative" will supplythe fifthin the tonic chords in perfect Many (b) and (c) (a). etc. the modulatorypossibilities manifold. 93 Many modernities result from an equal division our of the octave. the of superposing intervals other than usual thirds in formingchords. difficulties in reading present themselves in the of many as a of the whole-tone scale which *The is also tme the use other modernities. dominant. are Equal division of the octave in any manner alwaysoffers modulatory opportunities. use prolonged of the above Great example.will probablybe discarded applyingtheory to modernities. 3: iP" P^ :zt I P 2: I The above exampleshows np modem alterationsof diatonic chords dictates of the whole-tone scale and willsoimd heard modem ears to the according to allwho have ''impure" littleor music we and may to those who term have heard ears. Notice the ambiguity* any of the six tones in either of the above scales may be a tonic by proper manipulation hence. m w 1 2 S " ^^ 4 5 6 2C i -p^ 6 The two tonal above scales combined giveus the chromatic scale.ELEVENTH AND THIRTEENTH CHORDS AND MODERNITIES.

t Simikrly. for a solution more compatibla prsisnt system. ^"2- augmented fourths: m ears no "f: "6 1 ^The "ff en reason onr aa author hat devised from radically a Dotatkm which would as the present system its advocation would be useless. perhaps.however. For tUs with can hope."t major and minor scales justifies tions. seem to argue that some new fonn of notation might be by imknown Many worthy compositions because of been refused by publishers allprobability A great many composers have in these difficulties. not "Nature's Generator.* are other scales are used. the diminished seventh chord (vii^t. In present harmonic three diatonic scale chords which divide the octave diminished triad evenly. sam^ than of a of intervals other Superposition new third and equaldivision of system. Our demand longer the 7lMr"r de^ardit* .some of which similar to the old modal the most scales. The formation of the these chords. minor mode) and the augmented triad (III*^). we have chord formations other than those derived oiur from the whole-tone scale. the octave offer several major diatonic scale with flatsixth is. This would advisable. We hut it offer fewer difBcultfet in the way of reading the present system does from the Gregorian. The with raised the least revolutionary. the minor triad is justified.94 MUSIC COMPOSITION. chord formascale formations will justify new new Undoubtedly many of Superposition i g^ I6i 4ths: perfect " ^ "327 For an of perfect example of superposition see fourths Rebikoff FeuiUe d^Album: of Superposition ex. namely: the (n^ and vn^). The but frequent foiuth is also frequent.

(P P ^ ' r- rpji^iji^ |J. .ELEVENTH AND THIRTEENTH CHORDS AND MODERNITIES. point.:2! 33Z ^ :r-~r ^ in ^^ r T" f^ of augmented 5ths: Superposition ^^^ i (c^ This chord is like the Chords the gives of augmented triad. } \ f J1 z i ^^^.j [: i. Beethoven and others of the diatonic use school have used the minor *T1ie F can but the modernists second. Even S0| it breaks an it with much be analysedas a tonic organ academic rule by entering nnpfepared. ^"3* w 0 fr^ " i i of Superposition sths: perfect ^ 2z: Beethoven used them in the Sixth S3rmphony: Allegretto^ Ex. I . the major seventh are frequent even a an inversion which clash of minor second.iN= ^ ex. 164. 95 This chord is like the diminished triad without itsthird. \iy i^i^ etc I 9^K=a ?2 .

diatonic Note or kind. program is unique has is no as when poem. treating Very the unique clash is Strauss This one chosen doubt the this the little noticeable. chromatic. the third time measure end. in and the again measures heard. Such which a practice concurrence is of At the most innovation is to of found modernists. the in high their strings high and high and the wood the S9und strings b-natural major low is two b-natural In registers from the alone low the c-natural. Major passages the new seconds seconds chords Two are also be more veiy freely in modem used and scores. more freedom. measure from the end the bassoons sound the following chord: while the cellos and basses mark the rhythm as follows:K)* X IM^ In the fifth wind and f oiuth the sound chord last effect as measures from chord of the end. ear willingly accepts contrary accepts the abnost any resultants easily ear vertical scales. The The consist it should for due other.96 MUSIC COMPOSITION. Different radical keys are sometimes the in combined. and in well-handled vertical of more melodic of this how lines progressions resultant. to of c-natural be tone basses. compaia- tivdy Many horizontal long of in will result or found or less accidentally may the the occur through taneously simul- concq"tions. are fact that uiuelated elements isolated from . Thus different the sixth keys be Strauss' Spake Zaraihustra. this without c-natural in cellos such a bass. played in motion.

A transitory change of key which exists to does not exist for architectonic purposes to the dominant and variety constitutes a transition.upon complex structure as actual composition and althoughmelodies constructive monotony. mode (for diange And a one of tonality. XIV. Part n well as tonal variety.'*' The most common are digressions and subdominant gression (superdomiiltot) keys. diange ci. TRANSITION.and tlie . Some theorists are such a digression to a non-attendant key is a natural modukUian. Another that a diange of mode is neidier a modulation contradiction by slating aniQther nor no change of key takes place. nineteen times. are monizati g^venfor har- the student should compose melodies of his own. are dianges of tonality theorist has defined a mcduta^ as example:C major to c minor) and trtuuUwn theorist has stated that a diange of mode does not effect modulation. keys and to the mediant and submediant The name modulaticm or tnmsition is to a key requiring the addition or subtraction simplest of but one sharpor flat. The exercises have deals with more resulted in tonal and here. the structure of which should be decided by the particular form imder consideration. One differentiatethe two transition to fiidUtatsthe pres* made. the axdiitectoidc times thirty to modulation to dominant occurs to subdominant only three times.w PART CHAPTER MODULATION AND 11. to a new digression change of key in which a A constitutes add a is called moduloHon transition. A or tonality new key isestablished for architectonic purposes modulation. Such ke3rs called attendant keys. *The entation The Horn two as a anthor has chosen titsM and oi tlicsabject terms to tpedficdefinitiontof modulatioii and have become for wliidi purposes extremely ambiguous among theorists. The progressions characterized of the material has been a "monotonic" one presentation the by simplephrase balance and periodconstruction. a digression extraneous called an modulation.tDimode as the to the two former keysis usually made in the same made in to the latter two keys is usually original key whereas digression the q"posite mode from that of the original key.We enter. Obviously. might add transition because to note t It is interesting that in the works eighty-one in sonata form ci Beedioven. has been to present the manner of the preceding object chapters in which simple melodies may be harmonized to which end all the chord formations together with their logical have been given.

98 A MUSIC COMPOSITION. paragraphof text which follows the latter example. 182. in the introducing The tonic harmony in an unforced manner. The Italian and German are supertonic enharanalogous.) modulatingchord (adominant) is in an attendant key. To establish a remote key. page no. is necessary to handle these considerableskill iminant chords. togetherwith the The allthe triads in C following exampleshows figuring: The major with compound I H I F ^ I "'^" "ra?" I i i VIlO ifi VII" " I :' I : I V VI IV I VI G D b c I IV VI V F III II I IV a 0 bI"v a G a e b*"V A similar example in minor follows: V g " B VI I IV V VI bb F C V I IV ft VIl" IlO A b'' V chords are Remember that the mediant and seventh superdominant become Sixth Chords seventh chord and may constructed likethe supertonic chords. chords. the dominant seventh or ninth or the subtonic seventh chord is frequently necessary. of family sixth chords of the subdominant new the new key are all valuable dominant. a is not necessary when (See Ex. page 112. change of key is effected by the introduction of the dominant harmony of the new key. i8i. the new key. in construction to the dominant seventh and may become monically.the more is necessary to introThe more duce remote technique the new dominant the subdominant six-four. . new phraseor period also Ex. although this manner successfully. the supertonic and the augmented triad.

169. seventh chords may become examples.) s: . formulae. It iseven advisable at times to go beyond the objective key. ^ I I2z: b^ I ^ fi i Jk- (s ^"^ vii^J (".but with the contributions Many methods have modulatory of Beethoven to the evolution of music. to a remote key.^- i:^ "e ^ = i I " b^ VM^I ci^vii"7 vii^a vii"7 bl" (^.MODULATION AND TRANSITION.) (c. major and minor major triads may By this alteration. 170. especially modulating. any diminished seventh chord isenharmonically other into three changeable keys: (6. 99 for The diminished seventh chord offers rich Because of the fact that the resources modulatory purposes. dominant tonic seventh chords and vice versa.) gv"^i # Ex. of to introduce the salient tones of the new key (themost conspicuous which isthe leading in an inconspicuous tone) place. "^ I bg_U^ ^ ? ^- ^ ":r (af b 32: ^m " 2z: fl^ f I b f* -"5"" I " "3C"- i viiOJ d V11O7 b viiO| = VHO7 vii^a g* vii^^ All the diminished seventh chords The occurs are shown in the above alteration of factor three in for modulatory purposes.) I (^. soimd to the minor in augmentedsecond is analogous third. such formulas became antiquated. chords frequently super- become minor and viceversa.) i %_|_|g I ^^j^=|gz=i=|g i a = -fSh "^a I a ""s"- ^ = I ^ vii^2 "" " yi^7 vii^7 vii^l e*' (^. It is frequently desirable when .) vii^a M f* vii^^ (^^^ Ex.

at first. the bass by writing a melody as Secondly. C to This work may in the upper voices. be done. usually Exercises. a to d. C to a.lOO MUSIC COMPOSITION. ing interestthen harmonized. C to e. transitionsare to be made the sparingly. Modulate from C to G. as should possible The be written for each modulation and 2. B -transitional to" """- ^^irlf'TlLaT ^ A"^f\ ^^ -tf'-y i B'" --b^ " . a 14. a to e. Altered chords may be used altered chords may be effectively as used. Group 1. star indicates where with simplechords. although they serve statements serve a as much originality as as a mechanical guide. and a to F. F. following melody should be harmonized where indicated. HL-fr' ciT-'r ^ w. Some of the notes should be treated non-chordal. The are similar purpose and formulae not abstract preceding to bind the student's likely do. Tito Mattel g minor '^Mr r i ^ bfrJ t^Fff X 'i'U\[-1ti X"|xxiJ]r3j. part and then filling to C.

particular style obtained by some are one knowledge of style therefore desirable to be well informed upon The best resultsin any all the styles. York. and the string human voice. but for an of orchestration. 171. C. a text devoted to this subject an adequateknowledge is necessary as well as personal contact with orchestras in the capacity of listeneror performer.1 f * Ntw lagUth tfBBsUtkm pabUshed by Carl Fiidier. and it is the of the possibilities the pianoforte. / 6" . The The tonal compass of the Pianoforte. Chromatic. . the brass choir. Ex. Chaminadb. Andantt d minor ?\ iM^ri\o^u^im i"f"j a minor C CHAPTER THB XV. quartet. The knowledge is invaluable aid to composition of orchestration in any style. follows: pianoforte Sva. The student of free will composition be desirous of in writing the in which he is most interested. lOI 3. above Modem Sling's OrchesProHon and InskumefOaHan* The wind text book is also valuable to those interested in the wood and the military band.One of the best text books upon orchestration is Professor H.THE VARIOUS STYLES OF WRITING. choir. OP VARIOUS STYLES WRITING.

1 Ped_\ Ped.^ Ped. heard.102 MUSIC COMPOSITION. Moderate CantabiU tr J Hyfa Ex. The voice great variety care parts are well individualized and must therefore be taken to allel Par- write for this instrument with the individual voice parts in mind.^ J Ped. . I Ped.. Ped. I Ped. 4. etc. incorrectly often difficultto detect upon the pianoforte are when chords. quotation The demonstrates: F. broken chord styletogether with harmonic figuration rh3rthmic The following is particularly well adapted to the pianoforte. 172. " ^ I I " " I "5? #-i "- jt"t \\m f 1 "^ Ped.^ Ped. relations. The pianolends not itself to a of styles of writing. 66"No.^ Psd. nant cross resolved dissofifths. augmented leaps. Chopin. Op.

THE VARIOUS STYLES OF WRITING.J P4d. J %i /V"/.Ji PedJ ""u Mj Ped.J . 103 Ped^ Ptd^ P4d.^ Ped.. ^ Ped.

the chords are well brought out and die quotation The broken chord in the lefthand does duty for several voices and the harmonic effectis the same heard simultaneously. Voice parts upon the pianoforte may be added or discontinued at the of the composer and melodies and voice progressions pleasure may be in multiplied literature. are The broken chord in the style permits arpeggio use of many voices: Ex. Quartet* String Many and rich resources are found in composing for the is offered in this Greater scope as to voice compass and technicalities in the vocal style. from which is written throughout in arpeggio style. introducing fizskaio. and ponHceUo. 174.Chords are possible than is possible of writing style istherefore each of the instruments of the quartetand the composition not limited to four-part writing. quotation in twelve voices may tones: appear. ii. The Stiong octaves.I04 MUSIC COMPOSITION. 173. . but two voice parts.as many which case one as the above is taken. Chopin's Etude.but apparently is not contrapuntal. Without breakinga chord. No. loco. as thoughseveral voices were In the above there quotation. Parallel octaves therefore abound in pianoforte Quartet.Varied effects may be producedhy on harmonics muted strings. in each hand plays two finger Ex.Op. lo.

176. tmblM of When iattmiiieBti iIm ttadmrt tlMMld have wridng chords for dM ttrliif dwrdi phjpmblc reference. firstviolin corresponds to the sc^rano. used in flat keys. of By be produced.O- IBI All chords below the d instrument unless the or playedarpeggio string are. therefore. The to the viola and 'cello. The four of the strings violin are tuned to gf ^ ~Y df-^ " )" a ( cb ""^ J ^^^ ^ f^\ J. In writing should be sustained. and the 'cello to the bass. Sharp keys are.THE VARIOUS STYLES OF WRITING. Open tones are often tones are possible upon the violin. and four three. is more A tone producedupon an open string than a tone sonorous which requires more fingering. written the tones more of which are to be sounded two simultaneously. frequently than composingfor strings ^ the note. ^=t Several tones the use than higher the above may be written for virtuosi. than indicated may tones higher harmonics. constitute the string second). or four tones. are to performers the part are necessary and the chords * marked divisi. over designated by an Chords'*'of two. lOS Two violins(first and quartet. . The Violin. the second violin tenor the viola to the alto. The compass of the instrument follows: 0 . impossible upon a single is lowered or the chord tuningof the strings Where such chords are or tremoh. Such tables may for readjr be foand faimost treatises apoa iastrameatattOB. Ex. not over two tones not . Chords of two tones may be emplo3red pianoor forkfbut chords of three four tones for a single or performershould only be employed in forte chords of three passages. of course.

f-4" The low and middle the third line and the of the viola are notated in the C-def registers in the G-clef. 179. effective upon the violin. unison may one be of the tones employed effectively upon d. The The four 'Cello (Violoncello). tuned to c of the 'celloare strings ( "9* )" S ( 9' J d (9 "g and j. 1 78. the middle on on any staff degreebut usually is notated in the C-clef commencement or or is also notated in the C-def register the fourth line.io6 MUSIC COMPOSITION. Arpeggi. a and e. St -^- m ^ .The practical compass follows: Ex. ^' I tremolos. but when following the C-clef the notation shows higher the actual sounds. the G-clef The notation in the G-clef at the tones an when the F-clef indicates following octave than theysoimd. The and all musical ornaments are Viola.the upper register . The case. tuned to c The four of the viola strings are f ment of the instru- d f IHI ^ and ji a f |^[ j. upper register this instrument is upon All that has been said of the different effects upon as the violin as well to applicable of the for of writing technique the viola. The lower and middle are registers notated in the F-clef.rapid passages. a f "9* J. in which will be produced upon an open string: 1V ""1^1 Other imisons offer technical difficulties. The practical compass of the instrument follows: Ex.

not be of an instrument influence the possibilities of duplications. Exercises 1-3 in Appendix B. || Modulatingback endingin C. or May may not repeat. third beinga restatement is obtained by the appearance . Group Harmonize 15. if regular. Such an arrangement need not. if ||B I I (Consequent).one third. 107 That that has been said of the violin is true of the 'cellowith the as modification that the 'cellodoes not lend itselfto the violin. omission of chord factors cannot be boimd by rules. the Occasionally manner fifths. are adapted to three sectional arrangements. but artisticchord effects should and number sacrificedto techniques of an instrument. chestra.BINARY AND TERNARY FORMS. are obtained by deviations from the above arrangement. The contrast three the the divisions. to directions. in which case compositions is duplicated voice chord for strings a four or more by wood wind and brass. page'147. necessarily. and. F. or Duplication where many tive In orchestral composition are duplications necessary. 2nd Period diagram: i A ist Fteriod (Antecedent). Duplication of rapidpassages as Factors. | |[ ri IZZZZ8 or 16 measures.~ S or 16 measures. or rggMlar.the chord contains fifteenroots. Key of C modulating e. in fact. I The second consists of three-part composition simplest and part being a contrast after statement after contrast. etc. according The work in AppendixA should now be commenced. or- A remarkable exampleof is to be found in the last measure duplication Rondo for violin and Capriccioso two of Saint-Saens' ItUroductian and and Here. a or May may not to and repeat. preponderatein the so-called orchestral colorings orchestral composition. The Tonal consists of two balancing simplest two-part composition periods. FORMS. effecand ingenuity of the composer as resultsdependupon the experience well as upon the character of the composition Some orchestral at hand. CHAPTER BINARY AND TERNARY XVI. is obtained is modulation in shown the as variety by following Diagram 6. I to G. technical Exercises.

These two forms (binary and ternary) serve as the basis for the more elaborate forms. ally may occur. contrasting may Recurrence of Theme I in the varied. Gavotte. but too much transitionand transitionto remote keys (especiin binary Is main the in to obscure form) likely keys short or simple compositions. The classical and modem suites should be carefully studied and also the waltzes.ZztzMay repeat. or. Many composers.sometimes Most modem dance waltzes music are from the old dance of the Classical Suite to our in either two-part or three-part form. and three-part compositions: Gavotte. LI not repeat. or 16 measures.xl regu]ar.May not repeat.^ 1 '^1^ I kw InF- ^u s t ^ A . in other words.etc.ZljL_. Transitions be key. Two-part form often presents similar construc" followed by a consequent period. or may or may Theme II in a I in the key of be made. 180. The show two-part quotations following (Binary) A xst Period. made. transition. signature. of a the is obtained by the appearand tonal variety motive. Corelli. as form.lJlS if regular. unity preservedby of the "home at restatement. 183. ance Tonal is of the second part in a new key. of the songs of Schubert and Schumann of these valuable examples are an antecedent forms. original Sometimes verbatim. It will be remembered that in the division of a period.io8 MUSIC COMPOSITION. or may if May Theme the may not if regular.of modem analyzed. period In two-part and three-part well as modulation. marches. ZI8 or 16 measures.. Frequently whole shows binary a as a composition shows one of or ternaryform also a well defined part of the composition these forms. we had thesis and a antithesis. Ex.Ilt8 or 16 measures. The following key" reappearance new theme or diagramillustrates: Diagram 7. '\" |ii r ' ^ :i .Transitions key.) (SeeBach. Ex. an antecedent division followed by tion consequent division.

109 InC- In F- ^^ -InC- B 2nd Period. m " "A UL f ^ 1 " r m E="=" I " ^^ IndIn t V ""*F- ^^ 3=3: 11 t I ^^ r .BINARY AND TERNARY FORMS.

Op. No. Schumann. n -S jifl jj-i Ij " " .no MUSIC COMPOSITION. 8. 68. R. 181. and Period repeated. AlUgrocon Mo. Ex. i44g3 /'^iUJjiJ (Ternary) A "t Period in a minor.

A y^ Period in a minor. Ill B 2nd Period in P major. !i 'TLU mw^^m JLL^jjvi " " .BINARY AND TERNARY FORMS.

f^k ^ " i . Ex. 68. Op. 181 . R.^J i f F- r ti if f f i? (Ternary) A ist Period in a minor. 8. Schumann.no MUSIC COMPOSITION. Iand Period repeated. No. Allegro con brio.

Ill B 2nd Period in P major. ^^m\il'jj\ ^^\\^WMi 1^1 . i *) *l " j *1 *1 \ j'.'^-ij jT'iJT^ A 3^^ Period in a minor.BINARY AND TERNARY FORMS.

Op. ". 12. e minor- PH"! r ? f i ^ I B ^5^ ? *'-J*=^ * ^^^^ I ^ " -X f G major- r f ^^ r "^ -b minor V 1GV7 G major- . No. 7.112 MUSIC COMPOSITION. Grieg.

Analysis is the key to success in the understanding ways in which compositions in these forms are varied. follows:from to G and from G to e. e minor. measure. there is a transition from G to b returning to G in the sixteenth The above They are are quotations exemplify simplebinaryand ternary forms. n-j -e TT3i"^r!l. The modulations are as e the example.*. The second key of the relative major but ends in the original key. At the fifteenth measure. period (thesecond A) is in the key of e minor. r "e minor- ^^ f tf fc r fj " ^^gj^T^^ 1" E ' M t i " E ^X^XJ ITTT f I Ml^^ In the above periodB The is in the third first period A is in the key of e minor. 113 ^m ^ ? HLi' -54" i i fit 5 "."". of the terms and examplesof the forms in the strictapplication 6 diagrams coincide with and 7. . Many binary and in less regular construction and many are more ternarycompositions elaborate.BINARY AND TERNARY FORMS. vii" V e minor- I^N=^i^^lr i r II.

A similar construction is possible form. Second I First theme verbatim tiieme presented in be or may of the ways previously varied by contraction. Bach..! the same or I of the Comnendng and ending in the key signature. but a careful analysb by which is gained complexity upon a basis of ternary fonn. of two themes. S. Third Period. UMay or may not repeat. end To the main First theme one in presented of the ^lays previously one described."4 MUSIC COMPOSITION. Commencing key as theme and i. The foUowingdiagramshows a common ternaryconstruction. First Period. tr comp"osi- J. The Diagram S. of the application simple above structure see Schumann. English Suite No. and in otiier means.both a composition foUowing diagramrepresents themes of which are in the same key but in which several other tonalities of the same main key for both transitorily occur. Tlieme 2.One transition or several are made.=t: of d-minor First theme . 1 r r 11. A in d minor. key of the composition formal is its principal obligation. ending in One are transition several made. B Second Period. 9 and the Each tion division isin as a form similar to Diagram three-part form. The is shown construction of Bach's in the is in two Gavotte from the Sixth of following quotation the upper voice part. expansion described.1 IMay or may not repeat. Op. 188. For a 20. irfjt \3" t^fTr^g ending on the dominant .. 68. (Theme i. Many constructed may at first sight similarly compositions appear too complex will show the means for three-part form.) not B Second Period. hence the desirableness in three-part themes. Diagram First Period. This composition divisions called Gavotte i and Gavotte n (Musette). Ex. 9.) iMay or may repeat. whole is in three-part Gavotte I.

up of largely material of the firsttheme and containing i^. "5 d V "l^^ B yarlo.BINARY AND TERNARY FORMS. ir d V Second tiieme made ji."^ri'. A i I First theme of Gavotte li ."key.rrr free transition commencing in a minor A in d-minor I ^." XjH J P Ir'"/f r'r J-7-^" r'tUuili/' -"- J r JI First theme tr (entersin an inner voioe) varied I fiJ^ fW^ ji" Gavotte II in ^ [lEr f I fry /f\ i9- I I Fine (Musette) D-major..








and G.-major. in-D-majdr tr



of Gavotte







Mn^^^ w
First theme of Gavotte

varied slightly





I D,C, al Fine


Notice that the first theme, A, of Gavotte


ends with dominant that the in most and

of the

(Half Cadence) which
themes show nineteenth themes and


Notice, too, irregular.
than consequent

less contrast



centuries;the motives

of all the figures

ality, similarity althougheach theme has individuand the composition can hardlybe considered what we may call a monothematic composition. For such a compositionsee Schumann's rrawweref (AppendixB, No. 2). show


Exercises, Group
(Binary )

Menuet W. from Don



A. Mozart.





(Ternary.) A 2.

Gavotte, C. Gurlitt, Op. 172


^ ^






J j_i ij




jjTJ;^^ ^^


P J jjs^ ^Sm^Uj:^^^f^fI\

3. Harmonize






Example 183.
Continue the work in





is frequently A measures. precededby introductory composition in long introduction may form a satisfactorily completecomposition itselfsuch


measures introductory

in many The etc. overtures, sets of waltzes, foreshadow the themes, establishthe main usually

Arthur Copyright, 1890,

P. Schmidt.




key and






that the

do not foreshadow
measures are

that that is to follow but

measures introductory simplyestabli^ the key,

often called prdudein contradistinction to itUroducUon.
are more or

The tenn

which to oompofiitkms frdude isalso applied of free improvisatic"i but not Prdudes, Chopin's be found in

lessfree in form

and of the nature the teim

Such introductory.

of application

of short introductionsand preludes foUow: Quotations

Op. 46.





F. Liszt, Du



Bist IVie Eine









E. For The Magic Fluie. of scale passages. Overtiue. first15 measures. 12. etc.INTRODUCTION AND INTERMEZZO.first17 measures.) .to the entr'acte. movement. Johann Strauss' (n). Op. and of irregular construction* may be of any length It is characterized by the absence of definitemelody and usually consists The of melodic passages W. No. intermezzo has two particular fimctions: (i) as a substitute for interlude between two theme and (2) as an contrasting themes. first10 measures. ScHUBBRT. The a or of broken chord of transitionalcharacter. Ludwig van Beethoven: Sonata Pathetique. Emil Waldteufel's and J. inUrmeMM to the intermediate and occasionally to a movement of a symphony. ^U ' j 'ij *The term dances of the Is also applied to short compositions. Grikg. second suite. (See Goets's Syn^hony. 186. "9 F. A. The following contrasting quotations exemplify. Am Meer. Ex. 3. of long introductions the student isreferred to the following examples compositions: JosephHaydn: S3rmphonyin G Major. Mozart: Inteiucezzo* fragmentsin sequence. Gungl'sWaltzes.

r jj^ I J 1^ 27- / // """ =^ i^ 3 a * ^ X 1 " /J/ Y ^"// .320 MUSIC COMPOSITION. Intennezzo i I (Substitute for contrasting division) *-" * % nty !=": at^ ^t" =^ ^ -^.

^^^-i T sa/ Notice the second theme less contrast two themes up before the the last half of the intermezzo. Ex. I ^ I I (^ {^m ^"" #- i ^ ^m ^P" #- ^ i \ . Scherzo. KuHLAU. is made of material from the first theme thus making^ than is usual between contrast. A Theme I in C-major. however codas. k *. themes.INTRODUCTION AND INTERMEZZO. 12 k:. furnishesvivid up The restatement after the intermezzo is made of material from both' themes and is not unlike many Fr. The intermezzo.

133 MUSIC COMPOSITION. B Theme II in G-major and A-minor. Intermezzo ooolaining transitional material over cadences in G-major and modulating to C-ma jor. If rtrtii 'frtH^m * I t ^ ^* Theme I in originalkey (C-major) . 8va.

m " " " m^ ^ Notice measures that the second theme leads into the intermezzo. or movement. or other material. Intermezzo A group of of this type marked Cadences theorists. Episode The Extended (inthis case. is more melodious and partakes Episode. termination . back to the main key where the finaltheme (2)to convey the composition ends in a different key. the final cadence. form. might well be analyzed as extension of Theme II) and is so called by some The has similar functions and is similar in character to the the however. character of a subsidiary Episodesoccur in Fugues and serve of a fugue theme. "3 Theme I repeatedan octave higher. The Coda is a chordal of a or thematic appendageand follows the natural The functions of the coda period. are (i) to emphasize the motive. Intermezzo.THE EPISODE AND CODA. For an the repetitions as intermediate parts between from Mozart's String example of an Episode see the Slow Movement and extending Quartet in C major commencing at the thirteenth measure Theme at the twenty-sixth n commences through the twenty-fifth. measure.and (3) to summarize the material of a composition. theme.

" " ICoda the motive). [ .124 MUSIC COMPOSITION. *^ Voice. No. Op. 189. 3. | J. Du Bist Wie Eine Blume.) (emphasizing Theme ending in d-minor. io$. Brahms. No. Op. Ex. i P^ t ^ m T" n- i i aih^|i"Jiyir f ICoda back (conveying to main k key. Liszt. Termination of Theme | F. io6. (emphasizing TCTiination of Theme | F. Schubert. F-major). 4. F Coda final cadence.

|| ""- Bb" Principal Subject. Principal . A -S measures.187. episodes. Analyze the harmony Examples 184. Recurrence. Recurrence section Contrasting in g. Exercises. in | rh3rthm. . section Contrasting ending in F. Group 14. A * "8 m^asiir^. page 100. an 3." I. contrasting themes supplantedthe indefinitesection until the fully form developed The following culminated in the work of Beethoven. containingintroductions. 17.piagnmi " 10. Exercises 4 and 5 in Appendix B. Principal Subject. Codas which smumariz^ the material of a composition see are usually long." .186. and 150. of a principal consisting nounced subjectancomposition after contrasting sections. A [j 8 measures. Write 4. introduction and in a coda for Exercise 2. C (I of 8 measures. CHAPTER THE RONDO AND THE XVIII. . B 4 mieasures. measiues ending with a perfect usually The Rondo a is Between each recurrence comes a section less definite and to furnish contrast with no and tonality aggrandizethe principal subject As the form developed. for example. 189.188. 2. Strauss. of eight cadence. ' V . positions The work for this work Original in should composition also be done. . standard c("iichaptershould consist of analyzing and codas. laS Tie plagal dose may be considered a short coda.THE RONDO AND THE VARIATION FORM. gave to the coda in the great dignity the firstcomposer who Sonata Form and in his in compositions . Recurrence of Subject. D 14 measures. Principal " m ' * " -^ AS II measures. codas to the orchestral waltzes of was and Gungl. of . pages Appendix A may be finished. 185. Group 1. Cp/itrasting section ia Bb and c. this Form may be found long and elaborate codas. intermezzi. The earlycomposiand reciuring tions in this form are primitive and consist of a subject of definitelength. Subject. Beethoven Waldteufel.190 and 191. diagrami^ows the of a Rondo by Couperin: structure . apparent objectin view other than in . 149. VARIATION FORM.

elaborate extensions.and is occasionally eictended. in its several recurrences. li C of i4mBunn" in Episode Subject in Ab. 11 is not restricted subject principal that it occurs with the exception at least three times. The intervening sections may consist of contrasting The or episodes. on principal subject usually sections often lead into the principal whereas the intervening or subject is occasionally The princqial varied subject pause on a semi-cadence. The third movement divbions of the composition. Principal Repeats 8va with varied accompaniment. Principal abi B. thirty contrasting The movements. of Beethoven's in structure shows great complexity Paihetique the harmonic and formal structure of should analyase Sonata and the student this movement. a The or more Variation Form is a term themes ispresented and older in which one composition in variously re-presented di"fering styles. In the highly complex Rondo Form may be found transitional measures. 7 measures. Recurrence and Subject.136 The MUSIC COMPOSITION. Bach's Vanaiions on an Aria in G Major which is a Sarabande variations. \ CODA. to ai^lied of the Variation Form were principally concerned examples with a groundbass which served as a basis for building vafia" subsequent tions. contrapuntally. S. each occurrence doses with a final cadence. Episodein f-minor.|| || la 8 measures. Here. second of Beethoven^s developed highly 5iMiato PolAelJ^Me. foUowing diagramshows movement the structure Rondo. . themes. Bach used the harmonic structure of the with thirty Aria as a baas on which he built. a more of II. A B measures. The most highly is to be found devel(^)ed exampleof this style in J. A 8iiieasiifat(repeats). sometimes with changeof harmony. A 8 measures (repeats). The number of recurrences of the and codas between the various passage work. The Variation Form. and Ab.iniermezzi. often appears with varied accompaniment.

A theme compositions A should be chosen and in this worked out principal ways the of style (i)by changing Some of the in which a theme may be varied follow: in variations in the various ways enumerated Form work in the Rondo composition chapter. (7) by obscuring passing of the tones of the theme. In basis upon which find contrasting themes (see as a Haydn'sAndanie is the most with Variations in F of which the first Minor) serving worked thorougjily out. epic-like is necessary to successful results in many technique Contrapuntal a theme such as are good resultsin the ways of varying cases. etc. For such example.THE RONDO AND THE VARIATION FORM. AppendixB. and important therefore most sodes.see Haydn's F Major Sonata for violin and clavier (slow movement) which should be analyzed. and Variation Form Exercises. the acounpaniment. cadenzas. Epi- made their variations. (4) by changing and often a new notes thereby a new metre. a. 137 a theme Later.. but fairly listedabove may be obtained without such knowledge. as well as a some ground bass served cases. Compose a theme. Exercises 6. (8) theme by arpeggio figuration by inverting and the of the the intervals or contracting (9)by expanding theme. (3) a new by writing the length of the various of the principal theme. intermezzi. pages 150 and 151. 7 and 8. .. the intervals in the theme. we variations were built. harmonize and treat it in a manner of at least eight measures. 3. (6) repetition tones ornamental to the tones of the theme. Group I. (5)by obtaining rh3rthm of certain notes which may or may not changethe metre. 18.scale passages. less readily to the Variation Form than an theme lends itself lyrical theme with potentialities. should consist of analyzation of standard The work for this chapter in the Rondo Form and in the Variation Form. and Variation Forms are The an sometimes combined.(2)by changing theme to the harmonization harmonization of the theme. page 125. Compose a theme five or more and write variati("is. by introducing the tones between the tones of the theme. appearance as well as elaborate codas.Original may be done. harmonize similar to Diagram 10.etc.and to-daywe have a highly complex form which exists as a completeopus number or as a movement introductions to of a Sonata Rondo or Symphony.

Minuet or Scherzo. A a movements be in Sonata Form or in any of the forms heretofore is called of three for orchestra similar to the Sonata composition Symphony." The Exposition consists of two and the third part (A) Recapitulation. Allegro. the need of contrapuntal skill As the form grows more complicated. The Sonata and Symphony sometimes consist The Sonata Form movements. disposition "Slow". Previous to The term "Sonata" the term the work of Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788). A common tonal scheme of structure is shown in the following diagram: . is applied in three (Merent ways. Tliis chapter. and The Sonata Form the greatest amount requires aims only to the equipping sufficientto of the student with knowledge and appreciation the analyzation of the Sonata Form. in a broad sense. the term is used more for solo instrument (usually in and is applied to a composition conventional lines. The first is. FORM. of the movements is: ist movement. therefore. I consists of four separate usually movements. Three-Part Form. themes in contrasting or more keys. 3rd movement. in The first is frequently movement preceded by an introduction usually The following is in Sonata Form." part (A) is called "Exposition. slow tempk). four separatemovements) based on more the term is applied in conjimction with the term "Form" (SonataForm) of one of the movements of a to signify a certain structure or more complexof allthe forms of technique. the second part (B). The first movement The modem Sonata may considered. used was and meant almost any kind of a composition for instruments in loosely contradistinction to the cantata. nitely defiTo-day. each of which is a complete form but allof which constitute a whole with more The common between the various movements. or less interrelationship 2nd movement. the Development consists ot an in the motives of the themes in k of the lateht possibilities unfolding consists of a restat"ebitof Bie the Recapitulation transitionalmanner. isthe most Sonata. 4th movement. Thirdly.lis CHAPTER THE SONATA XIX. becomes more when considering apparent and this need manifests itself the Sonata Form. Allegro. with iemphasis themeis of the Exposition upbn the main key."Development.

passage work of rhapsodical. brief analysis. sounds The c an e-flatinstrument actually the scale of e-flat. the Sonata 3 concertos are written in Sonata Form. All strings. episodes.The or lesschaotic tonality us contrast more occurs. found frequently in the of and trios. (A Exposition. may. Leipxig.conclusion themes movement. the first movement in E-flat {Eroica^ Op. quintets.* For a of Form. example of specific Beethoven's Symphony No. The Development and is the complicated part of the movement the character of a free fantasia. etc. occur. giving form with emto the themes in their original return at Recapitulation phasis and givesus unity. new germinate and variety. are treated as tn^nsposing *The orchestral score to this Symphony as should be in the hands in his of the student that he may analyze the harmonic tore most score as progressions well is obtainable in the of the Form. to assist him music dealecs. of course." written "conhorns. the Recapitulation Not infrequently Transitions. and codas are verbatim).and trumpets are "transposing for the B-flat Clarinet or B*flat Trumpet really higher sounds b-flat J therefore the tones written scale of are notated for a major second than they actually sound. quartets. flutes (inorchestrations). movements Overtures. written in the g-def. |J"B D9TBlopiiiMit~ ifC Recapitulation. the main key and the second theme in the main key. Trombones tones they accordingto instruments in b-flat. notice must be taken of the fact that the clarinets. or section is the most cadencial of themes (sometimes sometimes material.THE SONATA FORM.English cert. 55) is chosen for In analyzing orchestnd score.and trombones (when in the bass or c-defs) the sound. upon the main key roimds up the movement themes. theme usually in the subdominant the first is in two contrasting of keys. f39 piagram 12. large . oboes. Subsidiary transitional. Oftentimes it partakes musical thoughts from the original motives and Here.for horns.bassoons. that is. however. repetition varied. least rigid. are tubas. Notice that such a tonal scheme keysfrom results in the reappearance of both themes in different those in which they appear in the Exposition. an instruments" and are written tran^"osed. An inexpensive mtnia" analysis and is for sale by Payne Series published by Ernst Eulenberg.

is foreshadowed. The transitions are radical and interesting. founded upon the rhythm and ideas of the princq"al a passage measure Notice at the one and subsidiary themes commences.theme reappears for further theme above. measure 348 to 279 and elsewhere. At measure sounding 4x6 the firstviolin and flute sound theme x in D-flat (measure409). two bassoons. and quartet of strings. This episode 322 in E-flat minor. 362. The tonality transitional measure a connecting vaguelyestablishedand at the sixty-fifth passage leads to the second theme proper (which is in the key of At the one hundred and ninth b-flatmajor) at the eighty-third measure. study. x isheard in the horn with the radical accompaniment mentioned This is followed F-major. t3anpani. is reiterated forzando for four measures The key of f enters and rhythm in these four in effect. This placehas caused much discussion and many amusinganecdotes and mistakes on the part of musicians and publishers. reappears at measure At developmentand evolves. At the end of the Exposition the material is. measures 394 and 395 where the horn sounds the tonic chord in Eb major while the violins sound the dominant seventh chord. oboes. two flutes. Development. The Exposition does not end with a finalcadence but coalesces with the Development. Fragments of theme one are heard on a diminuendo until at measure 394. of the long coda which ends the movement The now Exposition repeatsverbatim. hundred and the dissonant chords upon the weak beats which measure twenty-third until at the one hundred and twenty-eighth obscure the tonality measure dominant the dominant inversion in the seventh chord in itsfirst measures. potentialities of the second theme in a is very little used which is an unusual circumstance note.the horn again theme i but this time in F (measure 408). two trumpets (in e-flat). subsidiary tossed around harmony in the key of b-flat preceded in the forty-fourth of b-flat is only measure by augmented sixth chords. 181 radical dissonances The also to deserve measures especially. two-four. 185. by a modulation to . two three horns (ine-flat. The Development consists of the unfolding of the The material of the first theme and the subsidiary theme. The motive is of a among the different instruments until the entrance theme at the forty-fifth This theme starts with measure. double bass. climax for full orchestra at measure to a fortissimo transitionally. measure i 338. is the chief theme is sounded by the cello piano but Theme i which is Symphony (Eraica) scored for two introduced by two tonic forte chords by full orchestra.130 The MUSIC COMPOSITION. but changing)^ clarinets (inb-flat). An Episodein E-minor commences at measure 384. for but above all. example.

THE SONATA FORM.) close in"b. Notice the insistence upon dominant harmony in the home key commencing at the measure 681. 552 coalescing It is an Form 468 but this time fifth lower than in the example of one of Beethoven's contributions a to the Sonata but a complexpart of appendage Notice that the principal the movement. Commere or and is not termination at the measure crescendo^ 627. Restatement themes of the of Further opment develand statement re- and passages introdttdng theme. throughthe fourth measure domineers with from the end. and continuing S3mcopation. The Recapitulation from the Exposition but not sufficiently The to destroy sidiary Subunity. theme is sounded firstupon the E-flat chords then upon the D-flat majorchord.) Rhapsodical pas" (Plural transitions). Two cbords main tonic theme Principal in and in ("b) "b. These may . the key of F. with (Mono-Tonality with transitions. in Eb. No modulating 569. themes the to of Themes ing bringment movea TonaUty. The student should in Sonata Form. The theme harmony measure 448 but this time on re^pears at measure in E-flat. At measure 595 a new melodious passage in chromatic and mencing style lyric-like enters. A illustration of diagrammatic the structure of Eroka follows: Diagram 13. subsidiary Exposition. "31 coalesce and the firsttheme Development and Rec^"itulation differsin many respects appears in E-flat major. themes. from here to the end of the movement key of onlyoccasional and temporary transitions. The connecting transitionalpassage a the dominant conunences at The Exposition. The Coda commences with the Recapitulaat measure tion. inexpensive are ments move- excellent for this. in Here the dominant harmony C-majoris insistedupon until measure itprogresses to the dominant harmony in 573) where instead of resolving.we are led back the to the main E-flat and tonality. second theme enters at measure 468 in E-flat. and thirdly upon the chords are used until measure C-major chord. Transitional ity (Dual Tonal- the Development of and principal Episode. analyzethe harmony and form of several The Beethoven be obtained in sonatas pianoforte editions. Compare the passage of dissonances conunendng at measure tion 526 with the passage in the Exposiat (commencing measure 123).sounded by cello and bassoon in xmison. Subsidiarytheme Bby Second theme in Bb. igtB.

of the movements diagram shows the disposition medleys. *The lacks unity which pot-pourri is a of all hecsstfryquality arts. Peasant has more unity. . The following The overture popular in the is frequently of style a of Poet and Peasant. Such an overture as Suppe's Poei and this case the themes are original. Operatic consist of a selection of the one medleysusually most a no finds one populartunes of a single opera althoughoccasionally selection consisting of times from various operas. or national songs.* a in of the movements following diagram shows the disposition selection from Mascagni'sCavaUeria RusHcana with the key together The scheme: Diagnun 14.MUSIC CX)MP09ITI0N. etc. The pot-pourri has set form and no value other than a sensuous one. but in pot-pourri. The or Medley consists of Poi-paurri a selection of themes from an in contrast to strung together opera. and folk national.. however. folk songs. FREE FORMS. another. CHAPTER THE MIXED AND XX. than most operatic..

our The Fantasia is a Beethoven.Schumann. Bach. characteristicsof the early Fantasias was the development The principal of a theme by free imitation. including those of J.S. and in those of presentday composers. Although the older composers including Kuhnau. which is determined either and context of by its titleor by a description printed upon the composition. rather than by abstract musical formalities.the mood. the term has come to be section of the Sonata Form. Couperinand Rameau. Program Music. of motives. may be found the older application of the term. works of the early and. as well as frequently to the development applied and inexcusably Fantasias may to the pot-pourri. 133 "S- in which the composer gives free scope composition The form is wholly tained but unity is mainto his fancyor imagination.Program Music until the Romantic style Period. environment sicists. Interesting be found in the works of Mozart. wrote common a few small works of this kind. those of the earlyEnglish. later. composers. Since then.THE MI^ED AND FREE FORMS. the bigotry of musical theorists. istic characterby various devices such as the persistence In many etc. form Program music is instrumental music. and lack of breadth in the education of the so-called Clas- . Bach. the immatured to the inadequacies and the of instrumental music. free. did not become a The state of Program Music was late development due principally comparatively in the media of expression. of the instrumental rhythmicand harmonic figures.

of a Symphonic Poem phonic Poems. 4 horns.and no be had than the Symphonic Poems of Liszt and his successors. The compositionmay be divided arbitrarily Each part depicts a different phase of Lamarhowever.harp. a mood. vision. and governed by the specific inspiration bemg empirical better for necessitates concrete such study can examples study. bassoons. 3 trombones. possession Nature. into six parts played. or a composition picture. definite Modem to preler a to a more seem or inspiration composers less prosaic weaving of tones. In the Pastoral of this type The form owes its form. when him of its tempests is over. fatal breath dissipates where fatal by interrupted consumes lightning one storm. without pause. The Symphonic Poem is scored for 3 follows: . bass tuba. and when ''the arms.134 MUSIC COMPOSITION. harmonic. and much of the either realistic. obtain scores who For the benefit of those students of Sym" cannot is given. but the whole is founded principally upon and rhythmic guises. man the country? Yet cannot long resign with to himself to the kindly monotony firstcharmed in his companionship to trumpet'sloud blast has called him in of the strife. A diagram appear in various melodic. drums. regardless his of strength. Lamartine's The a is founded composition translation of which upon a of portion MediiaUons^ prose What follows: is our lifebut a series of Preludes Love to the unknown song. of the nature point of danger.by combat. Beethoven opened new paths and since its pxoductionthe listof programmatic music has grown. best music is now or characteristic. philosophy. descriptive. Symphony. 2 flutes. and the usual strings. a brief analysis Les Preludes J Fsanz Liszt. some note of which is sounded by death? is the enchanted are dawn of every what is the destiny where whose And the first joys of happiness not whose its fair illusions." he rushes to the order gain. 2 obpes. themes which two tine's poem. 2 trumpets. They desire to express in their music the emoticms of their inner lifewhether kindled by literature. 2 clarinets. To a specific inspiration. cymbals. tympani. event. its altar? is the wounded in the to cahn its memories that does spirit lifeof peaceful which not seek. the firstsolenm but life. object.

Theme 3BD (Allegretto pastorale f). in developed Reminiscences horns. xsT Theme Recitative for strings. Development 1. followed by transition. and h " u horns. a new by horns and answered with 2nd by strings and Theme 2 Developed and mood Sudden union theme.THE MIXED AMD FREE FORMS. of theme and horn. horn. Reappearance theme of 2Nd Theme In violins. theme bassoons. dariof nets. full orchestra. low Theme i sounded trombones. fortissimo . to a tuba. followed to by the wood next wind division. and darinets. of followed motive Restatement clarinet. then in horns and violas. animato trumpets. oboes. Leads crescendo (Andante and the theme V) Leads sounded upon a by bass strings. sounded fortissimo by wind. oboe. diminuendo violins of each and third with form an of (f) sounded and bassoons by at second the end cellos echo to I in basses phrase. Moduktes E-major. wood in rhythm violins. PrincquJly tempestuoso next of theme i (Allegro storm. trom- I). ma non txoppo | and leading Allegro to V)- Suggests (Quiets down the theme. upon maestoso a Motive to answered a new by wood form of wind the same (Andante theme bones. then Figures by of of the theme then sounded tossed first by around. trombones. flutes. Theme 2ND Sounded by and z horns and violas (C-V)* to a Rei4)pears: climax. z and a traniriticms. bassoons. and 2. to a ]). Developed transitionally leading Fkee Recapftulation (Allegro marziale. tuba CV). bassoons. Reappearance in former guise sounded Ends by with basses. "35 Diagram t6.

/P\ m m /T\ -""- Llii-U^ /7\ m 3 "^9- Hif f5""a^ f # ndu ^M /TV ^^m n\ J=rt E "*' " ^"^ J II I f I** ^^ /TV ^^ "^ m 3. A.13^ HUSIC COMPO3IXI0N.. APPENDIX MELODmS 1. tS*- i^ . BACH'S FROM CHORALS. i IJ J 4*J J J IJ~^ "^" /C\ /TN ^ ^^ /TS /TN /T\ ^gLgli-i ^ ^^ /f\ /"IN i iff=d * ^^ "^- P .

137 i. 'hTj /f\ J J|JHI ^T\ "^" P I ! J" #==? ^ir-q m /TN f=f 3 /T\ /T\ j J J ll II .MELODIES FROlf BACH'S CHbRALS. J I ii^fjj jii /TS ^T\ J I ijijji /TS i ^^ ^^ /T\ In r r I /T\ /f\ ^ 7.f J 6.

1 1. . I' l(J'' ' ' III rjJ J|X -fLcj JJi-nTjjJ|J. 44 ^j J r rxjJ^Tlrn J JI rr r ra 12.j.]i 13.138 MUSIC COMPOSITION.

MELODIES FROM BACH'S CHORALS.^iJ J J J I ^N . J J J Jij J J Jif r r ^'1 fi-' jij J /JJiJJ J a /f\ Lrr ^^irrmv^m ^^ r^-^lf:t\('ril r J ^'. 139 15.

20.. Wt'. /*N ^ i9- # ' t=^ IP # " if 1"- ^ T.i"jj9j-J|itJ_f^^^ g i .IJl^i ^ ^ ^S 22.I40 MUSIC COMFOSlTK"N.ri^-^ e r.f 3 t=$ m ^ ^^ '^ g ^PP^^ 3=t ""^ i^ T""- ^^ ^N "J^ |j'. /ts ^s fe 1=1: /^ ^^ ^ 23.iiT.

jJJiJ ijf/aj .*r 26.MELODIES FROM BACH'S CHORALS. 1 rir-cfi^ Jua t=t=t J ^rirrvcji^ /ts r r r Ifr r 1 27. 141 nr rifrU i"f.

/T\ /TN i m 2Z J I .M^ MUSIC COMPOSITION. /TS il^'Jir cj^ .jj|j 1= /TN i fc s P S tt=t m /r\ ^B ^ if /"S ^ i W J gJ '' SO.

y?\ m " ^ =t "2^= ?=lt^ /r\ E ""^ Ty?T- J ^ffl :t ?2=p: t=t ^ S4. /T\ /TN /tS p ? /T\ rifir T f iri 2i ^ ^^ . US ^^ \^yi-i'!i\n S2.MELODIES FROM BACH'S CHORALS.

FdWi I il'i11.^^ /T\ . lij ' ll |l' HI 111|ii|ii|i IIIJl'll If I 'li "Hi I iQi^i|ii||i II i||i|i ' fiiiii 'illIiiiiiiI^'Ti|| ifiJa^ f|jjjj|jj 41."44 MUSIC COMPOSITION. I 1 I nil |i 1 ii'ii'h II 1 .

^rffiJrr^irfrrii-rr ifr fr 1^ " /rs ^ " "^ ^^^iT^n ""- 3 ^ "J"^if t" 11* r -^"^ ^i*' !*"""*' n r^*^' ir .MELODIES FROM BACH'S CHORALS. "45 42.'irirr iijl'^ji^' rir ririrrrifirrrM ij'/jffif 46. (iJ |j J J ^ i r If f 43. rn-' niJJjJij.

146 47. liffUSIC COMPOSITION.'''rrrrl^^rrJl'^ JJl^ 49. -J ^ ^\cfjir*^ /FN * -^ fir r f ir r rrTr r'rTff"^ "f. /P\ J J Ji^JiJ J J ^S i f ^^ TTN -""- lE tS^ fir f ^1 l-i g ^^ '^ '^11 iftifffl'^ 'fflfffl'^ .

ir fir / T ^m /-("- f ^ |ff f |r~r|p"^ ^ ^ a ffW ffu f if 1 . Mascagni. EXERCISES.f" -^ cJiO ^^ pp f^. I .MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES. the violinsolo with pianoforte accompaniment following P. Harmonize Andante. 147 fj J J JiTT^r APPENDIX MISCELLANEOUS r ^ffi'^^ ^i^iB. ufarrT^fjiU pp 6 y ^ Id rrf " r "Hti t-.

Schumann. [jicjrcjulu c^ rfjir''^: . IJJH^ ||!. Harmonize the ist following violinpart for string quartet: R. Ugato. the solo: following melody for pianoforte Bkethoven. Harmonize Minuet.^ iJKi ijj:\r\^'m a tempo i^^-^ri^^^^i^^^^i^ jTigf i5[[jlr -^ /TV 3.148 MUSIC COMPOSITION. r m^' / !"f.J__. A^ 2.r f "'^^ ^1 ' ^ E fi^' iT" l1 CJLT Iji^r' I' ^/w.

day. thy glories shine. so radiant.MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES. with farewell beam. Among the opening we can And almost think we gaze Through goldenvistas into heaven. art. fairand all things are bright And thine! When day. . Compose Moore: a choral for mixed chorus to the following poem by Thomas Thou Thou Art. O God. the lifeand world light we Of allthis wondrous Its glowby see.O God. Are but reflections caughtfrom thee. Those hues. that make the sun's decline Lord! So soft. 4. dela3rs clouds of even.C. are thine. itssmile by night. Where'er we turn. dl Fifu. Z49 ^^ D.

"i9- . grand. unnumbered Lord^are so countless. vocal quartet: -_ 1 jj^i.ISO When MUSIC COMPOSITION. Add a melody foimded upon the following key and restate the first period. i^s. gloom. motive. those fires divine. m. Is with sparkling That sacred So eyes. Harmonize Introduction and Coda: Supplyan with accompaniment. beauteous bird. with wingsof Starry gloom. KjERULF.(2nd) string pianoforte quartet. pianoforte Allegretto. ?r? '^^ J JIJ J'li^l^^ riL r9\ ^f'^Jiljj^ a ^^m tempo I i ^\h^ \^^'j F i. consequent periodin a contrasting Harmonize for (ist) solo. thine. fairand bright And all things are Is bom beneath that the following song 5.Jf ir ^jj} r . thyglories shine. Thy spirit every flower the summer And wreathes kindling eye. " H. spring youthful her fragrant warms sigh. When aroimd us breathes. Where'er we turn.and (3rd) 6. thine. O'ershadows allthe earth and skies" whose plume Like some dark. night. Compose a Adagio. p .

r^ 8. a Coda: W. grazioso. ^ ^ /""^ F s / ^ t r "11^\r " 1 (g r~~1 y f n^r r -C^ E ?=^ rg'i rgt tt=tt I .MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES. Mozart.Harmonize for pianoforte 7. Write four or more variations on the theme. AlUgreito wm^ lfrgfJ#L. r^ TTTT^ Allegro. A.CfrrL. following Harmonize solo or for pianoforte string quartet: John Bull. intermezzi or contrasting Ccftnpose to the following and supply episodes) subject. "SX three or more sections (themes.

"^" -w 2z: I ^ -^- b 3. 1. 4 "g "*^ i r vmr-^ 4. ALL THB TRIADS ^ ^ OP THB :^ Si MAJOR MODB IN ROOT POSITION. t^-r "f*-*- riffn. -'Mrrii "29- -*^ ""- i=t i I 6. APPENDIX I. 8. ^^ "iSi-^ " ^s a: T^ ^ u. ^B 7. (^ i -*" ^=4: 3^ """- ^s 3 """- S ^m ^ 3 i . m w -BL 7SL -^- t t "A E 3 S f"- t -tS"- i -""- -^h m ^ "^"- o. 2z: 4: 2.-i i -Oh-r "?^ ^ 6. -^ 221 :2: s: ^^=^M=i II.iS" MUSIC COMPOSITION. ^ ID. PRINCIPAL TRIADS OP THB C MAJOR MODE IN ROOT POSITION.

"I 8| T^ 2: S "^^f 3 18. TRIADS OF THE MINOR MODE IN ROOT POSITION. 3 F^t'ij^r j-ij^YrYWfm^ r firjiJ " 15. rir fir ^irjT-j f i ^ i ^ ^ ^ IHJ 13. OF THE MINOR MODK 153 y-u 12. ^^ e^i 8Q I 8Q 8Q 2z: ^ 10.TRIADS 11. J f i=t i E ^m I ^ ^^ 14. 3 p ^^ 1^ 3 3^ ipi III. THE 17. p 8| t i s i 31 19t^ 6| ^- 8| f5" 9%^ 20. ^ ZZ ? 8" 8| ?" s "I ^ 8| ^^ ^^ s ^- E .

rir IM^ . INVERSIONS 0 0 0 OF THE TRIADS. t ^ 28. 22. ^^ I. S. a ^ it 12^ a ^Tp^ 8^^ 2z:xa: (g^ k 2 Zi f^ 3z: i I o "' 6. 2 1 pi^r 23. O OJ 8$ 3 s 8| 3 ^^ 8| 26.^54 21. "t 81 O ^V(*" y S f\(' V. " ^ 6 7 7 lig + S 30. o i ""S"-j- 2 S -A. 81 51 a| 31 sf "! a| IV. ^ ^- -^ -25^- S "^- ^ a| a: -^- "^9-""- i it . ^ 8" "^ J -"- t e a o 3 -tf"- :Z2: "^ I 51 2^ If 6 t 1^1* 4 29. " E O " " 7 2z: h 8 at U ^- ' r *' Xt n. at MUSIC COMPOSITION. SEVENTH a o 1=^ CHORDS AND a o ^ INVERSIONS. f5"- 3 z: E O O -"^ 6 2.i nr f'lj si^ 32: J -^N rl" II . ^^ 24. Se 25. a " ^m "^ .

31.e: ^ f# I g# c# 7b 8b \% "s S Si ^S -""- 3 B|" V ^ A 11 II c V.. 8 7 . V^ G V a C Jadassohn. 8 jT "^-2^ -""- ^ 3 i TRANSITION. 35. 32. 7 7 ' 8b a^"'i' 8$ 7b 8 7b 80 8f 8 8$ 8 5 "b 8q Sb 8Q 8b eb 8b 7b 3Q 7$ 3X ^''' J a-mmor r 7$ 5$ n -fr^ L 8( 8 6 8 I" L g I ft ^ I ^ i l^"_|J bb eb d# 8" A$ 8$ lit si .|r VI. % .TRANSITION. "i "" " t " 1% *" 1% 8 " -(9 2 9~ "S" p 6 I ^ .j|r^ p. eb 8b 7b ab 5b ab ^l' 9' 7b a 7 b eb 7b 8b 7p %% jj-^b C major 1% Gb F# 85 fit fi$ 7 7 7 7 8( $ 8$ t -^r 8( S TSr 8$ % "i9- d 7 P^fe -^- I -"- F# B E D 6 33. 7 7 7 ^11 6 0 6 13 i 8 9:jf4f.st s$ l"il ""e 7 8 % TWa ^9^ d" 34. a Bl" O e " % ".7b " % fb [^ ft*I f gg ^ "^ f o I ft^ "p %% w D Bl.

IS6 MUSIC COMPOSITION. 0 r ^ J|f ^3 y Si "i ^ 7. CHORALS. ALTBRBD CHORDS. ^^ A minor # MISCELLANEOUS 3 It it I Ir r 1^ EXERCISES FROM BACH'S VIII. i "* t i 7 g^ 4 C-ma]or 87. 7 ^ Xi Major 30."I F . 36. . I' sr r '^ ^ '" ' ^ r i-^ "" "" i* I h S" 2 J 9-"'. I' 3 I r uj r ir r "t " I* Ml. r I . T' J JjtJir ^frfjir Tjfifr ^JltTfH B . X 6 ^9\ eel C G 8 0 6 8-7 r^ ^ ^ ^^^ o e^ X *. s 'M f " i"J JiJ ^Jif fir ^'^ ^'^ 1^If t^6 VII. ffiZZ f Si SE i S A minor 38.

ib 8b C ""^B " Ay 7 A )fAA yI T G e G "J. o -tf^ D A X 7 X 7 7 9#rc.I J r r I A-minor . ^ ejr ox q| P 6.JJlJ5^B r rjf IJJI 2 ^ 6^xX7 ^ O 0 6 I.MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES. "S7 "" u X .

"S8 MUSIC COMPOSITION. S 7 t U X X O X 6 X i JJ ^ ^!fjj m D ^ 6 Lfir1^ r ^ ^^ X X 2_X7 '*' ^.t J J J D G ^"J j Jir J B 8-7 "iHt*Jlj fijfirrrirF'n^lir r^r A"IV .

a Cadence. member of a chord. strain. An active tone or or chord has more lessdefinitetendency to progress to another tone chord. " The result of the diatonic resolution to a unison of a voice part from the dissonant of the intervalof a second. or to be desired. S3rmmetry of outline is obtained with variety of composition to that style havingone Pertaining predommatingmelody accompaniedby other parts which supplythe Harmony. " ated situany two voices. called in most era. in any The term is comparative.) (SeeCadencing Chordal it sounds. phrases. " constituent sections.and tonalities) periods. " dependsupon " A tone and environment. A tone which is not finaland when leaves something heard. {SteParalld Fifths. Form. Arrangement of the parts and elements (rh3rthms. f D. Opposed to polyphonic. culture. P 7 "^- o G D o a. " A fallor close of inflectionof rhythmic flow. text books interval. of music by which and unity. " . and the amount of inherent activity dissonant Factor.) Dissonance. motion to fifth. " A tone which is a member A in progression a a any distance apart other than fifth. -I f o'fetr G ^ D 6 4 V X 8-7 o m 6 D e 6 6 8-7 . "S9 50. Concealed Fifths. Homofhonic.'* Fixed Unison. 4 o I G 0 9 % 4 7 m G '|J J r E APPENDIX DEFINITIONS. themes.DEFINITIONS. " the Technical Terms used in the Text. of the chord with which Resolution under Resolution. proceedin parallel which tones A of two mingling or more with unrestful effect. " Tone. i Of Active.

A group of notes from which a period. " The resolution of a dissonant chord to the chord whose root is situated a fourth above (ora fifthbelow)the root of the former chord. terminating of composition Polyphonic. " A " " or other. A consummate changeof key which enters into the architectureof a composition. complete A portion of a period with a cadence. MUSIC COMPOSITION. etc. to that style Pertaining having two with one more independentmelodies simultaneously. musical sentence. A Parallel . ToNE. an- Opposed Resolution. MoNOTONic. to a progression or usage which has become Pertaining characteristicthrough constant the part of composers and on application is often opposed to logical theory.) apart proceedin parallel sths.) apart proceedin parallel 8ths. " to homophonic. r Cadencing NoN-cADENcmG a Resolution. " A in progression which any two or voices situated motion parallel an (doubleoctave. " NoN-CHORDAL A tone which is not a member of the chord with which it sounds. A progression in which any two voices situated an motion to another (double octave. etc. of a progression dissonant chord to another chord to their proceedaccording The such as the permits factors of the former to tendencies.) apart proceed contrary or parallel (SeeConcealed Fifths. Modulation. (ora . denotes non-choidal tones. any two voices situated a fifth(ortwelfth. motion to another fifth. (ortwelfth. or composition may be developed. RESOLUTION OR Progkession. Motive.) apart proceed in either contrary to another octave. A melodic germ. overnotes The symbol enThes3nnbol (X) placed dosed by parentheses of a non-chordal a chordal tone having a characteristic signifies tone. Characterized by a single main key. " " " " N. " Consecutive octave Octaves. 7- Parallel A in which progression in which any two voices situated a fifth progression in either motion to another fifth. movement.) " CoNSEcnriVE Fifths. " Take notice. Phrase. octave octave. " A resolution or of progression chord to any chord other than the one whose root is situated a fourth above fifthbebw) the root of the former chord.i6o Idiomatic. harmonizing Period. etc.B. etc.

5th. minor its its 3rd minor and its and and perfect its 5th. its major srd and its perfect Minor 5th. " A A " characteristic transient of three attribute of active tones. change tones. l6i Tendency. Augmented a root tone. " A chord Major Triad consists of " a root " (or fundamental) tone.Diminished of of root 3rd 3rd 5th. of key. a its tone.DEFINITIONS. major its augmented . Triad consists Triad Triad of consists consists a root tone. diminished . Triad. Transition.

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