# CHAPTER 3

MATTER
3.1 Matter has mass and occupies space
State that things have mass and occupy space Explain the meaning of matter Relate things and matter Carry out activities to show that air, water, soil and living things have mass and occupy space
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Matter

What is Matter?
1. All things can be divided into matter and non-matter.

2. Anything that has mass and occupies space is matter. Eq: Water , air, book, soil and living things 3. Matter has weight because its mass is acted upon by the earth’s gravity
4. Matter has volume as it occupies space 5. Examples of non-matter include: light, sound, heat and electricity

Matter

Solid
Liquid

Gas

3 States of Matter

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Comparison between the 3 states of matter
Aspects
(a) Diagramatic representation

Solid

Liquid

Gas

(a) Arrangement of Closely packed particles together in an orderly arrangement (c) Space between particles (d) Movement of particles Very small Vibrate / spin in fixed positions

Less compact and not in an orderly arrangement Small Move gliding past one another

Very far apart from each other

Large Move randomly at fast speed

(e) Attractive forces between particles (f) Shape (g) Volume (h) Density

Very strong

Moderately strong

Very weak

Definite Definite High

Follows the shape of the container Definite Moderate (except Mercury)

Follows the shape of container Occupy the container Low

The concept of density
1. Density is defined as mass per unit volume
Density = Mass Volume

2. The unit for density is g/cm3. A more practical unit is kg/m3 3. In order to find the density of an irregular object 4. In order to find the density of an irregular object, we have to find the: - mass (by using a beam balance) - Volume (by using water displacement method)

5. The density of water is 1.0 g/cm3.

6. A substance that has a density lower than 1.0 g/cm3 will float in water.
7. A substance that has a density higher than 1.0 g/cm3 will sink in water
Icebergs are huge ice formations. How much of of the ice is actually under the water? What is the density of ice? Is ice denser than water? What do you understand by the expression ‘tip of an iceberg’?

cork density 0.24 g/cm3

Air density 0.001 g/cm3

Corn oil Density 0.9 g/cm3
ice density 0.92 g/cm3 Water Density 1.0 g/cm3

glass Density 2.5 g/cm3

glycerin density 1.3 g/cm3

We choose woods we choose wood to build rafts and boats because wood can float on water. The density of wood is less than the density of water and so it floats.

Raft

Boat

Hot air balloon Air is less dense than water

Do dropper test

1. 20 cm3 of a substance has a mass of 52 g. What is its density? Does it float or sink in water?

2.6 g/cm3

2.
T S S U U T

S, U, T

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