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Easy way to learn English
Sunil Bhavsar

catch. a place or a thing. Paris. Examples. laugh. (names of places) John. cup. run. computer. weep. John. cup. are some verbs He is writing a letter. Write. room. garden. boy. drink. Einstein. R. For example chair. doctor. (names of things) New York.H Stephen. school. Newton. book. a place or a thing. eat. Toronto. Newton. Paris. and pen are nouns because each of these words is a name of a person. man. table. computer. book. table. clean. Chair. Canada. New York. Examples. picture. hospital. speak. man.Tense Present Simple Tense Present Continuous Tense Subject + Main verb + Object • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb-ing (Present participle) + object • Subject + am/is/are + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object Present Perfect Tense • Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + Subject • Subject + has/have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + subject Present Perfect Continuous Tense • Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Object + Time reference • Subject + has been/have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference Past Simple Tense • Subject + main verb (past simple) + object • Subject + 2nd form of verb (past simple) + object Past Continuous Tense • Subject + auxiliary verb + Main Verb (present participle) + object • Subject + was/were + (1st form of verb or base verb +ing) +object Past Perfect Tense • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object • Subject + had + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object Past Perfect Continuous • Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Obj ect + Time reference • Subject + had been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time Future Simple Tense • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object •Subject + will + (1st form of verb or base form +ing) + object Future Continuous Tense • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object • Subject + will be+ 1st form of verb or base form+ing (present participle) + object Future Perfect Tense • Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb (past participle) + object • Subject + will have + 3rd form of verb or past participle + object Future Perfect Continuous • Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Object + Time reference •Subject + will have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference reference Noun Noun is a word which names a person. cinema. doctor (names of persons) Verb Verb is a word which shows action or state of something. boy. . garden. hospital.

please. (look as dynamic verb) Forms of verb according to tense or time of action. go—went—gone. Past participle For example. Example. The adverb “quickly” in above example tells us about the verb “reply” that the reply was given quickly or with no time delay. The word “quickly” is an adverb which gives more information about verb “reply” in the above example. Adjective Adjective is a word that modifies (gives more information about) a noun or pronoun. beautiful and intelligent girl entered into the room. He works in a factory(action) I boughta computer. resemble. More than one adjective can also be used for a single noun in sentence. quantity or personal traits of a noun or pronoun. The words “tall. quality. “Go” is base form. speak. The tall. In the above paragraph pronoun “he” is used instead of noun “John”. (look as stative verb) She looked at black board. impress. beautiful girl entered into the room. consist of. and “gone” is past participle form. such verbs are called “stative verb” and are not usually used in continuous te nse for example be. surprise. He is making preparation for examination. and car” in these examples. beautiful girl entered into the room. For example. (state) He resembles his brother (state) Some verbs can be used as dynamic verb as well as stative verb. An adjective gives information about the colour. red” are adjectives which give more information about nouns “man. He replied quickly. eat—eating. belong to. seem Examples. Verbs describe action or state. her. So. “went” is past simple form. Verb has three forms according to tense. eat. “ing” is added to base form verb to make present participle which can be used with auxiliary verb “to be” in continuous tense. John is an intelligent student. These three form may also be named as 1st form. The tall. his. did or will do. red car. (action) John seems happy. V2 and V3 respectively. The beautiful girl entered into the room. e. go—going. 2nd form and 3rd form of verb. size. run . A verb has its subject in sentence and verb tells us what its subject does. The tall. for example write. she. . She looks very beautiful. the verb “write” tells us about the action (writing) of the subject (he). He replied. him its etc. He goes to school daily. thin. it. For example.g. tall man. He studies a lot.In the above example. He will get high marks examination. Examples. If we do not use pronoun in ab ove paragraph we will have to use the noun “John” again and again in each sentence. Similarly an adverb may also modify adjective or other adverb or other part of speech except the noun. house. Adverb Adverb is a word which modifies (gives more information about) a verb or adjective or other adverb. old. such verbs are called “dynamic verb”. Pronoun Pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun. Example. characteristic. they. the purpose of pronoun is to avoid the repetition of a noun. Most verbs describe action. Past Simple 4. old house. for example. thin. he. laugh—laughing. Base form 2. Some verbs describe state of something. which are denoted by V1.

Base form of verb or present participle will be never used in passive voice.There are certain rules for expressing a thought in passive voice or for changing a sentence from active voice to passive voice. 3. a man who is being teased by another person might say in anger. The real meaning of a sentence does not change if the sentence is expressed either by active voice or by passive voice. 4. to. Rule No. It is not known that who stole his watch. Click on the following links. Passive voice: cloth is sold in yards 3rd form of verb (past participle) is always used as main verb in sentences of passive voice for all tenses. some chapters were not studied. “you will be beaten by me” When subject is not exactly known.Example. For example.Active and Passive Voice There are two ways to express an action of a subject in relation to its object • Active voice •Passive voice In “active voice” subject acts upon object. Active voice: The water fills the tub. The normal structure of an active voice sentence is subject+verb+object but in passive the normal structure of sentence is reversed according to certain rules and becomes like object+verb+subject. 2. Shop keepers sell cloth in yards. Examples. a student who failed in exam might say. while in “passive voice” object is acted upon by subject.Example. the object shifts to the place of subject and subject shifts to the place of object in passive voice. Fundamental Rules for changing from active voice to passive voice 1.e. The auxiliary verb for each tense is given in the following table with explanation and examples. Subject (I) of sentence shifted to the place of object (letter) and object (letter) shifted to the place of subject (I) in passive voice. while in “passive voice” object is worked on by subject. Passive voice: I letter is written by me. For example. 6 is about the use of auxiliary verb in passive voice which differs for each tense. if without subject it can give enough meaning in passive voice. Auxiliary verbs are used passive voice according to the tense of sentence. The auxiliary verbs of passive voice are used according to tense of sentence of its active voice form. Active voice: He sings a song. Passive voice: The tub is filled with water. is more meaningful than to say. 4. When intentionally hiding the subject of sentence. For example. When passive voice better emphasizes the main though of the sentence. Active voice: He knows me. Women were not treated as equals When passive voice better explain thought of sentence. Note: First 5 rules are usually same for all tenses in passive voice. 1. the subject (thief) is not exactly known so it is better to use passive voice for such sentence. For example. Sometimes subject of sentence is not used in passive voice. Active voice: I write a letter.cloth is sold in yards. Examples. Another example. The active voice is mostly used in writing because it gives a direct and more concise meaning. Sometimes words “with. to say. The word “by” is not always used before subject in passive voice. in “active voice” subject does a work on object. The places of subject and object are interchanged i. 2. Subject of sentence can be omitted in passive voice. Passive voice: I am known to him. It can also be said. Passive voice is used sometimes due to the following reasons. Passive voice: A song is sung by him. 3. . The word “by” is used before subject in sentences in passive voice. etc” may also be used before subject in passive voice. 5. His watch was stolen.

Will she buy a car? Passive voice: A car will be bought by her. A car will not be bought by her. Auxiliary verbs for each tense are given below in the table. Has she finished her work? Past Simple Tense (passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice: was/were Active voice: I killed a snake I did not kill a snake. He does not sing a song. A car was not being driven by him. A letter is not being written by me. 3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice. Her work has not been finished by her. He was not driving a car. Was he driving a car? Past Perfect Tense (Passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice: had been Active voice: They had completed the assignment. A snake was not killed by me. Had they completed the assignment? Future Simple Tense (Passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice: will be Active voice: She will buy a car. Is a song sung by him? Present Continuous Tense (passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice: am being/is being/are being Active voice: I am writing a letter I am not writing a letter. Did I kill a snake? Passive voice: A snake was killed by me.PASSIVE VOICE FOR ALL TENSES RULES    The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice. Has her work been finished by her? Passive voice: A letter is being written by me. Had the assignment been completed by them? Passive voice: A car was being driven by him. Is a letter being written by me? Past Continuous Tense (Passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice: was being/were being Active voice: He was driving a car. Was a car being driven by him? . The assignment had not been complete by them. She will not buy a car. A song is not sung by him. They had not completed the assignment. Am I writing a letter? Present Perfect Tense (passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice: has been/have been Active voice: She has finished his work She has not finished her work. Was a snake killed by me? Passive voice: Her work has been finished by her. Will a car be bought by her? Passive voice: The assignment had been completed by them. Present Simple Tense (passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice: am/is/are Active voice: He sings a song.Does he sing a song? Passive voice: A song is sung by him.

4. MAY. SHOULD. May the computer be bought by me? Active voice: MIGHT BE Chess might be played by guests. Can a violin be played by her? . Chess might not be played guests. You will have not started the job. The job will not have been started by you. Passive voice: CAN BE A violin can be played by her. 5. Active voice: MAY BE The computer may be bought by me. auxiliary verb “be” is added after modal in sentence. MUST. OUGHT TO” Auxiliary verb in passive voice: be Active voice: CAN She can play a violin. 1. MIGHT. Active voice: SHOULD BE All lessons should be studied by students. 3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice. Present perfect continuous tense Past perfect continuous tense Future continuous tense Future perfect continuous tense Sentence having Intransitive verbs Fundamental Rules    The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice. Passive voice for Present/Future Modals “CAN. Auxiliary verbs for each tense are given below in the table. SHOULD. 3. MAY. A violin cannot be played by her. OUGHT TO”    The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice. The computer may not be bought by me. Can she play a violin? Active voice: MAY I may buy the computer. 3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice. 2. MIGHT. Active voice: SHOULD Students should study all lessons. MUST. The job will have been started by you. Passive voice for Present/Future Modals “CAN. Guests might not play chess. She cannot play a violin. I may not buy the computer.Future Perfect Tense (passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice: will have been Active voice: Passive voice: You will have started the job. Will you have started the job? Will the job have been started by you? Note: The following tenses cannot be changed into passive voice. To change sentences having present/future modal into passive voice. May I buy the computer? Active voice: MIGHT Guests might play chess.

MUST HAVE. Test-taking strategies must not be learned by you. Active voice: OUGHT TO HAVE BEEN He ought to have been helped by you Active voice: MAY HAVE BEEN The opportunity may have been availed by you. He might not have eaten meal. . Active voice: MUST HAVE He must have started job. To change sentences having past modal into passive voice. Passive voice for Past Modals All lessons should not be studied by students. The opportunity may not have been availed by you. OUGHT HAVE TO” Auxiliary verb in passive voice: been Active voice: MAY HAVE You may have availed the opportunity. auxiliary verb “been” is added after modal in sentence. Active voice: SHOULD HAVE You should have studied the book. Meal might not have been eaten by him.Students should not study all lessons. Active voice: OUGHT TO BE The examination ought to be taken by them. Active voice: MUST HAVE BEEN Job must have been started by you. MUST HAVE. Active voice: OUGHT TO HAVE You ought to have helped him. Should all lessons be studied by students? Active voice: MUST BE Test-taking strategies must be learnt by you. OUGHT TO HAVE”    The places of subject and object in sentence are inter-changed in passive voice. The book should have not been studied by you. Active voice: SHOULD HAVE BEEN The book should have been studied by you. He must not have started job. MIGHT HAVE. SHOULD HAVE. You must not learn the test-taking strategies. You should not have studied the book. Active voice: MIGHT HAVE BEEN Meal might have been eaten by him. MIGHT HAVE. Job must not have been started by you. Passive voice for Present/Future Modals “MAY HAVE. You may not have availed the opportunity. Should students study all lessons? Active voice: MUST You must learn the test-taking strategies. Active voice: MIGHT HAVE He might have eaten meal. “MAY HAVE. SHOULD HAVE. Active voice: OUGHT TO They ought to take the examination. 3rd form of verb (past participle) will be used only (as main verb) in passive voice.

Sleep. A transitive verb needs an object (in sentence) to give complete meaning while intransitive verb does need an object (in sentence) to give complete meaning. Let him be punished. He laughs. The following tenses can also not be changed into passive voice. (Laugh is an intransitive verb and it does not need object for expressing full meaning. Let your lesson be learnt. For example Cloth is sold in yards. Examples Passive voice of “Imperative Sentences” Active Voice Open the door. Passive Voice Let the door be opened.g. For changing these sentences in to passive voice. Learn your lesson. die. Intransitive verb cannot be changed into passive voice The sentences having intransitive verbs (belonging to any tense) cannot be changed into passive voice. Revise your book. Complete the work. Present perfect continuous tense. it gives full meaning. letter to express full meaning. Let the poor be helped.) Intransitive Verb. He sent a letter. Transitive verb. Kill the snake. Let the worked be completed. sit. A sentence can be changed into passive voice if it has subject and object. Past perfect continuous tense. Open the door. Let your book be revised. Let your room be cleaned. Sentences which cannot be changed into passive voice Transitive and intransitive verb A verb can be either transitive or intransitive. Clean your room. Sometimes subject may not be written in passive voice but it does not mean that it has no subject. Punish him. Let the snake be killed. Future continuous tense. For example. Main verb (base form) of imperative sentence is changed to 3rd form of verb (past participle) in passive voice. Learn your lesson. For example. Speak the truth. Let the television be tuned off.) e. Help the poor.e. Let the truth be spoken. go.Passive voice of imperative sentences A sentence which expresses command or request or advice is called imperative sentence. For best understand read the following examples. Turn off the television. The word “Let” is added before sentence in pas sive voice. auxiliary verb “be” is used. Turn off the television. Such sentences have subject but the subject is so common or familiar or known that if even it is not written in passive voice. reach. Auxiliary verb “be” is added after object in sentence in passive vo ice. The reason is that there is not any object in such sentences and without object of sentence passive voice is not possible. are examples of intransitive verbs. (Send is a transitive verb and it needs an object i. Future perfect continuous tense .

In this sentence the second part “he worked in a factory” is called reported speech and that is why the indirect speech as a whole can also be called reported speech. 1. the tense of reported speech will not change. Change in the tense of reported speech: If the first part of sentence (reporting verb part) belongs to past tense the tense of reported speech will change. Examples. today to that day. Indirect Speech: John said that he would give me a pen.e. Direct speech: He said. “we are going to cinema” (Direct speech) They said that they were going to cinema. Change in pronoun: The pronoun (subject) of the reported speech is changed according to the pronoun of reporting verb or object (person) of reporting verb (first part of sentence). “I will give you a pen”. Change in time: Time is changed according to certain rules like now to then. 1. (Indirect speech) Reported Speech. In all of the following example the reporting verb is “said”. “I am happy” Indirect Speech: He said that he was happy.Direct and indirect speech Introduction. “I will give you a pen”. Direct speech: John said. There two ways to convey a message of a person. Examples. “I am happy” Indirect Speech: He said that he is happy. Example. a sentence of indirect speech is.) before the statement of a person in sentence is called reporting verb. “I am happy” Indirect Speech: He said that he was happy. In direct speech the original words of person are narrated (no change is made) and are enclosed in quotation mark. tomorrow to next day and yesterday to previous day. He said. “I work in a factory” (Direct speech) He said that he worked in a factory. Indirect speech is also called reported speech because reported speech refers to the second part of indirect speech in which something has been told by a person. In following example the pronoun of reported speech is “I” which will be changed in indirect speech into the pronoun (Subject ) of reporting verb that is “he”. they said. In indirect speech the statement of the person is not enclosed in quotation marks. Indirect speech Suppose your friend whose name is John tells you in school. For example. Direct speech: He said. Direct speech: I said to him. Reported speech is not enclosed in quotation marks. he says. 2. the word “that” may be used before the statement to show that it is indirect speech. The second part of indirect speech in which something has been told by a person (which is enclosed in quotation marks in direct speech) is called reported speech. (Tense of reported speech didn’t change) . 3. she said. Use of word “that”: The word “that” is used as a conjunction between the reporting verb and reported speech. she says. Direct speech: He said. Direct speech 2. Reporting verb: The verb first part of sentence (i. “I am happy today” Indirect Speech: He said that he was happy that day. he said. 1. Examples. Fundamental rules for indirect speech. You come to home and you want to tell yo ur brother what your friend told you. “you are intelligent” Indirect Speech: I said him that he was intelligent. (“You” changed to “he” person of object of reporting verb) 1. He said that he worked in a factory. If the first part of sentence (reporting verb part) belongs to present or future tense. While in indirect speech some changes are made in original words of the person because these words have been uttered in past so the tense will change accordingly and pronoun may also be changed accordingly. Sometimes the pronoun may not change. There are two ways to tell him. (Tense of reported speech changed) Direct speech: He says. (Indirect speech) They said. or the words spoken by a person to other person.

will have into would have Examples. will into would Future Continuous. They said that they loved their country He said that he did not like computer. I said that she had eaten the meal. He said that he had made a table. “I am washing my clothes” They said. “She has been working in this office since 2007” PAST TENSE PAST SIMPLE changes into PAST PERFECT He said to me. . “it is raining” She said. “he is listening to the music” She said. They said that they had not gone to New York. He said that she went to school daily. “I write a letter” She said. “I didn’t buy a car” He said to me that I had answered correctly. He said that he had started a job. “he goes to school daily” They said. “he has finished his work” He said. “we have not gone to New York. John said that they had gone to cinema. “they went to cinema” He said. “he does not like computer” He said. TENSE CHANGE . “I have been studying since 3 O’clock” She said. “I am not laughing” She said. “she have eaten the meal” They said. “It has been raining for three days. DIRECT SPEECH PRESENT TENSE PRESENT SIMPLE changes into PAST SIMPLE He said.IN . “we are enjoying the weather” I said. He said that he wrote a letter. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS changes into PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS He said that he had been studying since 3 O’clock. She said that she was not laughing. I said that she had been working in this office since 2007. PRESENT PERFECT changes into PAST PERFECT She said that he had finished his work. He said.INDIRECT SPEECH Present simple tense into Past simple Present Continuous tense into Past continuous Present Perfect tense into Pas perfect Present Perfect Continuous into Past perfect continuous Past simple into Past Perfect Past Continuous into Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect into Past Perfect Future simple. She said that it been raining for three days. “we love our country” He said.” I said. “you answered correctly” John said. They said that they were not enjoying the weather. will be into would be Future Perfect.Table for change in tense of reported speech for all TENSES. “I made a table” She said. “I have started a job” I said. She said that she was washing her clothes. She said that she had not bought a car. INDIRECT SPEECH PRESENT CONTINUOUS changes into PAST CONTINUOUS He said that he was listening to the music.

“I will not take the exam” FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE WILL BE changes into WOULD BE I said to him. She said that she would buy a computer. “they will have passed the examination” He said. He said to me that he had been waiting for me. They said that they had been enjoying. I said that it had been raining. “I had started a business” I said. One type which can be answered in only YES or NO and other type which needs a little bit explanation for its answer and cannot be answered in only YES or NO. He said that he would have gone. “Mathematics is a science” Indirect Speech: He said that mathematics is a science.PAST CONTINUOUS changes into PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS They said. “we had not gone to New York. She said that she had visited a doctor. “I was not laughing” She said. Examples. A question can be of two types. He said that he had started a business. “she had eaten the meal” They said. FUTURE TENSE FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE WILL changes into WOULD He said. They said they had not gone to New York. They said to me that they would send you gifts. I said that she had eaten the meal. “I will be working hard” He said. “we will send you gifts” I said. “Sun rises in east” Indirect Speech: He said that sun rises in east. “he will not be flying kite” FUTURE PERFECT TENSE WILL HAVE changes into WOULD HAVE He said. “She had visited a doctor” He said. “I will have finished the work” She said. For changing interrogative (question) sentence into indirect speech we have to observe the nature of question and then change it into indirect speech according to it rules for indirect speech. .” I will be shifting to new home” He said. “ I will be waiting for him” She said. PAST PERFECT changes into PAST PERFECT (tense does not change) Note: The tense of reported speech may not change if reported speech is a universal truth though its reporting verb belongs to past tense. He said that he would be working hard. Direct speech: He said. I said that I would not take the exam. She said that she not been laughing. “I will buy a computer” They said to me. She said that she would be shifting to a new home. “ I was waiting for you” I said. “I will have gone” He said that he would have finished the work. “we were enjoying the weather” He said to me. (Tense didn’t change because reported speech is a universal truth thought its reporting verb belongs to past tense) Indirect speech for Interrogative (question) sentence. “It was raining” She said. I said to him that I would be waiting for him. She said that they would have passed the examination. Direct speech: He said. He said that he would study the book. “I will study the book” She said. She said that he would not be flying kites.

Question mark is not used in indirect speech. To change questions (which can be answered in yes or no) into indirect speech. Direct speech: She asked his son. The tense of the question is changed according to the rules for change in normal tenses in indirect speech but sentence will not start with the auxiliary verb of the tense. Direct speech: I said to him. “why are you crying?” Indirect speech: She asked her son why he was crying. how was I) Direct speech: Teacher said to him. Direct speech: They said to me. The word “that” is not used between reporting verb and reported speech as conjunction in indirect speech for question sentence. “why did you come late?” Indirect speech: She asked him why he had come late. “can. Present modals are changed to past modals Direct Speech Indirect Speech Indirect speech for sentence having MODALS. Direct speech: He said to me. “he can play a violin. “Have you taken the breakfast?” Indirect Speech: He asked me if I had taken the breakfast Question which cannot be answered in YES/NO. (Not. Direct speech: He said. Direct speech: He said to me. should.e.” They said. Indirect speech for sentence having MODALS. “are you feeling well?” Indirect Speech: I asked him if he was feeling well. “Will he participate in the quiz competition?” Indirect Speech: She asked me if he would participate in quiz competition. “did u go to school?” Indirect Speech: They asked me if I had gone to school. Question mark is not used in indirect speech. To change such questions into indirect speech. Examples. must. “we can climb on a hill” He said that he could drive a car. Rules for change in tense of question sentences are same as for change in normal tenses in indirect speech but sentence will not start with the auxiliary verb of the tense. word “if” or “whether” is used before the question in indirect speech. Direct speech: She said to him. “do you like music?” Indirect Speech: He asked me if I liked music. the words “if” or “whether” is not used.) Questions which can be answered in YES/NO. Examples. I am fine. ought to” CAN changes into COULD He said.Examples Do you like music? (It can be answered in YES or NO) How are you? (It cannot be answered in YES or NO but it needs a little bit explanation i. “when will they come?” Indirect speech: He asked when they would come. Direct speech: He said to me. “what is your name?” Indirect speech: Teacher asked him what his name was. The word “that” is not used between reporting verb and reported speech as conjunction. did I like music) Or Indirect Speech: He asked me whether I liked music. They said that they can climb on a hill. may. Direct speech: She said. may. “how are you?” Indirect speech: He asked me how I was. (Not. “can. She said that he could play a violin. . in indirect speech for question sentence. must. “I can drive a car” She said.

“she could play a piano” They said. “they must carry on their work” I said to him. “I must work hard” She said. He said that he could run faster. She said that it might rain. and could” The modal will not change in indirect speech Direct Speech Indirect Speech THESE MODALS DO NOT CHANGE Would. She said. “he may visit a doctor. They said that they should take the exam. She said that they had to carry on their work. They said they couldn’t learn the lesson. could. He said that he might buy a computer. “I ought to learn method of study” They said. “we couldn’t learn the lesson” He said.MAY changes into MIGHT He said. “I might meet him” Should He said. “we should take the exam” Ought to He said to me. “I would start a business. Indirect speech for sentence having MODALS. She said that she ought to learn method of study. we ought to attend our classes” He said to me that I ought to wait for him. “guests might come” She said. They said that they ought to attend their classes. They said that they would apply for visa. She said that he might visit a doctor. I said to him that he had to learn the test-taking strategies. “we would apply for a visa” He said. John said that he might meet him. He said that he should avail the opportunity. “you ought to wait for him” She said.” They said. . ought to. “I may buy a computer” She said. “I should help a him” They said. She said that she could play a violin. “they may go to zoo” MUST changes into HAD TO He said. ought to” Would They said. would. “I could run faster” Might He said. She said that she would appear in the exam. should. “I would appear in exam” Could She said. He said that he would start a business. should. “it might rain” John said. “I should avail the opportunity” She said. They said that they might go to zoo. He said that guest might come. might. “you must learn the test-taking strategies” He said that he had to work hard. She said that she should help him. might.

For example. Direct speech: The teacher said to him. he. “please give me glass of water” Indirect Speech: He requested to give him a glass of water. “Do not smoke” Indirect Speech: Doctor advised me not to smoke. Direct speech: She said to him. Direct speech: She said. • Hurrah! We won the match.Indirect speech for exclamatory and imperative sentences. they. the word “ordered” or “requested” or “advised” or “suggested” or “forbade” or “not to do” is added to reporting verb depending upon nature of imperative sentence in reported speech. Direct speech: John said. “please help me” Indirect Speech: He requested me to help him. “Wow! What a pleasant weather it is” Indirect Speech: They exclaimed with wonder that it was a pleasant weather. Direct speech: They said to him. . the words “exclaimed with joy” or “exclaimed with sorrow” or “exclaimed with wonder” is added in the reporting verb depending upon the nature of exclamatory sentence in indirect speech. Direct speech: He said. A sentence which expresses command. Direct speech: He said. request. “do not tell a lie” Indirect Speech: They said to him not to tell a lie. To change such sentences.e. Sometimes the pronoun may not change. advice or suggestion is calledimperative sentence. Examples. them or their. “you should work hard for exam” Indirect Speech: He suggested him to work hard for exam. First person pronoun in reported speech i. Direct speech: The teacher said to student. • Open the door. her. his. • Alas! I failed the test. • Wow! What a nice shirt it is. “Wow! What a nice shirt it is” Indirect Speech: John exclaimed with wonder that it was a nice shirt. “Get out” Indirect Speech: The teacher ordered him to get out. is changed according to the pronoun of reporting verb if pronoun in reporting verb is third person pronoun i. Indirect speech of exclamatory sentences. him. “Hurrah! I won a prize” Indirect Speech: He exclaimed with joy that he had won a prize. “Hurrah! I am selected for the job” Indirect Speech: She exclaimed with joy that she was selected for the job. Direct speech: Doctor said to me. Sentence which expresses state of joy or sorrow or wonder is called exclamatory sentence. Examples. The pronoun (subject) of the reported speech is changed according to the pronoun of reporting verb or object (person) of reporting verb (first part of sentence). 1. we. us. For example. • Learn your lesson. Changes in pronoun in Indirect Speech. it. or our. I. “open the door” Indirect Speech: He ordered to open the door.e. mine. To change such sentences into indirect speech. “do not waste time” Indirect Speech: The teacher advised the students not to waste time. • Please help me. Direct speech: They said. Indirect speech of imperative sentence. she. me. Direct speech: He said. “Alas! I failed in exam” Indirect Speech: She exclaimed with sorrow that she failed in the exam. “Oh no! I missed the train” Indirect Speech: He exclaimed with sorrow that he had missed the train. Direct speech: He said. Direct speech: She said. Direct speech: He said to me.

you. “I write a letter” Indirect speech: I said that I wrote a letter. “we love our country” Indirect speech: They said that they loved their country 2. “I like this book” Indirect speech: He said that he liked that book.e. I. “I live in New York” Indirect speech: He said that he lived in New York.e. his. Changes in time and adverbs in indirect speech. they. Direct speech: He said. she. I or we. we. him.e. is not changed in indirect speech. Examples. Direct speech: She said to him. Direct speech: He said. mine. Time and adverbs are changed in indirect speech. he. Direct speech: We said.e. Direct speech: He said. me. or our. Examples. is not is also first person pronoun i. 3. them Examples. Second person pronoun in reported speech i. yours is changed according Examples. her. us. Direct speech: He said to me. First person pronoun in reported speech i. Direct speech: They said. or their.Examples. Direct speech: She said. 4. Third person pronoun in reported speech i. “I am happy now” Indirect speech: She said that she was happy then. “we completed our work” Indirect speech: We said that we completed our work. Common Rules Today changes to that day/the same day Tomorrow changes to the next day/the following day Yesterday changes to the day before/the previous day Next week/month/year changes to the following week/month/year Last week/month/year changes to the previous week/month/year Now/just changes to then Ago changes to before Here changes to there This changes to that changed if the pronoun (Subject) of reporting to the person of object of reporting verb. “they are waiting for the bus” Indirect speech: You said that they were waiting for the bus. Direct speech: You said. “you are intelligent” Indirect speech: She said to him that he was intelligent. it. Direct speech: They said. Direct speech: I said. “he will come” Indirect speech: They said that he would come. “you are late for the party” Indirect speech: He said to me that I was late for the party. “I will buy a book tomorrow” Indirect speech: He said that he would buy a book the next day. .