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1. WHY? – “Other things being equal, language users follow the maxim, ‘Reduce as much as possible’ ” Quirk & Greenbaum pg 247, A Student’s Grammar of the English Language, Longman 1990. 2. Recoverability – substitutes and ellipted elements can be recovered from the situational, structural or textual context. 3. Antecedents & replaced expressions don’t always necessarily refer to the same thing; what is replaced is the form not the (semantic) content.. Eg. : Fiona got a first prize this year and I got one last year. ( The prize I got is not identical to the prize which Fiona got).
Antecedent Noun Phrases & their constituents
PRO-FORM 3rd person pronouns and determiners – he/she /it
indef. Pronouns such as – both, any, all, both, each, either, some, none
NPs np, pp, adj. Phrase, and be a subj or obj. complement. phrases with count nouns
demonstratives “the same”
Examples Ten percent of insomniacs sleep soundly when they come to a sleep clinic (Note: all pronouns are pro-forms for noun-phrases not just nouns) Some equipment has been damaged but none has been lost. This year we produced more coal but sold less (each of these is somewhat elliptical in its own capacity) I read his first novel and that was boring too Yesterday I felt under the weather and today I feel the same Can you give me a few nails? I need one /some
“one” (for singular count nouns) and “some”/ “a few”–for non-count and plurals do
I didn’t touch the TV set but Peggy might have (done) The planned to go to Hawaii, but nobody knows if they did (so). Is Connie trying to light the stove? She should have done it by now Are you trying to light the stove with a match? I wouldn’t do that. You asked me to leave and I did so If you look in the top drawer, you will find it there One morning the captain invited us for breakfast. He told us about his secret orders then.
Predicate predicate (when the verb is an action rather than a state or event) predication place adverbials time adverbials
do so do it, do that, do so
so here, there then
so like that (after “be”)
object of that-clause
appear so , not hope so, not so so
subject-operator inversion whole clause
If he is a criminal, its his parents who have made him so The plants are healthy enough now but I wonder how long they will be like that. Ruth is waiting to hear if she got the job, and it appears so/not. Will Oxford win the next boat race? I hope so / not You asked him to leave and so did I Does the price cover hotels? I think so