,,-, ¸~

, = ,,





Arabic Tutor

Volume 4

A Translation of

.,· . ¸ .·. ¸,,

popularly known as

,·· ¯ _,·
Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Volume Four Volume Four Volume Four Volume Four

Page 2
Copyright © 2007 Madrasah In’āmiyyah



All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by
any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise,
without the prior permission of Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except in
the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and
reviews.


Typeset on Palatino 13 and Traditional Arabic 18 by Academy
for Islamic Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown,
KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.


Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Volume Four Volume Four Volume Four Volume Four

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¸·, ·- ¸·' . ,·, ¸. , _· ¸.· ·,,,·
_,-'· ,,· ·_· ,· ,' ,· . ,-' .,- ¸,
.·· .,· ¸ ·- ¸·' ., _,· .¯,, _,· _.
_,· ·- , . _-' _ ,

Arabic is more meritorious than other languages.
It is the language of the people of Jannah.
Whoever learns it or teaches it to others will be
rewarded. It is mentioned in a hadīth that you
should love the Arabs for three reasons, namely:

• because Nabī was an Arab,
• the Qur’ān is in Arabic and
• the language of the people of Jannah in
Jannah is Arabic.
(Ad-Durrul Mukhtār)
Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Volume Four Volume Four Volume Four Volume Four

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Title

Arabic Tutor - Volume Four


Author

Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān
(= ·~_)

Translated
by

Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad

First Edition

Dhul Qa’dah 1428 A.H. Nov 2007

Published
by

Madrasah In’āmiyyah
P.O. Box 39
Camperdown
3720
South Africa

Tel +27 031 785 1519

Fax +27 031 785 1091

email
alinaam@alinaam.org



Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Volume Four Volume Four Volume Four Volume Four

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Contents

The first forty three lessons were completed in
Volumes One, Two and Three. Volume Four
begins with Lesson 44.

Transliteration......................................................... 15
Preface ...................................................................... 18
Indications ............................................................... 25
Introduction............................................................. 27
Lesson 44.................................................................. 28
The Numerals...................................................... 28
Exercise No. 64 ................................................ 38
Exercise No. 65 ................................................ 39
Exercise No. 66 ................................................ 39
Lesson 45.................................................................. 40
Miscellaneous Rules Regarding Numerals..... 40
Vocabulary List No. 42................................... 49
Exercise No. 67 ................................................ 50
Exercise No. 68 ................................................ 53
Exercise No. 69 ................................................ 54
Exercise No. 70 ................................................ 55
Lesson 46.................................................................. 57
The Ordinal Numbers........................................ 57
Vocabulary List No. 43................................... 67
Exercise No. 71 ................................................ 68
Exercise No. 72 ................................................ 70
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Exercise No. 73 ................................................ 72
Lesson 47.................................................................. 74
The Date ............................................................... 74
Vocabulary List No. 44................................... 82
Exercise No. 74 ................................................ 85
Exercise No. 75 ................................................ 90
Lesson 48.................................................................. 94
Telling the Time .................................................. 94
The Times of the Day and Night ...................... 96
Expressing Age ................................................... 98
Vocabulary List No. 45................................... 98
Exercise No. 76 .............................................. 101
Exercise No. 77 .............................................. 103
Exercise No. 78 .............................................. 105
Lesson 49................................................................ 109
The Particles....................................................... 109
Lesson 50................................................................ 131
The Non–Causative Particles .......................... 131
Lesson 51................................................................ 150
Continuation of Lesson 50............................... 150
Lesson 52................................................................ 161
The Remaining Particles .................................. 161
The Definte Article ....................................... 161
_ = · ,` · , ¸` . , · ,` ·.................................. 164
· ~` ,` ,` , , · ~` ,` ` .` ..................................... 166
Exercise No. 79 .............................................. 168
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Test No. 18 ..................................................... 171
Lesson 53................................................................ 173
Sentences............................................................ 173
The Definitions of (` · ` ¸), (` ` ` ·) and ( ·` , ¸ ` ` ` ·)
......................................................................... 173
The Types of Sentences................................ 175
Exercise No. 80 .............................................. 178
Exercise No. 81 .............................................. 181
Lesson 54................................................................ 183
Declension.......................................................... 183
(¯ ¸ - · ,' ¯ ¸ ,`, , ¯ ¸ = ` .,·) ........................ 189
Test No. 18 B.................................................. 191
Lesson 55................................................................ 193
The Declension of a Verb................................. 193
The Occasions of (..) of a Verb.............. 194
Vocabulary List No. 46................................. 199
Exercise No. 82 .............................................. 200
Exercise No. 83 .............................................. 202
Lesson 56................................................................ 204
The Jussive Case................................................ 204
Exercise No. 84 .............................................. 211
Vocabulary List No. 47................................. 214
Exercise No. 85 .............................................. 215
Exercise No. 86 .............................................. 217
Lesson 57................................................................ 218
The Declension of a Noun............................... 218
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( ` ` ` ,` , · ` . ,` ·` , . )..................................... 221
The Old Method of Explaining ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·)
......................................................................... 228
Vocabulary List No. 48................................. 233
Exercise No. 87 .............................................. 235
Lesson 58................................................................ 239
The Cases of the Noun..................................... 239
The Nominative Case....................................... 240
The (¸··) and (¸· .) ........................... 240
Vocabulary List No. 49................................. 249
Exercise No. 88 .............................................. 251
Exercise No. 89 .............................................. 253
Exercise No. 90 .............................................. 254
Test No. 19 ..................................................... 255
Lesson 59................................................................ 257
The Subject and Predicate................................ 257
The Occasions Where the Predicate has to
Precede the Subject ....................................... 261
Exercise No. 91 .............................................. 264
Vocabulary List No. 50................................. 265
Exercise No. 92 .............................................. 267
Test No. 20 ..................................................... 270
Lesson 60................................................................ 272
The Accusative Case......................................... 272
The Object ...................................................... 272
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( ¸` · ¸ · ` ) .................................................... 278
Exercise 93...................................................... 281
Vocabulary List No. 51................................. 283
Exercise No. 94 .............................................. 284
Exercise No. 95 .............................................. 286
Exercise No. 96 .............................................. 287
Exercise No. 97 .............................................. 288
Lesson 61................................................................ 290
(` ¸ =` ¸` ,` · ).................................................... 290
The Object of Cause.......................................... 295
Vocabulary List No. 52................................. 297
Exercise No. 98 .............................................. 300
Exercise No. 99 .............................................. 301
Test No. 21 ..................................................... 304
Lesson 62................................................................ 306
The Adverb........................................................ 306
The (··· ¸,··) ................................................... 323
Vocabulary List No. 53................................. 326
Exercise No. 100 ............................................ 328
Exercise No. 101 ............................................ 330
Exercise No. 102 ............................................ 331
Test No. 22 ..................................................... 334
Lesson 63................................................................ 336
The Condition.................................................... 336
Exercise No. 103 ............................................ 341
Vocabulary List 54 ........................................ 342
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Exercise No. 104 ............................................ 343
Exercise No. 105 ............................................ 344
Exercise No. 106 ............................................ 346
Lesson 64................................................................ 347
Specification....................................................... 347
Allusion to Numbers........................................ 352
Exercise No. 107 ............................................ 355
Exercise No. 108 ............................................ 356
Exercise No. 109 ............................................ 357
Exercise No. 110 ............................................ 358
Exercise No. 111 ............................................ 360
Exercise No. 112 ............................................ 361
Exercise No. 113 ............................................ 361
Exercise No. 114 ............................................ 362
Exercise No. 115 ............................................ 363
Lesson 65................................................................ 364
The Exception.................................................... 364
Vocabulary List No. 55................................. 369
Exercise No. 116 ............................................ 370
Exercise No. 117 ............................................ 372
Exercise No. 118 ............................................ 372
Exercise No. 119 ............................................ 373
Exercise No. 120 ............................................ 375
Exercise No. 121 ............................................ 376
Lesson 66................................................................ 377
The Vocative...................................................... 377
Abbreviated Vocative................................... 381
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Lamenting...................................................... 382
The Appositive of the Vocative .................. 382
Vocabulary List No. 56................................. 384
Exercise No. 122 ............................................ 386
Exercise No. 123 ............................................ 388
Exercise No. 124 ............................................ 389
Lesson 67................................................................ 391
The Genetive...................................................... 391
The Types of (· · . ¸)....................................... 391
Vocabulary List No. 57................................. 396
Exercise No. 125 ............................................ 399
Exercise No. 126 ............................................ 401
Exercise No. 127 ............................................ 402
Exercise No. 128 ............................................ 403
Exercise No. 129 ............................................ 404
Lesson 68................................................................ 405
Apposition ......................................................... 405
The Adjective................................................. 406
Vocabulary List No. 58................................. 414
Exercise No. 130 ............................................ 417
Exercise No. 131 ............................................ 418
Exercise No. 132 ............................................ 418
Exercise No. 133 ............................................ 419
Exercise No. 134 ............................................ 420
Exercise No. 135 ............................................ 420
Exercise No. 136 ............................................ 420
Exercise No. 137 ............................................ 422
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Exercise No. 138 ............................................ 423
Lesson 69................................................................ 425
Emphasis............................................................ 425
Exercise No. 139 ............................................ 431
Exercise No. 140 ............................................ 433
Exercise No. 141 ............................................ 434
Exercise No. 142 ............................................ 435
Exercise No. 143 ............................................ 436
Exercise No. 144 ............................................ 436
Lesson 70................................................................ 439
( ¸ ) ................................................................... 439
Exercise No. 145 ............................................ 444
Exercise No. 146 ............................................ 446
Exercise No. 147 ............................................ 446
Exercise No. 148 ............................................ 447
Exercise No. 149 ............................................ 448
Lesson 71................................................................ 449
(,=·') .............................................................. 449
Exercise No. 150 ............................................ 454
Exercise No. 151 ............................................ 454
Exercise No. 152 ............................................ 455
Exercise No. 153 ............................................ 456
Exercise No. 154 ............................................ 456
Lesson 72................................................................ 457
The Verbal Noun .............................................. 457
(_,' _.').................................................... 462
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( ·` , -` ` _ · · ,` ,· ` _·.·) ................................ 464
(¸,` ,-, ,,·' _.')................................... 465
The Effect of the (_.·)................................ 466
Vocabulary List No. 59................................. 467
Exercise No. 155 ............................................ 469
Exercise No. 156 ............................................ 470
Lesson 73................................................................ 472
(·. .-)........................................................... 472
(¸,·' ,)...................................................... 475
(·,' ·.) ................................................... 476
(· · ` · ·` , .).................................................... 479
(¸,. ¸··').................................................... 482
(.,' ,. ,' ·` ,) ............................ 483
Vocabulary List No. 60................................. 486
Exercise No. 157 ............................................ 489
Exercise No. 158 ............................................ 490
Lesson 74................................................................ 492
The Dual, Plural and Diminutive................... 492
The Dual ............................................................. 492
The Plural........................................................... 493
The Sound Masculine Plural ....................... 494
The Sound Feminine Plural......................... 494
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The Broken Plural ......................................... 496
The Diminutive ............................................. 500
Vocabulary List No. 61................................. 502
Exercise No. 159 ............................................ 504
Exercise No. 160 ............................................ 506
Lesson 75................................................................ 509
The ( ¸··. .-) ................................................. 509
The Specialities of Some Verbs ....................... 514
Vocabulary List No. 62................................. 516
Exercise No. 161 ............................................ 519
Some Specialities of Poetry…………………. 521
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Transliteration

The following method of transliteration of the
Arabic letters has been used in this book:

ā
. b
. t
. th
_ j
_ h
_ kh
· d
· dh
_ r
_ z
¸ s
¸ sh
¸ s
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¸ d
t
z
_ à, í, ú
_ gh
f
· q
· k
¸ l
· m
. n
, ū
· h
¸ ī, y

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Some Arabic phrases used in the book are as
follows:


(Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam)
May Allâh send blessings and
salutations upon him - used for Nabî

(Àlaihis salām)
Salutations upon him – used for all
prophets

(Radiallāhu ‘anhu)
May Allâh be pleased with him – used
for the Sahâbah

(Jalla Jalāluhū)
The Sublime – used for Allâh

(Àzza wa jall)
Allāh is full of glory and sublimity
(= ·~_) (Rahimahullāh)
May Allâh have mercy on him – used for
deceased saints and scholars
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,,-, ¸~, = ,,

= - _· ·.·, . .,, ··,·' , .¸ . ¯_ ¸
·,, ,¯ .-. ·,·, ·´·' ¸ .¯ · , . .-·¸
. .,, '=-, ¸- · ·, · ···_ ··, ··.,
¸· ¸.·' ¸, , - _·, .. ¸-', .,·'
·¯ , -. · .´, .¯,- ¸ ·,·,, .

Preface

How can I be grateful and why should I not be
grateful to Allāh who granted me the ability to
compile four volumes of this book. He decreed
that it be so and it has occurred, otherwise I was
not in a position to write such a book by means of
which the Qur’ān could be reached, and the
difficult rules of Arabic could be made brief and
simplified, in such a manner that has pleasantly
astounded students and teachers. It has made the
boring subject of Grammar and Morphology into
an interesting and conclusive one.

This book has removed the fear and
apprehension from the hearts of the students of
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Arabic, which was caused by the prevailing
books and methods of instruction. It has handed
over the key of the garden of Arabic literature to
the students of the language. In fact, it has even
opened the door for them and told them to enter
this pleasant garden, where they could enjoy the
flowers and fruits.

In short, it has presented the verse of the Qur’ān,
“We have made the Qur’ān easy for
remembrance. Is there anyone who will heed?”
This has been merely due to His grace and
bounty. “It is the grace of Allāh and He grants it
to whoever He wants. Allāh is the One of great
bounty.”

“This is the interpretation of the dream I saw
before this. My Lord has made it come true.” All
praises are due to Him.

The reason why this book has become so
beneficial and interesting is that it does not only
contain boring rules of Grammar and
Morphology. It is a treasure-house of thousands
of Arabic words, general examples, Qur’ānic
verses, poetry, dialogues, letters and exercises of
translating into Arabic. This has made the book
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become an extremely interesting collection of
Arabic literature. This aspect is not found in any
other book. This is the reason why a person does
not become tired by studying this book as he
would by merely memorizing paradigms and
learning Grammar rules. One learns the rules as
well as the language simultaneously, that is, the
effort is minimal and the benefit is enormous.

I apologize to all the students and seekers of
Arabic who were distressed in waiting for the
fourth volume for such a long period. I supplicate
to Allāh to grant them an excellent
compensation for this agony.

The first reason for the delay was my old-age and
lengthy illness. The second major reason was my
extreme desire to make the subject as simple and
beneficial as possible. Due to this enthusiasm, I
would make a plan one day and change it the
next, in order to make an improvement. I did not
care about my personal loss in this engrossment.
If I had any concern for my personal self, I would
have merely divided the first two volumes which
were well accepted and very beneficial, into four
parts and published them in four volumes within
a span of three months. These would have been
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printed in the thousands and this would have
been probably the better route to take.

However, since more effective plans were
swimming around in my mind, I made a firm
resolution that no matter how much delay there is
and how much harm is caused, the work must be
done in the best possible manner. I cannot decide
whether this attitude of mine was correct or not
but I was compelled to act according to my
resolve. Till now, my heart’s desire has not been
fulfilled but under these unsuitable conditions,
my mind has become exhausted to work any
more. Consequently, the effects of exhaustion are
visible in the latter few lessons. Furthermore,
there were many other pressing needs. The size of
the book had also increased and become bulky. I
therefore felt it appropriate to publish whatever
work had been accomplished. I even postponed
my plan of writing a brief resume on the subjects
of rhyme and eloquence at the end of the fourth
volume. If Allāh grants me the ability, I will
obtain the good fortune of publishing the
remaining subjects in a fifth volume. He is the
only one that grants the ability and assistance.

Nevertheless, I am grateful to Allāh that now this
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book, in four volumes, is worthy of being used in
high schools from class four till matric. The
teachers can practically learn Arabic. I have firm
conviction that by the time the students reach
matric, they would be able to understand the
Qur’ān, the Ahādīth and the easy books of
Arabic. They will also have the ability to
translate, to converse and write simple letters.
This is such a precious treasure, that no matter
how much one appreciates it, the appreciation
would not be sufficient.

Furthermore, the experienced teachers realize
that when the students understand Arabic
Grammar, it creates a special strength in their
English. By understanding the Qur’ān, their
mental faculties are vastly broadened. Such
students are the ones who can serve the nation
correctly. The nation is in dire need of such
students.

The spirit of reformation can also be infused in
our Arabic seminaries (madāris). Education can
be made easy, interesting and effective. It is a
great boon that those responsible for the madāris
are also beginning to perceive this need. It will
not be surprising if they find the ruby they are
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searching for in this book.

By means of this book, the desire to understand
the Qur’ān and learn Arabic can also be created in
girls. The previous edition of this book has been
taught for many years in the famous Madrasatul
Banāt of Jālandhar and which has now relocated
to Lahore. The new edition has been made part of
the syllabus.

This book can aid tremendously in the
propagation of Arabic in India and Pakistan
1
, on
condition the principals of the madāris, the
members of the text book committees, the
department of education and the ministry of
education fulfil their obligation and make this
book reach the hand of every student.

All praises are due to Allāh that the department
of Education of Sindh has included this book in
their syllabus, thereby proving their recognition
of knowledge. In the famous Dārul Úlūm of India
in Dhabel, due to the recommendation of

1
The author has mentioned these two countries because the
original book was written in Urdu. As for the English
translation, it can be used world-wide without any limitation to
any particular country (= . .). (Translator)
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Àllāmah Shabbīr Ahmad Úthmānī (= ·~_), this
book has been included in the syllabus. It has
been widely accepted in Bihar, Punjab, U.P.,
Delhi etc. All praises are due to Allāh.

My beloved students should not look at the size
of this volume and become perturbed. On the
contrary, it contains the same rules which you
have already understood. However, special
emphasis has been placed on having a command
of the language, which is your actual and
pleasing aim.

The method of explanation in this volume has
been simplified to such an extent that those issues
which seem unsolveable in other books, seem
very ordinary and every seeker of Arabic, who
has a little understanding, can understand them
without the aid of a teacher. The key to the four
volumes has been prepared for those wanting to
learn Arabic by themselves.

We advise the students of colleges and high
schools to study this book during their vacations.
It will not be surprising if you grasp the ability to
understand the Qur’ān within a year. This will
add a precious literary gem to your mental
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faculties.

I am indebted to the Úlamā, reviewers and the
lovers of the best language, through whose
unseen and sincere efforts, this book has reached
the corners of India and Pakistan without any
advertising. May Allāh reward them in
abundance. I have hope that the saints will grant
me counsel and inform me of my errors so that
these may be corrected in future.

The servant of the best language
(Moulānā) Àbdus Sattār Khān (= ·~_)

15 Sha’bān 1367 A.H.

Indications

1) The inverted comma (.) is used to indicate the
plural of a noun.
2) The alphabets (.), (¸), (¸), (), (·) and (_)
indicate the category (.,) of the triliteral verbs
(¸·). The categories of the verbs of (·,· ,,·) are
indicated by numbers. The numbers are
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mentioned in Lesson 25. A verb that is (¸,, ¸··)
is indicated by a (,) and a verb that is (¸, ¸··) is
indicated by a (¸).
3) When any particle ( ,- ` ,- ) is mentioned
after a verb, it refers to the meaning of the verb
when used with that particular particle.

Guidelines were provided in Volumes One and
Three. Read these once more. No guidelines have
been mentioned in Volume Four. However, the
“Indications” have been repeated.
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Introduction

You have learnt most of the essential rules of
Grammar and Morphology in the previous three
volumes. A few new rules as well as an
explanation of previously-mentioned rules will be
done in this volume.

The beginning lessons of this volume explain the
concept of numbers in great detail, because there
is a great need for them in usage and all the
prevailing text books do not contain these details.

Firstly, remember that the existing forms of the
Arabic numbers are called ( ·`, ` · ` · ·` _ '). They are
written as follows:
1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 0

You will be surprised to note that the original
forms of the Arabic numbers were the same as the
English numbers, viz. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0.

The Europeans obtained these forms from the
Muslims of Spain. They called them Arabic
numerals ( ·` , , , · ` · ·` _ '). The Arabs of the West still
maintain these forms.
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Lesson 44
The Numerals
( ' · · . ` )

1. The numerals are as follows:

(a) from one (1) to ten (10)

First learn the numbers only, then the examples.

Note 1: When speaking, pause (.·,) at the end of
singular words, e.g. pronounce (` - ,) as (` - ,). In
compounds, pause at the last word, e.g. (` - , ` , ·).
See Lesson 1, Note 5 in Volume 1.
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Feminine
Examples
Feminine
Numerals
Masculine
Examples
Masculine
Numerals
· - , · · _ , · - , ` - , ` , · 1 . ` - ,
. . · _ ,
.
`
.
¸` ,
. . ·
2 . . .
¸` ,
_ , . · ¸ . · . · ¸ · · · ' · · 3 . · ·
¸ . · _ , ` _ ,` _ ' ` _ ,` _ ' ¸ · · · ' · · ,` _ ' 4 . · · ,` _ '
` ¸` -
¸ . ,
` ¸` - ¸ ,` ,` ' · ` - 5 . · ` -
¸ . , ' . ¯ . ¸ · .` , ' ·` 6 . ·`
¸ · ,` ` _` ` _` · ·` ¸ ¸ - _ 7 . · ·`
¸
¬
¸ . · ¸ . ¸ ¸ - · , 8 . · ,
¸ . ·` · ` _` ` _` ¸` , ·` · · ·` 9 . · ·`
` ,` ·
¸ . ` ,
,' ` ,` ·
` , ·
¸ · · · · ,` ·
10 . ,' · ,` ·
· , ·


2
,' . ` .,' ¸` , `
3
¸ . · ` ¸ ,' . .,'
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Note 2: The alif of ( . ) and ( . ) is hamzatul
wasl. See Terminology in Volume One.

Note 3: From the numbers ( · · ) till ( · , ·), the
feminine is used for the masculine number and
vice versa. In the examples, the numeral
(·· ,) is read like a (.·) without (¸,,)
while the (·,·· – object being counted) is plural
and (_,,- ·).

(b) from 11 (11) till 19 (19)

Note 4: In a compound numeral, ( - ') is used in
place of (` - ,) and (¸ ` - ¸) in place of ( · - ,). Also
remember that the (·,··) from 11 till 19 is
singular and (.,. ·).
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Examples:
Feminine Masculine

· _` , ~ · ,` · ¸ ` - ¸ ¯` , ¯ , · - '
11
· , ·
1
· ,` , , ·
12
· ¯ · , · . · ·` , - , · · ·
13
- · · , · _ ,` _ · - ´`, · , · · · ,` _
14
· , - · , · ¸` - ` . · , · · ` -
15
· ` , · , · ` . ·` ,, , · ·`
16
· , · · , · _` · , · · ·`
17
· · ·` _ · , · ¸ , · · , ,` ,` ´ ·
18
· ' ,` · · , · _` ·` - _ , · · ·`
19

Note 5: The above-mentioned numerals are called
(. ¯,·). All the remaining numerals are
declinable (.,··). Only the (· ¯,· ··') are
indeclinable (_'). A fathah is read on both the

4
.,' · ,` · `
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words constituting the compound. However, the
words ( ) and ( ) are (.,··). In (_·, ·-), they
are read as ( , · ) and ( , · ) while in
(` ,-, .. ·-), they are read as ( , · ` ¸ ) and
( , · ` ¸ ), e.g.
( . - ·` - _ , · ),
( ·` - _ , · ` ¸ ` .`, ' _),
( ·` ,, , · ` ¸ ` .` , · ).
Only the first part is (.,··) in these examples.
The second part remains indeclinable (_').

(c) from 20 (20) to 99 (99)

Note 6: The tens from ( .` ,` ,` ·) till ( .` ,` ·` ) are
called (` ·` , ` ·). They are used for both genders.
Their (.,·) is similar to that of (, ,¯' _-),
that is, in (_·, ·-), they are read as ( .` ,` ,` ·)
while in (` ,-, .. ·-), they are read as ( ¸`, ,` ·)
and ( ¸` , · ) etc. See Lesson 10 in Volume One. The
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(·,··) is singular and (.,. ·).
Examples:

Feminine Masculine
· ' ,` · .` ,` ,` · ·` - _ .` ,` ,` ·
· · .` ,` ,` · , ¸ ` - ¸ · .` ,` ,` · , ` - '
` , .` ,` ,` · , . , .` ,` ,` · , .
.` ,` ,` · , . · , ~ · .` ,` ,` · , · · ' , ` , ¯
.` ,` ,` · , ` _ ,` _ ' _ · .` ,` ,` · , · · ,` _ ' ` , ,
.` ,` ,` · , ` ¸` - · · _ .` ,` ,` · , · ` - · _
.` ,` ,` · , ¯ . ·,` , · , ·` .` ,` ,` · ,
.` ,` ,` · , ` _` · `, - .` ,` ,` · , · ·` ` ` ,
.` ,` ,` · , ¸ . · .` ,` ,` · , · , ,` ,
.` ,` ,` · , ` _` · - ` .` ,` ,` · , · ·` ` , · _
· ` , .` , · ·` ,, .` , ·
' ` , .` ,` · ,` _ , .` ,` · ,` _ '
` , .` ,` ` - , .` ,` ` -
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· ¯ .` ,' ¯ .` ,'
· _` · .` ,` ·` .` ,` ·` -` ·
· · .` ,` , , .` ,`
· _ .` ,` ·` , ¯ .` ,` ·`

(d) from 100 (100) to ten million (10000000)

Note 7: The (·,··) of ( · · - 100) and (` . ' - 1000)
and of their dual and plural forms is singular and
(_,,- ·). No change occurs in them due to
masculine or feminine words. Both these words
are used like the ( .· ) without (¸,,). The (.) is
deleted from the dual (·,·.).
Examples:
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Feminine Masculine Number
¸ .` , · · · ¸ , · · · · · · , · ·,' ,
100
¸ .` , · · ¸ , · ·
. · ·
, . ·,' ,
200
· · · · .
¸ .` ,
· · · . ·
¸ ,
¸ · · · . · ,'
¸ · ·
300
· · · ` _ ,` _ '
¸ .` ,
· · · ` _ ,` _ ' ¸ ,
¸ · · · ` _ ,` _ ' ,'
¸ · ` · ,` _ '
400
· · · ` ¸` -
¸ ·` , ,` _
· · · ` ¸` -
¸ ¸` , ·
` ¸` - ¸ · · · ,'
¸ · ` ` -
500
¸ · · · ` _` ¸¸ ´·,
, 900 ,
· · ` ¸ ,' ¸ ·
¸ · · · .
800
¸ .` , ` . ' ¸ , ` . ' ` . '
1000
¸ · ' ,` · ' ¸ ¸` - _ ' . ' , ¸` , ' ,
2000
.¯ · ·
¸ · ' ,` ·
.¯ · ·
¸ ¸` - _
¸ .¯ · ·
, ¸ . ' _~ ,
3000
¸ .¯ · ,` · ¸¸ ´·, ` _ ' ¸ .¯ · · ,
4000
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, 10000 ,
, · - '
¸ · ' ,` · . '
, · - '
¸ ¸` - _ . '
' , · - '
11000
, ·
¸ · ' ,` · . '
, ·
¸ ¸` - _ . '
' , ·
12000
.` ,` ·` , · ·` ¸¸ ´·,
' , 99000 ,
· ' , · ·
13000
. ' · · ·
¸ · ' ,` ·
. ' · · ·
¸ ¸` - _
· · · ¸ . '
100000
. ' ` . '
,' ¸ · ' ,` ·
¸ · ' ,` · .` ,` , ·
. ' ` . '
,' ¸ ¸` - _
¸ ¸` - _ .` ,` , ·
, ` ¸` ,, · · _~ ,
¸ . ' ` . ' ,'
.` ,` , ·
1000000
.¯ · ,` ·
¸ · ' ,` · . '
· ,` · ,'
¸ · ' ,` · ¸` ,, · ·
.¯ · ,` ·
,' ¸ ¸` - _ . '
¸` ,, · · · ,` ·
¸ ¸` - _
· ,` · .¯
¸ . '
1000000
0

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Note 8: Nowadays, the word (¯ , ¯) is also used for
ten million, e.g. ( ¯ ¸ · ' ,` · ,' ¸ ¸` - _ ' , ).

Note 8: The words ( · · ·), (` . ') and ( .` ,` , ·) are used
like a (.·) together with the (·,··).
Consequently, the (¸,,) has been elided from the
singular form as is the (·,,,·¸ .,) from the dual
form. See Lessons 7 and 11.

Note 10: The (·,··) of a numeral is also referred
to as the (,,, ) or (,` ,` ·). By examining all the
examples of the numerals, you will notice that the
(,` ,` ·) is always indefinite (·,´). However, the
definite article ( ¸ ) is attached to the (,` ,` ·) when it
is a plural (_~) or a collective noun (_~ ,). The
particle (` ¸ ·) has to be used in this case, e.g.
instead of saying ( ·` - _ .` ,` ,` ·), you can say
( ¸ -` , ¸ · .` ,` ,` ·). Similarly, one can say,
( ¸ ` - ¸ , . ` ¸ · .` ,` ,` · - twenty one women) and
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( , · ¸ · ` . ' , ¸ , , ¸ · · · · - a hundred camels and a
thousand sheep).

Exercise No. 64

Fill in a suitable (·,··) next to the following
numbers.
, 1 , · ` - , 2 , .·
, 2 , ·, · , 4 , ,·
, 5 , , · ¸ , 6 , · , · ¸
, 7 , ,· -' , 8 , ·,· .·
, 9 , ,· ·~ , 10 , .` ,` ,` ·
, 11 , .` , · , ¸ ` - ¸ , 12 , .` ,` · ,` _ ' , ¸ .
, 13 , .,·, . ` , 14 , .,·, ··
, 15 , · · , 16 , . ·
, 17 , .` ,' , · · , 18 , · ,` · ¸` - , ¸ · · · . ·
, 19 , . ' , 20 , . '
, 21 , · · · . , 22 , ¸ .¯ ·~
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, 23 , . ' · · · , 24 , . ' . '
, 25 , .` ,` , ·
Exercise No. 65

Translate the following phrases into Arabic.

(1) one boy (2) two boys (3) two girls
(4) three boys (5) four girls (6) five bulls
(7) nine cows (8) ten women (9) ten men
(10) twenty rupees (11) twenty five guineas
(12) forty five books (13) fifty hens
(14) seventy two roosters (15) one hundred dogs
(16) two hundred horses
(17) three hundred she camels
(18) five hundred male camels
(19) one thousand aeroplanes
(20) one hundred thousand soldiers

Exercise No. 66

(A) Write the following numbers in Arabic.
7, 15, 18, 29, 75, 62, 43, 88, 100, 300, 800, 2 000, 200,
100 000, 1 000, 1 200, 1 000 000.

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(B) Assume the (·,··) is masculine and then
write the above-mentioned numbers in Arabic.
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Lesson 45
Miscellaneous Rules Regarding Numerals

1. We hope you have understood the following
rules after studying all the numbers, examples
and notes of the previous lesson.

(a) The numerals have four groups:
1. (·,·) – singular words. These are from one
to ten and the words ( · · ·) and (` . ') are also
part of this group. In this way, twelve
words constitute this category.
2. (. ¯ ,` ·) – compounds. These are from 11 to
19.
3. (·` , ` ·) – the tens. These are the tens from 20
to 90.
4. (` , =` · ·) – those having the conjunction ( ,)
between them. These are from 21 to 99.

(b) the gender of the numerals:

1. The numbers (-,) and (.) always
conform in gender to the (·,··), whether
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they are singular words, compounds or
used with a conjunction. The examples
were mentioned in the previous lesson.
2. From 3 to 9, the numerals will always differ
in gender from the (·,··), whether they
are singular words, compounds or used
with a conjunction. Observe the previous
examples carefully.
3. When the word (` ,` ·) is singular, it will
have the opposite gender to the (·,··),
otherwise it will correspond to it, e.g.
(¸ ¸ - _ · ,` ·), (¸ . ` ,` ·),
( ·` - _ , · - '), ( ` , · · ,` · ¸ ` - ¸ ' · ).
4. There is no differentiation in gender in the
tens (·` , ` ·). The same applies to ( · · ·) and
(` . '). See the examples in the previous
lesson and notes 6 and 7.

(c) The declinable (.,·') and indeclinable (_')
numerals
5

Besides the compound numerals (·¯,· ··'), all

5
See Lesson 10.10 and Lesson 57.
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the other numerals are (.,··). Their ends will
change according to the case. Only the numbers
from ( , · - ') till ( · ·` , · ) are (_'). A fathah
will be read on both parts of the compound. From
these numbers (11-19), ( ) and ( ) are (.,··).
See Lesson 44 note 5.

(d) The (.,·) of the (·,··) and its number:

1. When a noun is (-,), it indicates one and
when it is (·,·.), it indicates two, e.g.
( ¸` - _) – one man, ( . ·` - _) – two men.
Therefore there is no need to add any
number to these words. However,
sometimes (-,) and (.) are used like
adjectives, e.g. (` - , ¸` - _) – one man,
( . . ·` - _) – two men, ( · - , ` .` ,) – one
girl, ( . . ` ,) – two girls. The (,.,·)
and (·.) correspond in (.,·) and gender.
2. The (·,··) of the numbers ( · · ) till ( · , ·)
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is (_,,- ·) and plural. See the examples and
note 3. If the word (¸ · · ·) is used in place of
the (·,··), it will remain singular, e.g.
(¸ · · · . · ), ( - ¸ · · · ` ¸` ). See the examples of
the previous lesson and note 7.

Note 1: The sound masculine plural
(, ,¯' _- - See lesson 5.3.) is not normally
used in place of the (·,··). For example, you
cannot say ( ¸` , ` ` · · · ). On such an occasion, the
definite article will be prefixed to the plural and
used with (` ¸ ·), e.g. ( · · ¸ · ¸` , ` ` )

3. The (·,··) of the numbers ( , · - ') till
( .` ,` ·` , · ·` ) will be singular and (.,.·).
The tens also are included in this rule. See
the examples and notes 4 and 6.
4. The (·,··) of ( · · ·) and (` . ') and their dual
and plural forms will be singular and
( · ,- , _ ). See the examples and note 7.
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The sound feminine plural of ( · · ·) is most often
used, namely (` . · ·). Sometimes the sound
masculine plural is used, that is, ( .` , · ·) or ( ¸` , · ·).
The plural of (` . ') is (` .¯) as already mentioned.
It has another plural (` ` , ') which means
“thousands”. This does not refer to any particular
number, e.g. ( ' ` ¸ ` · .` ´ ¸ · ` ` , ) – I have
thousands of books.

Note 2: Learn the following table to remember the
(·,··) of numerals:

_~ _,,- ·
3 - 10
·,· .,.·
11 - 19
·,· .,.·
20-99
·,· _,,- ·
100, 1000

Note 3: Sometimes the numerals and their ( ,, , )
are used contrary to the rule, e.g.
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, ` , · , ` ¸ · ` , , ` , ¯ . ¸ · · ` , ¸ ` ,` · ·` _ , ·` ,
“They remained in their cave for 300 years and 9
more, i.e. for 309 years.”
The word (¸ · ·) has not been used as a (.·) in
this sentence. Its (,,, ), instead of being singular,
has been used in the plural form. The (,,, ) of
( ·` ) has not been mentioned. The original
sentence was ( ¸` , _` , ¸ · · ). Regard this
example as an exception to the rule.

Note 4: The definite article ( ¸ ') can be prefixed to
a numeral in order to make it specific or definite,
e.g. ( · · . - = ` ` ¯ ·` - _ .` , ` ,` ·` , ) – The thirty men
for whom we were waiting, came.

If the numeral is a singular (.·), the ( ¸ ')
should be prefixed to the ( .· ·, ), e.g.
( .` ´ · ` - ` ¸ =` · ') – Give me the five books.
(` ¸ , ´` · .¯ ·` ` .`, ' _) – I saw the six thousand
soldiers.

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If the numeral is not (.·), the ( ¸ ') should be
prefixed to the numeral itself, e.g.
( ¸` , ` ` ¸ · · ` - . -) – The five Muslims came.

If the numeral is a compound (. ¯,·), the ( ¸ ')
should be prefixed to the first part of the
compound and if it is (,=··), then to both parts,
e.g. ( , , ¯ , · · ` - ` .` · , · ¸` , · ,` _ ' , · · ,` _ ' ) – I
sold the fifteen books and the forty four sheep.

2. If the (·,··) occurs after several numerals, it
will take the effect of the last number, e.g.
( · .` ,' , ` _ ,` _ ' , ¸ · · · , ` . ') – one thousand three
hundred and sixty four years.
The word ( · ) was affected by the final number
( .` ,' ). Accordingly it is (.,.· -,).

In this example, first the larger number is
mentioned followed by the smaller ones in stages.
You can also say it vice versa, e.g.
( .` ,' , ` _ ,` _ ' , ¸ · · · , ¸ · . ' )
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The word (¸ · ) in this example is (_,,- ·) due to
the word ( . ').

Note 5: If the context permits, it is permissible to
omit the (·,··) and mention the number only,
e.g. ( ` .`, , ` ¸ ·` , ,` _ · · , ` ¸ ` ·, ¸ · · , ¸ , ) – I bought the
horse for a hundred, that is, a hundred rupees.

3. The use of the words (` _` . ,), (` .` , ) and (` .` , )

1. The word (` _` . ,) denotes an unspecified
number from 3 till 9, e.g. ( ¸ · ,` ` _` . , , · ·` . ,
¸ ¸ - _) – a few women and a few men, that
is, between 3 and 10. The word (` .` , ) or
(` .` , ) denotes any number between two
tens, e.g. (` .` , , ·` _ · .` ,` ,` · ` ¸ ` ·) – I have
twenty and some silver coins, that is, less
than 30. Similarly, ( · ,` , ` - .` ,` ,` · ` .` , , ) –
twenty and some guineas.
2. There is no masculine and feminine form of
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(` .` , ). However, the word (` _` . ,) has a
gender. For the masculine form, ( · ·` . ,) is
used while (` _` . ,) is used for the feminine
form. See the above examples.
3. The word (` .` , ) is only used after a ten,
hundred or a thousand. However, the word
(` _` . ,) can be used alone as well, e.g. ( ` ¸ ` ·
, · _ · · ·` . , ` ¸ ` · ,' ·` _ · .` ,` ·` , · ·` . ,) – I
have seventy and some silver coins, or I
have some silver coins.
4. The word (` .` , ) is used after a numeral
while (` _` . ,) is used before a number.
However, if its (,,, ) is separate, it can
succeed the numeral as well, e.g. ( ` ·
¸ . ,` , ` - ` _` . , , ·` _ · .` ,` ` -) - We have fifty
and some silver coins and a few pounds.
5. The word (` .` , ) has not been used in the
Qur’ān.

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Vocabulary List No. 42

Word Meaning
, - `
to burst, for a spring to
burst forth
- , ¸ , to lash
¸ , to equate
_ , . , , · , to be rare
· _ , , ¸ , to come, to be imported
` . ¯ . · ¯ anna (Indian currency)
¸ ` - gathering
` · , ` to participate, to subscribe
. ·` · notice, advert
· _ , para (coin)
` , , cow
` ¸` , , . . ` ` , garden, orchard
- . · - ` . lash
· ,` , ` - ,' ` ·` , ` - guinea, pound
` _ ·` ' . ` ,` · price
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` ¸` ,` ,` , ~ ` ¸` , , , ~ . Turkish cap, fez
` · · , ·` · number, amount
` ¸` , · . ` ¸ · money
· , ` · ` , · subscription fee
` ¸` ,` , · . ` ¸` , · ,' ` ¸` , · piaster
¸ ¸ , · . · , · livestock, cattle
` . - · . · - · magazine, journal
· · - area, surface extent

Exercise No. 67

Translate the following sentences into English.

, 1 , · ` , · ` ¸ , ` · _ , ` , ¯ ` , ` · ¸ ·
` · _ , .` ,` · ,` _ ' - , ` , · ` ¸ , .
, 2 , · · - , · ,` , ` - ` ¸ , `, ` , · ` , ¯
· ,` , ` - ¸ ¸` , · · · · ` ¸ , ` · - , .
, 3 , . ¯ .`, , ` ` , ´ , ' ,, ·,· = _. ` ¸ ` · ,` , ' ·
` . . ´ · ` .`, , ¸ . -` · . · ` ¸ · , . ¸`, ,` · , ¸` ,
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·` , ,` _ .
, 4 , . ·` , · ¸ · ¸ ¸ · , ,` · · . ` ¸` , - _ = , .
. ¯ ` .`, , ` ' , ` ¸ - ' , . · . ' · · ` · _ ' _` ,
·` , ,` _ · ,` · ¸ ` - , , ,` , ¸` , · ·` , .
, 5 , · ` , · = , ` ¸ ' , ` -` ,`, . ` ·` ·` ,` -` , _` . ´ · . , · .
· ` · `, , ` ¸`, ' ` ¸ · , . ¸ · ` , ·
` .` ´ ` _ ` · ` · , ` ¸ ` , ` ¸ · · ` , · ´ ¸ · ` ·` `, , `
. ´ _ ¸ · ` ¸ · ` , · ¸ -` _ ' , , - ' .
, 6 , ` ¸` ,` ,` , = · ` , ´ , · ` _` , ,
` ¸ ` , , ` , · ¸` , · , ¸ · ` - , .
, 7 , ¸`, ,` · , · ` - ` ¸ =` · ' ' . ' - ¸ ¸ · ` ·` ¸ = , . ` , ·
` ,` , · .
¸ ,` ,
6
. · ¸ · , , ¸ ¸ · ,` · ¸ · . . · . , ¯ ¸ ,
· · ,` - ' . · _ ` , ¯ , . ,` ' . · , ` · ,` '
, 9 , ` · ·` , ¸` , · · ` - ` _` , , .` , ~ .
:` , · = · _ , . ¸` , . · , ¸` ,` ,` , = ` - .` ` - ' .

6
See Note 3, Lesson 34 in Volume 3.
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, 10 , , ¸ · _` .` - ¸ · . ¯ ` , ¯ ¸ ` -` ' ` ¸ , ` ¸ ` -
· ·` , · ·` ,
¸ , · · · . , ¸` , ' ,` - ` ,` ·` · · _ , .` , ´, .
, 11 , · , ` · ,` - ' ¸ · · ` , ` · ¸ · · `, , - ¸ · ` ¸ , `
' _` ' ·
` · ` , · . ' ' ¸ ~ ' ` ¸ · ` , · ¸` , ` - ·` , · .` , ´, . ,` , · · ,
¸ · .
, 12 , , · . ·` · , · ,` - ' ¸ · ·
` ¸` , · ¸ , = ¸ ¯ ` ¸ · .
, 13 , · · ·` , , _` : .` , ,' , ¸ · .` , ¯ `, ¯
' , ¸ · , - . ` .` , =` · ' . ` ¸ ` , , .` , , _ ,` _ ' , ¸ .¯ · ` -
¸` , ·` , ` - , ¸ · · · , 5495 . ,
, 14 , , ¸ · · · _` : · - ·
_` _ · ' ¸ · ` , , ¸ _ _ · ` ¸ · · , ¸ .¯ · ,` · _ ` ,` - ·
· ·` , ,` .
, 15 , · : ` ` , .` · , ` , ´ , ,
¸ ·` , ,` _ . ' , · ` ¸ , ` ·` ` · , .
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, 16 , :` _ - ` . - , _ ` = , .
,`, , · ` ¸ - ' , :` , · = · _ , . . · . .

Exercise No. 68

Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān.

, 1 , . ¸ , ¸ ` , ´ ` · ¸ ` - , .
, 2 , . ¸ ` · · ` ,` ,' _ ` · · ,` , , · .
, 3 , ` . , - · ` ·` · · ,` · ` , · .
, 4 , , ., ' ¸` ¸ - ' ` .`, ' _ , · ¯` , ¯ .
, 5 , · , ` , ` ¸ ` , , ` ,` ` - · ¸ ¯ ¸ - , ` ,` ` · · · · ¸ · - .
, 6 , · ` , _` - ` ,` , ` ¸` · . ' ¸ ,` , .
, 7 , ` , ' _ ¸ , ¸, ,` - , - ¸ · ` , · _, · ` ,` · , ` , ' .
, 8 , ` · ` _ ' , _ ¸ · · · ¸ . ' ` , ' .,` , ,, .
, 9 , · ¸ ` , ¸ ` , ·` ,` ` ¸ ' ¸ , ´, ` , ´ . ' ` , ¯` `, ` , ´' , _ · · · ,
¸ .¯ ¸` · ` ` · · ´ : ¸ , .
, 10 , ¸ · , ¸` , ¸ ¸` , ¸ · , , ¸` , .
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, 11 , . · ` ·,' , ¸ · _ ` · ' ¸` _ ' ,` · , ¸` · ` , , · ` · ,
.,` ` · , ¸ · _` . , ¸ .

Exercise No. 69

Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) How many cattle do you have?
We have 200 cows, fifty plus camels and 25 goats.
(2) Sir, for how much are you selling this book?
Its price is ten rupees.
(3) It is not cheap but is expensive. I will only give
nine rupees, not more.
Brother, it is not expensive. Okay, take it and
hand over the money. May you be blessed.
(4) For how much did you buy this book?
I bought it for twelve rupees and eight annas.
(5) What is the subscription for the magazine,
“Al-Furqān”?
I think its subscription is nine rupees annually,
not more.
(6) How much is that house being sold for?
It will be sold for 15 450 rupees.
(7) What is the area of this house?
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Its area is approximately 500 square (_` , ,` ·) cubits.
(8) Do you know the number of Muslims in the
world?
The number of Muslims is approximately 700
million.
7
From them, 100 million are in India.
(9) How many boys are there in your madrasah?
There are more than 400 students in our
madrasah.
Exercise No. 70

Observe the analysis of the following sentence.

7
This was probably the Muslim population at the time when
this book was written, viz. around 1327 A.H.
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· = ¸ |
_ · · ·
¸ = -
= ¸ =· -·« · ¸ « - . , ¸ · = ·
,` , ,`
··
.¯,'
.
.,.·
-,
··
.¯,·
.,- .
¸,.
.,··
_,,-
·` ,-
.,,
¸ ·,
¸ ¸·

_
,-
` ,-
. ,` , ,`
_,,-
_~
,
. ··
·,· .
¸·

¸·
_,,- ` _- ,.· ¸,·· .

¸,·', ¸· _· ¸· - ·,·· ·~

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Lesson 46
The Ordinal Numbers
(' ¸ ` . , ,' ' ¸ ` , ` ,` ` · · )

1. In the previous lesson you have learnt the
numerals. Now study the ordinals carefully.

(a) from 1 to 10
Examples:
1 . ' ` ¸` _` ¸` , – , the first lesson ,
2 . ` ¸ · ` ¸` _` , the second lesson ,
3 . . · ` ¸` _` , the third lesson ,
4 . ` _ ,` , ` ¸` _` , the fourth lesson ,
5 . ` ¸` _` ` ¸ · - , the fifth lesson ,
6 . ` ¸` _` ` ¸ ·` , the sixth lesson ,
7 . ` ¸` _` ` _ ,` , the seventh lesson ,
8 . ` ¸` _` ` ¸ · · , the eighth lesson ,
9 . ` ¸` _` ` _ ` , the ninth lesson ,
10 . ` ¸` _` ` , · , the tenth lesson ,

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1 . _ ` , ' ·, ´ - , the first story ,
2 . · , · ·, ´ - , the second story ,
3 . · · · ·, ´ - , the third story ,
4 . · · ,` , ·, ´ - , the fourth story ,
5 . · · - ·, ´ - , the fifth story ,
6 . · ·` ·, ´ - , the sixth story ,
7 . · · ,` ·, ´ - , the seventh story ,
8 . · · · ·, ´ - , the eighth story ,
9 . · · ` ·, ´ - , the ninth story ,
10 . ·, ´ - , · · , the tenth story ,

Note 1: All these words are (.,··). However the
(.,·) cannot appear on the word (_ ` , ' ) because
it is (_,.·). See Lesson 10.8.

Note 2: The plurals of the ordinal numbers are
(, ) – sound.
.` ,` · . .` , ` , ' ... _ .` , · ·
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Note 3: The word (` , -¯ ) or (` ,` , - ' ) is also used in
opposition to ( ¸` , ' ), e.g. (` , -¯ , ¸` , ' ,` ·).

Note 4: Sometimes the word ( ¸` , ') refers to the
beginning of something. Then its plural will be
( ¸ , ). Similarly, the plural of (` , -¯) is (` , - , ') and
the plural of ( ` , ') is ( , '), e.g.
( . . · _ ¸ , ) – the initial days of Ramadān.
The plural of (_ ` , ') is ( ¸ , ') and (` . , ` , ').

(b) from 11 to 19

11 . , · ` ¸ · - ` ¸` _` – , the eleventh lesson ,
12 . , · ` ¸ · ` ¸` _` , the twelfth lesson ,


11 . · ,` · ·, · - ·, ´ - , the eleventh story ,
12 . ·, ´ - · ,` · · , · , the twelfth story ,

Similarly till ( , · _ ` ) and ( · ,` · · · ` ).

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Note 5: In the above-mentioned examples, both
the numbers are indeclinable on a fathah ( _· ¸ '
_) like ( , · - '). However, some philologers
are of the view that the first part is (.,··) and
this is the general practice nowadays.
Accordingly, the (.,·) of the (,.,·) will be
applied to it, e.g.
( , · . · ` ¸` _` ), ( · ,` · · · ,` , · ` , ¸ ·),
( , · ¸ · - ` ¸ · . . · _ ).

(c) All the tens from ( .` ,` ,` ·) till ( .` ,` ·` ) and ( · · ·)
and (` . ') are used in their normal forms for the
ordinal numbers. However, the definite article is
generally prefixed to them, e.g.
( .` ,` ,` · ) – the twentieth, ( - .` ,` ,` · , ` ¸ · ) – the
twenty first, ( .` , · · , ·, · - ) – the thirty first,
( · · ) – the hundredth.

2. The ordinal numbers generally occur as
adjectives in a sentence and are used with a
(,.,·), e.g.
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( ¸` , ' ` . ´ ) – the first book,
( .` ,` ,` · , ` ¸ · - ` ¸` _` ) – the twenty first lesson.

Sometimes they are (.·), e.g.
(` ,` ,` · , _) – the fourth among them, ( . · · -) –
the fifth girl.

3. In ordinal numbers, when the (` · -¯) – singular
numbers and the (` _` ,` ` ·) – tens are used with ( · · ·)
and (` . '), the word ( ` · ,) is prefixed before the last
number, e.g.
( ` · , ¸ · · , ¸` , · ,` _ ' , · , · · ` ¸ · . ) – the one
thousand three hundred and forty second year.
Instead of ( . ` · ,), one can also say ( , ' . ).

Note 6: The smallest number was mentioned first
in this example followed by the larger numbers in
stages. This order cannot be changed.

4. For the fractions (` _` ,` ¯), the word (` .` . ) is
used for half while the scales of ( ¸` · ·) or ( ¸` · ·) are
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used for the remainder, e.g. ⅓ - ( . ) or ( . ). The
plural is ( . · ').
¼ - (` _` ,` _) or (` _` ,` _). The plural is (` _ ,` _ ').
⅕ - (` ¸` ` -) or (` ¸` ` -). The plural is ( ' ` ¸ ` - ).
⅙ - (` ¸` ` ) or (` ¸` ` ). The plural is ( ' ` ¸ ` ).
This continues till (` ,` ` ·) or (` ,` ` ·), plural (` _ ` · ').
⅔ ( . · ), ¾ (¸ _ ,` _ ' · · ), ⅝ (¸ . ' · ` -).

Note 7: If you want to form a fraction above
(,` ·), construct it from the original number thus:
four elevenths ( , · - ' ` ¸ · · · ,` _ '),
eleven twentieths ( ¸`, ,` · ` ¸ · , · - ').
The particle (_ ·) can be used in place of (` ¸ ·), e.g.
( ¸`, ,` · _ · , · - ') - eleven twentieths.

When whole numbers and fractions are
mentioned together, they will be separated by a
( ,), e.g. four and three fifths ( , ` _ ,` _ ' ¸ ¸ ` - ' · · ),
five and fifteen over forty
( , ` ¸` - ¸` , · ,` _ ' _ · , · · ` - ).
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Note 8: Sometimes a quarter is written as (),
half is written as (<) and three quarter is written
as (≤), e.g.
2¼ is written as ( 2 ),
2½ is written as (2<),
2¾ is written as (2≤).
These signs are written slightly thinner than the
numbers and are separated from them.

5. The distributive adjectives, 2 by 2, 3 by 3, etc.
are expressed by the forms ( ¸ · ·) and ( ¸ · ·), e.g.
( _ ,` _ , . · , _ · · . ` , . . -) – The riders came
in twos, threes and fours. These words occur as
the (¸-) in a sentence and are therefore (.,.·).
See 10.2.
This can also be expressed by repeating the
number in the accusative case (.. ·-), e.g.
( ¸` , . ` , . . - · · ,` _ ' · · ,` _ ' · · · · ¸` , )
Note 8. The phrase (` -` , ·) and (` · - ') is seldom
used for 1 by 1. Instead the words ( · , ·), ( · , ·) or
( · , · ¸ ) are most often used, e.g.
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( · , · ` ,` , - - , - , ` ¸ ·, ¸ ) – They came one by
one.

6. The numerical adjectives expressing the
composition of anything are used on the scale of
(¯ ¸ · ·), e.g.

Meaning Feminine Masculine
twofold, biliteral ·` , ¯ ¸
threefold, triliteral ·` , · ¯ ¸ ·
fourfold,
quadriliteral
·` , · ,` _ ¯ ¸ · ,` _
fivefold ·` , ` - ¯ ¸ ` -
sixfold ·` , ` ¯ ¸ `
sevenfold ·` , · ` ¯ ¸ · `
eightfold ·` , ¯ ¸
ninefold ·` , · ` ¯ ¸ · `
tenfold ·`, _ ` · ¯ ¸ _ ` ·

This scale cannot be used for compound numbers
or one with conjunctions (,=··). To express
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something made of eleven parts, one will say
( .` ,` - , · - ' ` , ·) for the masculine and
( .` ,` - , · - ' ` . ·) for the feminine. In this way,
you can use any other number.

7. The numerical adverbs “the first time”, “the
second time”, etc. may be expressed by the use of
the noun ( ·` , ·) as the (,.,·) and the ordinal
number as an adjective (·.).
Examples: (_ ` , ' ·` , ,' _ ` , ' ·` , ·) – the first time,
(_ ` , ' ·` , .¯` , ` . ' , ·) – I recited the Qur’ān the
first time.
( :` ` _` _ · , · ·` , ) – I visited you a second time.
Similarly, ( · , · ·` , ) – the tenth time,
( · ,` · ¸ · - ·` , ) – the eleventh time, ( · · ·` , ) –
the hundredth time.

The numerical adverbs may also be expressed by
saying ( .` , ') – firstly, ( , ) – secondly etc.
However, after ( , ·), the above-mentioned
method has to be used.
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Note 9: The phrase (_ ` , ' ·` , ·) can also be expressed
thus: (¸ ·` , · ¸` , ') while ( ·` , · · , ) can be expressed as
(¸ ,` - ' ·` , ·) or ( ¸ ,` - ' · _ ).

8. The numerical adverbs, “once”, “twice”, may
be expressed by using the noun ( ·` , ·) in
(.. ·-), e.g. ( ·` , ·) or ( · - , ·` , ·) – once, ( ` , · ¸` , ) –
twice. For more times, the cardinal number is
used with the noun ( ` , · · ) as in (¸ .` , · . · ) – three
times, ( ·` , · , · - ') eleven times, etc.

9. The plural of ( ·` , ·) which is ( _ , ·) is used in
(.. ·-) to express the phrase, “several times”
or “many times”, e.g.
( _ , · ` ·` `, ' _) – I saw him many times. For this
meaning, (·`, , - ` , ¯) can also be used. See 13.7.
Example: (` ·` `, ' _ .` , ¸ · ` , ¯ ,' ¸ ·` , · ` , ¯) – How
many times I saw him.

10. To express the phrase, “several” or “many”,
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(·`, , - ` , ¯) is used, e.g.
( ¸ · ` , ¯ . ` ` ¸ · .` ,` · , . · ) – Several boys are
playing in the garden.
Vocabulary List No. 43

Word Meaning
_ =` ` , , .,·
' ` , ,
middle
¸ '` , ` · · , Cape Colony
· large group of people
¸ to climb a wall
. ` _ - . _` ` - wall
` , =` - . - part
` _ ,` _ ' . ` _` , _ pair, spouse
·`, `, - · ´ railway line
_ , ¸ , to travel
· . · ` , . , · . capital
` , = · . ` _ = · train, caravan of camels
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·` _ · ` .` _ · . continent
` _ · · . · · · castle, fort
· · table
¯ ¸ .` · to pass
` , to ennoble
` , to be honoured
. ~ , ¸ , to like, to be good
_` , · to strengthen, to reinforce
_ ´ , ¸ , to marry
` ` ,` , ¯ . ` .` , ¯ cave

Exercise No. 71

Translate the following sentences into English.

, 1 , · _` ,` , _` ` ,- .¯, ¸· _ ` , ' · _` ,' . ¸
· - .
, 2 , ¸·,_ ' , _,` , ¸_ ¸ ` -` ,`, · · . ` ' ` ,` , ` ·
¸·,_ ' , ¸·-, ¸·,_ ' , ¸·, .
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, 3 , ·` , ` ¸ ·· ` ¸' ¸ ` · _` , - , ·
, 4 , ¸· = . .¸ ··· ¸ ` , ¯ ` · _` , - , ` `, ' .
, 5 , · ¸ ` .¯ . ·· :, ¸ _` ,` _, ·· ¸ ` .` , ,,
··, ¸ ·· .. ·_= ¸ _ ,` _ ' ··, ··
_ ¸· ` .-,- .
, 6 , ` , · · , , Puna , ¸~ ,` - ` · ` ` ·` ¸· ¸ . ·
·`, `, - · ´ .
, 7 , ¸ . · _ ,` _ ' ` ¸ .` · ·, ·· ` ·,, _ = ` ¯ _ .
, 8 , _· ¸ ` , ¸` ,. . ¸ ··' ·· ¸¸ ·` , `, ,· ' ` , `
` ,.· ·,·, ¸` ,` ,`, ,` ,`, ¸ ··, ` ··, _·, . ·` ,' , ,· .
·,·, - , ·` ,` ·,,,·' .·, ` ¸¯,·, ` , ,,·, ·` ,
` _,,, ` _ -` _ ·` , ,` , · ·,,,·' ` ¸·-, _ =` ` , ·,,,·'
` _,, ¸ '` , ` ··, ,,·, ·` , ,` ,` - ·,,,·' ` ¸·,
·` _ ·· ··,` ` , , - .
, 9 , ` , · · ` - ,` , -. . · ` -¯ ', _` , = · ¸· ¸ .
, 10 , ¸·, ¸` · ·· ` ¸` · ' ` .-,· ¸' ¸· ` _' ·, · ,` ·
` ` -, ¸` , ` ` - ` .-, ¸ · ` ¸ ` - ' ` .-, -,
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` ¸ -' -, ¸` , , · ¸` , ` ` - , .
, 11 , . · -. .` ,', , ´` · ` ¸ ` , .· ` _,-, _ ,` _,
.· , _ ·· ·_' ¸· .
, 12 , · , · ·_' ¸-· ` . ¸ .
, 13 , ¸ ·` ,· ¸¯ ¸, _,· .¯, ` .',· ` .` ` - ' ` ·',· ' ` ¸` ' ¯
¸,. ·` ,' .
, 14 , ··· ·` ,' ·_,' ·,' ¸ · ·,, ` .` · _ , ·· ` .·',
· ¸ ·,' ··.,, ,, ¸ ·` ,· ¸¯ ¸ .
, 15 , ¸· = . .¸ ,,¸ ` ·,·', ¸,. ·` ,' ·` ` .` _` _
¸,-' ·,· .
, 16 , ` .` , ·,· ¸·· ·, ` .,'_ · ` ¸´ .` ¸· ` , ¯
,.· ·.· ¸· ` ¸ .

Exercise No. 72

Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān.

, 1 , ., , , · ` ,` ,` · ,` _ ` ,` ,` ¯ ., , , , · ` - ` ,` ,` ·
` ,` ,` ¯ .
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, 2 , · ¸ ` _ ' ` , ,` , ¸ ¸` , ` ·,` , ´ · ` _` , · · .
, 3 , · ¸` · ¸ ` , ' . ¸, · , ¸` · ¸, , -¯ .
, 4 , ` , ´ , ` .` . · · , ` , ´` - ,` _ ' . ¸ ` , ` ¸` , ¸ ´, ` , . , ·
. ¯ ` ¸` , ` , ` , ´ · ` _` ,' , ` · ¸ ¯ , .
, 5 , ` ¸` , , ` _` ,' , ` · ` ,` ¯ , .
, 6 , ·`, , , . , ¸ ´ ¸ - , ` ,` ` · ` ¸` ' .
, 7 , ` , ´, .,`, ¸ · ` · ` , ¯ · .` , ' , ¯ ¸ · · - ¸` , , · . . , ·
` ¸ ¯ ·` , · . ¸` , ` ¸` , · · · · , .
, 8 , · ,` - ´ · . ~ , ´ ¸` · . ` _ · · . · , _ ,` _ , .
, 9 , ` , ,` ` · - ¯ ¸ · , · ` , ¯ - ¸` , ' ¸ ·` , · .
, 10 , . , ' ` ,` ,` ' .` , ,, .,` `, ¸ · ¸ ¯ ¸ · · ·` ,` · ` , ' ¸` , ` , · . ` ,
.,` ,,` , . , ` ,` · .,` , ¯ , .
, 11 , ` , ¯ - ,` · ,, · , ` , ¯` , ·` ,` · , ` , ´` - ,` -` · _
¸ ,` - ' .

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Exercise No. 73

Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) The explanation of the (·,.,· .-') was
written in the forty second lesson of this book.
(2) The second sūrah of the Qur’ān is Sūrah Al-
Baqarah.
(3) I will go to the madrasah after the fourth hour.
(4) Yesterday I read the first, second and third
stories of the book, “A Thousand and One
Nights” and tomorrow I will read the fifth and
sixth stories.
(5) You take three quarters from this cloth and I
will take one quarter.
(6) The wealth which my father left has been
distributed. My mother received one eighth
while I received seven eighths.
(7) The soldiers climbed the wall of the fort one
by one.
(8) We entered the madrasah in fours and fives
and left in twos and threes.
(9) I embarked on the train at Bombay in the first
hour and I reached Nasik in the fourth hour.
(10) There is a distance of approximately four
hours between Bombay and Nasik.
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(11) This is the first time I saw this city.
(12) I read this book several times and found it
to be very beneficial.
(13) Today we came to Bombay for business the
tenth time and every time we stayed for a year
and a few months.
(14) My paternal grandfather performed hajj
five times and he passed away the sixth time
in Makkah. May Allāh forgive him.
(15) We toured many cities but have not seen a
city like Bombay.
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Lesson 47
The Date

1. In order to show the date, one needs to know
the names of the days and the months.

a) The days of the week ( _` ,` ` ' ` ·`, '):
Friday – ( · ·` ` - ` _ , ,' · ·` ` - ` ·` ,,)
Saturday – ( .` ` ` ·` ,,)
Sunday – ( - ' ` ·` ,,)
Monday – ( ¸` , , ` ·` ,,)
Tuesday – ( . · · ` ·` ,,)
Wednesday – ( · ,` _ ' ` ·` ,, . )
Thursday – ( ¸` , - ` ·` ,,)

Note 1: The word (` ·` ,,) is used most often while
(` _ , ) is seldom used. Sometimes both these
words are elided, e.g. ( . · ·), etc.

b) The Islamic months or lunar months
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( ·` , · ·` , · ` ` _` ,` ,` ·`, , ,' )
1 , ` ·` , -`
2 , ` , . ,' ` , ` .
3 , ¸` , ' ` _` , , _
4 , ` ¸ · ` _` , , _
5 , _ ` , ' ¸ · ` -
6 , ¸ ,` - ' ¸ · ` -
7 , ` . - _
8 , . ` ·
9 , . . · _
10 , ¸` ,` ,' ¸` ,
11 , · ` · , ·
12 , ·` - - , ·

Note 2: The months having the definite article ( ¸)
are triptotes (,.·). The remainder of the
months are diptotes (,.· _·). See 10.7.

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Some of the months are described by specific
adjectives, e.g.

` · , - ` ·` , -` – , arram h the sacred Mu ,
,` , - ` , . – , Safar, the month of goodness ,
` ·` , ` . - _ – , the unique Rajab ,
,' ` . - _ ` .` - ,` – , the the honoured Rajab) ,
,' ` . - _ ` · , - – , the sacred Rajab ,
` , = ·` . ` · – , the venerated Sha’bān ,
` ·` , ´` . . · _ – , ān d the revered Rama ,
· ` · , · ` · , - – , ul Qa’dah Dh the sacred ,
·` - - , · ` · , - – , ijjah H ul Dh the sacred ,

Note 3: The four months: Muharram, Rajab, Dhul
Qa’dah and Dhul Hijjah are the sacred months of
reverence, peace and safety.

The Islamic year is called ( · ` ·`, ,` - , ) – the year
of emigration or ( ·`, , · ` ) – the lunar year. The
alphabet (·) is used to denote this.
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Note 4: There are other words also which are
used for the word, “year”: (` · ,` · ' . ` · ·),
(` _ - - . ·` - -) and ( ¸` , - ¸ ,` - ' ,' ¸` ,` - . ).

The Hijrah calendar began from 16 July 621 C.E.
This is the date on which Rasūlullāh emigrated
from Makkah to Madīnah.

c) The months of the Gregorian or Solar
Calendar

Egyptian Syrian
` , , ` ¸ · .` ,` ¯
` , ,` · `
` ¸` _ · ` _ ·¯
¸`, ,` , ' . ` ,
` ,`, · ` _`, '
` ,` , ` ,`, . ,`, , -
,' ` ,` , ` ,`, ` ,` , ` , ` _` ,`
` ¸ =` · ' ` .¯
` ` ` , ¸` , `, '
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` , ,` ,` ¯ ' ¸` , ' ` ¸`, ,`
` , ` ·` ,` ` ¸ · ` ¸`, ,`
` , ` · .` ,` ¯ ¸` , '

Note 5: All the English names are diptotes
(,.· _·). The Syrian names that are single
words are sometimes used as (,.·) and
sometimes as (,.· _·). The compound names
are (,.·).

The Christian year is referred to as ( · ` ` ·` , ` ) –
the solar year or ( · ` · ·` , ·`, ) – the year of the
Christian era, that is, the year of the birth of Ísā
.

The alphabets ( · · ) are used to indicate B.C.
( _` , ¸` · - before the advent of Ísā ) while
( . · ) or only (·) is used to indicate A.D.
( ` · , _` , - the era after Ísā ). The alphabet (_)
is used in India to indicate the Christian calendar.
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2. Use the ordinal number in the following
manner to indicate the date:
• make it (.·) to the word (,,) or to the
name of the month, e.g. ( . . · _ ,` , ` ¸ · ) –
the eighth of Ramadān or ( . . · _ ` ¸ · ),
• prefix the definite article to it and make it
the adjective of the word (·,,) or (_,_'), e.g.
( · ` ·` , , ,' . . · _ ,` , ` ¸ · ` ¸ · · _ ` ¸ · . . ) or
( . . · _ ` ¸ · ,' . . · _ ,` , ` ¸ · ` ¸ · · `_`, _` ).

For the year, write the number with the word
(·) or without it, e.g.
( · , , ¸` , ' 1944 ¸·,_', ¸ _,_', ¸ · ·, ¸ . ' · ) –
1 January 1944.

When you want to say, “on a certain date”, prefix
the particle (` ¸ ·) or read the ordinal number in
(.. ·-), e.g. ( ·,, ¸ · _ ` , ' ¸ ,` ´ ` .` , - . ' ,
· ¸ =` · ' _,_ ,' ¸ =` · ' ` ¸ · _,` , 1914 ` ¸ · ·,·,
,, , - , ' ` ` , 1939 ) – The First World War
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began on 4 August 1914 C.E. and the Second
World War began at the end of September 1939
C.E.

Together with the date, the day and the time can
be also mentioned, e.g.
( . ,` · ¸` , · ,` . · ` · , ` ` , _ ` , ¸ · - · ·` ` - ·` ,,
, ,` , ¸· , · · , 1916 ) – Rashīd was born
after Àsr just before Maghrib on Friday 15
January 1916 C.E.
( · ¸_· ,, ¸· ¸`, ,` · _ . ` ` , · ¸ ·` ,` 1925 ) –
Sa’īd passed away on the morning of the 20
March 1925.
Note 6: The deceased is referred to as (_ · , ` ). To
say (_ · , ` ) is incorrect.

The predecessors had a different style of writing
the date, e.g. no.1
( ,` , ` ¸ · .` , - ¸ ¸` - ·· = ¸._ ´ ¸ · ` ¸` , ` ¸` , ` - ` ,
¸ _ ,` _ ' · . ` · ) which literally means, “Husain Ibn
Àlī was born when five nights had passed in
the month of Sha’bān in the year 4 A.H. This
means he was born on the fifth.
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Here the word (¸ ¸` -) refers to (¸ ¸ , ¸` -) – five
nights. It is for this reason that it is used in the
feminine form. The verb ( .` , -) is a perfect tense
verb of ( · -). Sometimes the singular feminine
form, (` . -), is used because (¸ ¸ , ) is the plural of
an unintelligent being.

e.g. no.2.
( _ . ·` · ¸ · ·` - - ¸ · ` ¸ · ` . - · ,` · ` ¸ · ·· = ¸.
· ¸` , · , ¸ ¸` - ) – Úthmān was martyred on
Friday 18 Dhul Hijjah 35 A.H.

e.g. no.3.
( ¸` , , ¸ . · . · · ·` ,, ·· = ¸._ ` ¸`,` ` . ¸ , ´ , ` ,` , ' . ·
` - ` ¸ · · ,` · . · · ¸ ,` - ' ¸ · ) – Abū Bakr
passed away on Tuesday when 8 nights remained
of Jumādal Uhkrā 13 A.H., that is, on the 21
st
or
22
nd
.
In this example, the date has been specified with
the amount of nights remaining.

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Vocabulary List No. 44

Word Meaning
¸ ´` (7) to trust
¸` · ' (2) to discharge
_ . ` (6) to finish
· ,` (6) to collapse
: , . ,
to insert, to follow a school of
thought
¸ · ~ , , to stab
, , ~ , , to appear, to overpower
· , · , ¸ , to make a firm resolve
, - · (3) to emigrate
` _` , , _ spring
· ¯ young lady, miss
` _ , ` (6) relaxation, joy
· ` · ' preparation
· -` , , splendour
` .`, ,` to make noble
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· ` , ` - small garden
` . · - . · - gathering
- , - . · - , - ` . sir, Mr.
¸ · _ · , · _ advanced
. , · ,' ` _ , _ wedding, marriage
· , politics
` _ ` ` · ,' ` _ the last day of the month
` _ peel, skin
¸` , ` · ·
The Year of the Elephant- the
year when Abraha attacked
the Ka’bah
· · ` , inhabited
` · knot, nikāh
, ` · , _` · ' .,· , highest
,` ,` ·` , · the first day of the month
·` , ·
white forelock of a horse, the
first part of anything
` ·` ,` _ ·
one who strictly differentiates
between right and wrong
` , · ` ,`, , · ¸ delighted, gratified
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· `, , ¯ prized, daughter
, ` ,` _ Russia
´` , - , Belgium
` , · France
, =`, ¸ Italy
` ` ,` , Poland
. ` ,`, Greece
, ' Germany
` , - Hungary
¯ ¸ ` ,` - · fire-worshipper
` . _ -` · combatant, fighter
` _` _ ,` · dated
` . - _ · . · - _ · mark
` ·` , ` behaviour
· · , report
` ¸ · ¸ · from
¯ ¸ ,`, , clear
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. ,` , · impossible, preposterous
` . - compared to
` `, · lengthy
. , · attached
` .`, ` , discipline
· ·` . ` ¸ · not to speak of, let alone
' . regretful, unfortunately
·· . ´ to be silent about
, therefore
` .` , . repute, fame
. ` · concern, interest
' , ,`, to be important

Exercise No. 74

Observe carefully how the dates have been
written in the following sentences and translate
them into English.

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, 1 , ,, ·,· = ¸. = ¸` ,` _ ` ` -` · ` ` , ` ,
¸` , · · · ´ , _,,_ ¸· , · ¸ · ·,, ¸ ·
¸,=' ¸,. ¸= · ' ,, ¸· ¸,,·, _`
· 570 · , ·· ¸~, ¸· , = ` ·=.,
= ¸. _, ` ¸` ¸¸ ·_ _,, ·` ,` '
,, ·,· _' , ¸· .· = ¸,· ¸¸ ` · ·,· ·· .
` ¸´ · · ,` · ` ·` , ·¯ ¸, . ¸,· .¸ ,,· ¸·¯ ·
,·', ,-,· ` · · ` ,` ·_', = ¸¸ ¸· ·,'
` ,` , ` ,`, ,, ¸· ` . - · ,` · ` . ,,¸ ¸.,,
· 621 · , ¸,,·, ¸ ` - ¸ ¸ · ` , , · ¸·,
. ·`,,-· ·` . ', ·,' ¸ ¸· = ` ·,.· .
·,- ¸ . '` · _,~ ¸· ·,.', ¸·., , ´
¸ ¸,· ` ¸ · ` ,` , ´ , . .,· ··¸ ¸, · ¸ -,
, . ¸ ,· ·· ¸ · , ` · ¸ · = ·¯ ¸·-,
_,,_ ¸· ,· ¸ · ¸¸ ·,, , ¸` , · ,`, , · ¸ ·` ,
¸,. · 11 · , ·,-· ¸· ·,· ¸-¸ , ¸.
¸·~' ··', ·,-.', ·¯ _·, ·,· = .
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, 2 , · ` · ' ` .` · ` · ' ¸· ,, ·` , · ¸ · _ - - , `
· ·,- ·· 1361 · , ¸` , ¸-¸
·,-· ¸· .', ¸ ···, , ·´· ¸¸ ` . .,,
_ ` _ - ` .`,` · ' , ,, :· _ ` ` · ¸ · · = · '
· ` .-,- ` , ·,· ·· ` .·´·, ·,- ·-- ¸
¸¸ ·´· ¸· ·_·, ` ¸ , ` -' ·_,, ·,'
, ,, ·,· = ¸. , · ·,- ·` ,- ' ¸` , '
1362 · , ·, ¸ ···, ¸, ¸ ·
.. .,
, 3 , ¸¸ ·,,, ` _` _ ,` ` ,,,· ` , ´` ,¯ . , .·
· · ·,- ·` ,- ¸· , 1363 · ¸·,' 10
, · , 1944 , ` .,- ,·, · ` , ´,¸
· ·,- ·-- ¸ · _ .·· ·,,, · -` _ ,`
1362 · .
, 4 , · _ · , ` ¸ · ` ¸` ,,` ,` · 43 , ···
¸·,_., , · ¸ · ,.· _· ¸ ,· ·,-,
¸._ ·,` _ , ` · ···- ¸ · ¸,,· ` ,` · = .
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, 5 , · ` ,` · = ¸._ ´ ¸ · ` ¸, ` ¸ - ` , .. ¸
· ' _.' ,·, ·,-· ¸· ¸ .· · ..·_ ¸·
· ·., ¸ · ¸` , · .
, 6 , ` ·` · = ¸._ . = - ` ¸` , ` , ` · ` ¸ · ·,- ,·
` ··¸ ,,~ ¸·,' _·', ¸ ·` · ¸ ·,- ¸` ,' ·,,
,,· · .¯ . ·,` _ , . :, ···¸
: ' _,, ¸·, ¸· ¸ · ` -' _ , ` , ' ,
¸ ·,·· ` ¸, ¸· . ·-_· ¸¸ ·,` ¸-,
` ·` · = ¸._ .·· · ` ·` · = ¸._ , ` · ` . ` - '
,· _ ` · ' · ·` , . ¸·, ¸` · ' , , · ' · .
.·,_ ' ·,, ·, , ' ¸ ` ,` - · , ` , ` ,` , ' ··~
¸,,·, .· · ·-- ¸· ¸· ¸, ¸ _ ,` _ '
· ·` ,-` ¸,' .·, 24 _· . - , ¸ ·` ·,
,, ·,· = ¸. ` ¸ ` .
, 7 , ` ¸ , ' ¸ ·` ,` _,_'` ¸ · · ·` , ´` · ´ , = ` · ~_
· ` _ - ·, ·,- ·-- ¸ · ¸· ,· ` ¸ ·
1308 · , .. ·, ¸ ···, ¸ .· · , ¸-
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,, ¸ ,· ¸, ' ` .` ¯ .
, 8 , _ · ·` ` - _. ` , ` ` - ` , ¯ . ` ¸ ` ,
.·_ ¸ =` ·' ,· _,_ ¸,=` . 1913 · .
, 9 , _·¯ ¸,,·, ¸ -' ¸· _,,, ¸.· ` ¸, , ¸_· ,
¸· ` .,` ., 21 . ,`, , - , ` ,` , ` ,`, , ¸· ` .`, , - ,
21 ¸` , `, ' , _ , ¸` ,. .,¯ ¸· .` ,
, _-· . ,
, 10 , ` , - ` , ` - ' - ¸ · . ' . ¸· · ·,'· .,
_ 1939 _ ¸¸ · 1944 · ·
` ¸ .` ,` , · ··,_' ·,· ¸, , ` .,, .·,
, 4000000 , . ·-, , ´` ¸ ` ¸ · ` ¸ · ` · '
, =`, ¸ , ` , · , ´` , - ,, , ` ,` _ . ` ,`, , ` ` ,` , ,
' , , - , ` ,,` _` , ' : · ¸· · · ·, ,
,` ,', ' · ` ¸ · , . ` - . , ` · ·· ·,·` ,
¸,_-` ¸` , ` .' .·· · · · ` ·` , ` _·,
= ..· ¸· =, ·,·· ¸,_-` .
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(11) Translate the following wedding invitation.
_ ,` , · ¸ · ,` · · · _` ,` .
·,, · · _· = ` - ·,· ¸ ´` ¸ _· ` · , · ` · -` `
· · ¯ _· ¸ ,_ , _ , _ ' ·,~ ' · - , - · `, , ¯
_ , . · - · ` , ` - ` ¸ · ` ¸ , ` ·` = · ·,, ¸· - _
· ¸,. _,,_ ,, ¸· ,· _,, ¸ · _·, ··-
1363 · , ,´ ,, ,-,· ,. · ·, ¸ ¸ ` -
,, _,` ,' ,,=· ` ,` _ . . ,¯ ·` ,` -` , , _ , · ' ·-,
,´.- ` ¸ ·`
.··

Exercise No. 75

(A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) I wrote a letter to you dated the 20
th

Muharram Al-Harām 1363 A.H. I hope
you have received it.
(2) We received your letter dated Sunday 3
Safar Al-Muzaffar 1363 A.H.,
corresponding to the 30
th
January 1944.
(3) The author of Tafsīr Tabsīrur-Rahmān is
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Hadrat Makhdūm Àlī Faqīh Mahāimī who
passed away on 8 Jumādal Ukhrā 835 A.H.
(4) My elder brother entered the Indian army
on 10 January 1940 C.E. and he was
despatched to the war in Africa. Then
when the English conquered Africa, he
returned safely on 15 June 1943 C.E. All
thanks to Allāh.
(5) If Allāh wills, I will come to you on the
first.

(6) Translate the following invitation to a
wedding.

Wedding Invitation

With the grace of Allāh, we convey the glad
tidings to you that our younger brother, Jalīl, has
been engaged to marry Miss Zahrā, the daughter
of Sayyid Badrān Al-Madanī. The nikāh will take
place on 21 Sha’bān Al-Mu’azzam 1365 A.H. at
Beg Muhammad Garden, situated on
Muhammad Àlī Road.
We hope that you will attend and complete our
joy.
Salāms
Yours sincerely
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Khalīl

(B) . - ' ·` , , , · , · , ¯ · ·` '
, 1 , _ · , ,, ·,· = ¸. = ¸` ,` _ ` ` -` · `, _ ·
· ¸ ·` ,`
, 2 , ` · - , - ` ¸ · , ` ·` · = ¸._ ` , ` · ¸` , ·` ,` ` ,` , · ' ¸ ·` ,` _ ·
· ¸ ·` · ¸`, ' ,
, 3 , = ¸._ ¸,. ,´, ` ¸ ,' ` , ··, _,_' ` , ` · ¸ ·
· ` ·` ·
, 4 , · ·,,-· · .', ¸ _,_' ` ¸ ' ¸ ·
, 5 , ,.· ¸·', · ¸·' · ·` , _` ,` ,' . ` ' ` ¸` , , .
, 6 , · ,.· ¸ ` _,,, ¸, _ ·
, 7 , , ¯ ,· ¸· ` .,, ¸· ´ ¸ · ` .·, .,- ¸ · ,
·,.' ·,'· ·

(C) Translate the following letter into English.

.-_· .. _· ·-` ,,, · ¸ ¸, ¸¸ ¸ .' ¸· ` .,´·
·,
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,,,· ¸,
¸,_ ¸ · ¸· ¸ .- · . ·¯,,, = ·~_, :,· ` ··
· ··, ·_' · - · _· ·· ·,.' ,,. ·
. ·' : ¸ · .-_ ¸· ·` ,- : · .-_· .' ` .,',·
¸· .· ,` . ··,·_ ·,· :¯, .-_· ¸´, ·` ,.,·
¸· _, .' .,,· ` ,·' · .' ` ¸,, ¸·, . · ¸ ,·
¸ ·,· .,· . .-¸ _·,· · .¯ .¸,
` ¸` ¸, . .,, .- ¸ · ¸ _,, ., ·`,_,,. _-¸ ·,
· ,,· ¸ ·· . .' _· .·, ·,' ·,,-, ¸,,=
.' ¸· ·.· ¸ ' ·`,. .¸ .. . .,,, .,, ` ,
,, ·. ` .` ¯, · ··-' ` .` - ·¸ .¸ · ' ·`, .·
.¸ ¸ · ·· ,´· _.' · · ,.· ¸ · ··-. .,,
¸_' ,·¯' ¸ ·_' ¸¸ .¸ : ` _ ' ` , ` ¸ ` , , , .
, .·., .·¸, ,,· ¸` - ¸ · ,` ` , . _~ .,,
` , : _ ` .` .,· . :··-' . , ` .' ` .·_' ` ¸ , .` ,
` , ¸ ¸ ·-_· _·' · ¸ _` - ` ,-· ` ¸ =` -` _¯ ¸`, ,
. ··, ·,· ¸· ,·¯' ` ¸ ' ,`, · .,· . ·,
= ,· ·,
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Lesson 48
Telling the Time

1. To express the statement, “What is the time”,
one should say, ( · ·` ` , ¯ ) or ( , ¯ · ·` ). In the
reply, the word ( · ·` ) is the (·) while the
number will form the (, -), as mentioned below.
( ' , ¯ : ` . · ` ¸ · ` ¸ ` , ` - .. · ·` ) – Please tell me
what is the time now?

( · - , · ·` · ) – It is precisely one o’clock.
(` _` ,` _ , · - , · ·` ) – It is a quarter past one.
( ·` ,` _ . ¸ . · ·` ,' ¸ _ ,` _ ' · · , · - , · ·` ) – It is
one forty five or quarter to two.
( , · - , · ·` ¸ · · ` ,` · ) – It is ten past one.
( · - , · ·` ` .` . , ) – It is half past one.
( · - , · ·` · ` , · · ¸`, ,` · , · - , · ·` ,' . , ) – It
is twenty past one.

Note 1: the word ( · · ) means “watch”, “one
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hour” and “a moment”, e.g. ( · · ` . · , ) – Wait for
a little while. This word has been used for
Qiyāmah as well in the Qur’ān, e.g. ( · ·` . , , · )
– Qiyāmah has approached.
The word ( · ` , · · - plural ` ¸ · ·) is used for “minute”
while the word ( · , - plural ¸ . , or ` ¸ , · ) is used
for “second”.
The hand of the watch is called ( · ·` ` . , ·) or
( · ·` · ,` , ).

2. There are different ways of saying, “What time
did you go to the madrasah or any other place, or
what time are you going or will go”? For
example, if it is said,
( .` · · _ · · _` _ ¸ ) or ( · _` _ ¸ ` . · _ ·), the
response will be
( ` .` · · ` . · ·' ,' ¸ .` . , ¸ , · · · · _` _ ¸ ) or
( · , · · ·` .` .` , ) or ( .` .` , · , · · ·` ¸ ·) –
I went, am going or will go to the madrasah at
half past ten.

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The Times of the Day and Night

3. When indicating the time of the day, night or
other times, the words will be read with a (..),
e.g. ( _ , ` .` ` .) – I fasted during the day.
( ·` , ` .` , = · ') – I broke my fast at night.
Similarly, one may say,
( . · . ,` , ~ . _ -` . . . · . - . ` . ·-), etc.

The particle (` ¸ ·) can be prefixed to these words
as: ( ¸` , ¸ · _ ,` , ).

The words ( . · ,) or ( ` ·) are most often prefixed
to the words (. · . ,` . · . ,` , ~) and (_ -` .), e.g.
( ,` , = . · , ·` ,` - ' ` ¸ . -) – Your brother came to me
at the time of Zuhr.

For the word “yesterday”, ( ¸` · ') or ( , ¸` · ' ) is
used, while ( ¸` · ' ¸` , ') or ( ¸` · ' ¸` ·) is the day
before yesterday. “Tomorrow” is ( ·) and the
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“day after tomorrow” is (¸ · ` · ,), e.g.
( , ¸` · ' ¸` , ' , ¸` · ' :` ` , ' ¸ ¸ · ` · , , · :` , ¯ = . .
¸·) – I came to you yesterday and the day before
yesterday and if Allāh wills, I will come to you
tomorrow and the day after tomorrow.

Note 2: The word ( ¸` · ') is ( ,` ´ _· ` ¸ ') –
indeclinable on a kasrah. It is always read with
one kasrah.

4. Sometimes the word ( . ·) is prefixed to the
words (·,,) and (·,), e.g.
( -` ¸ · · , ' ¸ · ` , . · ` , ' ¸ ·` ,, .· ` .` , ) – One day
or one night I met your father in the musjid.
The phrases (¸ _ . . ·) and (¸ . · . ·) are also
used.

Note 3: The words used to express time are called
(.·` , ,~). When they are read (.,.·) in a
sentence, they are referred to as (·,· ¸,··). This
was discussed in Lesson 43. The details will
follow in Lesson 62.
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Expressing Age

5. 5. To say, “What is your age?”, say,
( ·` ,` ` · · ` , ¯) or ( .` ' · ` , ¯ ` ¸` , ). The response
should be,
( · · ,` · ¸` - ` ¸ ,` ` ·) or ( ` ¸` , ' · · ,` · ¸` - ) - I
am fifteen years old. Sometimes the word ( · ) is
elided, e.g.
( ` ¸` , ,` · ¸`, ,` · ) – He is 20 years old;
( ¸` , ` - ` .` , ¸ ·) – She is fifty years old.

Vocabulary List No. 45

Word Meaning
¸ ` - ' (1) to act well
' ` '
strength, maturity, that
is between 18 to 30
years
¸ · ' , ¸ ,
(1) to make flow, to
continue
_` · , ¸ ,
(4) to have supper,
dinner
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¸` · , , ,
(4) to have breakfast or
lunch
¸` , ·` ·.' ,
(4) to be long, to lie
down
_` , ¸ , (4) to walk
·` - together
¸ - (2) to establish, to prove
- protection
, ¯ ,` · , _ ` _
coming and going (in
everything)
¸` , , ¸ ,
(2) to make equal,
proper, to make, to do
` , · . childhood
¸ · , ¸ . ¸ , to live
¯ ,` · morning
· ¯ never, beware
.` , ¯ (2) to create, to make
` _ = · . _` , = · = - · ,' airport
` ` _ ` · to apologise
` _` ,` .` - humility
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¸ , · , ¸ , to submit, to propose
- as soon as
` ¸ · , . , to pry open
_ ,` , ` to smell
¯ ¸ ~ fold, depth
` . · reproach
` ¸` , · , sparkle, twinkle
¸ · - within
· _ · text
_ _ , , . . , to frighten, to startle
` , · ¸ ¸ ,` · ' . terror, fright
` . ·` , · place, situation
` .` , · _ dreadful, awful
` _ · · . ` _ ·` ·
lachrymal canal (source
of tears)
-` ' to anger, to exasperate
.` ,` - affectionate, loving
· . , , . . , to blame, to censure
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¸ '
to clothe, to dress, to
drape
. · _ ·, ·` _ ' . robe, cloak
¸ - - disgrace, shame
· , · slip, lapse
· ' · here I am

Exercise No. 76

Translate the following sentences into English.

, 1 , ·,· , ·· · · ¸ ·
· ·· ¸· ¸, , , .
, 2 , · ··` , ¯ ..
¸·· ` ,·, ` ¸~ ¸· ··` .
, 3 , · ., ¸· .-,- ¸ ·· ` ¸' ¸ ·
·,_ .¸ ··- ··` ` .-,- .
, 4 , · ·,·, ··` ` ,· .,¯
·_´, ·,·, ·_·. .,·, ··` ` ,·' .
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, 5 , ~ .` , : · ` ¸ ,· ·,,¸ : · ¸ · ¸·,
` ¸ ,· ·,,¸ ,,· ¸· ¸, , ,· .
, 6 , · ·,·· ¸,` ·, ` , ¯ ` ,· ¸·
·,·· ¸,` ·, ., .
, 7 , ·,·· ` , ¯ , · ·· ¸,`
·· ¸,` ·,·· ., .
, 8 , · _,, ¸, .` , ´` .· ¸· , ¯
_,, ¸, .` , ´` ·· .,,·, ` _,_' .
, 9 , · · ` _,, ¸, ¸,, ¸·
· ¯ : ¸,, .,` . ¸ · ¸,~' ` _, .` ,´, ¸, :¯ ¸,
.` ¸ · ¸,~' .
, 10 , .-' : · ` ¸ ` , , .. ··` , ¯ ` .`
, ` ¸` - ··` .. ¸, , ·,·· .,,· .
, 11 , .-' : · ·` ,` ` · · ` , ¯ ` , ¯ ¸·,
¸ ·,' ··.,, ¸ ,` ,' ·` , · ·,· _,_' ·,, ¸,· ,· .
, 12 , · ` ·` ` ' _´ ·,-' _, ¸·
·,, ¸,,· · ¸ · = . · ,· ,· .
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, 13 , · ¸,·. :-' ,· · ,¯,
¸ · ¸, , ¸ ¸· _ _ ¸· ¸ . ,, .
, 14 , · ¸ ., ,· , ¸- :` · ··,¯ ` .·, ¸·,
' ' ¸ ~ ' .. ¸¸ ·· · ¸ · ¸· ¸, ,· _ ` , , .
, 15 , .~', .-' : :,· = ·_, .
: .` ,` , · = ··' ¸, ¸·' , .', .
, 16 , ,· , : :` ' ,-_', ·, · . ¸ · :,, ` ._,` ¸` ¸
·, ·· ' , .,´ ·` ' .·, ·¸ .
¸·¯ : ¸', ··¸ ··- ¸ ·-, · .-_ = ¸ - .

Exercise No. 77

Translate the following sentences into English.

, 1 , -. ¸· _=· ¸· ·,~ ` ¯ _ , . · ·,
·· ·_,= ._~, ¸ ,,, _,= ¯', ,-
¸ _ ·=- · ` .·, _` - _= ` .-,, ·, ¸·· ,·,
· · ·,· ¸ ·· ¸·· ¸ ._,= , ¸·
·_,= , . _,_, -, ·· ¸ · ··_· _,·. ,·',
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¸ ·,· ,` ·, ,` · . ·-, ,.·, ,,= ,. ,
¸ .· ·· ·_,= : ¸ ¸ ¸·· ¸· ·-_ , ·~
` · ¸¸ .,· ¸ .., , ¸ .., ¸ .· ·· ,.·
.· ¯', ·~ .·, .,·' ·,· ,` ·, ,` ·,
,- ,` - ¸ .-· ·, ·,-- ¸¸ · ,
, ·_, ` ,·, · ·· ¸· ,· ` ¸,`,, _,,
_,,, .
, 2 , ¸,,·, _, ·,, ¸ · ¸ _,~ .,´,
·· _ ¸· 5 , 50 ·,·· , ··- ··
·,·· ¸~, , ·· ` .,` ,` ·, 6 , 56 ·,·· .
, 3 , ¸ .., ´ . ·· ·,, ` ¸ .·~ ` .,,·,
¸, ¸ _ ·· ·,·· ¸·,_', .
, 4 , _, ` , ¯ . ¸· .¯ _ ¸· ,·¯' ,· ¸·
· ·,· .
, 5 , ,· -', · .,,·, ¸~ _¯. ¸-' ` ,·
. .¸ ¸,,·, ' ¸ . ..·_ ,' ¸ · _,, ,,
¸· = .
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, 6 , ` ., ·_´ ·-' :, ¸ ,· ` ¸, ` ··· ·
¸,,·, ¸~ .
, 7 , - ` .· · ,-,' ¸ · ¸· = ,~_ ·`
` .` ,, ¸ · ·· ,· ¸· ·, ·,.' .
, 8 , ` ¸` - ¸· ¸ · ¸· = ·~_ ¸ ·,, ··¯ ,·
·,.' · · .,,·, ·· ,· ¸· ·, .-_ ¸ · .
, 9 , ¸,' ¸·· ¸¸ _- ` ¸· - ,=·. ··
¸- ¸, ¸·' .,' ·· ¸_,
,=· . .
, 10 , , ¸· ` ,·` . · ¸ = . .¸ ¸ · ·, ,'
¸· .

Exercise No. 78

(A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) Come Hamīd, where are you going?
I am going to the madrasah.
(2) Do you have a watch?
Yes, I have a watch.
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(3) What is the time now?
According to my watch, it is quarter past ten.
(4) What time does the madrasah open? (` _ ` - is
opened)
Brother, the madrasah opens at half past ten.
(5) What time does it close? (` ¸ ` ·` - is closed)
The madrasah closes at 12.40.
(6) What time did you come out of the house?
I came out at 9.45.
(7) Do you know how many minutes there are in
one hour?
Yes, one hour has sixty minutes.
(8) How do you recognize the hour and minutes
in a watch?
I understand the minutes from the large hand
and the hour from the small hand.
(9) When do you have supper?
We have supper after Maghrib at eight o’clock.
(10) When do you sleep?
I sleep after Íshā at nine o’clock.
(11) Where did your father go the day before
yesterday and when will he return?
He went to Hyderabad and will return tomorrow
or the day after tomorrow, if Allāh wills.
(12) Do you know what is your age?
Yes, I know my age is ten years and three months.
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(13) How old is your small brother?
He is presently eight years and six months old.
(14) Congratulations! You seem to be a very
clever boy.
May Allāh make it so. Now I seek your
permission.
(15) Good, in the protection of Allāh.
May you also be in His protection.

(B) Translate the following letter into English.

_·. ¸ · ·,,' ¸¸ ¸ ¸, ¸· .,´·
·,-` ` , ¸,
` ·` ¯ , , , = · ` - _ , ` , ´` , · ` · ·`
¸ , · · .·' ·,, ,-¸, _,.- ¸· ` ¸· ,·' · , ` ¸
_,, .·,_. ·,,, ` __,' ` ,,,· :,¯ ¸ ' · ·` ' ¸.,·
,=·' .· ,, ¸· ,· 1364 · -, . ¸ ·· _·
·,· ¸ · ` .·,· . .· _`, _ ·` ,~ ¸· ` .-,, ` ·`` . .·
. ,-, .-, ¸, ` , · , , ·¸, ¸·- ¸· _, - ¸
. ·_· ` ¸ ··· ` ., .,·, .·,' ·· ¸, · ` ¸ · , ·
. · ` . =-' ¸` . ¸, .-, ¸·, ` .·' ` ¸ ` , ´ .
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, ` .·' · . .,- ¸ ' ,·,' ¸ _· ·` , ` '
. ¸ - - .· _ ¸· :`, ,· :` ' :· ¸, , ¸·' ¸´,
·,· ·· _ · ' ·, . ·,· ·· ·` ¸· ` ¸ ,
_. · .·` · ` .~ .

.¸ ··, ` ¸` · ¸, . :` ' ` ,· ` ¸· =, ·` , ·' ,, ·
· · , ¯, .
` · · - ·` ,
¸~, ·
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Lesson 49
The Particles
(` ` ,` ,` - )

1. The particle is such a weak word that it cannot
convey its own meaning without the assistance of
a noun or verb. However, after the support of a
noun or verb, it becomes so strong that it causes
changes in the meanings of many verbs. It is also
so essential that without it, the noun and the verb
remain scattered around. Hence there is a dire
need to focus special attention to it.

2. The particles which have a meaning are
referred to as (` ¸ · ` ` ,` ,` -) while the alphabets
like (. . . . ), etc. are referred to as
(` ¸ ` ` ,` ,` - - the foundational particles). Only
the former will be discussed in this lesson.

3. All the (` ¸ · ` ` ,` ,` -) are indeclinable (` ¸ ').
They are not more than 80 in number.

4. Some of the (` ,` ,` -) cause a change in the
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(.,·) of nouns and verbs. They are called the
( · · · ` ` ,` ,` -). Those (` ,` ,` -) that do not cause any
change are called (¸ · · · ` ,` , · ` ` ,` ,` -).

5. The ( ` ` ,` ,` - · · · ) comprise the following
categories:
(a) ( = ¸ ¸ - `¸ ¬ |· ) or ( = ¸ ¸ - ·_· ¬ |· )
These are 17 particles that render (` ,-) to a noun.
They are as follows:

` .` _ · - ` · ` ` · , ¸ · . .
¸ _ ` - _ · _ ` ¸ · ` _ · · ` ¸ · -

[1] ( =) – in, at, because, with, oath etc.
It is used for several meanings, e.g.
( , , ` ¯) – We wrote with the pen.
( ,` . , ` . ´ _ ~) – The book was printed in
Egypt.
( = , ` .` ·¯) – I believed in Allāh.
( = ` ,` · - ' · ` , , = , ) – Allāh caught them because
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of their oppression.
( = ,) – By Allāh (oath).

It can also be extra (_), that is, having no
particular meaning, e.g. (` · ` · ¸ ´ , = ¸` , ') – Is
Allāh not sufficient for His slave?

It is used to render an intransitive verb transitive,
e.g.
(` ¸ , ´ , ` · - . · ·) – Hāmid took my book. The
meaning of ( . · ·) is “he went”. By using the
particle ( .), the meaning of “taking away” is
created.

[2] ( =) – is used for an oath and it is specific
with the word “Allāh”, e.g. ( = · , ¯ ` = ) –
By Allāh, Allāh has preferred you over us.

[3] ( =) – “like” - is used for a comparison, e.g.
( _` ,' ¯ ` , · ) – Knowledge is like light.

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[4] ( ,) or ( ,) – for, towards, time, to, possession.
Examples:
( · ) – for Allāh.
) ¸` ¸ ` .` ,` - , ¸ ,` - , ¸ , = · . , ` ¸` _ . , (
I turned my face towards the One who created
the skies and the earth.
( · ` ' ·` ,` ` ,` ·` , ·) – Stand for the teacher when he
comes.
( ` . · ¸ `, , ) – I said to Zaid.
(¸ - ` . ´ ·) - This book belongs to Khālid.

The (¸) is (_,·) when prefixed to a pronoun
(_.), e.g. (` · ), (` , ´ ).

[5] ( ¸) is used for taking an oath, e.g. ( = ,),
( · ` · ´ ` . _ ,), ( , ¸` ` , , ).
Sometimes the (,) is used in the meaning of
(` .` _), that is, “many” or “some”. Such a (,) is
called ( , ` .` _ ` , ), e.g.
(` ¸` , · . ¸ , ` ,` , · · , . ¸ ` ¸` , ' , , ¸`, ¸ · , ,) – There
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are many cities where there is no one who can
console except for gazelles and breeding camels.

Note 1: The particle of conjunction, (,), meaning
“and”, is used very frequently but it is from the
(¸ · · · ` ,` , · ` ` ,` ,` -).

[6] (= _) – some, many.
It is generally succeeded by a word that is
(··,.,· ·,´) – an indefinite noun that is
described by an adjective, e.g.
(` ·` ` , ¸ ,`, , ¯ ¸ ¸` - _ ` .` _) – I have met many a noble
person.
Sometimes the succeeding word is
(··,.,· _· ·,´), that is, not having an adjective,
e.g. ( ' ¸ · _ ¸ ` .` _ · _ · ¸ · _ ` , ) – Some gestures are
more eloquent than written words.

[7] & [8] ( = -) and ( = · -) – since. These two words
are used to indicate a span of time, e.g.
( · ·` ` - ·` ,, ` ` · ,' ` · ` ·` `, ' _ ·) – I did not see him
since Friday.
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[9] ( ¸ -) – from, of, some, among, due to, e.g.
(·` ´ ¯ _ ¸ ` ¸ ` , ` ¸ · ` .` , ) – I travelled from
Bombay till Calcutta.
( . · · ·` ,` ` ' . ¸ · ` -) – Take whatever you want
from the box.
(` ¸ ·` ,` · ` , ´` · , ` , · ¯ ` , ´` ·) – Some of you are
disbelievers and some of you are believers.
(` , · , · ' ` , , ·` , = - ` ·) – They were drowned due to
their sins.
The particle (` ¸ ·) is also (_). It is most often
(_) after (¸) and (·,), e.g. (¸ _` , ` ¸ · ·) –
We do not have any intercessor.
(¸ ,` , . ` ¸ · ` , ´ ¸ ·) – Do you have a helper?

[10] ( _ ·) – in, regarding, about, due to, e.g.
( ' ¸ · ` . ´ _` _ ) – The book is in the drawer.
( ·` , - ' ` ¸ · ` `, _ , ´ ) – Zaid spoke about his brother.
( - · ¸ ·` , · ` ¸ · _` · ' ,` · ` . ) – A woman entered the
fire due to a cat.

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[11] ( ¸ -) – from, on behalf of, e.g.
( ¸ · ` .` - , -) – I went out of the town.
(¸ `, _ ` ¸ · , · _` ` ·` ` , =` · ') – I gave him the silver
coins on behalf of Zaid.
( ` _ ·· = ¸._ ¸ ¸ ' ` ¸ · .`, - ¸ , ) – The hadīth
was narrated from Anas .

[12] (_ · -) – on, in spite of, e.g.
(` ¸ ` , ´ _ · ` ¸ ` - ) – Sit on the chair.
) – . ¸ , :` , _ , ¸ · , ` · · ¸` _ · ` , , ~ (
Undoubtedly your Lord forgives the people in
spite of their oppression.

[13] (_ | ,) – till, towards, e.g.
( · ´ · _ ¸ ` , ¸ · ` .` , · ) – I travelled from India
to Makkah.
( · ` · ´ _ ¸ ` .` ,` - , ) – I turned towards the Ka’bah.

[14] (_· -) – till, until, even, e.g.
( ,` - _ = · _` -) – until the rise of true dawn.
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( · ` _` - ' _ - · ·) – The pilgrims came, even
those who walked.

Note 2: The second and third meanings are used
more often when the particle (_` -) is prefixed to
a verb. Then it will not be a (` ,- ,-) but will
render (..) to (__.· ¸··), e.g.
( ¸ . ' _` - ` , · ` . ·) – Wait here until I perform
salāh.

[15] [16] & [17] (· =· -), ( : -) and (· = -) – All three
words mean, “besides” or “except”. They are
used for (.·). See 43.8. Examples:
(¸ `, _ - ` ·` , . -) – The people came besides
Zaid.
(¸ `, _ · - ` ·` , . -) - The people came except Zaid.
(¸ `, _ · ` ·` , . -) - The people came save Zaid.

(b) ( · = ¸ ¸ ¬ | - ,, = « |· ¸ - « |· , ) – The particles which
resemble the verb. They are :
( . ¸ . ' . ' ¯ ` ¸ ´ .` , ¸ · ).
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These 6 words are also referred to as ( . ¸ ,` , -' , )
– Inna and its sisters. See Lesson 37. They are
called ( ` ` ,` ,` - · ,` ` , ¸` · ) because they
resemble the verb in certain aspects. They are
triliteral (¸·) or quadrilateral (¸·,_) like the
verbs. The final letter has a fathah as in the
verbs. The words ( . ¸) and ( . ') resemble (` , ·) and
(` , ·) in totality while ( .` , ) resembles ( ` , ¸ ).

It was mentioned in Lessons 25 and 37 that these
words appear before a (·,- ·~) and render
(..) to the ( · ' ).

[1] ( . ¸) is always used at the beginning of a
statement, e.g. ( . ¸ ` ,` , - _ ` _` , · :` , _ ) – Indeed
your Lord is most forgiving and most
merciful. However, after the verb ( ¸ ·) or any
of its derivatives, it appears in the middle of
the statement as well, e.g.
( . , . · , , ,` ¸ ¸` , , ` ·` ¸ ¸ ·) – He (Mūsā ) said,
“He (Allāh) says that the cow should be
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yellow.” It must be remembered that ( . ') is
never used after ( ¸ ·).
After the words ( , ·) and ( , ), ( . ') is generally
used but ( . ¸) is used in specific cases, e.g.
) ` · , :` ¸ ` , ` ·, ` · ,` , ` · , ` ,` , ¸ . ¸ · ` .,` , · ´ (
Allāh knows that you, (O Messenger), are His
prophet and Allāh bears testimony that the
hypocrites are liars.

Note 3: No change occurs in the meaning of a
(·,- ·~) due to the insertion of ( . ¸). Only some
emphasis is created in the sentence. Accordingly,
( . ¸ ` , . - `, _ ) and (` , . - ` `, _) mean the same
thing.

[2] The particle ( . ') cannot appear at the
beginning of a sentence. It only comes in the
middle, e.g.
( `, _ . ' ` .` · ` _ -` - -` ` .` · ¸ `, _ · · ) – I
heard that Zaid is brave, that is, I heard of the
bravery of Zaid. This shows that ( . ') changes a
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(·,- ·~) to the meaning of a verbal noun
(` _ ` . ·). Such a verbal noun is called ( ` _ ` . · ` · ¸` , ' ).
In the analysis, this ( ` . · ` _ ) is the (¸,··) of the
verb (` .` · ). In some sentences, it will be the
(¸··), e.g. ( ` _ -` :` ' ` ¸ ` , - :` · -` ` ¸ ` , ) –
Your bravery has pleased me. The word
( :` · -` ) is the (¸··) in this sentence.

Note 4: Here is an interesting grammatical
riddle for you to solve. The sentence is:
. | ¸ , , ¸ · ` = , _

You will find several apparent errors in this
sentence. Firstly, the sentence begins with ( . ').
Secondly, the noun after ( . ') should have been
(.,.·) but here it has (_·_). Thirdly, the word
(¸ ,`, , ¯) has (` ,-) instead of (_·_).

Solution
The particle ( . ') here is not a (,-) but a verb
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like (` , ·). Originally it was ( ' ¸ ), meaning to
groan. The word (` `, _) is the (¸··). Therefore it is
(_,·,·). In the word (¸ ,`, , ¯), the (·) is a (` ,- ,-)
while (¸ ,`, _ - antelope) is (_,,- ·). The sentence
therefore means, “Zaid groaned like an
antelope.”

Sometimes the particles ( . ¸) and ( . ') are
rendered (¸¯) and read as ( . ¸) and ( . '). In
order to differentiate this ( . ¸ · -` · ) from ( . ¸
·` , ~` , ) and ( . ¸ · , · ), a ( ¸) is prefixed to the (_-).
Sometimes the ( . ¸ · -` · ) renders (..) to the
(,) and sometimes it has no effect, e.g.
( . ¸ ` , · `, _ ,' ` `, _ ) – Indeed Zaid is learned.
However, ( . ' · -` · ) does not have any effect on
the succeeding word, e.g.
( ` .` · . ' ` , · ` `, _ ) – I knew that Zaid was
learned.

The particles ( . ¸) and ( . ') always appear before
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a noun. However when they become (¸¯),
they can appear before a verb. The particle ( . ¸)
most often appears before ( . ¯) and (` ¸ ~) and
their derived forms, e.g.
( . ¸ · ,` , ´ ` . ¯ ) – Undoubtedly it was a heavy
thing.
( . ¸ ¸` , , · ´ ¸ :' = ) – Indeed we regard you as
being from among the liars.
Note that the (_-) has ( ¸) prefixed to it.

After ( . ' · -` · ), the particle (¸) or (,) is
prefixed to (__.· ¸··) and (` ·) is prefixed to
(¸.' ¸·) in order to distinguish it from
( . ' ¸· ·. ), e.g.
( · · ` , ´` · .` , ´ , . ' , .` , _ ) – He knew that some
of you will be ill.
(` , ,` , _ . . _ ` ,` · ` , ' ` · . ' , ` · , ) – so that he knows
that they conveyed the message of their Lord.
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( , ` , . ' ` ·` · ` , .` , ` , · · ` , ` ·, _ · · ¸ ¯ ` ¸ ' )
8

Know for knowledge benefits a person that
whatever has been decreed will appear.

[3] ( . ' ¯) – “as if” - is used for a comparison, e.g.
(` ' . ´ · . ' ¯) As if this dog is a lion.

Note 5: The word ( . ' ¯) can also be made
(¸¯). It most often appears before a
(` , , ` ¸ ' ¸·) – a verb made negative by the
particle (` , ), e.g. (` - ' ` · ,, ` , . ' ¯) – As if no one
saw him.

[4] ( ¸ · ) – “perhaps” - is used for expressing
hope (` ¸` - ,` ), e.g. ( ¯ ¸ : ` , ¸ · ) – Perhaps or I
hope that your son is pious.


8
In this verse, the sentence (` ·` · ` , .` , ` , · ·) is a (· . , ` ·` · ·` ` -) – a
parenthetical clause. The (¸··) of (` , ` · ) is a pronoun ( .') concealed
in it. The sentence ( _ · · ¸ ¯ ` ¸ ', ` , . ') forms the (¸,··) of (` , ` · ). The
alif in ( _ ·) is (_). This is permitted in poetry.
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[5] ( .` , ) – “would that, I wish that”. It is used to
express a desire or wish, e.g.
(` .` , ¸ · · , ` · , ` - ' · ·` ,, ` ·` ,`·, . ` .` , . ')
Listen, I wish that youth could return one day
so that I could inform it of what old-age has
done.

[6] (` ¸ ´ ) “but” – is used for (·_), that is, to
remove the surmise that was created by the
first statement in the listener’s mind, e.g.
( · · , ' ` ¸ ´ ' _ - . - . - ) – The pilgrims came
but your father did not come. By saying,
(' _ - . -) - the pilgrims came, the listener
surmised that his father also came. By saying
(` ¸ ´ ) – but…, that conjecture was removed.

Note 6: The word (` ¸ ´ ) can also be (¸¯) or
(. -` ·). Then it can appear before a verb also
and it becomes (··· _·), e.g.
( .` ,` ,` ·` , . ` ¸ ´ , .` ,` ` ` ,` · ` ,` ,` ¸ . ') – Listen,
they are the mischief makers but they do not
even perceive it.
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(c) The Particles of Negation (_«·|· =¸¸-), (· -)
and ( v)

The particles ( ·) and ( .) sometimes, like ( ¸` , ),
render (_·_) to the (,) and (..) to the (_-),
e.g. ( , , · ·) – This is not a human.
( :` · ¸ . · ' ¸` - _ .) – There is no man more
virtuous than you.
But most often, both these particles are
(··· _·).

Sometimes a (.) is suffixed to the particle ( .) to
become ( . .). It has the same function as ( .),
e.g. (¸ ¸ · ¸` , - . .) – This is not the time for
escape. The original sentence was
( . ¸ ¸ · ¸` , - ` ¸` , - . ), where (` ¸` , - ) is the (,)
and ( ¸` , -) the (_-) which is (.,.·).

Note 7: It was mentioned in Lesson 20,
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paragraphs 3 and 4 that the particles (` , ), (` )
and (` ¸ ) also create the meaning of negation. But
they are specific with (__.· ¸··). In the next
lesson you will learn that ( . ¸) is sometimes also
a particle of negation.

Note 8: The particle ( .) always remains one of
negation. However, the particle ( ·) is most often
regarded as a noun. Then it can fall into several
categories:
1. (·` , · , ` ·) – what thing. See Lesson 13.
2. (· ` ,` .` , · ·) – whatever. See Lesson 42.
3. (·` , ·` , ~ ·) – as long as. See Lesson 37.
There is also a ( · _ ` . · ·`, ) which is counted
among the (,,-). See the next lesson,
paragraph 5.

(e) ( ¸` - ¸ .) – the particle that negates a
whole category or species. It appears before
an indefinite noun and renders (..) to it,
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e.g. ( _` ¸ · ¸` - _ .) – There is no man in the
house.
( - ¸ · ` ¸ · ,` , - . · ¸` , ) There is absolutely
no benefit in a miser’s wealth for himself.
( = , . ¸ ·` , · . , ¸` , - .) – There is no power or
might except with Allāh.

(e) ( . ` ,,-) – the vocative particles. They
are (,), (, '), ( , ·), (` ¸ ') and ( '). If a noun
succeeding these particles is (·,·), meaning
(.· _·), a (·` .) is read on the final letter,
e.g. (` `, _ ,), ( ¸` - _ ,). If the succeeding noun is
(.·), it will be (.,.·), e.g. ( = ` · ,).
Sometimes a non-specified person is called
out. Then too, the ( ` · · ¸ – the word referring
to the person who is called out) will be
(.,.·), e.g. if a blind man calls out,
(` ¸ , , ` - ·` - _ , - O man, hold my hand.)

The particle (,) is very commonly used. It can be
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used for ( · ` · .,,· ¸ ) and ( · ` · ,·, ¸ ), that is,
whether the person you are calling out to is near
or far. The particles (, ') and ( , ·) are for ( · ` · ¸
,·,) while (` ¸ ') and ( ') are for ( · ` · .,,· ¸ ), e.g.

- = , . ` · ` ¸ - , ' ,` ` , ` ¸ ¸ ` ¸ -, ` . ,` , ,

O the two mountains of Na’mān, leave the
eastern morning breeze for Allāh’s sake so that
it can reach me.

` , · . ` , ` · ` ¸ _ - '

O our neighbour, we are staying here.

Note 9: It would have been appropriate to
mention the particles of response after the
vocative particles. However, since they fall in the
category of (¸ · · · ` ,` , · ` ` ,` ,` -), they will be
mentioned in the next lesson under this category.

(g) ( · | - , =··|· =¸¸-· g _· = « ) – the particles which
render (..) to (__.· ¸··).
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These are ( . '), (` ¸ ), (` ¸ ¯) and ( . · ¸). These
particles appear before (__.· ¸··) and render
(..) to it, e.g.
( _` ,` · . _ ¸ ·` , , . · . ' ` . ` - ') – I think you will
go to Lahore tomorrow.
(¸ - , ¸ · · ~ _ · , ` . ` ¸ ) – We will not be patient
with one (type of) food.
( · , ¸ ` · ' ` ¸ ¯ .¯` , ` .` · ) – I learnt the Qur’ān in
order to practise on it.
( _ ` · ¸) – Then, you will be successful.

These particles were mentioned in Lesson 20,
paragraph 4. More details will follow in the
section of (¸· .,·).

Note 10: The particle ( . ') is called (·`, _ ` . · . ')
because it changes the (__.· ¸··) to the
meaning of the verbal noun, e.g. ( ' ' . - ' ' , . )
means ( : , · ' . - ') – I love your reading.

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(g) ( g _· = « · | - - _· ¬ |· =¸¸-·) – the particles
which render (·, -) to (__.· ¸··).
These are (` , ), (` ), ( ,` · ' ` · .), ( ¸` ,` .) and ( . ¸).
These particles appear before (__.· ¸··) and
render (·, -) to it, e.g. (` . · , ` , ) – He did not go.
(` . · , ` ) – He did not go as yet.
(` . · , ) – He should go.
(` . · .) – You do not go.
(` . · · ' ` . · . ¸) – If you go, I will go.

These particles were mentioned in Lesson 20.
They will be discussed again under (¸· .,·).

Note 11: The particle ( . ¸) is a ( ` ,` ` ` , -) – a
particle of condition. It appears before two
sentences where the first one is called the (` , )
and the second one is called the (. , -). If (,) is
prefixed to it, it means, “even though”. In this
case, there will not be a need for two sentences
after it. One sentence will precede it, e.g.
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(` . · . . ¸ , · _` _ ¸ ` . · · ' ) – I will go to the
madrasah even though you do not go. For this
meaning, the particle (` , ,) can also be used, but it
is specific for the past tense, e.g.
(` . · ` , ` , , · _` _ ¸ ` .` · ·) - I will go to the
madrasah even though you did not go.

Note 12: The above-mentioned seven categories
are ( · · · ` ` ,` ,` -). The (¸ · · · ` ,` , · ` ` ,` ,` -) will be
mentioned in the next lesson.
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Lesson 50
The Non–Causative Particles
( ` ` ,` ,` - ` ,` , · · · · )

Note 1: Among the (¸ · · · ` ,` , · ` ` ,` ,` -), some are
causative ( · · ·) whereby they have an effect in
one case while in another case, they are non-
causative.

1. The ( . = - |· = ¸ ¸ -) are ten:

` ¸ ´ ` · ' ` · ¸ ` , ' ¸ , . _` - ` , ,

Note 2: The meaning of (. = ·) is ‘to incline’.
When a ( ` ,- .=· ) appears between two words
or sentences, it inclines the succeeding word to
the preceding one. It renders both the words or
sentences into the same case (.,·¸ ·-). The
preceding word is called (·` , · ` ` , =` · ·) and the
succeeding word is called (` ` , =` · ·).
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[1] ( ¸) – “and”. It is used to combine two
things under one command, e.g.
(,` ,` · , ` `, _ . -) – Zaid and Àmr came. This
example shows that Zaid and Àmr are
both included in the act of coming.

[2] ( =) – “then”. It is used for combination
and sequence, e.g. (` ` , , · ` ` , - . -) –
Hamīd came and Rashīd came with.
( ) – “because”. This indicates the cause. It
is called ( ·` , ` . ·) and it is most often used
with ( . ¸), e.g.
( :` · ` , ` ·` , · .¯` , ' , · ) – Read the Qur’ān
because it will be of benefit to you.

[3] (, ·) – “then”. It is used for combination
and sequence with a delay, e.g. ( ` , · . · ·
` , · ` , ) – Qāsim went, then Hāshim. This
will be said when there is the slightest
delay between the going of Qāsim and
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Hāshim.

[4] ( ¸ |) – “or”. It is used for showing one of
two things, e.g. ( · · ` , ' · ` -) – Take this
or that.

[5] ( ; |) – “or”. This is similar to (` , ') but it is
used in a question, e.g. ( · · ` · ' ·` ,` - ' · ') – Is
this your brother or that? On such an
occasion, (` , ') cannot be used.

[6] (·- ,) – “either”. It is also used in the
meaning of (` , ') but it is always repeated
and it introduces the details that are to
follow, e.g. (¯ ,` · ` · ¸ , ` , ` - ` · ¸ ` , · ) – The fruit is
either sweet or bitter.

[7] ( ¸ ´ |) – “but”. It is used for (·_). See
Lesson 49. Example:
(` ,` .` -, ` , ` .` ` ,`, ` ¸ ´ · · ·` , . -) – The
students attended but Yūsuf did not attend.
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Note 3: The particle (` ¸ ´ ) is ( · ··· _ ) while (` ¸ ´ )
is (···).

[8] ( v) – “not”, e.g. ( _ = . _ ` . · , ¯ ') –
Honour the pious, not the impious.

[9] ( ¸ ,) – “nay, rather”. It is used for
(. ,` . ¸), that is, to abandon one statement
and focus towards another, e.g.
(` - ¸ , ` · - . · · ·) - Hāmid did not go,
rather Khālid went.

[10] (_· -) – “until, even”. It is used to
indicate the end limit, e.g.
( · ` _` - · · · ·) – The caravan came,
even those who walked.

Note 4: The particle (_` -) is used in many ways.
One is a (` ,- ,-) and this is the one used most
often. The second one is (··· _·) as a
conjunction. The third one appears before a
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(__.· ¸··) and renders (..) to it. It was
discussed in Lesson 20. It will be further
discussed under (¸· .,·).

2. (;·,«·=v· =¸¸-) – the particles of
interrogation.
They are ( ') and ( ¸ ·). The particle ( ') is frequently
used by appearing before nouns, verbs and
particles. The particle ( ¸ ·) does not appear before
particles.
Examples: ( .`, ' _ `, _ '), ( `, _ .`, ' _ '), ( `, _ , ` , ') –
Did you see Zaid?
(` , . - ` `, _ ¸ ·) – Is Zaid present?
( `, _ .`, ' _ ¸ ·) – Did you see Zaid?

3. ( =· ¬ , , |· =¸¸-) – the particles of response.
They are eight:

.
¸ . .
` ·` ¸
,` , - ¸ - ¸ - ' ` ¸ ¸ _ , ` , ·
(1) ( , - ·) – “yes”. This word is used to indicate an
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agreement with the statement in the question,
whether the statement is positive or negative,
e.g. If in response to the question, ( · . - ¸ ·
` `, _) – “Did Zaid come to you?”, one replies,
(` , · ), it will mean, “Yes, Zaid came. If the
question is, (` `, _ · . - · ') – “Did Zaid not come
to you?” and one replies, (` , · ), it will mean,
“No, Zaid did not come.”
(2) (_ · ,) – “yes, why not”. Its function is to change
a negative statement to a positive one, e.g.
(` , ´` , , , ` .` ') – Am I not your Lord?” The
response to this question is, (_ ,), “Why not,
you are certainly our Lord.”
(3) ( ¸ ,) – “yes”. This word is always used with an
oath, e.g. ( ` ¸ ¸ ` ¸` , _ , ) – “Yes, I take an oath in the
name of my Sustainer.” The phrase, ( = , ` ¸ ¸) is
used very often. In today’s colloquial
language, this has been abridged to ( ,`, ¸).
(4) [5], [6] & [7] ( ¸| . , . ¸ , - . ¸ · - . ¸ - | , -· ) – All
four words have the same meaning as (` , · ).
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Examples:
.,,, , ` . , , .` ' · , . ` ¸
` , · , · .` , ' , ` ¸ ` · ¸ - ' ` ,` , -

They say, “Describe this woman because you are
well acquainted with her attributes.” Yes, I am
well aware of her attributes.

.` = ,· ¸ - ` . · ` _' ·` , ` ·
,` , - ` . · · .` ,` ` , - '

They said, “You have threaded the gems.” I said,
“Yes.”
“Are you admitting yourself into the mouth of
death?” I replied, “Yes.”

, , · · ` · ` .` , ¸ ` ·` ¸ ` . · .` , ¯ ` · , ·
They are saying, “Old-age has come over you and
you have become senile. I replied, “Yes.”

(5) ( v) – “no”. It is used when you intend to reply
in the negative to a question, e.g. If you reply
to the question, ( . - ¸ · ` `, _ ) – Did Zaid come?,
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by saying ( .), you are implying that Zaid did
not come.

4. The Particles of Negation ( _ «·|· =¸¸-)
They are ( ·), ( .) and ( . ¸), all meaning, “no, not”.
The particles ( ·) and ( .) can appear before a
noun, verb or particle, e.g.
(,` ,` · . , ` , · ` `, _ ·) – Neither is Zaid standing nor
is Àmr sitting.
(` .` , , . , ` . ¯ ' ·) – I neither ate nor drank.
( :` , · . , _` , ·` , · ·) – There is neither blame on
him nor on you.

However, the particle ( . ¸) generally appears
before a noun, e.g. (` ,`, , ¯ ` : · . ¸ · . ¸) – This is
nothing but a noble angel.

The particle ( . ¸) appears before the (_-) of
( . ¸ ·,· ) which distinguishes it from ( . ¸ · -` · )
9


9
See Lesson 49 (b).
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and ( . ¸ ·,~, )
10
.

Note 5: Sometimes the particles ( ·) and ( .) are
causative (···). See Lesson 49 (c).

Note 6: The Arabs most often, in place of (·,· ·),
say (¸` , · ·) which is the abbreviated form of
( _` , ·` , · ·). They simply mean “no” by this
statement, e.g. (. ¯ ¸` , · · ` ¸ ` ·) – I do not have a
book. Similarly, in place of ( _` , ·` , · ·), they say,
(¸` , · ·) – There is no problem.

5. (-,_=='· =¸¸-·) – The particles of the verbal
noun. These are ( . '), (` , ), ( ·) and ( . '). The first
three particles create the meaning of the verbal
noun in a verb while the particle ( . ') does so in a
(·,- ·~). In such an instance, the verb or the
(·,- ·~), coupled with these particles, is called a

10
See Lesson 20.3.
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( ¸` , '` · ` _ ` . ·) – an interpreted verbal noun, and like
a singular noun, it forms either the (¸··), (¸,··),
(_-) or (·,¸ .·), e.g.
( ·` ` . . ' ` ¸ ' ,` , - : ·` . ` ¸ ' ,` , ) – Your
truthfulness makes me happy.
( .` - - ` , ' . - ' - : - - ' . - ' ) – I love your
success.
( , . · · · ` · , ` .` , _` , -, · ¸` · ` . = - ` · , , · ·` , - · ¸` ·
· , · ·) – I awoke before his coming and I slept after
his going.
( ` _ - :` ' ` ¸ · , - :` - - ` ¸ · , ) – I received the
news of your success.

In the first example, the ( ¸` , '` · ` _ ` . ·) is the (¸··),
in the second, it is the (¸,··), in the third, it is the
(·,¸ .·) and in the fourth, it forms a (·,- ·~)
and becomes the (¸··).

6. ( ¸ , = ¬·|· =¸¸-) – the particles for
encouragement and spurring on. They are ( . '),
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( · ·), ( . '), ( .` , ) and ( ·` , ). They all mean, “is (or
does) not, why not”.
All five particles are always used with a verb, e.g.
(` , ·` . ') – Are you not teaching?
(` , ·` · ·) – Are you not teaching?
( ' : ` , ` , ·` . ) – Are you not teaching your son?
( ·` ` . ' · ¸ .`, , · ¸ ¸ - ' _ ¸ ` ¸ ` ,` - ' .` , ` . _) – O my Lord,
why did You not give me respite for a short while
so that I could give charity?
( · ´ · , ` , ' ·` , ) – Why do you not bring the
angels to us?

Note 7: After the ( ¸` , .` -` ` ,,-), a sentence of
response most often appears. The particle ()
precedes it and the (__.· ¸··) is pronounced
with a (..) as mentioned in the example above,
( ·` ` . ' ·). This verb (` ·` ` . ') was originally (` ·` . ')
from the category (¸' · ). The (.) is assimilated
into the (¸), that is, (···¸) is applied. See Lesson
29, Rule 6.
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7. ( = ¸=|· =¸¸-) – the particles of condition.
They are (` , - if), ( .` , – had it not been) and ( ·` , -
had it not been). Two sentences appear after these
particles. The first one is called (` , ) while the
second one is the (. , -). A (¸) is prefixed to the
(. , -), e.g. ( . · ` , . ,` - ' ·` , · . -` ) – Had you
wanted, you could have taken a payment.
(` ¸` _ ' . ¸ ¸` · , ` ,` , .` · , ¸` = ` _ · · .` , ,) – Had
Allāh not prevented some from others, the world
would have been corrupted.
( ` ` · , ` ¸ · ` ¸ . ´ · ` , · - . , ·` , . - _ · . _ ` ¸ · : =` - )
Had it not been for the spying of the tale bearers,
I would have had hope in you being pleased after
your anger.

Note 8: If (,) is prefixed to (` , ), its meaning
changes to “although”, e.g.
( . ¯ ` , , , · ` ,` · ` , ¸` ,` . , ) – Seek knowledge even if
it be in China. There is no statement of response
after (` , ,), but a sentence precedes it.

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Note 9: It was mentioned above that ( .` , ) and
( ·` , ) are also from the ( ¸` , .` -` ` ,,-). In such a
case, no (¸) is prefixed to its response. On the
contrary, a ( ) is prefixed to it. See Note 7.

8. ( g .¸|· =¸-) – “never”, “certainly”. This is a
particle of reproach or rejection, e.g.
( .` ,` ` · ` , · ¯) – Never, you will soon come to
know of the reality.
Sometimes it has the meaning of ( -) –
undoubtedly, e.g. ( ¯ · = , . ` , . ¸ · _ ) –
Undoubtedly, man is rebellious.

9. ( . , ¸ «·|· = ¸ ¸ -) – particles of close proximity.
These are ( ¸) and ( ` , ). They change the
meaning of (__.·) to the near future, e.g. ( ' , · ' )
– I will read now.
( ' , · ' ` , ) – I will read soon.
The particle ( ¸) is used for a time that is closer.

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10. ( ·|· = ¸ ¸ - = , · , ) – the particles of emphasis.
The ( · .` ,' , ` , ¯' ` ·. · ` , - , · ` , ) were discussed
in lesson 20 (b), e.g. (` ¸ ` ¯ ' ) and (` ¸ ` ¯ ' ) – I will
certainly write.

The ( ` , ¯' .` ,` ) is only used with (__.·) and
(,·'). However, the ( ` , ¯' ` ·.) can appear before
(¸.'),( ' _. _ ), (,) and a (,-), e.g.
( _ , ` - , ) – If he strove, he would have
succeeded.
( _` ,` · . _ ¸ · ` . · · ' = ,) – By Allāh, I will certainly
go to Lahore tomorrow.
( ` ¸ ¸` . · ¸` , ` · ) – Undoubtedly, it (the Qur’ān) is a
decisive statement.
( ¸` ,` _ ` , ¯ . - ` ) – A messenger certainly came to
you.

11. ( ·|· = ¸ ¸ - - , , · ) – the particles of warning. These
are ( . ) , ( · ) and ( ·). All three of them mean,
“beware, listen, behold”, e.g.
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( = ,` . . ¸ . ` .`, , · ) – Beware, the help of Allāh is
near.
(` ·` · ' = , · ) – Listen, by Allāh, I will certainly
reproach him.
( . , ·` ,` · . ¸ ·) – Behold, your enemy is at the
door.

Note 10: The particle ( . ) is also a particle of
encouragement. In such an instance, it is always
followed by a verb. See paragraph 6 of this lesson.

12. ( ¸ , . «·|· _ · ¸ -) – the two particles of
explanation. The particles (` ¸ ') and ( . ') are used
for explanation and clarification, e.g.
( . - ·` ,` - ' ` ¸ ' ` ¸ - ) – Hasan, that is, your brother
came.
(` ,` , · ,` , , . ' ` · `, · ) – We called him, that is, (We
said), “O Ibrāhīm.”

13. ( = ¸ ¸ - · .· ,`¸|· ) – extra letters. Although the
following particles have a meaning, sometimes
they are extra, that is, their meanings are not
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taken into consideration. They are inserted in the
sentence to beautify it. They are the following
particles:

¸ . ` ¸ · . · . ' . ¸

The particle ( . ¸) is extra after (·,· ·), e.g.

. ¸ · · ` .` - ` ¸ , ` -` ·
` -` , ` ¸ · ` .` - · ` ¸ ´

I did not praise Muhammad with my poetry,
but rather I have praised my poetry with
Muhammad .

The particle ( . ') is extra after (` ), e.g.
(` ,` , . - . ' ` ·) – Then when the giver of glad
tidings came.

The particle ( ·) is extra after ( · ¸), (_ ·), ( ¸`, '), (¯ ¸ ')
and ( . ¸) when the latter four words are used for a
condition. It is also extra after some of the
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(·` _- ,,-) like (` ¸ · . · . ` ¸ · . .), e.g.
(` , ` . · .` , ` ` , · · ¸) – Be patient whenever you are
afflicted by any difficulty.
( _ · · ` , · ' ` , · ` ) – When you travel, I will travel.
( · ` , ,` `, ' = ` ·` - , ` , · ) – Wherever you turn, there is
the Being of Allāh.
(` ·` · , ¯ ' · · . - ¸` -` , ', ') – Whoever comes to you,
honour him.
( ` · ' · ¸ ` · ` ¸` · ` , ´` , ', ) – If guidance comes to you
from me…
(` ,` , .` = ¸ · ¸ · ` - _ ·) – You are gentle to them
due to the mercy of Allāh.
( ¸` , · · ` ¸ - ` .` , ¸ ¸` , · ` ·) –They will regret in a short
while.

Note 11: The particle ( ·) is regarded as extra in
the last seven examples, but if one has to examine
it in depth, there is some meaning attached to it in
each example. In some places it creates stress and
emphasis in the preceding words and in some
places it creates an increase, e.g. the word ( · ¸)
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means “when” while ( · · ¸) means “whenever”.
The word ( ¸`, ') means “where” while ( `, ') means
“wherever”.

The particle ( .) is extra after (·,_.· . ') and
sometimes before (` , · '), e.g.
( ` -` . . ' : · · · ` ¸` , ` , ¸ ,) – O Iblīs, what has
prevented you from prostrating.
( , , ` , · ' .) – I take an oath by this city.

Note 12: The meaning of the particle ( .) has not
been applied in both examples.

The particle (` ¸ ·) is extra after (·,· . ¸) and (` , ¯),
e.g.
(` ,`, ,` , · · - . ¸ ¸ ·,` , · ` ¸ · . ¸ ,) – There is no village
except that a warner has passed in it.
( ` , ¯ = . · , , · ,` , · ¯ · · · ` . · ¸ · ` , · ¸· · · ` ¸ · ) – How many
a small group has overpowered many (large)
groups with the command of Allāh.

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The particle ( .) is extra when attached to the
(_-) of (·) and ( ¸` , ), e.g.
( ` , ` , ' ` `, _ · ¸ . · ´ , ` `, _ ¸ ) – Zaid is not a liar.

The particle (¸) is extra in the sentence (` , ´ · _)
- He came after you. Here there was no need for
the (¸) because ( · _) itself is transitive. One can
say, “(` , ´ · · _)”.

Note 13: There are some extra particles among the
(·` _- ,,-) as well. If they are extra, they still
are causative (···) and their effect will be visible.

Note 14: Some particles will be discussed later in
the appropriate sections.
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Lesson 51
Continuation of Lesson 50

Some of the particles having different names with
differing meanings, which have been mentioned
in the different lessons, will be discussed in detail
now.

1. The particle ( . ¸) is of four types:
(·,~,), (·,·), (·-) and (·_).

[1] (-,|¸= . ,) means “if’. It is from amongst the
causative particles (··· ,,-). It renders
(·,-) to (__.· ¸··), e.g. (` ¸ ` - ' ` ¸ ` - . ¸) – If
you sit, I will sit. See Lesson 20.3. This is the
one that is used the most.
[2] (-,··· . ,) means “no”. It is non-causative
(··· _·), e.g. (` ,`, . ¸ ' . ¸) – I am merely a
warner. The particle ( . ¸) normally appears in
its (_-) as is apparent from the example.
[3] (-««= . ,) is originally ( . ¸). A (,¯' ·.) is
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normally attached to its (_-). Sometimes it is
causative and sometimes not, e.g.
(` , ` `, _ . ¸) or (` , `, _ . ¸). See Lesson 49,
(b).
[4] (·=··_ . ,) does not display any meaning.
Sometimes it is extra after ( ·), e.g.
(` . ' , · . ¸ ·) – I did not read. See Lesson 50.13.
It is seldom used.

2. The particle ( . ') is also of four types:
(_ _ .` · . ) or (·`, _` . ·), (·-), (· ,` ` ·) and
(·_).

[1] (g _· = « |· - , =· ·) renders (..) to (__.· ¸··)
while changing the meaning of the verb to
that of the verbal noun, e.g.
( ' : ` ,` , - ·` ,` . . - : ` ,` , - :` · , . ) – Your
fasting is better for you. See Lessons 20 and
49.
[2] (-««= . |) is originally ( . '), e.g.
(` _ ` . ' ` .` ·) – I knew that you will
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succeed. See Lesson 49, (b).
[3] ( . | · ¸`. « - ) means “that is” and it is non-
causative (··· _·), e.g. ( , . ' ` ·` `, · ` .` ` ,`, ) – I
called him, that is, I said, “O Yūsuf”. See
Lesson 50.16.
[4] (·=··_ . |) does not display any meaning. It is
most often extra after (` ), e.g.
( ` ,` - ' . - . ' ` · ) – When your brother came.
See Lesson 50.13.

3. The particle ( ·) is firstly divided into two
types:
1.(·,·,-) and 2. (·,-).
The first one, (·,·,-), is of four types:
(··· ·,·), (··· _· ·,·), (·,_.·) and (·_).
The second one, ( - ·, ), is of three types:
(·,·,), (·,.,·) and (·,·,~).

[1] (-·-·- -,··· ·-) renders (..) to the (_-), e.g.
( , , · ·) – This is not a human. See Lesson
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49, (c).
[2] (-·-·- _- -,··· ·-) is the one that is used most
frequently, e.g. ( · ` `, _ · ` , ) – Zaid is not
standing. See Lesson 50.4
[3] (-,_==- · -) creates the meaning of the verbal
noun in the verb, e.g. (` ¸` ` ` _ =, · ¸` · ` ¸ . ')
– I perform salāh before sunrise. See Lesson
50.5.
[4] (·=··_ · -) does not display any meaning, e.g.
( ¸`, , · .` , ´ ¸ ¸` , · ` ·) – We will be successful
in a very short while. See Lesson 50.13.
[5] ( · - -,r· -,-·,«·=· ), e.g. ( · ` · ·) – What do you
have?
[6] ( · - -|,=,- -,r· ), e.g. ( · ` · · ` ¸ _ ') – Show me
what you have?
[7] ( · - ¸» -,r· -,· ), e.g. ( · ` ' · · · ` ·` , · ') – I will
stand as long as the teacher stands. Here the
particle ( ·) means “as long as”. It is called
(·,·,~) because it denotes time. See 37.6.

4. The particle ( .) – “no, not, do not” is always
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used for negation. There are several types of ( .)
which you have learnt about in the different
lessons:

[1] (-,··· v) is non-causative (··· _·). This is the
one that is commonly used. It can be
prefixed to a noun, verb or particle.
[2] (-,··· v) is causative (···). It renders (·,-) to
(_, ¸··), e.g. (` . · .) – Do not go. See
Lesson 20 and 49.
[3] ( ¸ , | _ · - « , v) is causative (···). Like ( ¸` , ), it
renders (..) to the (_-), e.g.
( :` · ¸ . · ' ¸` - _ .) – There is no man more
virtuous than you. See Lesson 49, (c).
[4] ( v ¸ · ¬ |· _ « · | ) is causative (···). It renders
(..) to the (,), e.g. ( _` ¸ · ¸` - _ .) –
There is no person from the category of men
in the house. See Lesson 49 (d).
[5] ( v -«|·- ) is non-causative (··· _·), e.g.
( · . `, _ ` .`, ' _ ,` ) – I saw Zaid, not Àmr.
Here the particle ( .) is a conjunction.
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Accordingly, the succeeding word has the
same (.,·) as the preceding one.
[6] (=· ¬ , , =¸- v – the particle of response) is
non-causative (··· _·). See Lesson 50.3.
[7] (·=··_ v) does not display any meaning. See
Lesson 50.13.

5. There are two types of the particle (` , ):
(·` , ~,) and (·`,_.·).

[1] (-, |¸= , |), e.g. (` ¸ . _ , ` ` ¸` . .` ' ` , ) –
If the people are just, the judge can relax. See
Lesson 50.7.
[2] (-,_==- , |), e.g.
( ' . - ' ` , .` - - - : - - ' . - ' ) – I desire your
success. See Lesson 50.7.

Note 1: By prefixing (,) to the particle (` , ), it
changes the meaning to, “although”, e.g.
( = ` .` , - ' ¸ -` · . ¯ ` , , ) – The generous
person is Allāh’s friend, even though he may be a
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transgressor.

5. ( .` , ) and ( ·` , ) are of two types: (·` , ., .` - ) and
(·` , ~,).

[1] (-, =, = ¬ ·), e.g. ( · · ` ¸ ` .` , ) – Why don’t
you walk with us, that is, it will be better if
you come with us. See Lesson 50.6.
[2] (-, |¸=), e.g. ( . = ¸ · ` , · ¸ .¯` , .` , ) –
Had it not been for the Qur’ān, the world
would have remained in darkness. See
Lesson 50.6.

6. The particle (¸), either ( ¸) or ( ¸) is of four
types: (·` _- ·.), (,·. ·.), (` ¸ ¯ ·.) and (,¯' ·.).
The first three types of (¸) are (_,´·)
11
while
(,¯' ·.) is (_,·).

[1] (·_·- ;v) renders (` ,-) to a noun. It is very
frequently used. See Lesson 49 (a).

11
However, if the (,·. ·.) is preceded by (,) or (), it becomes
( ¸¯ ), e.g. (` .` ´ , ·). See Lesson 20 Note 4.
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[2] (¸-v· ;v) renders (·,-) to (__.· ¸··), e.g.
(` .` ´ , , ' , , ) He should read and write. See
Lesson 49(g).
[3] ( _ · ;v) means “so that, in order to”. It
renders (..) to (__.· ¸··), e.g.
( _ · ' ` .` ` ') I embraced Islam in order to
succeed. See Lesson 20.4.
[4] (=,·|·|· ;v) can precede a noun as well as a
verb or particle, e.g. (` , `, _ . ¸) – Indeed
Zaid is standing.
( .¯` , ` ,` , ` ,) – Indeed We have made the
Qur’ān easy.
( ,` ,` ´ · ` ¸ ` ¯ ' ) – I will certainly write a letter.
See Lesson 50.10

7. There are six types of (,): (·~· ,,), (·` , ` · ,,),
(` .` _ ,,), (·` , - ,,), (·` , · · ,,) and (· ' ` ` · ,,).

[1] (-«|·- ¸·¸) meaning “and” is very frequently
used. It is non-causative ( ·· _· · ).
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[2] (-, « . | ¸·¸) is causative (···). It renders (` ,-)
to a noun, e.g. ( .` ,` `,` , , ¸` ,` ,) – By the oath of
the fig and the olive. See Lesson 49 (a)5.
[3] (= _ ¸·¸) is causative (···). It renders (` ,-) to
a noun, e.g. ( , ¸ · , ` .` , ) – I travelled to many
cities. See Lesson 49 (a).
[4] (-, |· - ¸·¸) is non-causative (··· _·), e.g.
( ` `, _ . - ` . ¯ _ ,` · , ) – Zaid came riding. See
Lesson 43.11.
[5] (-, - - ¸·¸) means ( _ ·) – with. It is causative
(···) and it renders (..) to a noun, e.g.
( `, - _ _` , ` .` , ) – I travelled along the
new street. See Lesson 43.7.
[6] (- « · | · . - ¸·¸) is used for beginning a new
statement, e.g. ( . · · -` _ ' ¸ · ' , ` , ` , ´ ¸` , ` )
– so that We explain to you and We maintain
whatever We want in the womb. The (,,) is
not (·~·) in this example otherwise (' , ` )
would also have been (.,.·) like ( ¸` , ` ).
This is now the beginning of a new
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statement, having nothing to do with the
previous sentence. The ( ` ` · ,, · ' ) is non-
causative (··· _·).

8. There are three types of (_` -):
(·` _ -), (_ _ .` · . ) and (·~·).

[1] ( _· - ·_· - ) means “until”, e.g.
( , ' _ _` - · ´ ` ` . ¯ ') – I ate the fish until
its head, that is, I did not eat the head.
[2] ( _· - g _· = « |· - , =· · ) means “so that, in order
to”, e.g. ( .¯` , , , · ' _` - ` .` · ) – I learnt so
that I can understand the Qur’ān. See Lesson
20.
[3] ( _· - -«|·- ) means “till, to the extent” and is
non-causative, e.g. ( ' , ' _ _` - · ´ ` ` . ¯ ) –
I ate the fish to the extent of the head, that is,
I ate the head as well. The particle (_` -) is a
(.=· ,-) in this example. Accordingly,
the (..) preceding it has also been applied
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to the succeeding word. See Lesson 50.1.
Remember the difference between (·` _ - _` -)
and (·~· _` -).
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Lesson 52
The Remaining Particles

The following particles will be discussed in this
lesson:
( ¸ – .`, ,` ·` ` ,- ), ( _ = , ¸` . , · ,` ·) and
( .` · ~` ,` ,` , , · ~` ,` ` )

The Definte Article

1. The definite article ( ¸ ) is of three types: (1)
( .`, ,` ·` ` ,-), (2) (¸,., ` ,) and (3) (·_).

2. The ( .`, ,` ·` ` ,-) is also called ( ` ·. .`, ,` ·` ). It
serves the function of changing an indefinite
word into a definite one.

3. With regards to the meaning, the ( .`, ,` ·` ` ·.) is
of four types:

[1] (` ¸ - _ - ` , · ` · .) – the word to which the
(·.) is prefixed is known to both the speaker
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and the listener, e.g. (` ,` , · ' . -) – the leader
came. This will be said when the speaker
and the listener both know the leader being
spoken about. This is normally when the
person in question has already been
mentioned previously.
[2] (` ¸ ` · ` , · ` · .) – the word to which the (·.)
is prefixed is known only to the speaker, e.g.
(` ,` , · ' . -) – the leader came. This will be said
only when the speaker knows the leader, not
the listener.
[3] ( ` · . ¸` - ) – the species of the word to which
the (·.) is prefixed is intended, e.g.
( · '` , ¸ · ¸ . · ' ¸` -` , ) – The category of men is
better than the category of women. The
speaker does not intend any individuals in
his statement.
[4] ( ` · . · ,` · ` , ) – when the speaker refers to all
the individuals encompassed by the word to
which the (·.) is prefixed, e.g.
( . - ` . , · , ` ,` ·¯ ¸`, . ¸ ¸ ,` ` - ` ¸ . ` , . ¸) –
Indeed all of man is at a loss except those
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who believe and do good actions. This (·.) is
normally translated as “all” or “every”.

Note 1: The difference between ( ¸` - ` · .) and
( · ,` · ` , ` · .) is that in the ( ¸` - ` · .), the
individuals are not taken into consideration, but
in ( · ,` · ` , ` · .), they are considered. Hence it is
permissible to make an exception (.·) of some
individuals.

4. The (¸) prefixed to the (¸· ,) and the
(¸,·' ,) is generally (¸,.,·). See Lesson 42.6.

5. The (¸) prefixed to the (,· ,) is (_)
because the proper noun is already definite.
However, the (¸) cannot be prefixed to every
(,· ,). It only applies where the people of the
language (the Arabs) have used it, e.g. one can
say (` ¸ - ), ( ¸` , - ), ( ¸` . ), (` ¸` · ), ( . ` ·' ) and
( . _ - ) because the Arabs have been heard to
say these words in this manner. One does not say
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(` ` -` ) or (` ·` ,` ` - ).

The (¸) is prefixed to the names of most
countries, e.g. (` ·` ), (` ·` ,' , ), ( ` ` , ), ( . ` ¯ ),
( ` . , · ), ( ` ¸ , ) and ( ` , ) etc. However, it is
seldom prefixed to the names of cities, e.g. ( · ´ ·),
(` · ` · ,), (` _` ,` · .) etc. The name ( · `, ) has (¸)
prefixed to it because any city can be referred to
as ( · `, ·). The name ( · , · - Cairo) also has (¸)
prefixed to it.

¸ ¸ = , |· · ¸ « · _ = « |· · ¸ « ·

6. Both these hamzas are extra and they appear at
the beginning of a word. The ( ¸` . , · ,` ·) is not
pronounced when joined to a preceding word.
However, it is still written. The ( _ = · ,` ·) is
always pronounced. Note that an alif that is
(·` , - ` ·) is also a hamzah. The ( ¸` . , · ,` ·) appears
in the following instances:

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[1] the hamzah of ( ¸ ).
[2] in the words (` ,` ), (` ¸` , ), ( · ` , ), ( ` ,` · ` , ), ( · ' ,` · ),
( . ), ( . ), etc.
[3] in the (¸.'), (_.·) and (,·') of the
following seven categories of (·,· ,,· ¸·):
¸` , · · . ¸ ·` , · · . ¸ · ` . ¸ · · . ¸ · · . ¸ · · . ¸ · `
See Lesson 35. This hamzah also appears in the
two categories of (·,· ,,· ¸·,_), namely, ( ¸ ` · · )
and ( ¸ · · ). See Lesson 25.3.
[4] in the (,.- ,·') of (·` ,-` · ¸·).

Besides the above-mentioned places, wherever
else a hamzah appears, it will be a ( · ,` · _ = ),
e.g. the hamzah of the perfect tense (¸.') and
the imperative (,·') of ( · , ¯ ' .,), the hamzah of
the elative ( ¸` , . ` ¸··')
12
, the hamzah of
(· ` . ¸··')
13
and the the hamzah of the

12
See Lesson 24.
13
See Lesson 23.2.
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(__.· ,´· -,) of all verbs.

Note 2: Sometimes the learned also err in the
pronunciation of ( ¸` . , · ,` ·). One should
therefore practise it thoroughly, that is, when
joined to the preceding word, the hamzah is not
pronounced, e.g. (` ,` ) should be pronounced as
( ` ,` - ` ,` ) while ( . - ` · ¸ ·) should be
pronounced as ( . - ` · ¸ · - . - ` · ).

- | , , ¸ « |· ¸ - | , . , « |· ···| ·

7. The (· ~` ,` ` · . ) is most often a pronoun
attached to the end of the (.~-` ·) and (,´·)
word-forms of ( ' ¸· ¸. ), e.g. ( . · ·), ( ` · ·),
(` ,` · ·), ( . · ·), (` ¸` · ·) and (` . · ·). However, the
(·¯ .) of the singular feminine word-form is
not a pronoun but merely a sign that the verb is
feminine. See Lesson 41, Note 4.

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The ( . ` ,` ,` , · · ~ ) is used like a particle to indicate
the feminine gender, e.g. (` ,` ,` · - masculine) and
( · ' ,` · - feminine); (` : · - masculine) and ( · ´ · -
feminine).

Sometimes it is used to differentiate between the
(¸- , - generic noun) and the singular form,
e.g. the word (` , - ) is (¸- ,) while one tree is
called ( , - · ). Such a (·) is called ( . · ` - , ).

Sometimes it is used for (· · ` ·) - the intensive
form, e.g. ( · · · ·) – very learned, ( · ·` , ·) – having
deep understanding. These words are used for
both the genders. Such a (·) is called (· · ` .).

Sometimes it is attached to a ( _` ,` ` - _ , ` ` · · ·` , .) –
a final plural after which there is no plural. See
Lesson 57.3.
Examples: ( · ') - plural of ( · ` ');
( · · · _) - plural of (` ¸`, ` _).

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Sometimes it is suffixed to the plural of a relative
adjective (` .` ,` ` ` ,.), e.g. ( · , · ') - plural of
(¯ ¸ , ·` '); ( · , -)- plural of (¯ ¸ ` -).

Sometimes it replaces a letter, e.g. ( · = ·) which
was originally ( ` · ,). The (·) has replaced the
elided (,). Similarly, in ( · ), which was
originally (` , ), the (·) has replaced the (,).

Note 3: The (· ~` ,` ` · . ) and the (· ~` ,` ,` , · .) become
similar in shape in the middle of a word, e.g.
(` . · · - · · ),( · ' ,` · - ' ,` · . ) etc.

Exercise No. 79

Note 4: Look for the ( ¸` . , · ,` ·) and the
( _ = · ,` ·) in the following passage and
pronounce them correctly.

,· ·_' __ . .·-_, ` ·` , ···, ···· ` ,,· ·
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.',·, . ¸,_ ,,· ·,,,· ,- ·_·. ·,,
·_' · .
11
·,, ·,¯¸ ,,·,¯',

` , ,,·· _·
` ¸,,
16
··,· ··,· ,·_', _,~ ¸ ,,= ` · ·_' ¸·
.,,`

.··,, ·_'
18
,= .'~ ,··_, ,·,·
1'
-,,

` ,` -` ·',
`1
,-·¸ ·=. ¸-
``
_,,- ¸,·,
·_' ¸· ·· · ··` ··' ·=- ,,· ·` , ` .' ·
¸ _-, . ·` ,· . ,· .~ ¸ ,,- ·` ,·. · ··` ,`,'
,. ¸· ,- ¸· .¸ .-·. .

,·, ,¯·'
`1
=
._., ·· ·,., .¸ ···. ·` '

·` ,, ·,· ¸

14
lofty
15
extremely
16
The definite article on this word is (` ¸ - _ - ` , · ` · .) because he
was mentioned previously. Therefore the listener will know who
is being spoken about.
17
Plural of ( . ' ) – affair, matter.
18
close examination, scrutiny
19
increase
20
joy, delight
21
pleased
22
This is a (¸=· ¸,··). See Lesson 43.
23
time
24
to make happy
25
to advance
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·,-, ,´,·, . ·` ,·,
`6
¸., ,´' ¸· .-.,
¸·` ,

., ,´,-', ,´,-¸ ,` -', ,´,,,' ,·,¯',
,.·
`8
,- .,
`'
,,, .,
¬¤
. ¸·, .., ` ,
·,
¬1
.¯, _` ¸ · _· ··, .·. ·, .

26
decoration, embellishment
27
plural of ( · `, · _) - vice
28
to loathe, detest
29
to be mutually jealous of
30
to give a derisive or insulting name
31
outrage, transgression
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Test No. 18

[1] Approximately how many (,,-) are there
in the Arabic language?
[2] How many groups of ( ,,- ·· · ) are there?
What is the name of each group?
[3] How many (·` _- ,,-) are there and what
are they?
[4] Which (,,-) render (..) to a noun and
which ones to a verb?
[5] What (,,-) are ( ,), ( ) and (` , ) and what
is the difference in their usage?
[6] How many types of (,) are there? Explain
with examples.
[7] Which (,,-) render (·,-) to a verb?
[8] How many meanings does the particle ( . ¸)
have? What is the name of each one and
what function does it serve?
[9] How many types of ( . ') are there? What is
the work of each type?
[10] For which meanings is ( ·) used and what
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are its names?
[11] Which (,,-) are sometimes ( ·· · ) and
sometimes (··· _·)?
[12] What is the difference in usage between
(` , · ) and (_ ,)?
[13] What are the extra (,,-) and when is
each particle extra?
[14] When a particle is extra, is it (···) or
(··· _·)?
[15] How many types of ( ¸ ) are there?
[16] Explain the types of (.,,· ·.) with
examples.
[17] Explain the types of (· ~` ,` ` · . ) and
(· ~` ,` ,` , · .).
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Lesson 53
Sentences

The Definitions of (` .· · = ,), (` = · . -) and ( - , | , ` = · . -)

1. The relationship between two or more words
whereby they form a sentence is called (` · ` ¸).
That part of the sentence about which something
is said, is called ( ·` , ¸ ` ` ` ·) while whatever is said
is called (` ` ` ·), e.g. (` ¸ - ` , ) is a (·,- ·~).
There is a concealed relationship between ( ` , )
and (` ¸ -) which bonds the two words together.
This bond is the (` · ` ¸). In this sentence, regarding
(` , ), information has been provided that he is
(` ¸ -). Therefore (` , ) is the ( ·` , ¸ ` ` ` ·) and
(` ¸ -) is the (` ` ` ·).

Similarly, (` , ¸ -) is a ( ·~ ·· ·, ). Regarding
(` , ), the word ( ¸ -) has provided some
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information about him. Therefore, the first part of
this sentence, which is the verb, is the (` ` ` ·) and
the second part is the ( ` · ·` , ¸ ` ` ).

2. From these examples, you can deduce that in a
(·,- ·~), the ( ·` , ¸ ` ` ` ·) is the ('·), while in a
(·,·· ·~), it is the (¸··). In a (·,- ·~), the (` ` ` ·)
is the (_-) and in a (·,·· ·~), it is the (¸··). The
(¸,··) is neither a (` ` ` ·) nor a ( ·` , ¸ ` ` ` ·) in a
sentence.

3. From the examples, you will realize that a
noun can be a (` ` ` ·) and a ( ·` , ¸ ` ` ` ·). In the above
example, the word (` , ) is a noun and (` ¸ -) is
also a noun. The verb can only be a (` ` ` ·). It
cannot be a ( ·` , ¸ ` ` ` ·). A (,-) can neither be a
(` ` ` ·) nor a ( ·` , ¸ ` ` ` ·).

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The Types of Sentences

4. It was mentioned in Lesson 6 of Volume One
that sentences are of two types:
(·,- ·~) in which the first part is a noun
and
(·,·· ·~) in which the first part is a verb.
This distribution was with regards to the
sequence of words.

With regards to the meaning, sentences are also
of two types:
(·,_- ·~), the meaning of which can be
testified to be true or false, e.g.
(·-,· ·_') – The madrasah is open or
( ·_' . - ·) – The madrasah was opened.
The first sentence is a (·,- ·~) and the
second, a (·,·· ·~). It can be understood
from both the sentences that the madrash
has been opened. This is information which
can be regarded as true or false.
( ·~ ` , ` ¸ · ), the meaning of which cannot
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be testified to be true or false,
e.g. (` , , ' , · ) – Read, O boy.
(` .` , , ` ¸ ` - .) – Do not sit, O girl.
There is no information been imparted in
these sentences. On the contrary, there is
an order to do some act or to refrain from
something. Such a statement cannot be
testified to be true or false because this can
only be done with information.

5. There are 11 types of (·` , ` ¸ ·~):
[1] (` ,` · . ) – the imperative, e.g. ( · ·` . ,` ` , · ') –
Perform salāh.
[2] (` _` ,` ) – prohibition, e.g. ( = , ` · ,` ` .) – Do
not ascribe partners to Allāh.
[3] (` · , ` ¸ ) – interrogation, e.g.
( ` ,`, .` ' :` ¸ ' ` .` ) – Are you Yūsuf?
[4] (_` ` ) – wish, e.g. ( .` , . ` ` ·` ,` ·, ) – I wish
youth could return.
[5] (` _` - ,` ) - hope, e.g. ( ¸ · · . ` -`, ` · , : · ,` · ' )
– Perhaps Allāh may create something
thereafter.
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[6] ( . ` ) - vocative, e.g. (` ,` ` , ` - . ¸ ` ,` ` , · · · · ,)
– O students, you will succeed if you strive.
[7] (` ¸` , · ) - request, that is, when you gently
request for something, e.g.
( :` · ` , ` · , ¸ ,` . ) – Why don’t you
alight by us so that we can attain benefit
from you.
[8] (` , ) - oath, e.g. ( ` , ¯ ' · , ` , ´ · ` . ' . ) – By
Allāh, I will plan against your idols.
[9] (` .' - ·` ) - surprise, e.g. ( · ~ · ¸ ` - ' ·) – How
beautiful is Fātimah.
[10] (` ·` , ` · ) - contract, e.g. (` .` · ,) – I sold, (` .`, , ` )
– I bought, ( · · · :` ` - ´` ') – I have married
you to so and so, (` . ·) – I accepted.
[11] ( ` ,` ) - condition, e.g. (` ·` ` , · . ¸) – If
you study, you will progress.

A supplicatory sentence (·` , ·` · ·~) is also a
(·` , ` ¸ ·~), e.g. ( :` , · ` · ·` ) – May peace be upon
you.

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Exercise No. 80

Observe the analysis of the following sentences:

, 1 , ` , ´ ` , , ¸` . ,` , ` . .
Do not forget the favour among yourselves.
This is a (·` , ` ¸ ·~) because it contains a
prohibition.

` , ¯ ¸` , , ¸` . ` ,` , ` .
_.
_,,-
. ¸.·

·- . ·,¸
_,,-
,~
. .´'
·,· ¸,··
. .,.·

. _.·
·, ¸,··
.,.·
,.- ¸, ¸··
_~ . ,,·'
- . ,¯· . ·,- ·
,, ·,· _.
¸.' _,·,' __
¸·· ,· . ` ,` ` ' ¸··
_,·,· ·- . ¸·
¸· ¸·· ·, ¸,·· ¸· _· ¸·
,= , ¸,·' , ¸· _· ¸· - ·` , ` ¸ ·,·· ·~

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, 2 , ` .` ` ,`, .` ' :` ¸ ' .
Are you Yūsuf?
This is a (·` , ` ¸ ·~) because of the interrogatory
particle (·,. ,-).

| . , = , . · | . = , ,
,-
·,.
A
particle
has no
.,·
,-
·'
¸·,
_.
.,.·
. ¸.·
· ` . ¸ ¸
. ¸ ` ,
,-
,¯'
. ¸ ¸` ·

_
_.
_,·,·
. ¸.·
' ,¯
_.
. ¸,.
·-
.,.·
¬`
. . ¸ ` _-
. _,·,·
,.·_·
·_-, ·- _· . ¸ - ·` , ` ¸ ·,- ·~

, 3 , ` .` ` ,`, ' ¸ ·
He said, “I am Yūsuf.”
This is a (·,_- ·,·· ·~).

32
The discussion of (,¯') will follow in Lesson 69.
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,· | · · | . = , ,
. ¸.' ¸·
¸ ¸` · . _ _·
_. ·,· _,·,·
-, . ¸.·
.· ,¯· , ,· ,
. ¸·· . ,·
_,·,· ·-
,´· -, _.
. ¸.· _,·,·
¸ ¸` · ·- . '· .
_,·,·
_,·,· . _-

_-, '' - ·,- ·- - ·- . ·,·
.,.·
¸ · , ¸· , ¸,·', ¸· _· - ·,_- ·,·· ·~

Remember that the ( ·· ¸, ) of ( ¸ ·) is called (·,·)
and it is normally a sentence.

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Exercise No. 81

Look for the (·,_- ·~) and (·` , ` ¸ ·~) in the
following letter.

` , ¸ · ` .` ,` ´ · ` , · · ·
,,-, ¸~, = ,,
·` ,´' , ·,.- ¸¸
,´,· ·· ·¯,,, = ·~_,
` ¸ ` · ' . ¯ , ¸ · , = ` , · ,
· ·` _ · . , : ,` . -
` ,` -` _ ' , · ¸ ´ , ·` ,` ·, .' ´ ,
·· ¸´, :,· ¸ ¸ · ¸ ,
.·` , _,, ¸·, ` · -.· .` - ¸· ` .,· , ¸` ,· `·,,
` ._· ' ···, · .., _· ·` ,` ,,=· ¸· ·, ¸ ·
. .,¯ . ·,-¸ .~,·, ¸· ,-·, ··· ., ·
,´ .
:`, ·, ' , - ` ¸ ` , · ¸
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, - · ·,´ .,· ¸ · _` ,

¸v,-·, : _· ' _·_' _., ,-· ,· ·.,,· ,´,·
. ,· ,· ¸·,, ¸ , .·-| =· · .` ,', ,´,·
,·, ¸,·, .

.·· ,| .,| ·, ` .` ·, . ., ¸ · ,´,.- ··' ·,,
` .,` ,, , =, _ ¸ =·' ¸,, ¸,' ` ., · ` ., , .
· =,- .,|| ·«· . .,' ·,· .·. ,·, ¸, , ·,,,,
. .,-., .,-¸ ·,- =· ¸-| ·`,' ` .` ,, .
-_ .,, ¸ ¸-, .

¸ ,-¸, ·, ¸` · . ··,` , ··` ·` ,- ¸ ·', . ·
. ¸·,- ··., _,-', ,···«, =· ,·|| · ,·.,,
_,-,' .
_,´ · ,´··-

Note : All the (·` , ` ¸ ·~) are marked in bold.
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Lesson 54
Declension
(.,·)

Note 1: The declension of the noun was discussed
in Lessons 10 and 11 of Volume One while the
declension of the verb was discussed in Lesson 20
of Volume Two. It seems appropriate to discuss
this topic in greater detail here.

1. Declension (.,·) refers to the different signs
used to distinguish the different cases of a
declinable word (.,··). See Lesson 10.10.

Note 2: The place of the (.,·) is the final letter
of the word. The (.¯,-) and (.´) of the
alphabets in the beginning or middle of a word
are not to be termed the (.,·) although this
practice is prevalent.

2. There are two types of (.,·):
(· ¯ , - , . ,` · ¸) and ( ` ,` ,` - , . ,` · ¸).
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[1] The (· ¯ , - , . ,` · ¸) are:

¸ - . = · _ · _
' ` , ¸ ' ` , ' ` ,
,' ·,´
¸,´
,' ·-
¸-
,' ·.
¸.

This is the (.,·) of a noun. The (.,·) of a verb
is (_·_), (..) and ( ·,-).

Note 3: Tanwīn is specific with an (,). Neither
does it appear on a verb nor on a particle. When
an (,) has ( ¸ ') or it is (.·) or (,.· _·), it
does not have tanwīn.

The (·.), (·-·), (·,¯) and (.,´) are also
(.,·), but these names are used more often for
words that are (` ¸ '). Similarly, these names are
also used for the ( - .¯, ) and (.´) of the
alphabets in the beginning or middle of a word,
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e.g. the ( _) of ( ¸` - _) is (_,·) and not (.,.·).
The (` _) is (·,.·) and not (_,·,·). However, the
( ¸) will be termed (_,·,·).

[2] The ( ` ,` ,` - , . ,` · ¸) are as follows:
for nouns:

` , - . . _ · _
` ¸ . ` ¸ . .
¸` , . ¸` , . . .
¸` , . ¸` , . .` , .

for verbs:

·, - . . _ · _
elision of . elision of . .
elision of . elision of . .

Note 4: The method of pronouncing (` , .), ( .)
and (` ¸ .) etc. is that an alif should be
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temporarily inserted with every harakah, e.g.
(` , .) becomes (` , '), ( .) becomes (¯) and (` ¸ .)
becomes (` ¸ ¸). See Lesson 5, Note 1.

(a) The (.,·) of (` , '), (¯) and (` ¸ ¸) is applied to the
words (` . '), (` _ '), (` , -), (` ¸ ·), (` , ·) and (` , ·) when
these words are related to any other word besides
the pronoun of the singular first person
(,´· -, _.), e.g. ( ·` ,` , ') in (_·, ·-), ( · , ') in
(.. ·-) and ( :` , , ') in (` ,- ·-). However,
when these words, with the exception of (` , ·), are
related to the singular first person pronoun
(,´· -, _.), they will have no (.,·),
having the same form in all three cases, e.g.

` , - ·- . . ·- _ · , ·-
` ¸ , ' ` . · ` ¸ , ' ` .`, ' _ , ' . - ` ¸

See Lesson 11.2.
Note 5: The word (` , ·) can only be (.·)
towards a visible noun (,·~ ,). It is rarely
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(.·) towards a pronoun.

Note 6: The (·) of the word (` , ·) is elided at the
time of suffixing this (.,·), e.g. it is said ( ·` , ·),
( · ·) and ( :` , ·). The word (` , ·) can also have
(· ¯ , - , . ,` · ¸) attached to it, e.g ( :` ·), ( : ·) and
( : ·).

Note 7: The (.,·) of the above-mentioned six
words only applies when they are not in the
diminutive form ( ` · ´ ` , · ,` · .· _· · ). Accordingly,
they are referred to as ( . -' ` ` · · ´ ` , · ). When they
are (·,` · .·) – in the diminutive, their (.,·) is the
same as a normal noun, e.g. ( ' ¯ ¸ - ), (' , - '), (´ ¸ - ) –
small brother, etc. The diminutive will be
discussed in Lesson 74.6.

(b) The (.,·) of the dual form (·,·.) is ( . . )
and ( ¸` , .), e.g. ( . ` ` ·) and ( ¸` , ` ` ·).

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(c) The (.,·) of the sound masculine plural
(, ,¯' _-) is ( .` , .) and ( ¸` , .) , e.g.
( .` ,` ` ` ·) and ( ¸` , ` ` ·).

(d) The (.,·) of the dual form (·,·.) of (__.·)
is ( .), e.g. ( . · · ,) and ( . · · ).

(e) The (.,·) of the masculine plural of (__.·)
and the singular feminine second person is ( .),
e.g. ( .` , · ,) ( .` , · ) and ( ¸` , · ).

Note 8: The ( .) and ( .) only appear in the words
of (__.·) in (_ · , ·-). In (,-, .. ·-), the
(.) is elided, e.g.
( · · , ` ¸ ), (` , · , ` ¸ ) and (` ¸ · ` ¸ ).
Similarly, ( · · ` , ) etc. See the paradigms of
Lesson 20.

Note 9: The (.) of ( ·,· ) and (_~) is a sign of
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(.,·). Therefore it is called (·` , ,,· .,).

Note 10: The alif of ( ·,· ) and the (,) of (_~) in a
noun is a sign of (.,·). Therefore, changes take
place in them. Examine the examples of (·,·) and
(_~) above. However, they are not part of the
(.,·) in a verb but are pronouns. No change can
occur in them. Similarly, the (.) of ( ¸ · ,) and
( ¸ · ) is not a (·` , ,,· .,) but is a pronoun.
Therefore, no change ever occurs in it. It remains
constant in the (¸.'), (__.·) and (,·').

(¯_· ¬ - ¸| ¯¸ ¸ , = « · ¸ ¯_ = « | ` =·¸-·)

3. Wherever the (.,·) can be pronounced
without any difficulty, there the (.,·) is clearly
attached to the word. Such (.,·) is called
( ` · , ` . ¯ ¸ = ). However, where the (.,·) is
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difficult or heavy to pronounce, there the (.,·)
is not read, e.g. the words ( ` ,` · _ ) and ( . ·) are
(_,.· ,) because they have an (·_,.· .)
suffixed to them. See Lesson 38, Note 1. The
(.,·) of these words is not read in all three
cases, e.g.
( . - _` ,` · ), ( ` .`, ' _ _` ,` · ) and ( , . - _` ,` ) – He
brought Mūsā.

The (.,·) is implied in such words, according to
the context. Such implied (.,·) is referred to as
(¯ ¸ - · ,' ¯ ¸ ,`, ` .,·). See Lesson 10.8 and Lesson
38, Note 1.

The words (` ¸ . . ¸ ¸ ·) and (` ¸ _ - . ¸ _ -) are
(¸,· ,) or (¸·). See Lesson 10.9. The (.,·)
is (¯ ¸ ,`, ) in (` ,-, _·, ·-).
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The (.,·) in (.. ·-) only is (¯ ¸ = ), e.g.

` ,- .. _·,
¸ ¸ · _ · ` .` _ , · , . · ` .`, ' _ ¸ ¸ · . -
` ¸ . _ · ` .` _ , · ¸ . ` .`, ' _ ` ¸ . . -


Test No. 18 B

(1) Define what is (.,·).
(2) Where does the (.,·) occur?
(3) Can the harakāt of the beginning and
middle letters of a word be called (.,·)?
(4) How many types of (.,·. ····) are
there?
(5) What are the names of the harakāt of
(` ¸ ` )?
(6) What is the name of the (.,·) of a noun
and a verb?
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(7) Explain the (.,·) of (·,` ´· · .-'). When
they are (,` ·.·), what are their (.,·)?
(8) The letters ( .) and ( .) are the (.,·) of
which words?
(9) What is the sign of (.,·) of ( . · · ,) and
( .` , · ,); ( . ` ` ·) and ( .` ,` ` ` ·)?
(10) What kind of (.) is there in ( ¸ · ,) and
( ¸ · )?
(11) How many types of (.,·) are there?
(12) What names are given to nouns like ( ` , · _ )
and ( ,` ·` . ¸ ) and what is their (.,·) in all three
cases?
(13) What are nouns like (¸ ¸ ·), (¸ · _) and ( ¸ . )
called and what is their (.,·) in all three cases?
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Lesson 55
The Declension of a Verb
(¸· .,·)

Note 1: The (.,·) of a verb is discussed first,
because the discussion of the (.,·) of a noun is
lengthy.

1. The perfect tense (¸ .' ¸·) and the
imperative (,·') are indeclinable (` ¸ ` ). Only the
imperfect ( __.' ¸· ), when it is devoid of
(.,' _~ .,), is declinable (. ,·` ·).

The (.,·) of (__.' ¸·) is (_·_), (..) and
(·,-). In five word-forms, namely,
( ¸ · . ¸ · · ' . ¸ · . ¸ · . ¸ · ,), the (_·_) is with
(·` .), the (..) with (·-·) and the (·,-) with
(.,´). From the remaining word-forms, the two
feminine plurals, namely ( ¸ · ,) and ( ¸ · ), are
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indeclinable (` ¸ ` ). The (_·_) of the remaining
seven word-forms is by means of the (·,,,· .,).
The (..) and (·,-) is by eliding the (·,,,· .,).
The (__.· ¸··) is originally (_,·,·). Due to some
temporary cause, it becomes either (.,.·) or
(·,,` - ·).

The Occasions of (.=·) of a Verb
2. When any of the (·. ,,-), namely,
( . · ¸ . ` ¸ ¯ . ` ¸ . . '), precede the (__.· ¸··), the
latter becomes (.,.·).
You have learnt in Lesson 49 that the particle ( . ')
creates the meaning of the (_.· - verbal noun) in
the (__.· ¸··), e.g.
(` , ´ ` ,` , - ` , ´` · , . ¸ ·, ` , ´ ` ,` , - ` ,` ·` ,`. . ') – Your
fasting is better for you.

Note 2: The particle ( . ') is most often translated
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as “to”, e.g. ( · _ ' . ' ` . · -) – I came to see you.
The particle (` ¸ ) creates the meaning of negative
emphasis, e.g. ( = ,` , · ` ` · ` ¸ ) – We will never
worship anyone besides Allāh.

The particle (` ¸ ¯) indicates the cause of the action,
e.g. ( _ · ' ` ¸ ¯ ` .` ` ') - I embraced Islam in order
to succeed.
The particle ( . · ¸) also written as ( · ¸) comes in
response to a sentence. It appears before the
(__.· ¸··), e.g. if someone says, (` .` ` ' - I
embraced Islām), another person responds by
saying, ( _ ` . · ¸ - then you will succeed).

3. In the following five instances, the particle ( . ')
is (_` ` ·) – implied, that is, it is not mentioned in
words but is understood to be there. Due to this
implied ( . '), the (__.· ¸··) will change to the
accusative case (.,.·).

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1. ( ·` ,` -` - ` · .) – the (·.) that occurs after ( . ¯
·` , ` ·), e.g. (` , ,` , · .` ' , ` ,` , , ·` , = . ¯ ·) –
Allāh will not punish them while you are
among them. Here the verb ( . ·` , ) is in
the meaning of ( . ·`, . ' ).
2. (_` -), e.g. (` ¸ , ' ` ¸ . · ', _` - ¸` _ ' _ ,` , ' ` ¸ ) – I
will never leave this land until my father
permits me.
3. ( ' ` , ) when it means ( . ' _ ¸) or ( . ¸ . ' ), e.g.
(` ¸ - ` ¸ , =` ·` ` , ' :` · , ' ) – I will certainly
adhere to you until you give me my right.
In this instance, (` ¸ , =` ·` ` , ') means
(` ¸ , =` ·` . ' _ ¸).
4. (` ¸ ¯ ` · .) – that is, the (·.) which has the
meaning of (` ¸ ¯), e.g. ( : ¯ ' :` · -) – I
came to you so that I can speak to you. In
this sentence, ( , ¯ ' ) means ( , ¯ ' . ' ` ¸ ¯).
5. (·` , . ·), when it is in response to:
(1) the imperative (,·'), e.g. ( _ ` · ` , · ) –
Learn so that you succeed.
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(2) the prohibition (¸,), e.g.
( · ` · ¸ -` · .) – Do not be hasty otherwise
you will regret.

Note 3: If after the imperative (,·') or the
prohibition (¸,), (·` , . ·) does not precede the
(__.· ¸··), a jazm will read on it, e.g.
(` _ ` ` , · ) – Learn, you will succeed;
(` · ` ¸ -` · .) - Do not be hasty (otherwise) you
will regret.

(3) the interrogation (·,), e.g.
( · _` ,` _ ' · :` ` , , ¸`, ') – Where is your house so
that I can visit you.
(4) desire or wish (` ¸` ` ), e.g.
( = ¸` , ` ¸ · ` · ` ' · . · ` ¸ .` , ) – I wish I had
wealth so that I could spend it in the path
of Allāh.
(5) a request (¸` , ·), e.g.
( ' ` · `, · , ¸` - . · , ´ ) – Why don’t you come
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to our gathering so that you can be
honoured.
(6) negative statement (¸ ` ), e.g.
( . ´ ` · , =` ·` · ', ` , ) – He did not come to
us so that we could give him the book.

6. After ( ·` , · ` , ,) when it appears in the
following instances:
( _ ` , ` , ` ') – You embrace Islam and you
will simultaneously succeed.
( . ` · · ` ¸ , ¸ ¸ ` - ' _ · · ` · ) - Do not prevent
(another) from an (evil) trait when you
yourself perpetrate it.

Note 4: If the particle ( . ') appears after the verb
( , ·) or any of its derivatives, it will be regarded
as the abbreviated form (. -` ·) of ( . '). It will
render (..) to (__.· ¸··), e.g.
( , · .` , · ` , ´` · .` , ´ , . ' _ ) – He knew that there
will be people among you who are ill. See Lesson
49.

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Vocabulary List No. 46

Word Meaning
` ¸ ` ,, ¸ ` _ to exercise
¸ ' , ¸ . ¸ , to grieve
_ -` '
(1) to make someone
succeed
·` ` . , ·` . , to give charity
¸ ,` ` (10) to regard as easy
¸ . '
(1) to misguide, to
mislead
¸ ` '
(1) to break, infringe,
violate
¸` ,
(4) to appear, to become
clear
, ,
(3) to persevere, to
persist
. ,
(4) to be well-
mannered, to be
cultured
· - , , . . , to be generous
. - , ¸ ¸ . , to fail
` ,` ,` - . ` , - thread
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· , , . . , to go near
·` , ` - · .,` , physical exercise
· _ , , to be abstinent
· , , . . ,
to become a chief, to
govern
¸` , · . feeble, faint
. · ¸ , ¸ . ¸ , to disobey
, = , ¸ , to string (pearls)

Exercise No. 82

(A) Examine the imperfect verbs (__.' ¸·) in
the following examples and say whether they are
(_,·,·) or (.,.·). If they are , state the reason.

, 1 , ·` , : , · ,` ' . ' ` ¸ · : , ·` ,` · ' ` ¸` ¸ ` ,` , .
, 2 , · · ,` · ` ¸ · .` , - . ` ¸ ¯ ¸ ´ . .
, 3 , ¸`, , - ¸ · .` , ´ · , · : ·` , ' ` _` , .` ¸ · .
, 4 , ` ,` . _` - ` ¸` ` .` , · .
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, 5 , · ,` · : ` ` · ` ¸ · ¸` .` - _` - · , ` - , _ · ` , ,
` · , _ ' - ' _ -` ` , . ¯ · ¸ ´ . .
, 6 , ` , · ¸ ` ` ` ¸ ´ ` , , ` · , ` . ` - ' `.` ¯ · .
, 7 , ·` - · , · - ·` , ,` ' ¸ · · _ ` ¸¯ .
, 8 , _ ,` , · ` , - .
, 9 , ` ,` ·` ,` · ` ,` ·` ,` - .
, 10 , ` , · . ` ,` . ,` · ` , - . ,' , · ` ,` . .
, 11 , : · · , · ' · ` , · ` _ · .
, 12 , ¸` , : ` ` , , , : · . , , · ` , ,', ' ` , · · ·
·' ` · · _` , .` , _ - . ' .
, 13 , . ¸ · · ¸ ` . · ¸ ¸` , · . ¸ _` ,` ` ¸ · ·` , ' , · ' ` ¸` ¸ ` ¸ `,
= ` · ·` , · · =` . ` - · :` , ` , · ¸ ·` ,` .` ·` ., · · .` ·
·` , . , .
, 14 , ¸ ` -` · ` ¸ ` ¸ , , , ·` , · = _ . = ¸` ,` _ ¸ ·
, ` ,' , - _` - .` ,` ·` ,` . · , .
, 15 , , =` ' · ` ¸ ` ,` ` . ¯ , ´ .` , .
, 16 , ` · ' ` , ' .` ·` . ` ¸ ,` ` ' ` · _ _
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, , . . ¸ ¸ ·¯ . · ` · .

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān
into English.

, 1 , ¸ , ` , _` - , ` ` · .,' -` .
, 2 , ` ¸ ¯ : -` ` _ · ¯ . · , ¯ , _ · ¯ .
, 3 , ` , ´ ` , ' _ · · ` , ´ · , . ,` - , , ` , ¯ ¯ .
, 4 , , ¯ , ,` , ,` , _` - ¸` , , ` , ´ ` , - ` ¸ ,` , . ¸. ·
` , - · ,` . ¸ · ,` - .
, 5 , , . _ ` ¸ , , : .` , · ¸ · ¸, · .
, 6 , · ` ¸ · ` ¸ ` ¸ , `, · .` , · - ` · · ..` , · ` ·.
· ·` . ' ` , · ¯ · , .

Exercise No. 83

Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) O our Lord, we seek refuge in You from
disobeying You.
(2) Do not waste your time so that you do not fail
in your aim.
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(3) Are you being lazy, then you will remain
ignorant.
(4) Strive until you achieve your aim.
(5) Trade in order to obtain benefit.
(6) We will continue striving for the freedom of
our homeland until (` , ') we reach our ambition.
(7) Neither was the lazy trader going to make a
profit nor was the diligent one to suffer a loss.
(8) Unite in order to be independent.
(9) I wish I was young so that I could stand in the
row of the mujāhidīn.
(10) You will never be freed from the control of
the westerners until you learn the modern
sciences like them and you become selfless for
your nation.
(11) Why do you not ponder over the glorious
Qur’ān so that the door of guidance is opened for
you.
(12) Do not follow your desires lest they mislead
you from the path of Allāh.
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Lesson 56
The Jussive Case
( ¸` · ·` , - ` _ . , ·)

1. You read about the particles
(__.' ¸· ··_- ,,-) that render jazm to the
imperfect in Lessons 20 and 49. Now remember
that there are some nouns as well that render
(·,-) to the (__.· ¸··). Like (·` , ~` , . ¸), they
appear before two sentences, namely the (` , )
and (. , -). Accordingly, they are called
( ` ,` . ` ') or ( · _ -` ` , ¯) – words that render a
response.

Meaning Word
who ` ¸ ·
what, whatever ·
how, wherever ` ' _
when _ ·
whenever .`, '
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wherever `, '
whenever ` , ¯
whatever ` , ·
wherever ·` , -
which (masculine) ¯ ¸ '
which (feminine) ·`, '

Note 1: From the above-mentioned words, (` ¸ ·),
( ·), (_` '), (_ ·), ( .`, ') as well as ( ¸`, '), the following
words: ( .` , ¯), (¯ ¸ ') and ( ·`, ') are (·,. .-') –
interrogative pronouns. See Lesson 13.
The words ( ·), (¯ ¸ ') and ( ·`, ') are ( ,.,· .-' · ) –
relative pronouns. See Lesson 42. In these two
instances, these words do not have any effect, e.g.
( ' , , ` ¸ ·) – Who is reading?
(` ¸ ` ·`, ` ¸ · ·) – This is the one who is teaching
me.

2. The above-mentioned ( ` ,` . ` ') render jazm
to two verbs like (·` , ~` , . ¸) when both the verbs
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are (__.· ¸··).
Examples:

Whoever does any evil,
will be punished for it.
, 1 , · , ,` -`, .` ,` ¸ ` ·, ` ¸ ·
Whatever good action
you do, Allāh knows it.
, 2 , ¸ ,` , - ` ¸ · ` , · · ,
, = ` ·` ` ·
Whatever you give, you
will be given a
recompense.
, 3 , ,` -` ` ·` ` , ·
Whenever you two
strive, you will succeed.
, 4 , · - -` , ·` _
Wherever you are, death
will afflict you.
, 5 , ` , ´ ¯ _` `, ` ,` ` , ´ `, '
` , ` .
As you are, so will be
your companions.
, 6 , ` ¸ ´, ` ,` ` , ´ ` , ¯
` , ¯ . , ·
Whichever sūrah you
read, you will benefit
from it.
, 7 , ` ` ' , ¸ · _` ,` ·`, '
,` ·

Note 2: In the above-mentioned examples, the
first verb or sentence is called the (` , ) while the
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second one is called the (. , -). The (` , ) and
(. , -) together constitute a (·` , ~` , · ` ` -).

From the above list of words, (` ¸ ·) is used for
intelligent beings and it is the most frequently
one. The words, ( ·) and ( ` , ·) are used for non-
intelligent beings. (_ ·) and ( .`, ') denote time
while ( `, ') and ( ·` , -) denote place. The word
(_` ') can denote time as well as place. (¯ ¸ ') and ( ·`, ')
have the capability of any of the above meanings.

Note 3: Sometimes the word (_` ') is used to
denote the meaning of ( .` , ¯) and (_ ·), e.g.
( ¸· _` ' , ,· ·, = ·· ¸,- ) – He said, "How will
or when will Allāh bring this back to life?"

4. When a (__.· ¸··) occurs in the response of
the imperative (,·), it will be in the jussive case
(·` ,` ,` - ·), e.g. ( ´` ' ` , ` ` . ) – Be silent, you will be
safe.
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This jazm will apply when the meaning of ( . ¸ - if)
can be created at the beginning of the sentence.
Consequently, in the above example, one can say
(` , ` ` . ´` . ¸) - If you remain silent, you will be
safe.

5. It is compulsory to prefix the particle ()
33
to
the response (.,-) of a condition (,), when
the second sentence does not have the capability
of being a response. This will apply when it is a:
1) (·,- ·~)
2) (,·')
3) ( ¸, )
4) When (·,· ·) is prefixed to the verb
5) (` ¸ )
6) (` ·)
7) ( ¸) or ( ` , )
8) (·- ¸··) – that is, such a verb in which all

33
Such a particle is called (.` , ` ·` ,-).
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the paradigms are not used, e.g. ( ¸` , ),
(_ ·), etc.

Examples:

Analysis Sentence
The response contains a
(·,- ·~).

, 1 , ¸ ,` , - , = ` , ´` ` , . ¸
` ,`, · ¸ _` , ¸ ¯ _ · ,` , ·
The response contains
the imperative (,·').

, 2 , = .` ,' -` ` ,` ` ¯ . ¸
` ¸ ` ,` · ` ·
The response contains
(·,· ·).

, 3 , ' · ` ,` ` , , . , · ` , ´`
¸ ,` - ' ` ¸ ·
The response contains
(` ¸ ).

, 4 , ` ¸ · ¸ ,` , - ` ¸ · ` , · · ,
` ·` ,` , ´`
The response contains
(` ·).

, 5 , ` _ ' · , ` · ` · ,` , . ¸
` ·
The response contains
( ` , ).
, 6 , ¸ ` , · · ` , · ` ,` - .
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= ` , ´` , ` ·`,
The response contains a
(·- ¸··).

, 7 , . · :` · ¸ · ' ' . , . ¸
¸ , ` ,`, . ' ` ¸` , _ _ · · , ,
: ` - ` ¸ · ,` , -

The following verse alludes to this:

` , ~ ¸ ·` , ` .`, ,` ` , , ` , , ` ¸ , , , ¸ · - , , ¸ ·
¬1


That is, the particle () will be prefixed to the
second sentence, if the first sentence is a
(·,- ·~), (·` , ~ ·~) – that is (,·') or (¸, ), or it
contains a (·- ¸··), ( · ·,· ), (` ¸ ), (` ·), ( ¸) or
( ` , ).

6. It is permissible to prefix the particle () or not
to do so if the response is a (__.· ¸··) and it is
beyond the circle of the above-mentioned
examples.

34
To prefix the particle ( ` , ) to a verb is called (.`, ,` ).
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Examples:

( ' ` ,` ` ·, ` . ' ` , ´` · ` ¸ ´, . ¸ ¸` , ) – If there are a
thousand mujāhids among you, they will
overpower two thousand (disbelievers).

(` ·` · = ` , ` , · · · ` ¸ · ,) – Whoever returns towards
sin, Allāh will take retribution from him.

Note 4: You have read in Lesson 33 that the final
alphabet of a (¸· ¸··), that is (· · ¸ ` ·` ·), is
elided in the jussive case (·,- ·-), e.g. the verb
(¸, ) becomes ( , ` , ), (` ,` ·` · ') becomes (` _` · ' ` , ) and
(` ¸ ·` , ) becomes ( ·` , ` , ).

Exercise No. 84

Analyse the following sentences as the one below
has been done.

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- , ¸ ¬ , · , = ¸ « - , ¸ -
,-
. ,-
·
_.
_,,-
¸.·
_- .

_,,-
¸··
¸·
¸·
__.'
¸,,-
, ,` -`, ¸ ,
¸· .
¸, .
·,,-
,,
. ,
····

,-
·,· . ··
,· _.
.
. ¸·
¸,·· , ·
.,.·
¸·
__.'
·,,-
,,
. ,
_.

¸·
¸ _-_
''
·-
_,·,·
. , ,
·- . _'
·. _,·,·

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·-
_,·,·

, ¸· _· ¸·
¸,·' - ·,·· ·~
- ' _- ' ` ¸ · '

_· ¸,,- ¸·
¸· .
¸·', - ·` -
·,·· - .,-
_- _· '' - ·,- ·` - - ,
.,- _· , - ` - · ~` , ·` ,

, 1 , _ · ·` ,` · ` . ` · ` , . ¸ .
The verb ( _ ·) is the (,·') from (· _ ` ·) meaning "to
be sociable and affable".

, 2 , · , ` ·` ,` , ´` ` ¸ · ¸ ,` , - ` ¸ · ` , · .
¬¬

35
The particle ( ·) in this sentence is (, ,) and renders jazm to
the verb. It is (.,.· ·-) because it is the (¸,··) of (` , · ). It has
preceded (·` ` ·) the verb.
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Vocabulary List No. 47

Word Meaning
. . . ' , , ,
(1) to attain, to do properly, to
hit the mark, to reach
¸ -, ¸ - to think
¸ - , ¸ , to be hidden
` - ' _ (1) to hide, conceal
· ` , - characteristic
_ · ¸ , ¸ , (3) to be sociable, affable
, ¯ · ¸ remembrance, advice
, - , , to bewitch, to charm
` . ·` , . · ·` , evil
` · . ` `, pertinent, relevant, correct
_ .
(3) to cooperate, to go along
with
¸` , . (2) to bite firmly
· ,` · model, example
. = , . , to be kind, friendly
. = , · , to be fine, delicate, elegant,
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graceful
` , ` · ` , · .
foot sole, padded foot (of
animals)
` . ,` ' . ` . canine tooth, tusk, fang
_ ~ , , ¸ , to trample
, · , to respect, to revere

Exercise No. 85

Note 5: Determine the reason and the sign of the
jazm of (__.· ¸··) in the following sentences.
Some sentences have the particle () prefixed to
them. What is the reason for this?

, 1 , ` · ` , -` ,`, . ` , -` ,, · , .,- . ,
, 2 , ` ¸ · ` · ¸` , · ,` , ¯ ` , · ,`, . , ,` , ·. ` , -` ,, .
, .,- .,
, 3 , ` · ¸` , · ` · ` , . ` · , ´`, . ` ¸ · , .,- .,
, 4 , · _ :` , ` - ' ` , · ´, : · ·` - ' ` ¸` ` - .
, 5 , .` , = ¸` ,` -` · ` .` ·` ., ¸` ` ` _` ,` ¸` -` , ·` , - .
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, 6 , ` - · - · ,` · ` ,` ` , ´ . ' ` ¸ · . ,. ,', ' ` ,` ,
` , ¯` · .` , ' ` ¸ ´, ` ,` ` , ´ ` , ¯ ` , ´` ` , ¯ · .` , ' .
, 7 , . ` _ · ` ¸ · ` , ´` -` ,, ¸` _ ' _ · ` ¸ · ` ,` -` _
, .,- .,
, 8 , , ¯ · ` ¸ · :` · ¸ · , ¸ .` , - ¸ ,` .
, 9 , ¸ · ,` , · ¯ ¸ _` ,` · ' ` ¸ · ` _ .`, ` , ` ¸ · ,
¸ , ` , ' ~` ,`, , ¸ . ,` ' , ` ¸` , .`,
, 10 , ` · `, . ' ,` · ` . ` -, ` _ , ` ·, ` ¸ · ,
·` , ´`, ` , ` · ` ·` , ´`, ` , ` ¸ · ,
, 11 , ¸ · ` , - ` ¸ · ¸ ¸ ,` · ` · ` ¸ ´, ` , · ,
¸ , ` - , - . , ` ·` ¸` _ · _
, 12 , ` _ , ` · . , - ` : . , ` · `
¸ ` , -` · , ` , ` - . ,
, 13 , _` ,' ¸ · ` , · ¯ ' , ` . .` . ¸ :` , · ¸
- ` '` , _ =` -` ` , ' - · · _ ` ·` ¸ .

Note 6: The verbs at the end of the latter four
stanzas are (·,,- ·), but due to the scale of the
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poetry, a long kasrah is read on these words. The
word (¸ , ` ·) has two kasrahs. It will also be read
with a long kasrah. These factors are permissible
in poetry.

Exercise No. 86

Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān.

, 1 , , ´ -` . , · ·, · , ´` , , _ · ¯ .
, 2 , . · ` . ,` · ' ` ·¯ ¸ · ` , ` ,` ·` ,` , ¸ ´ ` , · ` , ` ` ' ` ,
¸` -` , . · , ` ¸ · ` , ´ ,, · .
, 3 , . ¸ , ` ` ,` · ¸ · ` , ´ ' ` , ' ` ·, ` -` , ´` -`, · , ` · .
, 4 , ¸ · , ` _ =`, · ` · ,` _ , ` · _ · _` , · , = · .
, 5 , , · , ` , · ' · , ¸ · ¸ ·,¯ , -` , , · ` ¸` - :
¸ ·` ,` , .
, 6 , , ` · ` , · , ` , ` , · , . ` _ ` .`, ` , ´ ` , ´ ` · ' .
, 7 , . ¸ ` , ´` ` · - ` ,` ·` ,` . ¸ , ` , ´` .` · ·` , ,` - , , , , .
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Lesson 57
The Declension of a Noun
(,. .,·)

1. With regards to (.,·), nouns are of three
types:

(1) (` ¸ ` ) – Indeclinable Nouns whose final
radicals remain unchanged in the different cases
and they are not affected by any (¸··), e.g.

` ,- ·- .. ·- _·, ·-
, ` . · . .` , · ` .`, ' _ . .` , · . - . .` ,

(2) ( ` , .` ` ` . ,` ·` ) triptotes
36
– those
nouns whose ends change due to a change in case
and which accept (_·_), (..) and (` ,-) with
tanwīn, e.g.

36
This is a class of nouns that is fully declined. The Arabs call
declension (.,·).
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` ,- ·- .. ·- _·, ·-
¸ ¸` - , ` . · ·` - _ ` .`, ' _ ¸` - _ . -

(3) ( ` . ,` ·` , .` ` ` ,` , · ) diptotes
37
– nouns
which do not accept tanwīn and in the
nominative case (_·, ·-), a dammah is used,
while a fathah without tanwīn is used in the
accusative and genitive cases (` ,-, .. ·-),
e.g.

` ,- ·- .. ·- ·- _·,
, ` · ` . · , ` · ` .`, ' _ ` , ` · . -

2. The indeclinable nouns ( ' ·` , ` · . ` ) are very
few. They are as follows:

Pronouns (,.). These are discussed in

37
These are certain classes of nouns that are not fully declined.
European grammarians sometimes refer to them as diptotes. (A
New Arabic Grammar by Haywood and Nahmad, p. 34, 1970,
Lund Humphries)
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Lessons 6, 11, 14, 15, 17 and 41.
Indicative Pronouns ( · _ , . ` '). See Lesson
12.
Interrogative Pronouns ( · , ` , . ` '). See
Lesson 13.
Relative Pronouns ( · ` ,` .` , . ` '). See Lesson
42.
Conditional Nouns ( ` ,` . ` '). See Lesson 56.
Compound Numbers ( · ¯ ,` · ` · ` · ') – that is, from
( , · - ' - 11) till ( , · · ·` - 19). See Lesson 44.
Vague Nouns ( ·, ´ . ` '), e.g. (` , ¯), (` ¸`, ' ¯),
( ¯), ( .`, · , .` , ¯). See Lesson 64.
Nouns of Sound ( .` ,` . . ` '), e.g. ( · · · · - the
sound of a crow), (¸ _ , - the sound used to make a
camel sit), etc.
( ¸ · · ' . ` ') – these are words which are not
verbs but have the meaning of verbs, e.g.
( . ,` , · - to be far). See Lesson 75.
The scale of ( ¸ · ·) if it is used to denote the
name of a female, or it is an adjective or it
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denotes the meaning of the imperative (,·'), e.g.
( · - - name of woman), ( · · - a transgressing
woman), ( _ - - meaning “beware”).

Note 1: The dual forms of the ( · _ , . ` ') and
( . ` ' · ` ,` .` , ) are declinable, e.g. ( · . ), ( · `, ¸ ),
( . ), ( ¸`, ), ( : ·) and ( : `, ·).

(= ¸ = · « |· ¸ , - |· = ¸ - « | ·)
3. These are the types of ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·) and the
method of recognizing them:

(1) A proper noun ( , · ` ,` ) will be ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·)
when:
a) it is feminine and it has more than three
alphabets or its middle alphabet is (·` , - ` ·) –
having a harakah, e.g. ( · ~ ·), (` . `, _) and
(` , ).
b) it is non-Arabic and it has more than three
alphabets, e.g. (` ¸`, _` · ), (` ,` , · ,` , ). The name
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(` _` ,` ) is fully declinable ( , .` ` ·). It will also
be ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·) if its middle radical is
(·` , - ` ·), e.g. (` , ) – name of a fort or it is
feminine, e.g. (` ,` . ·) – Egypt. However,
there is a difference of opinion with regard
to the word (` ` ·). According to some
scholars, it is masculine while others are of
the view that it is feminine.
c) where two words are joined in such a
manner that they have become one word,
e.g. (' : ` · ,)
38
– name of a city. Such a
compound is called (¸ -` , · . ¯ ,` ·) or
(¸ - , ` · . ¯ ,` ·).
d) such a noun which has an extra alif and
nūn at the end, ( . ·` ·).
e) it has the same scale as a verb, e.g. (` ` - '),
(` `, ,,).
f) a proper noun on the scale of ( · ¸ · ), e.g.

38
The word ( ¸` · ,) is the name of an idol while (' : ,) is the name of a
king.
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(` , ` ·), (` , ·` _). Very few words are used on this
scale.

Note 2: The plural of some adjectival nouns
(· ` . . ` ) also appears on the scale of ( ¸ · ·) and
they are ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·), e.g. (` , - ') is the plural of
(¸ ,` - ' - other). (` _ ` -) is the plural of ( . ·` - – all
together). However, the scale of ( ¸ · ·) used as the
feminine plural of the elative (¸` , . ` ` ,` ), is
( , .` ` ·), e.g. (` , ¯), the plural of ( ,` ¯ ¸ ) and (` , ·` .),
the plural of ( ,` ·` . ¸ ). See 14.3.

(2) An adjective (· ` . ` ,` ) will be ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·)
when:
it is on the scale of ( . ·` · ·), on condition that
its feminine form is not on the scale of
( · ·` · ·), e.g. ( . , ´ - intoxicated), ( . = · -
thirsty). The feminine forms are ( , ´ ¸ )
and ( = · _ ) respectively. The word ( . ·` )
is ( , .` ` ·) because its feminine form is
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( ·` · ).
it is on the scale of ( ¸ · · '), e.g. (` , ` - '), (` ¸ ` - '),
etc.
it is such a numeral whose meaning has
repetition, e.g. (` · - ') – one by one, (` -` , ·) –
one by one. Each of these words contain the
meaning of (` - , ` - ,) – one by one. ( . ) –
in twos, ( · · _ ) – in twos. This continues in a
similar manner till (` _ ` ·) and (` , ` · ·) – in
tens. See 46.5.

(3) When an extra (· ·` ,` ` · . ) appears at the end
of any noun or adjective, it is also ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·),
whether the word is singular, e.g. ( . ` ' - name of
a woman), ( . ` - - a beautiful woman), ( . ,` - -
red) etc. or whether it is plural, e.g. ( . ` · -
scholars), ( . , ` ' - messengers), etc.

Note 3: The word ( . ` ') which is the plural of
(` ,` ) is ( , .` ` ·) because its hamzah is not extra
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and is changed from a (,). The word (` ,` ) was
originally (` ,` ).
However, the word ( . ,` '), the plural of ( _` , ),
although having an original hamzah, is used as
( , .` ` ` ,` , ·), e.g. ( . ,` ' ` ¸ · ` , ·` .).

(4) the plurals which appear on the following
scales are ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·):

Plural
Scale
Example Singular Meaning
¸ · · ` , · _ · ` , ·` _ · silver coin
¸` , · · ` ,` , · ` _ `, · gold coin
¸ · · ' ` , , ¯ ' ` , ¯ ' elder
¸` , · · ' ` .`, · ¯ ' · ,` , ¯ ' lie
¸ · · ` - · ` -` · musjid
¸` , · · ` _` , , . · ` _ ` . · lamp
¸` , · ¸` , ¸ ·` statute
¸ · , · ` , , · · , · circle, calamity
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If a round tā (· ~` ,` ,` , · ) is suffixed to these scales,
the word becomes ( , .` ` ·), e.g. ( · ' - teachers),
( · , - - plural of ¯ ¸ ` -).

All the above-mentioned scales are called
( _` ,` ` - _ , ` ` · · ·` , . - the final plurals) because a
further broken plural cannot be constructed from
them, although a sound plural may be formed,
e.g. ( .` ,` , , ¯ ' - elders). However, this is very rare.

4. You have already learnt that in the genitive
case (,- ·-), a noun that is ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·) cannot
take the kasrah. It accepts only the fathah.
However, when the definite article is prefixed to
such a noun or it is (.·), it accepts the kasrah
in the genitive case (,- ·-), e.g.
` ¸ · ¸ _· = - , ,` . · = -· . - ` · ` · · ·· , · - | · | , ·· ¸ « « |· , ¸ , , | |·
, . , = | |·

Translation: There is a place for the wealthy, the
poor, the white and the black in the madrasahs
and musjids of Egypt.
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The words in bold are ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·) but they are
(_,´·).
Similarly, if any proper noun is regarded as
indefinite, tanwin and kasrah can be read on it,
e.g. ( ·` · ` .`, ' _) – I saw an Uthmān.

5. The (.,·) of the dual and sound plural forms
of a ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·) is the same as ( , .` ` ·) words,
e.g.
¸`, , ` - ' .` ,` , ` - ' ¸`, , ` - ' . , ` - ' `, ` - '

Note 4: We have explained the section of
( , .` ` ` ,` , ·) in an innovative and simplified
manner. In the ancient books of Arabic Grammar,
it is expounded in another style which is slightly
more difficult to grasp. Then too, we will clarify
the old method and explain it here so that you do
not incur any difficulty when you study other
books of Grammar.

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The Old Method of Explaining (= ¸ = · « |· ¸ , -)
When any two of the following causes are found
in a noun, it will be ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·). These aspects
or causes are:

Causes
( · =¸=|· _·- =·,= )
Meaning
·` , · proper noun
· . or .` . , adjective
.` , ' feminine
.` _ , ¸` · scale of the verb
¸` · changed from original
. _ .` ,` , ` . ' extra alif and nūn
· ` -` · non-Arabic
¸ -` , · .` , ¯` ,
combination of two
words to form one
· _ · ·` ,` ` · ` . '
extra alif succeeded by
hamzah
- ` _ ` ` · , _ ` - ` ` , _ the final plural scale

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(i) Firstly understand that (¸` ·) refers to a word
that has changed from its original form into a
new form. It is of two types: ( ¸· _,- ) and
(¸,, ¸·).

If there is an indication or proof that a word has
changed from its original form to adopt the new
one, it is called (_,- ¸·) or ( ¸· _,- ), e.g. the
word ( .· ) – three three. One cause is (· .)
while the other is (¸` ·). The meaning of this
word indicates that it was originally ( · · · · )
and then it changed to ( .· ). Accordingly, it is
said to have (_,- ¸·).

Words which do not have an indication or proof
of change of form are said to have (¸,, ¸·),
e.g. (` , ` ·), (` , ·` _), etc. These words are ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·)
because they do not contain any other cause
except (·` , ·). It is therefore assumed that these
words were originally (` , · ·) and (` , · _) and have
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now taken the form of (` , ` ·) and (` , ·` _). This is
called (¸,, ¸·).

(ii) The cause, (· .), cannot combine with (·` , ·).
If any adjective is made into a proper noun, its
adjectival quality (· .) no more remains, e.g. the
word (` · -) is originally an adjective because it is
an (¸· ,). When someone is given the name
of (` · -), it only remains a proper noun.
Consequently, it will not be ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·).

(iii) An Arabic adjective cannot be (· ` -` ·) nor can
it be (¸ - , ` · . ¯ ,` ·).

(iv) The ( · _ · ·` ,` ` · ` . ') and ( - ` _ ` ` · , _ ` - ` ` , _ )
are such causes that take the place of two causes.
They are individually sufficient to render a word
( , .` ` ` ,` , ·), e.g. ( . ,` - . - desert), ( . ` · -
scholars), (` - · - mosques), ( ¸`, · · - candles).

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If any cause from no. 3 till no.8 combines with
(·` , ·) in any word, it will be ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·), e.g.
( · ~ ·) has (·` , ·) and (.` , ' );
(` ` - ') has (·` , ·) and ( ¸` · .` _ ,);
(` , ` ·) has (·` , ·) and (¸` ·);
(. ·` ·) has (·` , ·) and ( _ .` ,` , ` . ' . );
(` ,` , · ,` , ) has (·` , ·) and (· ` -` ·);
(' : ` · ,) has (·` , ·) and (¸ -` , · .` , ¯` , ).

If any cause from no.3 till no.6 combines with
(· .) in any word, it will be ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·).
However, the ( . ` .` , ' )
39
will not be considered
in this case. Only the ( · _` ,` . · ` . ') and
( · ·` ,` ` · ` . ') will be considered, e.g.
(_` ` -) and ( . ` -) have (· .) and (.` , ' );
(` , ` - ') has (· .) and ( ¸` · .` _ ,);

39
It was mentioned in Lesson 4 of Volume One that there are
three signs for a word to be feminine, namely, (.` , ' ` . ) – (·), ( ` . '
· _` ,` . ·) and ( · ·` ,` ` · ` . ').
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( . · ) or ( . · ·) has (· .) and (¸` ·);
( . = ·) has (· .) and ( . _ .` ,` , ` . ').

Examples of nouns that are ( , .` ` ` ,` , ·):

Examples Causes
` · ·` · -`, - . · ,` - . · ´ · . .,' , ·
` · ·¯ ` ¸` ` ,`, . ` .` , ` ·, . ¸` , · ` . ` ¸ - · , ·
. . -` ` -` · . . -` , . ·
` ,` , ·` _ ' . ` . , ´`, ` · ·
.¯,' , ·
` ·, . ` . ,` ' . ` ,` ` , ´` , ._ ' , · ¸· ._,
` , ·` _ . ¸ ` · . ` , .` · ¸ · · ._, _· , ·
. . · _ . . ` · . .` - . . · · .,, .. _· ,
. ` . · . .`, _ . .¯ · . . ·` .,, .. _· ·.
¯ ' . ` , · ¯ ' . ` , =` · ' ` ¸ ,` · ' . ` , ¸ · · ' ._,' ·.
` - . ` _ ,` _ ` ¸ ` - · . ` _ ,` , · . ` ¸ _·' ¸ _,´' ··
. _` ,` · . . ,` - . . . ,` - .
. ` -
··,· .
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¸ · , ¸ · ·` · _~ , · . ` , , , _~
¸ , ` · , ` ¸` , ¯ · . ¸`, · · . ` _`, _ , .
` · , · .
_,- _,· ··,.

Vocabulary List No. 48

Word Meaning
` · ,¯ . ` , ' ever
¸ ` , ' , ¸ , (1) to expose, reveal
` ¸`, ,` , ¸ ` ¸`, _ , ' . jug, pitcher
` _ , ` _ , , , (7) satisfaction, pleasure
¯ ¸ ` ` ,` , orange
.` , ´ (4) to be created, formed
_ - , ¸ ,
(4) to adorn oneself, to don
jewellery
¯ - effort, eagerness
¸ - , ¸ , to be great, exalted
¸` - ' most exalted
¸` , - favour, beautiful
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¸ ` - . · ` - clothing
-
(2) to make eternal,
eternalize, immortalize
. ¯` _ ' . ` ¸ ¯` _
pillar, member of a family
or group
.` ,` , . to be bad, evil, foul, to hurt
` · . ` `, severe, strong
¸ . · ` ,
character, nature, good
qualities
. ~ ` · , ¸ ,
to please, to be to someone’s
liking
~ , . ,
to go about, to
circumambulate
. ´ · , ¸ , to seclude oneself
·, · concern, attention
¯ ¸ · , ` ¸ , · ' . ` ¸` , · bow
` ¸` , · _ , · rainbow
` ¸` ,` , ¯ . ` ¸ ' ¯ glass
` . , ¯ ' . ` .` , ¯ cup
,` , · .
no wonder, it is small
wonder
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` ` - · glory, splendour
· ¸ extreme, limit, duration
` ¸` , · · spring
_· , to appear, to fulfil
¯ ¸ ` , indigo
¯ ¸ - , violet

Exercise No. 87

(A) Which words are (,.· _·) in the following
sentences:

, 1 , ··,_' .,` , .- · ¯ ¸·, .··, ` ,·, ¸ ,´, ,,'
¸·~' ,,· = ¸._ .
, 2 , ., ` ¸ ,' ¸, ·,,·· ,·` ,' ,· ··,_' ·` ,·' ` ¸ , .-
··- ··, ¸ - ¸, .,,· ,·,-¯, · .,·, . ,, .
, 3 , ¸, .·· ¸·_ ¸ .-· .,- ·,=· ·,· ·,·
.· ·· = ¸._ .
, 4 , ,=' ·,' ¸ · . ¸ · ` ,,=, ` ,` , = · ` ¸` , · _ , · ` ¸` , ·
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·__', ,.', _,,, ,~' .,' ·· ¸· .,´, ,·,
, .` -', ´ ¸ - ,, ´ ¸,, .

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān:

, 1 , ,` - ´ · · . ~ , ´ ¸` · . ` _ · · . · , _ ,` _ , .
, 2 , ` · , , ` · ¸ -` ¸ ., ` ·, , · ¯ `, · -,` , `, · ¸ · ¸` ·
¸ · , · `,` _ · ·,` , · . ` , ` , ', ' , ., .` ,`, , _ ,` · , .,` _ · ,
: ¯ , ¸ ,` - ¸ ` -` . `, , ¯ _ , _ ,` -, , _ , · , ¸ , ¸ ,
¸ ¯ ¸` · ¸ - ` . . ¸, · ` ¸ , _ , , ¸` ,`, , ~, , · ¯ ,
` .· _ · ¸ · .
, 3 , , ' ', , ¸, ,` ·¯ . , '` ` ¸ · . ,` ' . ¸ ` ` ` , ´ ` , ¯` ,` .
, 4 , . ¸ ¸ · ¸ . ` ' ·,` ` ` ,` ` ,` ' , ¯` , ,¯ , .
, 5 , · · · ¸, ` ¸ ` ,` ' , ., ¯ · .
, 6 , ` , =, ` , ,` , · . , .,` -' · . ' , ¸ . , ¯ ¸, _ , ' , ¸ ¸ ' ¯ ,
¸` · ¸ ¸ ·` · .

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(C) Examine the following letter carefully and
translate it into English.

.,- ·, ¸ , ¸· .,´·
,,-, ¸~, = ,,
·,´' ¸,
·¯,,, = ·~_, ·· :,·, . :,` - ¸, ·,,
·,, .·, ·` ' :·` ' :,· ·,·· ¸ · :` _ ` .,
,· , · · , , . ,· · ¸··' ¸· _·´, = :·` · .,
` - , ,=· _,, _ ,` ,~ ··,·· .,¸ ¸ · :' ,- ¸
:,· . -,, ` ' .¯ · _,_ , =·' ·, ·.,,
, ´ ¸·, .··, ,· :,-¸ ·,·~, ··_ :,- ', ,·
,,` ,` , .
¸-, ¸. ¸ ` - ¸· .` , - · ` _` , ` :_ .·,
¸ . = -· :·' _,,, :· ¸` - , ` ,` ,
:, ·,· _· . ` ¸ ` , : :·, ¯ ' ` ¸` ¸ . ·,· = _. ' , ¸·
··', ,¯·.,' ,·,¯' ,, ·,¯¸, ' ¸-' : .
¯_, .¸ ¸ · ,·· ·-_ _. :` ' = ¸· ,-_'
:, . , . ·` - · _· ` - · ·,,, . _· ¸ ,
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·, ¯ · ·,. . ·¸ ,,·.,

, ` , · ·_·¯ ·· _· · ` ¸, - ', . ,- . ·.,. ·
··' ¸ ·,,· ` .` ,· . , ·,. ¸· _· ` ·,, · ,
` ,, ` · ,· . ·` - _· ` ¸ · ·, : ·,, ` ¸ · ·' ,` , · ,

··,
·,,' ·_- .~
_,· ·


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Lesson 58
The Cases of the Noun

1. You have learnt in Volume 1, Lesson 10 and in
several other places, the different occasions where
a noun is rendered (_·_), (..) and (` ,-).
This will now be discussed in certain detail in this
lesson and in the following lessons.

2. As a reminder, we will first note the different
cases of a noun:

, 1 , ¸·· , 2 , ¸· . , 3 , '·
, 4 , _-
_·_ _=·,-
,=v·
Nominative
, 1 , ·, ¸,·· , 2 , ¸=· ¸,·· , 3 ,
· ¸,·· , 4 , ·,· ¸,·· , 5 , ¸,··
··· , 6 , ¸-
, 7 , ,` , ,` , 8 , _ · ` ' , 9 , ¸· '
, 10 , ¸` - ¸ . , 11 , .¸ ,
, ,-', , 12 , , ,-', . ¯ , -
.=· _=·,-
,=v·
Accusative
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, 1 , ` , - ,- ·, , 2 , ·,¸ .·
,=v· ¸- _=·,-
Genitive

The first category, namely (,. _·_ _.,·) is
referred to as the (.·,·,·), the second one,
namely (,. .. _.,·) is called (.,,.·)
while the third one, namely (,. ` ,- _.,·), is
termed as (. _,` ,` - ·).
Each one will be now discussed in detail.

The Nominative Case
(=·-,·¸'·)
The (¸-··) and (¸-·«|· .···)
3. The position of the (¸··) and (¸· .) in
Arabic is after the verb, e.g. ( - ` `, _ · , ¯ '),
( · , ¯ ' ` - ).

4. If the (¸··) and (¸· .) precede the verb,
they will be referred to as the ('·) in the analysis
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of the sentence, while the remainder of the
sentence will be the predicate (_-). In this way,
there will actually be two sentences, a smaller one
included in the main sentence. The analysis of the
sentence, ( - · , ¯ ' ` `, _) will be as follows:

- · , ¯ ' ` `, _
¸,··
¸· . ¸··
,` · _.

·,·· ·` - , ¸,·. , - _- '·
·, - ·` - , ¸_¯ ,

5. If the (¸··) succeeds the verb, the latter will
always be singular, even if the (¸··) is dual or
plural, e.g.

Plural Dual Singular
` · .` , ' , . - . , , . - ` , , . -
. ` . , . - . '` , . , . - · '` , . , . -

Such a (¸··) is called (, · ~ ¸··). See Lesson 18.1.
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6. You have learnt in Lesson 18 that when the
(¸··) is a broken plural (,´· _~), whether it is
masculine or feminine, the verb can be either
masculine or feminine. One can say ( ¸ -` , , . -)
or ( . , . - ¸ -` , ). Similarly, one can either say
( . ` , . -) or ( . ` . , . -). One can use a
masculine or feminine verb for the sound
feminine plural (, .,· _~) but only a
masculine verb can be used for the sound
masculine plural ( ,¯· _~ , ). Therefore one
can only say ( .` ,` ` ` , . -) and not
( .` ,` ` ` . , . -). However, the sound plural of
the word (` ¸` , ), namely ( .` ,` ,) or ( ¸` , ,) is treated like
its broken plural ( . ` , '). Hence, one can use the
singular feminine verb for it as well, e.g.
( ¸` , ,` ` ,` , · , ` . ·¯)
40
.

Note 1: You have learnt that the word (` ¸` , ) was

40
The nūn of the word ( .` ,` ,) has been elided due to being (.·).
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originally (` ,` ,). Therefore its sound plural is
( .` ,` ,` ,) which was abbreviated to ( .` ,` ,).

7. If the (¸··) is a pronoun (_.), it is necessary
for the verb and the (¸··) to correspond in
gender, e.g.
(` ,` - , ` · .` , ' , . -), ( - , . ` . , . -).
Such a (¸··) is called a (, ` .` · ¸··).
If the (¸··) is the plural of an untelligent being
( · _· ¸· ), its pronoun is normally singular
feminine and sometimes plural feminine, e.g.
(` ¸ ` , , ¸` , - ` , ' ` . , - · . · ´ ` .`, , ` ) – I bought the
dogs and they guarded my house.
If the plural of an intelligent being replaced the
word ( · ´ . ), the masculine plural would be
used, e.g.
(` ¸ ` , , ` ,` , - · . · ` .` , - ' ` ) – I hired the youth
and they guarded my house.

8. The position of the (¸··) is immediately after
the verb without any separation. This is followed
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by the object (¸,··). However, it is not necessary
to maintain this sequence. A separating word can
intervene between the verb and the (¸··), e.g.
( , ¯ ¯ ¸ · ·` , , ' , ·). Sometimes the (¸,··) precedes
the (¸··) and even the verb, e.g. ( ¯ ' , · ¯ ¸ · , ),
(¯ ¸ · ' , · , ¯). However, the (¸··) cannot precede
the verb. If the (¸··) appears before the verb, it
will not be called the (¸··) but will now be called
the ('·).

Where is it necessary to make the (¸-··) precede
the (,,-«-) or succeed it?
9. It is necessary to make the (¸··) precede the
(¸,··) in the following instances:
(a) when both the (¸··) and the (¸,··) lack
outward (.,·), both have the ability of being the
(¸··) or the (¸,··) and there is no way to
distinguish between them, e.g. ( _,` -, · , ¯ ' _` , · ) –
Yahyā honoured Īsā. If the word ‘Īsā’ has to
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precede the (¸··), it will be regarded as the (¸··)
and what the speaker meant will not be achieved.
However, in examples such as ( ¸ ¯ ' _,` -, ¸, ·` ¯ -
Yahyā ate a guava), it is permissible to make the
(¸··) succeed the (¸,··) because a guava is not
something that can eat Yahyā.

(b) when the (¸,··) occurs after ( . ¸) or any
word with a similar meaning, e.g.
( ,' ' , · . ¸ ` `, _ · , ¯ ' · ´ ¸ · ,` , · – Zaid did not honour
anyone besides Ālī). If one has to make the (¸,··)
precede the word ( . ¸) by saying,
( · , ¯ ' · ` `, _ . ¸ ' , · ) – No one honoured Ālī besides
Zaid, the meaning will change. The word ( ` ¸)
creates limitation, e.g.
(' , · ` `, _ · , ¯ ' ` ¸ – Zaid only honoured Ālī). This
sentence has the same meaning as the first one. It
is necessary to make the (¸··) precede the (¸,··)
otherwise the meaning will change.

10. In the following instances, it is necessary to
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make the (¸··) succeed the (¸,··):
(a) when the (¸··) has a pronoun referring
to the (¸,··) attached to it, e.g. ( ' ` ·` ·` , · - · , ¯ –
Khālid’s nation honoured him). In this example,
the word (` ·` , ·) is the (¸··). Attached to it is a
pronoun ( . ` · ) which reverts to the (¸,··), namely
Khālid. If one has to say ( ` ·` ·` , · · , ¯' - ), it will
necessitate uttering a pronoun before mentioning
the person or thing which it refers to
( , ¯ ¸` · ` _ ` . ¸). This is generally regarded as
defective in Arabic.

Note 2: You have learnt above that the sequence
in a sentence is first the verb, followed by the
(¸··) and then the (¸,··). Even if the (¸,··)
precedes the (¸··), in status it will succeed the
(¸··). In the above-mentioned example, if the
word (` ·` ·` , ·) precedes the (¸··), the pronoun ( . ` · )
refers to such a noun which comes later in words
and in status. This is not permissible. However, if
a pronoun referring to the (¸··) is attached to the
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(¸,··), ( ` _ ` . ¸ , ¯ ¸` · ) will be permissible, e.g.
( ·` , · · , ¯' ` · ` - – Khālid honoured his nation),
because although the word Khālid succeeds the
pronoun in words, it precedes it in status due to it
being the (¸··).

(b) when the (¸··) occurs after the word
( . ¸), e.g. ( . ¸ ' , · · , ¯ ' · ¸ `, _ ` ,` , · ,' ` `, _ – No one
honoured Ālī besides Zaid). If one has to make the
(¸··) precede the word ( . ¸) in this case, the
meaning will be distorted.

(c) if the (¸,··) is attached to the verb, one
will be compelled to make the (¸··) succeed it,
e.g. (` `, _ : , , . – Zaid hit you). The pronoun ( ·) is
the (¸,··) in this example and it is attached to
the verb.

11. You have learnt in Lesson 17 that some verbs
have two or three objects. However, the
(¸· .) of the passive verb, which is (_,·,·),
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remains one. The remaining objects will remain
(.,.·) as normal, e.g. (' , · · - ` `, _ , · – Zaid
regarded Hāmid to be wealthy). In the passive
tense, this will be changed to ( ` · ' , · ` · - , –
Hāmid was thought to be wealthy).

Note 3: You have learnt the method of changing
(,,·· ¸··) into (¸,,- ¸··) in Lessons 14, 15 and
25. When the need arises, form the (¸,,- ¸··)
accordingly.

12. The verbal noun (_.·) and some derived
nouns (·· .-') also have a (¸··) and (¸,··).
See Lesson 22. These words also render (_·_) to
the (¸··) and (..) to the (¸,··), e.g.
(¸ `, _ ¸ , · ` ·` , · ` ¸ ,` . - – The one whose horse
surpassed the horse of Zaid came). In this
example, the first (¸ , ·) is the (¸··) of (` ¸ ,` )
while the second one is the (¸,··). The definite
article ( ¸ ) in this case is an (¸,.,· ,). Therefore
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the meaning of (` ¸ ,` ) is ( ¸ ` ¸ ). See Lesson
42.6. The (_.·) and ( · .-' · ) will be discussed
in detail in the forthcoming lessons.

Vocabulary List No. 49

Word Meaning
_ ` , , , , (7) to put to the test, to afflict
,` ` (10) to drain off, to extract
_, ' , , , (1) to distract, to divert attention
` , - , . ,
to pull, to render a kasrah to any
noun
¸ . - , . ,
to brood, to incubate (an egg),
to raise (a child)
· , _ to seduce, to entice
· ` ¸ · · , _
to tempt someone to commit
evil
_ = · , , to sever relations, to traverse
· . , . – , , to reproach
·` , · (2) to tear, to rip apart
` . ·, . , to attack, to jump
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· · , ¸ , to demolish
` . ,` · ' . ¯ ¸ , ,` · ' Bedouin
` ,` · , dung
· .` , , ` ¸` , , . egg
` _ , , . · ·` , , church
· ` · , suddenly
` ·` , ` - . ` - hide, skin
. ,` - ' . ` ¸` , - time, sometimes
` , ·` _ . · ,` ·` _ group
· , - . ` , - magician
· - field, courtyard
` ·` ,` -` . ` ,` - fat
` . · . ` _` candle, lamp
.` - . ' . ` _` , - . healthy
` _ · , . . · · ·` , . monastery
,' ` ,` , ~ . ` , ~
` _` ,` , ~
bird
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· ` ` , fortune teller, diviner
. ,` , · . · _ ' · mouse
,' ` _ , · ' . ` _` , ·
` _` ,` , ·
chick
. · `, , · ,' ` ¸`, , ·
_` , ·
prey
. ,` · . _ · youth
` ¸` ,` clothing
· · ` · to attack suddenly
¸ · . ¸` · shoe, sandal
' . ` , , , ` _ ,` , hair of camel, etc.
` ·` , · , fuel

Exercise No. 88

Note 4: Recognize the (, · ~ ¸··) and ( ¸·· , ` .` · )
in the following sentences. Ponder over the
occasions where the verb and the (¸··)
correspond and where they do not correspond.
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Also note where the (¸··) necessarily precedes or
succeeds the object.

1 , ¸ ,` - ' ` ¸ · ` , '` , ` ¸ ` · ` ,` - , ` ¸ ` - ' ` . . - ,' . -
, ` .
2 , _-' ., = , ,- .` ,` ,` ´ ' _ ` _ ` , , .
3 , ` ,` ·, . ` - . . ` ,` · ,' - ·` -` . ·,· . ` ` , ` `, _
¸ , ', .
4 , ` ¸ · · ·` , ´` - · · ¸` , ´ ` , ·,` , · ,` ` . . - ,' . -
` , , ` - . , ` ¸ · · .` , ' ,` , ` · .
5 , , -` ,` , · ¸ = ` -, ,' -, , .` , , ` ,` , = ` ¸.` - .
6 , ¸¸ ` ¸ ` - ' :· ,·=· ,, :,_·' .
7 , ,· _=, ·-, · , ._` , = ¸ · .,,·, .,·.
¸, _=, ··· _· ·,, ,·_· ¸¸ ,,.,, .,
, ,- ,, ` -_', .,· ,- ·,, _=, .,,·,
_· .,·,, ·' ·, ,, . ¸¯' ¸, · _· .,,
·' · ,·,· .,·. ·- = .,-, ,·_· ,·, ·¸
·_,= ¸ ,·· ,· ,, ', .,' ¸· ·,- = .,,¯,
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' ,_ ,,,=·' · .,, · ¸· ,, · .,´, ¸, = .,,´,.
.· ,,· ¸´ ·· .·, ,, ¸ .,·, , ,' ,`,'
·· ·,- ·· ¸· :,_ :,=· · _· ,¯ ¸¯ ¸, ¸
.·¸, ·` -., .

Exercise No. 89

Translate the following verses of the holy Qur’ān:

1 , ¸ · , · ,` ¸ · · , · ' ,` · ,, , · ` · , ,` · · ¸ · · ` .
2 , ` . · · ` ¸ ´ ` ¸ ` ¸ ` ` ` ·, · .
3 , . · ` . ,` · ' ` ·¯ ¸ · ` , ,` ·` ,` ¸ ´ , , , · ` ` ' ` ,
¸` -` , . · , ¸ · ` , ´ ,, · .
4 , · ¸ ·. - ., · ` , · ` ,` :` ¸ ¸,` , · ` · , ` , ` ·,
:` ¸ ` · ,` , ` · , ` ,` , . ¸ ¸ · ` .,` , · ´ .
5 , : ` ·, `, _ · . ' ¸ ¯ ,` `, · , ·` , .
6 , , ,', ' ¸, ,` ·¯ ` , ´ , ` ` , ´ ,` · ' , ` , ¯` · ` , ' ¸ · , ¯ ·
· .
7 , ¸ ' , ` · , - ¸, - .
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8 , ¸, , ¸, ` , ` ` ,` ,` , _ _ ¸ ·` - , ·` _ .
9 , ` , , ` _ · · · ¸` ,` , .` · , ¸ ¸` · , ` . ·` ` , ` _ · , . ` _ , , ,
` . , . , ` - · , ` , ¯ `, ,, · ` ,` · _ · ¯ .
10 , · ¸ , ` , _ ,, · ,` , ¸ ` ·' , _ ¸ . ´ , ` ¸` ,` ' · .

Exercise No. 90

Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

It is said that the lion has been given so much
strength that it can kill a large ox with one strike.
Most of the time (,·¯. ¸ ·), it comes out of its den
at night to hunt. It attacks its prey suddenly just
as ( . ' ¯) a cat jumps onto a mouse. Its two eyes
have been made in such a way that it can see at
night just as it can see during the day. All the
animals fear it. Therefore it is called the king of
the animals. May Allāh save us from its evil.
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Test No. 19

1) What is the original position of the (¸··),
(¸· .), and the (¸,··)?
2) If the (¸··) or the (¸· .) precede the verb,
what are they termed as?
3) Do the analysis of these two sentences:
( ,` · ` `, _ · , ¯ ') and ( ` `, _ ,` · · , ¯ ' ).
4) If the (¸··) or (¸· .) are (,·~), what
changes occur in the verb by the changing of the
(¸··). If the (¸··) is (, .` ·), what changes occur?
5) What word-form of the verb is used with the
masculine sound plural (, ,¯' _~) and the
feminine sound plural (, .,' _~)?
6) Where is it necessary to make the (¸··)
precede the (¸,··) and succeed it?
7) If a transitive verb (¸·' ¸·) has two or
three objects (¸,··), how many representatives of
the doer ( . ¸· ) will be rendered (_·_) when
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the passive tense (¸,,-) is used?
8) Change the active tense verbs (,,·· ¸··) to
the passive tense (¸,,- ¸··) in the following
sentences, delete the (¸··) and make the (¸,··)
the (¸· .):
1 , ., ·` , · ` _ - ,, ,·' .,·,.,, .·, - .
2 , ¸ · ` ,· ···, .,,· ` , - ¸,- .¸ ` · -,
¸ ·- .
3 , ¸ ·, ¸, · ,,, ¸· .,·.,, ¸- ,- ` .,· ¸¯',
·` · - ·,·, ·,·, ¸·, _ ·- ¸·, ¸ .
4 , ¸ ·_· ¸ ,=·' .
5 , ,¯ ·-' ` .,=·' .
6 , ·· · = ,´·__ .
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Lesson 59
The Subject and Predicate
(¸-·¸ |=·,'·)

1. You have already learnt that the first part of a
(·,- ·~) is called the ('· - subject) and the
second part is called the (_- - predicate). Both are
in the nominative case (_·, ·-). See Lesson 6.

Note 1: However, if there appears any factor
(¸··) in the (·,- ·~) that renders (..) to either
the ('·) or the ( - _ ), then (..) will be rendered
to it, e.g.
( · _` , ` · ¸` _ ' . ¸) – Indeed the earth is round.
( · -` ` - . ¯) – Khālid was brave.

2. The ('·) can be singular
41
(· , ` ·) as well as an
incomplete compound (¸· . ¯ ,` ·), e.g.

41
Singular in this context means not being a compound, whether
it is singular (-,), dual (·,·.) or plural (_~).
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( ¯ ,` · ¸,., . ) or (¸.¸ . ¯ ,` ·). However, it
cannot be a sentence (·` -) or a (· - ` ·` ), that is
(,~) or (_,,- · _-).

3. A singular noun (· , ` · ,), an incomplete
compound (¸· . ¯ ,` ·) and a complete
compound (` · . ¯ ,` ·), namely a ( ` - · – sentence)
or a (· - ` ·` ) can occur in the predicate (_-).
Observe the following examples:

Sentence Analysis
` .` , ~ ` ,
Both the ('·) and the
(_-) are (· , ` ·).
` .` , ~ ` _` , =` ` ,
The ('·) is a
(¸,., . ¯ ,` ·).
` .` , ~ , ` . ¯
The ('·) is a
(¸.¸ . ¯ ,` ·).

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Sentence Analysis
` `, _ ` _ . ¸` - _ The (_-) is a (¸,., . ¯ ,` ·).
¸ ¸ · ` , · ` `, _ The (_-) is a (¸.¸ . ¯ ,` ·).
` , ` -` ` _` , ,
The (_-) is a verb thereby
constituting a ( ·` - ·,·· ).
` , · ` ·` ,` , ' ` · - The (_-) is a ( ·` - ·,- ).
·` , · ` . ´
· .`
The (_-) is a (,~).
¸ · ` ,` , `
·` ,` ` ' .
The (_-) is made up of
(_,,- · _-).

4. If the (_-) is a (·` -), whether ( ` - ·,- · ) or
(·,·· ·` -), it requires a (_.) that refers to the
('·). Look at the sixth example. The verb (` _` , ,)
has a (_.) which is ( ,` ·) concealed in it and this
(_.) refers to the ('·). It is also the (¸··). The
verb together with its (¸··) constitutes a
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(·,·· ·` -). This in turn forms the (_-) of the
('·), which is (` , ` -` ) in this case.

5. Similarly, the sentence (` , · ` ·` ,` , ') has a (_.)
which refers to the ('·), namely (` · -). The
compound (` ·` ,` , ') which is made up of a (.` ·)
and a (·,¸ .` ·) constitutes the ('·) while the
word (` , ·) is the (_-). This minor (·,- ·` -)
forms the (_-) of (` · -) which is the ('·) of the
major (·,- ·` -).

6. One ('·) can have several predicates (_-), e.g.
). ,` · , ` _, · ` ·,` · , , · ¸` , · ` , - (
In this example, the word ( ,` ·) is the ('·). The
remaining four nouns form the (_-).

Sometimes there are several ('·) in sequence in
a sentence. The (_-) of each one follows in
sequence, e.g.
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(` . ¯ _ , ` , · , ` ¸ - ` _ . , ` - , ` · -) – Hāmid is
sitting, Khālid is standing and Sālih is riding.
Such a sequence is called (` .` ,` · ` ,` , ¯ . ).

The Occasions Where the Predicate has to
Precede the Subject

7. Originally, the ('·) precedes the (_-).
However, it is necessary to make the (_-)
precede the ('·) in the following instances:
(a) when the (_-) is an (·, ,), e.g. (` `, _ ¸`, '),
( ·` ,` , ' . , ¯). In these examples, the words ( ¸`, ') and
( . , ¯) are the (_-) because they contain the
adverbial meaning (·,·,~). Consequently, they
cannot be the ('·). They cannot succeed any
words because the (·,. .-') always appear
at the beginning of a sentence, whether they are
the ('·) or the (_-).

Note 2: The words ( ¸`, '), ( ` ' _ ), (_ ·), ( .`, ') and
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( . , ¯) are adverbs and will consequently always
be the (_-). The remaining (·,. .-') like
(` ¸ ·), ( ·) etc. will always be the ('·).

(b) if there is such a pronoun (_.) attached to
the ('·) which refers to the (_-), e.g
( ,` - . _` ¸ · - The owner of the house is in it).
The word ( ,` - .) is the ( '· ,` - ,` · ) while
( _` ¸ ·) is the ( _- ·` ` · ) because the ('·) has a
(_.) attached to it and this (_.) refers to the
(_-). If the ('·) has to be brought at the
beginning, it will lead to (,¯ ¸· _.).

(c) when the ('·) is indefinite (·,´) and the (_-)
is (,~) or (_,,- · _-), e.g. (` .` , ¸· – I have a
cloth); ( ¸ · ¸` - _ _` - There is a man in the house).
The words (` .` , ) and ( ¸` - _) are (,` - ,` · '·)
respectively in both these sentences.
(d) when the (_-) is limited to the ('·), that is,
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when the ('·) occurs after the word ( . ¸), e.g.
( - · . ·` ´ . ¸ ` , - No one is at a loss except for
the lazy one). The ('·) is ( . ·` ´ ). If you bring it
to the beginning, the meaning will be distorted.

Note 3: The method of recognizing the ('·) and
the (_-) is that the ('·) is the one about which
some information is imparted while the
information itself is the (_-). The verb and the
(,~) cannot become the ('·).

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Exercise No. 91

Examine the analysis of the following sentences:
, 1 ,
= ` , ` ·, .` , ·
_,·,· '·
· ¸·· _. . __.
,.' , ,· , ¸··
.,.· ·, ¸,··
·,·· ·~ ¸· _· ¸· - _-
_- _· '' - ·,- ·~
, 2 ,
. ¸ ¸ · . , ¸ ,` -
·· ,-
¸·,
` ,- ,- _,,-
,-
,¯'
¸·· _·
,-,· '·
, ·,´ , –
''
. .,.·
, . ¸ ,
' _- _· ' - ·,_- ·,- ·~

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, 3 ,
.` , ¯ ¸ - ·
_- ·, ,
_,·,· ·- ··
.· ·,¸ .·
_,·,· '·
_- _· '' - ·,- ·~


Vocabulary List No. 50

Word Meaning
. . · ' (1) enrage
¸ . , ' . · , ¯ utensil
. ~ ¸ (1) to hum, to buzz
` _` , ` _` ,` ` , . complete month, full moon
· = , idleness, inactivity
¸` ` - · ` , -` ,
exemplary beauty, name of
the daughter of Egyptian
poetess, Āishah Taymūrīyah
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· ´`, ,` - (2) to move
.` - - (4) to conceal, go into hijāb
.
(4) to don the niqāb, to cover
the face
· ` , ´` (2) calm, tranquillity, peace
. ` - ' . ` ¸ - eyelid
` ,` , - generous
` _ , _ . · - _ fragrance
, , . , to cover, to conceal
_ ,' shine, brilliance, splendour
` ` ·` ,` , rising
¯ ¯ toil, hard work, trouble
` .` , regret, grief, sorrow
` ¸ =` · speech
` ·` , ` · rebellious
` :` · musk
¸_ , creation
` · · devoid
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` _ ,` · ' . ` _ · shame, disgrace
Exercise No. 92
(A)
Note 4: Recognize the ('·) and (_-) in the
following sentences. What is the reason for the
(_-) preceding the ('·) in some of the sentences.

, 1 , .,' ` -, . ` ,' .
, 2 , ¸ ` _, ` ¸ · ¸` ` _- .
, 3 , ·,. ¸=', .¸, . ~¸ , ` ¸ - ` ` .
, 4 , ' ¸ · ' ¸· .,, ' ·,, .,· · .·´ .
, 5 , _,· ¸ .,·,· ¸ ´ .
, 6 , ` .¯ , · .
, 7 , ·-- ` ¸ .
, 8 , ·-- ` ¸ . ¸ .
, 9 , = ` ,. _ · .
, 10 , ' · ¯ : = ¸ ·
, 11 , ¸· ¸` ,` - , ` , · .
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, 12 , ·` _ ·` _ ' . ¸ · .
, 13 , ··´ ` ·,· ·, ' ` ··¯ .
, 14 , ·= .,` ,` · ' · ' .
, 15 , _ , ` - ¸ ' · ' ·= .
, 16 , ` ·` - ,_ _- . : ' ¸· - .
, 17 , ·,·· ·~ _` ` ¸·, ¸· ¸· · ¯,' ·- .
, 18 , ,` `, ,` ` · _· . ¸ .

(B) Recognize the (¸··), (¸· .), ('·) and
(_-) in the following poems.
, 1 ,


, 2 ,

,,- ¸¯ ¸ · =, . ¸ ·´
·,¯ · ¸ _, ¸¯ ¸ · ,
` · ¸ ·,´ ¸¯ ¸ · ,
. ` ' _· ¸` . ` -, ` ·
_-' . ` ¸- ` . ` - - , ` , ` , ` ,` ` , ·` ,` ,' ·, ` . ` _
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, 3 ,

, 4 ,

, 5 ,

, 6 ,

, 7 ,



` _ ¸- ·,-, _· ¸` , ` _,' ·` _, ` ¸` · .· ·
` ¸ -, ., ` ¸ -, ` ¸ · ` _,·, ` ,¯ ¸ ·,, ¸ ¸_
¸_, _· .,´-, ,,¯. . ¸ .· ,´- ,,¯. _·,
, , .` ,` ,` , - ` , · ` ·` ,` -, ` , , ` ·` ,` - ¸`, ,` , - ¸ , ` ¸` -
` ¸ · ` . ´` ` ´ _` , , ` · . ~ ` ¸ · ` ¸ , , , _
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Test No. 20

[1] What is the difference between the ('·) and
the (¸··)? [2] What is the difference between the
(¸··) and the (¸· .)?
[3] How can you recognize the ('·) and the (_-)
in a sentence?
[4] In which instances does the (_-) have to
precede the ('·)?
[5] If the (¸··) is a visible noun (,·~ ,), what
changes occur in the verb due to the changes in
the (¸··)?
[6] Change the (¸··) and the (¸· .) to a
('·) and the ('·) to a (¸··) and a (¸· .) in
the following sentences.
, 1 , ¸=', .¸ ,·`, .
, 2 , ¸ · _·, ` ,· ` _, . .
, 3 , ., .·- ` · ,´`, . .,-. .,`, .
, 4 , ¸-, ,,, ` ·,, . ,. - .
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, 5 , .,, ~,- .·' ¸ · ` -,`, ` ,- .
, 6 , ¸,_,· .· ¸ =· ' .
, 7 , ·´- · - . ` ¸~. .

[7] Change the ('·) in the following sentences to
the plural form and make the necessary changes
in the (_-) in order to conform to the ('·):
, 1 , · ¸,.' ¸,'
, 2 , · ·, , ·
, 3 , , -,_ ' ,` ·-. ·',' .
, 4 , .,- ·· ·., ¸- ¸ , .
, 5 , ·,· ·,- _·, ,` -. _ ¸ .
, 6 , ` _· .·. ` · ¸,¸ ·,, ' .

[8] Construct five sentences in which the (_-) is a
sentence (·~), five sentences in which the (_-) is
a (·- ·) and five sentences in which it is
necessary to make the (_-) precede the ('·).
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Lesson 60
The Accusative Case
( ,,=·'· =· )
The Object
(-, ,,-«-)

1. The (·, ¸,··) which is generally referred to as
the (¸,··) is a noun on which the action of the
doer occurs.

2. Most transitive verbs ( ` ·' ¸· ` ¸ ) have one
(¸,··), some have two while others have three.
The following verbs have two objects:

, · . - - , ¸ · - -`
to
know
to think to find to make to take

The verb ( , ` · ') has three objects.
Examples:

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Hāmid knew that Alī was
learned.
· ' , · ` · - , ·
Hāmid informed
Mahmūd that Alī was
learned.
·` ,` ` - · ` · - , ` · '
· ' , ·

3. The (·, ¸,··) causes no change in the verb, e.g.
¸` , , , · ' , · ` · , ·`, , -' , ` · , ' , ` ·` · ' ` `, _ ` · , ´`,

4. The (·, ¸,··) can be a visible noun (,·~ ,) as
in the above example and it can be a pronoun
(_. ,) , e.g.
` ,` ·`, ¸ , ·`, ¸ , ` , · ¸ ` _ '
In this sentence, the first (·, ¸,··) is a
(¸.· .,.· ,´· _. – attached pronoun)
while the second and third objects are
(¸.· .,.· _. – detached pronouns).

5. You have learnt that the original position of the
(¸,··) is after the (¸··), although it is
permissible to make it precede the (¸··).
However, when there is a confusion between the
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(¸··) and the (¸,··) and there is no indication as
to which one is which, the (¸,··) should succeed
the (¸··). See 58.10

6. It is compulsory to make the (¸,··) precede
the (¸··) in the following instances:
(a) when there is such a pronoun (_.)
attached to the (¸··) which refers to the (¸,··),
e.g. (` · ` , · ` ' · , ¯ ' - The teacher’s student
honoured him).
(b) when the (_.) of the (¸,··) is
attached to the verb, e.g. (` ,` , · ' ¸ · , ¯ ' - The leader
honoured me).
(c) when the (¸··) is limited, e.g.
( _` -, ` ¸ . ` · · · · ` ¸ · = - From among the
slaves of Allāh, only the learned ones fear Him).
This meaning could also be expressed as follows:
( . ` · . ¸ · · · ` ¸ · = _` -, .).
(d) when the (¸,··) is such a word that
needs to be at the beginning of the sentence.
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These words are (·,¸ .-'), (, .-') and
(·`, _- ` , ¯), e.g.
( .`, ' _ ` ¸ · - Who did you see?)
(` `, ,` · - What do you intend?)
( · , ,` -` ¸ ,` , - ` ¸ · ¸ · · - Whatever good you do, you
will be rewarded for it). See 56.2.
(· . , · , ¯ ` , ¯ - How many books did you read?).
(` . , · ¸ . ¯ ` , ¯ - I have read many books.) In this
sentence, the word (` , ¯) is (·`, _- ` , ¯).
In this case, the (¸,··) has to precede the verb as
well in order to be at the beginning of the
sentence.

7. In the following three instances, only the
(¸,··) is mentioned while the (¸··) and the (¸··)
are implied:

(i) ` ¸ , = ¬ ·
(` ,`, ` - ) means to warn or to caution, e.g.
( ¸ ´ ¸ ´ ) – Beware of laziness. This was
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originally ( ¸ ´ _ ` - ). The word (` _ ` - ) which is
a (¸··) and (¸··) is implied here. The (¸,··) has
to be repeated in this case. Similarly, one can say,
( ·`, ¸ , ¸ ´ ) – This literally means: “Keep
yourself away from laziness and keep laziness
away from you.” It was originally,
( ¸ ´ ¸ · : ` _ ` - :` · ¸ ´ , ). Instead of the
word (` _ ` - ), the words ( ¸` ) or (` ` · ,) could be
understood to be implied.

(ii) ·· ¸ - ,
( . , · ¸) means to spur on, to incite or to urge, e.g.
( · , ` - , · , ` - , ) - Adopt diligence. This sentence
was originally ( · , ` - , · , ). Another example is,
( · ` -` , · .` ,` ,` ) – Adhere to the ideal of manhood
(valour) and courage. Here also, the verb with its
(¸··), namely (` · , ) is implied.

(iii) ` ¸· = · - ·
(` ¸ . ` - ) means to specify or to intend someone
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in particular, e.g.
( . _` ,` . , . , . . , ` ' , · · ` ¸` - ) – We, that is, the
prophets, neither inherit from anyone nor does
anyone inherit from us. The word (' ¸` - ' - I
specify) or (` ¸ ` · ' - I mean) is implied. The word
( , · ·) is the (¸,··) of this verb. Similarly, one
can say, ( . , · ` ¸` - ) – We, the Arabs… or,
( ¸` , ` ` ` ¸` - ) – We, the Muslims…

8. The above-mentioned three places are
according to the rule. Many examples can be
made following the rule. Besides these, there are
certain instances which are (¸·-) – as heard
from the Arabs, where the (¸··) and (¸··) are
omitted and only the (¸,··) is mentioned.

When welcoming someone, the host says,
( -` , · , ·` , , ·` · ') which is the abbreviated form
of ( -` , · . · · . , ·` , . · ~ , , ·` · ' .` , ') - You have
come to your own people, you have tread the soft
and easy path and you have obtained an
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expansive place, that is, welcome to you.
(` · , . ,` · ¸), is the abbreviated form of
(` · , . ,` · ¸ ` ·` ,` ') – Leave the man in his condition.
( ` , _ : , ·), is the abbreviated form of
( ` , _ : , · ` . = ) – We seek Your forgiveness, O
our Rabb.

( ¸ - « |· ,· - · = ·)
9. In some sentences the (¸,··) is mentioned
before the verb. In place of the (¸,··), a (_.) is
mentioned after the verb which refers to the
(¸,··), e.g. (` ·` ' , · . ´ ) – I read the book. In such
sentences, the preceding noun is called (` ·` · ¸` ,` ·` ·
- independent of) because the verb has become
independent of it due to having a (¸,··).

Note 1: This rule is not about a (·` ` · ¸,··)- a
preceding object. In the above-mentioned
example, the (¸,··) of the verb is the pronoun
(_.) that is attached to it. It is for this reason
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that the cases of (.,·¸) of this noun have
changed.

10. The (.,·¸) of a noun that is (` ·` · ¸` ,` ·` ·) is of 3
types:
(a) It is necessary to render (..) to such a
noun if it succeeds words that are always
followed by a verb, like the (, .¯) and
(¸,.- ,,-), e.g.
( : · ` · ` . - , · . ¸) – If you obtain knowledge, it
will benefit you.
( · · ` ·` ·` · , ) – Why don't you teach your son?

(b) If the noun succeeds a (¸ ,-),
namely ( ·) or ( .), or a (·,. ,-), namely
( ¸ ·) or ( '), it is better to read a (..) on it,
although it is not necessary to do so, e.g.
( `, _ ` ·` `, ' _ ,` · . , ` ·` ` , ) – I neither met Zaid nor did
I see Ámr.
(· ` , · ,` · ¸` , ` -` , ¸ ·) – Do you recognize the two
men?
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It is permissible to read (_·_) on the (` ·` · ¸` ,` ·` ·) in
the above-mentioned examples, but it is not better
to do so.

(c) when the noun succeeds (·` , - · ¸),
which means suddenly, it is essential to read a
(_·_) on it, e.g.
(` ¸ , ' ` ·` -` , ,`, ` ··· · , · ., ` .-·) – I entered the
house when suddenly (I found) my father
rebuking the youth.

Similarly, if it precedes the (, .¯),
(·,.,' .-'), (.,¸ ·.), (·,· ·) or the
( ,- ·` · , ¸· ), (_·_) will be necessary, e.g.
(: ··_ · ·- . ¸ ` ,·) – If you serve knowledge, it
will raise you.
(¯ ¸ ¯· ·` ,'_ ¸ ` ,) – The boy whom you saw is
intelligent.

(d) Besides the above-mentioned situations,
both (_·_) and (..) are permissible, e.g.
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( · ·',·' ··· ` .´) – I read the beneficial
books always.
11. When (..) is read on a noun that is
(` ·` · ¸` ,` ·` ·), it is analyzed as the (¸,··) of an
implied verb (_` · ¸··) and the verb that succeeds
this noun is regarded as the (,` ` ·) of the implied
verb.
If (_·_) is read on this noun, it will analyzed as the
subject ('·), while the remainder of the sentence
will be the predicate (_-). You will understand
this from the analysis of the following sentences.

Exercise 93

Analyze the following sentences:

, 1 , : · · ` .- ,· . ¸

, 2 , : · · ` .- . ¸ ` ,·
In the first example, (..) is compulsory while
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(_·_) is compulsory in the second one.

. ¸ ,· .` .- ` ·. _ ·
,-
,
·, ¸,··
¸·
_` ·
, .` .- ,
·,` ,
¸·
··, ¸
. ¸· ,
¸· _·
¸,·',
- ·~
·,·· -
,` ·
¸·

¸·
¸,··
·- ·,
.,.·
- ·~
·,·· -
,` ·
,'
_
·-
¸,.
¸·
¸.'
_.,
,'

¸·
¸,··
·- ·,
.,.·
- ·~
·,·· -
.,-
, .,-
·,~, ·,·· ·~
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` ,· · ` .- . ¸ : ·
_,·,· '· ·,·· ·~ - ,
¸· _· ¸·
¸,·', - ·~
·,·· - .,-
'· _,·,· ·- _-
' _- _· ' - ·,- ·~

Vocabulary List No. 51

Word Meaning
¸ · ' (1) to advance, to face
_ ' , , , (1) to light, to illuminate
, · ¸ (1) to exceed the limit
`, ,
(2) to be deficient, to
squander
` _ . , . · · . , merchandise
- . , ¸ , . ` - ` ¸ , to draw, to attract
` _ , - . ` _ - hungry
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. ` - . ` ¸` , - companion
` ¸`, , , · . . ,`, ·
anthology of poetry,
governmental office,
account books
` ¸ , _ . .` ,` , _ customer, client, buyer
` ¸ · very high
,` ,` · · ,` · . . naked
, , · , , to overpower, to compel
¯ , . – , , to don, to wear
· = article or thing found
_` `
claimant of
prophethood, title of a
famous poet
- · , . – , , to erase
. _ - · . . ,` - · storeroom, depot, shop
, , , , to scold, to reproach

Exercise No. 94

Determine where the (¸,··) is (·` ·) in the
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following examples and the reason for this. Also
determine where this is permissible and where
necessary. In which examples are both the (¸··)
and the (¸··) elided? What is the (¸··) that has
been elided?

, 1 , ,` , ·` . - ' ' · ¯ .
, 2 , ` ,` , ´ ` ,` - ' ' · ¯ .
, 3 , _` , · _` ,` · ¸ ' _ · .
, 4 , `, , ¯ _ . ,` - _ , .
, 5 , _` ,` · . · _ ' .
, 6 , ` ¸ , ' ` ¸ - ' · , ¯ ' .
, 7 , ` ¸ `, . ` ¸ , ¯ ' , · .
, 8 , ., ¸ ¸` - _ ` ¸ ' .
, 9 , . ¯ ' · ` ·` _ ` , ¯ .
, 10 , ` . ¯ ' ¸ · - ` ` , ¯ .
, 11 , · .` · ` ¸` · , .` · ` ¸ ·
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, 12 , ` `, ,` ·,· .` , · . - . '
1`
·
, 13 , ` · ' · ,, , · ` , , . ` · ' , ¸ ` · · ` , ,` .
, 14 , = · ·,- _- ¸· ,´. ,` ·` ` ·, .
, 15 , ·, ,¯`, ¸ .
, 16 , .,` ¸,-, ·`, ¸ .
, 17 , · -` ¸ · -` ¸ .
, 18 , ¸,,= ¸,,= .
, 19 , = · · = = , = · · , . ,

Exercise No. 95

Hereunder follow some examples of (¸·).
Determine where (..) is compulsory, where
(_·_) is compulsory and where both are
permissible.

, 1 , · ·',· _' .,,· ¸ ·
, 2 , , ¸- ·,- - ` ` ` ` ·, ·, = ·· .

42
The hamzah is for (·,). This is part of a verse of poetry.
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, 3 , ,, ., ·,_' ,·¸ . , ·,·,' ,· ¸·¸
` ¸ ·· .
, 4 , .,´,,· , ,·` ,` · ` ¸ .
, 5 , -. ·-_ .¯ · ··,·' ·,' ,' ·,,' .
, 6 , ·,¯ .,,·, ·,·~' _- .
, 7 , ` ` ` - , ·,- ·= ,-. ¸¸ ·` ·_ ,´,· .-, ` ·, .
, 8 , - _· ·', ¸ .´ .
, 9 , ¸· ·,- _ . ¸, ,, ¸- :,` - , -
· ¸,, ¸·¸ :,· ,·´,, _-
,· ·
, 10 , .· . · .· ` ` · , ¸, ' , ` _, ·,-· ¸, ··¯

Exercise No. 96

(1) Which book did you buy?
(2) How many rupees did you give to the worker?
(3) What did you see in Bombay and whom did
you meet?
(4) My father called my brother.
(5) Whatever you do, you will receive its reward.
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(6) Only knowledge makes a person successful.
(7) Wherever you find Hāmid, send him to me. I
want to give him an excellent watch.
(8) Do not keep on reproaching the children and
do not unncecessarily trouble the animals.

Exercise No. 97

Insert the (.,·) in the following passage and
translate it.

,·· -', ·,-. ¸¸ _, .,-' ··- _. _,-
·,.·_ ,-' . -' ·· ,',· . ¸ ,-· _
¸´., .,. ·- _·', ·-, ·,~ _·_', ·· .
,= .' .·_', ·-. ·- ¸ . .·=· . _.·
,-' ·,·_ , _·, ·,¸ · . . ` _·_. ¸· ·, ¸
_ ·_-¸ .,· _.., . ` ¸ . ·,, ·.,. _
_, . , ,,· ¸´ ·· ·,´ ¸· ¸´ . : .,~ .·
. ·, ¸·, ., ,,,· .

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··,, .¯ ` ., ·,·_ ·, _ ¸· ····

·_, ¸·
·¯, . ,,· ·,-' ·' . ·-, ·,,,,, .·_ _ . ,
· ,-, ,·, ,-,, ,, _~ _· ,-,- . ¸
·,=· ·,· ,` ,` , .' . ¸ ,·-_ , _· ,.·, ,,,, ¸
_.. ·.· _· .-,·, .· ,,·' .

43
bunch
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Lesson 61
( ¿ · = « |· , , - « « | ·)
The General Object

(1) Some examples:

, 1 , ` , ´ _` ,` · = , ¯ .
. Allāh addressed Mūsā directly
, 2 , . ` · _` .,` . `, ,` , .
The thief was severely beaten.
, 3 , `, , ,` , ` .` , .
I travelled like a courier (lit. the travelling of a
courier).
, 4 , · · ·` . · · · ¸` , .
. The clock struck twice

(2) In the above-mentioned examples, the words
( ` , ´ ), ( ` , . `, , ), ( `, , ,` , ) and ( ¸` , · ·) are all
(¸ =` · ¸` ,` · ·). You have learnt in Lesson 43 of
Volume 3 that the (¸=' ¸,·') is a verbal noun
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(_.·) mentioned after its verb, either for
emphasis (,¯'), to indicate the manner in which
an action is done (_,) or to indicate the number
of times the action is done (··). It is (.,.·).

3. The first example indicates emphasis (,¯') of
the action, the second and third ones denote the
manner in which the action was done (_,) while
the fourth one shows the number of times the
action was done (··).

4. The manner in which the action is done (_,)
can be denoted by a (·.) as in example 2 or by
(··.¸) as in example 3.

5. When only emphasis (,¯') is denoted, a
synonym can be used, e.g.
( ·` , ·` , ` .` , = - · ·) – The orator stood up.
( ·` ,` · · ` .` -) – I sat down.
The words ( · , ·) and ( ·` , ·` ,) are synonymous as
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are ( ` , ` -) and ( ·` ,` · ·).
6. Sometimes the verbal noun (_.·) occurs as the
(·, .·) of an adjective (·. ,). In this case,
(..) is rendered to the (.·) and this becomes
the (¸ =` · ¸` ,` · ·), e.g.
(¸ . = - _ . · ' . ~ -) – He delivered a most
eloquent address.
The word (. = -) is the (_.·) of ( . ~ -).

7. The words ( ¸ ¯), (` ¸` · ,), an adjective together
with the(·· ,) – a word denoting a number,
are all used as a (¸ =` · ¸` ,` · ·) and are therefore
(.,.·), e.g.
( ¸` , ¸ ¯ ¸ ·) – He inclined completely.
( , '` ¸` · , , ' ) – He was slightly affected.
( · ' ,` , · ¯ , ¯ · ¸' ,` , · ¯ = ,` , ¯ ) – Remember Allāh
abundantly.
(¸ . - ,· ,' · - ¸' , · ` · _` ` -) – The thief
was lashed ten times.
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The word ( ¸` , ) is the (_.·) of ( ¸ ·) but it is
(_,,-) because of being the ( .· ·, ). The word
¸ ¯ is the (.·) and is therefore (.,.·) instead
of the (_.·). You can understand the other
examples in a similar manner.

8. There are many sentences in Arabic where only
the (¸ =` · ¸` ,` · ·) is mentioned while the rest of the
sentence is elided.
Examples:
( ·` , · · ` ¸ ' : ·` , ·) – May it do you much good or
I hope you enjoy it.
( : - · ` .` - · ¸' : - ·) – How strange or how
astonishing!
( : , ´` ·` , ´` ' ¸' : , ´` ) – I thank you.
( ,` · _ ,` · _ = · · _ ¸' ) – May Allāh protect you.
( · · ~ ` ,` ·` , ~ ' , ·` ` ,` · ` ¸ ¸' · · ~ , ·` ) – Listen
and obey.
( .`, ' ¸¯ ¸' .`, ') – also.

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A junior in response to the call of a senior says
( :`, ` · , :` ,` ). The word ( :` ,` ) is thought to be
originally ( ¸` , , ¸ : ' . '). The verb was elided
while the word ( ¸` , , ¸) was made (.·) to ( ·) –
the second person pronoun. Due to (··.¸), the
nūn of the dual (·,·.) form drops off. The word
( :` , , ¸) remains. Further decreasing of alphabets
results in the word ( :` ,` ). The meaning is, “I am
at your service, not once, but numerous times.”

In a similar manner, the word ( :`, ` · ) was
originally ( ¸`, · ·` ¸ ·` ·` '). The meaning is, “I am
present to assist you two times, that is, several
times.” This word was also changed from
( :`, · ·` ¸) to ( :`, ` · ).
Note: The (¸ =` · ¸` ,` · ·) is seldom used in Urdu
and not used at all in English. Therefore there is
no need to translate it when translating from
Arabic to English.

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The Object of Cause
( - | , , - « -)

9. The (` · ¸` ,` · ·) or ( ¸,·· . ` - · ) was explained in
Lesson 43 of Volume 3. It is also a verbal noun
(_.·) that is used to indicate the reason for the
action, e.g.
( ` .` · · , ¯ ¸ · · ` ) – I stood up to honour the
teacher.
(`, · ' , ` .` , , .) – I hit the boy to discipline him.
The words ( · , ¯ ¸) and (`, · ) are the (` · ¸` ,` · ·) in
these sentences.
However, if a (·` _ - · .) is attached to the (_.·), it
will no longer be called the (` · ¸` ,` · ·) but will now
be referred to as (_` ,` ,` - · _ -),e.g.
( ` .` , , . , ` ' · `, . ) – I hit the boy to discipline
him.

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Understand the differences in the following three
examples well:

· | . , ·, ¸ = | ¸ . ,. |
¸=· ¸,·· ·, ¸,·· ¸· _· ¸·


· | . , ·, ¸ = | ¸ . , ¸ =
· ¸,·· ·, ¸,·· ¸· _· ¸·


· | · | . , . ¸ = | ¸ . ,. |
_` ,` ,` - · _ -
¸· ¸ ··
·, ¸,·· ¸· _· ¸·

The word ( ' · `, . ) is a (¸=· ¸,··) in the first
sentence, (· ¸,··) in the second sentence and
(_` ,` ,` - · _ -) in the third sentence. All three
sentences are (·,·· ·~).

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Vocabulary List No. 52

Word Meaning
¯ . ' fodder
. · ` , (7) to desire
` - ' to catch, to arrest
. ¯
(7) to discover, to find
out
` · ·` · ¸ bankruptcy
_` , - (4) to sip
` ¸` , -` (2) smoking, to fumigate
` _` , -` (2) encouragement
` · (4) to do intentionally
· , ` ¸ ·, ¸ , _.· , to trust, to rely on
· , - prize, award
` _` ,` , - impatient
· ,` - fear
·` · ' . ` _ ·` ray
· ¯ , ,' · ¯` , company, partnership
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` ,` , astute, clever, gentleman
` , , . · ` , character, nature, habit
` . -` . ' . ` . - . companion, master
¯ . . pouring, casting
. ` . · . . · gift, bond, relation
` _ ~ . ` _` ~ nature
. · · (3) to punish
` _ .` · ' ,' ` _` ,` .` · . ` ,` . · time, period, era
. ,` ` · address, sign
. . · ` . · dense
` .` . · reed, tree with branches
. , - ` , · accounting department
` ` , ´, · ¯ to plot, to conspire
· · ` · ' . ` _ · benefit, necessities
` ·` , ` · rebellious
· .` , · pleasure
` _ ` · possessing power, able
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· ` · (3) to endure, to suffer
` · ·` ' . ` , ·
grazing livestock (sheep,
camel, cattle, goats)
· ` ·
comfort, prosperity, life
of ease
¸ ´ punishment, warning
, - · , . , to abandon, to leave
· ,` - experience
¯ ¸ · , faithful
·` , · to accustom, to habituate
- , , to take refuge, to resort
_ - , , to allow, to permit
. , purchase
· ,` , · ` . · wealthy
·,` , , .- necessary work

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Exercise No. 98

Look for the (¸=· ¸,··) and the (· ¸,··) in the
following sentences.
, 1 , :, ·-. ¸¯ ,=· _,,` ` ¸ ` , ·· ·,
¸ , ¸ ¸,· .
, 2 , ' : -. .,` ` · ` ¸ : _¸ ¸ · ' , · , ´` ·,´ .
, 3 , ··· .· ·,· ·,, _,` . ¸ ·` , ` · ` ` · ` ¸- ' ,` .,
', ,' ¯, ·¯,· ·` _.· ¸ · .
, 4 , ·_·¯ ¸ .·¯ ,.· · ¸ · .· .¯ .
, 5 , ` , ¯ ' _, ¸ · ¸¯' · ¸ · _. · ¯ ' .
, 6 , ,¯¸ ¸·, ,,· .·,¯' · ¸ ·,¸ ¸ _,- ¸ · :` ' ` ¸~ · .
, 7 , ¸ .=- _.·' ·~-· : ' ¸, ¸, ¯ _,·' .·,
¸ · . , · ,·', ·-·'· .
, 8 , ·,. .·,- _· _. ¸¯ _. .' ¸·, .
, 9 , ¸ .,-- ` ·.,. _=·, _· ,· ·,- ·,- ,·
,· ¸,.- .
, 10 , _· ,_ ,¯, -' ·,,- ·´ ·¯, .` ,·
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·~, ··', ·, ·_ - _· ·· .,- ,· .
, 11 , ·_·, ··¸ _· ·_- ¸, ·' ¸ ` . · ·`,
···. .
, 12 , .` ' ¸ ·, ¸,· ¸ ·` ·,·, __, ·_ ¸
¸,` _ .
, 13 , _' _,·, ¯ ' ` ,·, ' ¸,· ' ' :,·, :,
¸,, ' ¸, ··- ·,· ·,·' ¸··¸ ·,·', .
, 14 , ` ¸ ´., ` _, , ·,~ _.·
,, ·, ¸· _. .,· ·,, - .
, 15 , ,` ,· ,,· .,_. ·,·
, ` _` , - , · ¸´' ¸· .

Exercise No. 99

(A) Underline the (¸=· ¸,··) and the (· ¸,··)
in the following verses of the holy Qur’ān.

, 1 , ` ¸ ` - · : -` · , ' · .
, 2 , ` ,` ,` ¸ .,` , ´, ` , ¯ . ` , ¯ ' , ` , ¯ .
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, 3 , ` . , ` , _ · · ., , , ` ,` ·` ,` -` · , ,` - · ·, - . ¸ ` _ · ,
¸ , ´` , ¸ , ' · ` ·` ` ,` , ` , · , ·, · .
, 4 , , = , · . , _ ¸ · · · ~ . ` ' ` . . ' . ` ,
¸` _ ' . ` ' · ,, · ' - . · , ` . · , . ,` `, _ , ·` - , .
¸ - , · . · , ¯ · , ' , ' , . · ` · ` , ´ ` , ´ · ·` ' , .
, 5 , . , , ` ` , ¯ ·.` , ' · ,` - ¸ ··` · ¸ ` ¸` -` ` ,` , ·` _` , , ¯`, ¸ , .
, 6 , ¸ · , ¸ · , · : . · ` , . .` , · · ` , · ·, ` ,` ,` - '
, = · .
, 7 , ` · _` , · · _` , ` ,` · = · · ` ,, `, ' . , - , ¯ . ´
¸` · · .
, 8 , ` ,` · - ' · ` - ' ¸ ,, , · ¸ _ ' · .

(B) Translate the following letter written by a
student to his elder sister.

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,· .=, ·,,· .· ·_´ ·-' ¸¸ , ¸· .,´·
··,, · ¸·,

.` , ·, _ · ·, ` -` ` ¸ - '
·¯,,, = ·~_, ,´,· ··
_,·' _,~ ¸ · :,¸ - ' . ' ` ¸ ·` , · · ¸·· : ·` ` . ¸,~ ¸ .
¸ · ` ¸ ` · , .,' ¸·, ., ¸¸ ¸ ·-- ¸ · ·,, ` ¸ _' ¸` ¸,
·_' . _¸ ` ¸,` .' : · _´· ¸· , -_ :` ` .· ¸
·, ¸· :` ·, ` _ · ¸ · .` , · ¸` ,' ` ¸ -- , , ¸ . · '
·,` , , .- ¸ · - ' , . ,, :,, : . ¸,´ ··
: ` ¸ ` - · ` .·., . :,-. ` .` ·` · .
_,=' ·,-'
·-

Note: The reply to this letter is at the end of the
next lesson.
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Test No. 21

1. How many types of (.,,.·) are there?
2. Define the (·, ¸,··).
3. What changes occur in the verb due to the
(¸,··).
4. On which occasions is it essential to make the
(¸··) precede the (·, ¸,··)?
5. On which occasions is it essential to make the
(·, ¸,··) precede the (¸··)?
6. What is meant by (¸· ¸·)?
7. Explain the different cases of ( ,·¸ . ) of the
noun that is (·· ¸,··).
8. Define the (¸=· ¸,··).
9. Which words can take the place of the
(¸=· ¸,··)?
10. Construct 12 sentences in which four have the
(¸=· ¸,··) for emphasis, four denote the type of
action and four denote the number of the action.
11. Analyze the following sentences:
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• ¸` , - ` ¸ .` - .
• ¸` , ¸ ¯ ·,. ¸¸ _. ¸` , , .

(12) Define the (· ¸,··).
(13) Construct nine sentences using the following
verbal nouns (_·.·) as (· ¸,··):

, 1 , · ··_ ,· ¸ , 2 , _ · ~ , 3 , · , 4 , _· · ¯ ,
= , 5 , · ' · ´` · , 6 , ,· , 7 , · , ` -¸ , 8 , · · ¸ , 9 , · · · ¸

(14) Analyze the following sentences:

, 1 , = ..,· .·, .,·` .,

, 2 , _` ,` , , · · ' ` , -` .
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Lesson 62
The Adverb
( - , · , , - « « | ·)

1. ( , ·` · · ' - . ¸` _` ` . ' , ·) – I read the lesson
in the morning in front of the teacher.

You learnt in Lesson 43 that the ( · ¸,·· ` , · ) or
( ` , = ` ) is a noun which denotes the time or place
in which the action took place. In the above
sentence, the word ( - .) and ( · · ') are ( · ¸,·· ` , · )
because the former denotes the time while the
latter indicates the place of the action. You can
also term the former ( ~ ` , ` . ·` , ) and the latter
( ~ ` , ` . ´ ).

2. You have read most of the words of
( ~ ` , ` . ·` , ) and ( ~ ` , ` . ´ ) in the previous
lessons, scattered in different places and included
secondarily. Hereunder follows a list of most of
the ( ` , = . ` ').
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( » ¸ = .· -¸|· )
Word Meaning
· , second
· ` , · · minute
· · hour
` ·` ,, day
` _` ,` ` ' week
` · · ,' · year
.` , · century
` ,` · · period, always
` ¸` , - time
· , ´` , morning, early
¸` , . ' evening
` _ . morning
· . evening
¸` , night
` _ , day
` , ' always
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If a (,- ,-) does not precede the ( ~ ` , ` . ·` , ), it
will always be (.,.·). If the word is not (.·),
it will always have tanwīn at the end, e.g.
( ·` , . ' , · , ´` , = ,` , ¯ · ') – Remember Allāh in the
morning and evening.

However, only those words of ( ~ ` , ` . ´ ) will
be (.,.·) that are unspecified (, ,` ` ·). These
words are as follows:

( » ¸ = .· ´ « |· )
Word Meaning
·` , · above
.` - below
· · ' in front
·` · in front
. - behind
. _ , behind
¸` · before
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¸` , · slightly before
` · , after
` , ·` , slightly after
. _ ¸ opposite
- .
opposite, face to face
with
. opposite, in front of
· -` facing, in front of
_ · with
` · by
¸ ,' .` at, by, in the presence of
¸` , , between, among
` ¸ , ¸` , , in front of
` , , right, right hand side
. left, left hand side
_ , left, left hand side
·` , east
,` , · west
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,` ,` - south
. north
. left hand, left side
·` , · mile
- ` , ·
a measure of length (3
miles)
`, , , 12 miles, mail

Note 1: The words ( ` ·) and ( .` ) are synonyms.
The difference between the two is that the word
( ` ·) is general for all things, real or abstract,
whether present or absent while the word ( .` ) is
only used for things that are present. For
example, a person can say (` . , . ¸· ¸, ·) –
This statement is true in my view, but he cannot
say (` . , . ` ¸` ` ¸, ·).

Similarly, he can say ( ` · ` .¯ ¸ ) even if the book
is not with him but is at home or somewhere else.
However, he can only say (` .¯ ` ¸` ` ) if the book
is physically with him. The same difference
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applies to ( ` ·) and (¸ ).

Note 2: Pronouns (,.) can be suffixed to the
words (¸ ) and ( .` ) as they are suffixed to (` ¸ ·)
and (_ ·).

Attachment of the pronouns to the words (;= |)
and ( . = |)

Third Person (. ·)
·`, ` ` ` ·
singular
`, , ` ` ` ,
dual
M
a
s
c
u
l
i
n
e
`, ` , , ` ` ` ,` ,
plural
`, , ` ` ,
singular
,`, ` ` ` ,
dual
F
e
m
i
n
i
n
e

,`, ` ¸ ` ` ` ¸` ,
plural

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Second Person (, . -)
`, : ` ` :
singular
`, ´ ` ` ´
dual
M
a
s
c
u
l
i
n
e
`, ` , ´ ` ` ´ ` ,
plural
`, : ` ` :
singular
`, ´ ` ` ´
dual
F
e
m
i
n
i
n
e

`, ` ¸ ´ ` ` ` ¸ ´
plural

First Person ( ´ ` · , )
` ¸ ` ` ` _
singular
`, ` `
dual, plural


See Lesson 11.4 of Volume 1.

3. From the above-mentioned ( ` ' ,` , = . ),
besides the latter 10, all the others are used with
(··.¸). Sometimes the words (¸` , ,), (_ ,), (¸ )
and the four directions are also used with (··.¸).
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Examples:
( ¸ - ·` , ·) – on top of the mountain,
( · , -` .` - ) – under the tree,
(` · _ , ` .` -) – I sat on his left-hand side,
( - ` , · . ·` , · ` .`, , -) – I ran a mile, not 3 miles.

4. The definite article ( ¸ ') and the (` ,- ,,-) can
be prefixed to the (,` , = . ` '). The particle (` ¸ ·)
is most often prefixed to the words (¸` , ,) and
(¸ ) while the particle (` ¸ ·) is generally used
with the remainder of the nouns. For the
directions, the particle (` ¸ ·) is used, e.g.
( ¸ ` ¸ · , ¸` , , ¸ · ` ` , · · ) – sitting to the right and
to the left,
(` _ ,` ' , ` - ` ¸ · ` ¸ ,` - ) – The rivers flow beneath it,
( ` , .` , · ¸ · ` ,` - ) – The ocean is to the west of
India.

5. Those ( ~ ` , ` , ` . ´ ) that are specific and
indicate a particular place, e.g. (` _·), (` .,,), (` -·),
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(·_·), (·´·) etc. generally succeed the word (` ¸ ·)
and are therefore (_` ,` ,` - ·), e.g.
( -` ¸ · ` .` , .) – I performed salāh in the
musjid.
44
( · ´ · ` ¸ · ` .` ´ ) – I lived in Makkah.

However, after the verbs ( ¸ - ·), ( ¸ , ) and ( ¸ ´ ),
most of the above-mentioned ( . ` ' ,` , = ) are
used without the particle (` ¸ ·) and they are
(.,.·), e.g.
( -` ` . - ·) – I entered the musjid.
( ·,` , · ` . , ) – I alighted in a village.
( · ´ · ` ¸ · ` .` ´ ) – I lived in Makkah.

6. Some of the ( = . ` ' ` , , ) are indeclinable
(` ¸ ` ). They are:
(a) The word ( · – ever) is used for the perfect

44
The word ( ·´·) is read with a fathah because it is (,.· _·). See
Lesson 57.
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(past) tense while (` ¸` , ·) is used for the future
tense. Both these words are ( ~ ` , ` .·` , ) and they
are (` ,` . _ · ` ¸ ` ), that is, the final alphabet
always has a dammah, e.g.
(` ¸,· ,` , ,' ., · ,- ` .,, ·) – I never drank
wine nor will I ever drink it.

(b) ( .` , - – where, wherever, since). It is a
( ~ ` , ` . ´ ) and it is also used for time. It is
(` ,` . _ · ` ¸ ` ). It is normally (.·) towards a
sentence, e.g.
` , ,` ., · ' ` ¸ · .` , - ¸ · ' ` ¸`
,` , ` · ` , · . ¸ · ` _, · ` ,, -` _ .
Then stream forth from where the people stream
forth.

(c) ( ¸` ·) and (` ` · ,) are originally declinable (.,··)
but when the (·,¸ .·) is elided, they become
(` ,` . _ · ` ¸ ` ), e.g.
(¸ _` , ¸ ¯ ` · , , ¸ _` , ¸ ¯ ¸· ¸' ` ` · , ` ¸ · , ¸` · ` ¸ · ` ,` · . =)
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– To Allāh belongs the command before and after,
that is, before everything and after everything.
When the phrase (` ,` , · .) is ( · · . . ` _` , = ·) – that is
the (·,¸ .·) is elided, it becomes
(` ,` . _ · ` ¸ ` ) even though it is not a (,~), e.g.
( ¯¯ ' · ,` , · ¸ ¯¯ . ¸' ` ,` , · . · ¯ , ¸ ) – I eat fruit and
nothing else.

Note 3: Sometimes the word (` ` · ,) has the
meaning of “until now”, e.g. (` ` · , ` ,` · ' ¸ `, ` , ) –
Till now the matter has not been decided.

(d) ( ` ,· – here), ( ` · · ) and ( : ` · – there, at that
time), (` , ) or (` ·` – there, that way). These are
indicative pronouns (·_¸ .-') having the
meaning of adverbs included in them.
Accordingly, they are also called (,` , = . ` ').
Examples:
( ` ¸ .` ,` · · ` ,· ) - We will sit here.
( · ` · ` ¸ - ` ¸ ·) - Who is sitting there?
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(` ·` , _ `, , ¯ _ · · : ` ·) – At this point, Zakarīyā
supplicated to his Lord.

Note 4: The phrase (` , ) is used in the meaning of
“hence, therefore, for that reason,” e.g.
( ··¸ ¸ · ` . ·` ,` - ` , ` ¸ ·, ¸· ¸, ,`, ` , -) – Wine
destroys the intelligence. Therefore it has been
prohibited in Islam.

(e) The words ( ¸`, ' - where), (¸` ' - from where,
how), ( .`, ' – when), and (¸ · – when), are used for
interrogation (·,.)
45
as well as for a condition
(,).
46
They also contain the meaning of adverbs
in them, hence they are included among the
( . ` ' ,` , = ).

The word ( ¸`, ') is a ( ~ ` , ` . ´ ), (_` ') is both a
( ~ ` , ` . ·` , ) and ( ~ ` , ` . ´ ) while ( .`, ') and (_ ·)
are ( ~ ` , ` . ·` , ). Sometimes the particle ( ·) is

45
See Lesson 13.
46
See Lesson 56.
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suffixed to ( ¸`, ') and (_ ·), thus forming the words
( `, ') and ( · _ ·).

Note 5: The words ( .`, ') and (_ ·) have the same
meaning. However, the difference between the
two is that the word ( .`, ') is used when one asks a
question about something important, e.g.
( ¸`,` ` ·` ,, .`, ') – When will the day of reckoning
be?
One cannot say ( .`, ' .` ' ` . · · ) – Where are you
going?

(f) The words ( ¯ – whenever), ( ·`, _ – as long
as, while, when, until), ( ~ – how long, often,
frequently), ( · – seldom, sometimes), are also
(` , = . ` ').
Examples:
( - _ ` ,` ·` , ' ¯ = · ' ~ ' .` , ) - Whenever they
kindle a fire, Allāh extinguishes it.
( ` , . ·`, _ ` · ·` · . · ,) – The youth stood while we
completed our salāh.
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( ·` , = ` ` ¯ ~) - How long have we been waiting
for you.
( · `, ' _ ` · ) – We seldom saw him.

(g) The words (·,~, · ¸ – when) and ( · ¸ – when)
are ( ~ ` , ` . ·` , ). The word ( · ¸) is generally used
for the future tense even though it precedes the
past tense, e.g.
(` . ` . ` · ¸) – When the sky will split
asunder.

The word ( · ¸) is most often used for the past tense
even though it precedes the (__.·) - imperfect
tense, e.g.
( ¸` , · ` ¸ , .` , ¸ · · , ` ,` , · ,` , ¸ ` _ ·` ,, · ¸ ,) – And
when Ibrāhīm and Ismāīl were raising the
foundations of the Ka’bah.

Note 5: The (·,~, · ¸) is always succeeded by a
verb while ( · ¸) can be succeeded by a verb or a
noun, e.g. ( _ · ¸ · ` · · ¸) – when both of them
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were in the cave.
However, (·` , - · · ¸)
47
is always succeeded by a
noun, e.g. ( , ¸ - ` .` · ~ _ · ¸ · ` , ` ' · ¸ ) – I
ascended the mountain and suddenly there was a
lion sleeping in the cave.
The word ( · ¸) is sometimes used for (· - ` ·) – to
provide the meaning of suddenly. It can be
succeeded by a verb, e.g. (,_ .- ·¸ ¸- ' ,,)
– While I was sitting, Zaid suddenly appeared.

Note 6: In the holy Qur’ān, wherever the word
( · ¸) is used, the word (` , ¯ · ') or (` ,` , ¯ · ') is implied.
Hence the meaning of ( · ,` , ¸ ` _ ·` ,, · ¸ , ` ,` , ) is,
“Remember when Ibrāhīm was raising…”

Note 7: The word ( · ¸) also has the meaning of
“therefore,” e.g. (` _ . ¸` - _ ,` · · ¸ ` ·` · , ¯ ') – I
honoured him because he is a pious man. In this
case, the word ( · ¸) will be regarded among the
particles (,,-).

47
The ( · ¸) that has the meaning of suddenly.
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7. When the words ( ·` ,,) and ( ¸` , -) are ( .` ·)
towards ( · ¸), they become:
(¸ · ¸ ·` ,,) = (¸ · ·` ,,) – on that day, then, at that time;
(¸ · ¸ ¸` , -) = (¸ · ` , -) – at that time, then, that day.
Similarly, one can say ( · · , ¸ ) – at that time. In
these words, there was a sentence after the
particle ( · ¸). The sentence was deleted and
replaced by tanwīn. For example, the word (¸ · ·` ,,)
was originally ( ¯ . ¯ · ¸ ·` ,,) – the day on which
such and such a thing occurred.

Note 8: The words (¸ · ¸ ·` ,,), (¸ · ¸ ¸` , -) and ( . · , ¸ · ¸ )
are written as (¸ · ·` ,,), (¸ · ` , -) and (¸ · · ,)
respectively.

8. The following words take the place of the
( ·,· ¸,·· ,~ ) and are therefore (.,.·):
1. the (_.·) – verbal noun,
2. (` , ¯)
3. (·· ,)
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4. (·_¸ ,) and
5. those words which indicate the whole (¸ ¯)
or the part (.,-).

Examples:
( ¸` ` _` , ~ ` . · -) – I came at sunrise.
( . · ` , ¯ - . · · ` , ¯ ` , ' ·` ,, ` , ¯ ) – How long did
you stay?
( ` . · ¸ ·`, ' · · ,` _ ' ) – I stayed for four days.
( · , -` · · ` . · ,) – I stood on this side.
( ¸` , _` ,` _ , _ ,` ¸` , ~ ` , ' _ ,` ¸ ¯ ` .` , ·) – I walked
the whole day and a quarter of the night.

Note 9: In the second and fourth examples, the
words (` , ¯) and ( · ·) are (.,.· · - ·) because
they are (` ¸ ` ' ). The (.,·) cannot be written in
words.

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The (--- ,,-«-)
The (··· ¸,··) is a noun that appears after
( , ` , ·` , · ) – a (,) that denotes attachment.
48
The
noun appearing after such a (,) is (.,.·), e.g.
( _ _` , ` .` , ) – I went along the street.
( · - ' , ` .` , · ) – I travelled with your brother.
(` · , ' , ·` , · ` ) – We greeted him together with
his father.

10. Only in a sentence where the (,) cannot be
(.=· ,,), will (..) be rendered to the noun
succeeding the (,). In the above-mentioned three
examples, the (,) cannot be ( · ,, ~ · ).

In the first example, if (,) is taken as ( ,, ·~· ),
the meaning will be, “I and the street went.” This
will be a nonsensical statement.


48
See Lesson 43.7 and Lesson 51.7.
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In the second example, (.=·) is not permissible
because one cannot make (.=·) on a
( _. ¸.` · _,·,· ) without any separating word/s
in between. However, if you say,
( ` .` , · ` ,` - ' , ' · ), the (,) will be (.=· ,,) and
not ( , ` , ·` , · ).

In the third example, (.=·) is only permissible
on a (_,,- _.) if the (` ,- ,-) is repeated on
the (,=··), e.g. if you say, ( ·` , , ' _ · , ·` , · ` ),
the (,) will be (.=· ,,) and not ( , ` , ·` , · ). This
will be discussed in Lesson 71 in the section of
(.=·).

In some sentences, both (.=· ,,) and ( , ` , ·` , · )
are permissible, e.g.
( , ` ,` , · ' · · ` ·` ` ` - ) – The leader came and his army
came.
( ` ,` , · ' · · ` · ` ` - , ) – The leader came with his army.

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11. Examine the analysis of the following
sentence:

( . · ,` _ ' ·` ,, · - ' , · _` ` . - ·)
I entered the madrasah with your brother on
Wednesday.

. · ,` _ ' ·` ,, · - ' ,
_` · ` . - ·

·,¸

_.
_,,-
¸.·

·- ·,¸
_,,-

, ` ,
·` , ·
·` , ` ·

_
¸,··
·,·
,~
.´'
.,.·
¸·

¸·
·,· ¸,·· –
.·, ,~
··· ¸,··
·,_- ·,·· ·~




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Vocabulary List No. 53

Word Meaning
¸ ` ` _
(7) to retreat, to renounce
(one’s religion)
_ .` _ ' (1) to breastfeed
¸,` ' (1) to travel at night
. ¸,` ' to make someone travel
` ¸ ` ,`, _ ¯
to take an oath, to make a
vow
· _ , (3) to bless
` ¸ ' , strength, harm, hurt
_` , (4) to branch out, to ramify
.` - (2) to make beloved
` .` , - . ·` , - snake
. · ~ _ - ,' · =`, , -
, -
map, chart
` _ ,` · ' . ` ,` ,` · back, buttocks, behind
· · . _ breastfeeding
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` · . · ´ net, snare, trap
· · . ¸ · · worker, employee, go
_` . · (2) to perform, to carry out
. - ` ,` . ` .` · cricket
` · , - ` -`
the sanctified musjid (of
Makkah)
_. · ' ` -`
the musjid of Baitul
Muqaddas
` . _¯ · . ` . _ ' · purpose, aim, desire
` , , while
` , . fresh
` _ ·` _ ' . · ,` · _ flower
` , . _ ·` _ ' · news of your good health
` , · , to come
¯ ¸ - ' small brother
` ¸ · ¸ · ` , , _ ·
to be fully aware of, to be
well informed
¸` , ' (1) to disclose, to reveal
` _` _ ,` · dated
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` ·` , ` . ` cash
¸_ - (3) to reward

Exercise No. 100
49


(A) Look for the (·,· ¸,··) or (··· ¸,··) in the
following sentences. Examine where the
(.·, ,~) and (.´' ,~) are (.,.·).

, 1 , ,~ ·,- ¸· _,_. .,- ,· .' .·_' ·¸ _
, . ·, ,,· :··' .¯ · . ¸ :- .¯ ·
¸ ·_, ¸¸, .,- :,· ¸¸, .,· ,,· .
, 2 , ¸ .,· ,-, · ·, ·~_- ¸ ¸· _,- ¸,
·,· .
, 3 , ·, ··,· ·´¯ ·=,,- ¸ ·,,- :´ ¸,`
.-, ,,-, ,,·, .

49
In the original Urdu book, this exercise has been erroneously
numbered as 95. Accordingly, all the exercises from this one
onwards, will differ from the original. For easy reference, look at
the Lesson number and the exercises that follow it. Translator
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, 4 , ·· ¸·, _, ¸,~ .,· ,·,,, ¸¸ .,·,·,,
¸¸ , .,·, , ¸ _,~ ¸,· .,.,,, ¸
,··' .
, 5 , ¸- . .,· .,·, ` , ·,- .,· . , ¸·' ,
, 6 , _,. .,, ` , , ¸·,,, .,, ¸ ¯ , . ¸·' ,
, 7 , _- ¸·, _,· ¸·, ¸- ¸·, ` ¸, ¸, _=- ,,
·, _- ¸·, ¸·,· ¸ .
, 8 , ·,· · _-, ` ¸ ¯ ¸ .
, 9 , · : · ·, .-', ,- ,`,'
, 10 , · .·,-, : - .,¯
, 11 , · ` ·`,¸, : ·
, 12 , · ·-', ¸, ·'

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(B) Translate the following verses of poetry.

, 1 , ` · ·,,' . .' ` ., ¯ ` ¸~, ` ¸ ,
.', ´· ,· ` · ¸ _· ¸_' .
¬¤

,,,¸ ¸-, .~,' .` -,
´` · ` . ,,` . · ` ._¯·
, 2 , ,, ,,· · ¸ ¸¸ ¸-'
.-¸ .¸ · '=·

Exercise No. 101

Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān.

, 1 , ` , ` ·, · ¸` , , ' ` , ,, `, · , ` ,` , - .
, 2 , . -` ` ¸ ,` ' ¸ · ` · , ·` , ¸` · -` · ,. -
_ ¸ -` _ . · . ¸ ¯ _ , ` · ` , - .
, 3 , ¸ · ` , ¯ . · ¸ · ` . · ·` ,, ` , ' ¸` · , ¸ ·` ,, .
, 4 , ` . , , `, ¸` · .` , ` ¸` · · .` , ' ¸` , ` , - ¸` , · ¯ .

50
Due to (.·,) at the end of the stanza, an alif is read on the word
(´·).
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, 5 , , ·` , · , ` -` · ¸` _ . · ` ' ¸ . ¯ ` · ` , ´ . ,
,' ` , _ · ` , ¯ _ ,` · ' .
, 6 , , · , ,` · _ ` ¸ ¸ , ` -` ` , ' ` · ,.` · · . ,, ·
` . · · · ' . :' , _ , · · ` ¸ ` · · .,` · · .
, 7 , · ¸ , , ¸, ,` ·¯ , · .` ·¯ · ¸ , ,. - _. ¸
` , , , ~ , , · ` ¸ ` , ´ · · ` ¸ ` ¸` - .,` , ,` , ` ` · .
Exercise No. 102

(A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) When you want to recognize the four
directions on a map, place the map in front. The
side that is on top will be north, the one at the
bottom will be south. The one on the right will be
east and the one on the left will be west.
(2) Calcutta is to the east, Karachi to the west,
Mount Himalaya to the north and Ceylon to the
south in the map of India.
(3) To the north of my house is a market, a
madrasah to the south, a road to the east and a
garden to the west.
(4) Our madrasah is approximately at a distance
of 3 miles to the east.
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(5) We are occupied in seeking knowledge the
whole day and after Asr we go to play cricket.
(6) Look at this picture. My brother is sitting at
my right and my younger brother is standing on
my left. My servant is standing behind me.
(7) It is necessary for your health to exercise
morning and evening.
(8) My friends, enter the musjid and perform Ishā
Salāh. Then go to your houses and do not go out
of the house at night.
(B) Translate the following letter which a sister
wrote in response to her brother.

·,,-| _, .-| ¸- =·,-·
.,- ¸-'
·¯,,, = ·~_, ·· :,·, .
` ¸· ` . · , · ¸ · _·_' , ., ·_-' ¸¸ ¸ ·, ¸ ' ,,
¸· ¸ -' : · ¸ · ` . ` ,' _ ´, · -` _ ,' :` _
-' ¸¸ ` ¸= ¸- : . ` ¸` · : ~ _· ` .` _ ,` ` ¸ - ' ,
·,¸ ` _- .' · . ` ¸,,- : ,_· ¸ , :` ¸ .,-,
:-, _· . ¸· ¯, ´, :,¸ ` .··, · ·¸, ·,
- ` ¸ ' ,, · :· ¸ ·, _ `, ,, ` · , ·¯ ', :` .
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:_ ` ¸` · ,` - ,` .' ,-_', · ·,, _· · .,¯' ¸-
·,·' ¸· . : ¯ ·,· · ¸¸ = ·_' .
··,

·_ :` -'
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Test No. 22

(1) Define the (·,· ¸,··) and explain how many
types there are.
(2) How many types of nouns are (,= .-')
which have the ability to be (,~) because of
being adverbs (·` ,·,~)?
(3) Which words can take the place of (,~)?
(4) Construct ten such sentences which contain
the following words:
.` . . · · ¯ .` , - . ¸ .` , · . · . ,` ,` - . ¸` , ` , · . ¸` , · _ ·
¸ ,` ,` ' · · ,` _ ' . _ ,` .
(5) Analyze the following sentences:
, 1 , ¸` , .. ` .` · .
, 2 , ,,, ·,· ·¯ ._ ¸ . · ·, ` .` .
(6) Define the (··· ¸,··).
(7) After the (,), in which cases is it necessary to
read (..) on the succeeding word?
(8) In the following sentences, where is it
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necessary to read (..) after the (,) and why?
, 1 , ·- ' , ··= · ¸ · ¸ ¯
, 2 , ·,-', ' · ¸¸ ` .,· .
, 3 , · ` ·`, ¸ , ` , ´ ·
, 4 , ` - , ` ,,·,,¸ ,· .
, 5 , ·,_·', ·,· ` . .
, 6 , ` · _·, :,· :

(9) Analyze sentence number 1 and number 5
from the above-mentioned sentences.
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Lesson 63
The Condition
( ¸ -)

1. Examine the following sentences:
, 1 , ·` ,` · · , · , · = ,` , ¯ · .
, 2 , , · . . ` , , .
, 3 , ¯ _ ,` · ` `, _ , ¯ ¸` , .
, 4 , · ` ` · -` ` . - · ¸` ¸ · .
, 5 , . ¸ · .` , ` · ¸` , - ¸ · ` . · .

The words ( · , ·), ( ·` ,` · ·), ( , · .), ( ¸` , ¯ _) and ( ' ` ` ·)
etc. are (.,.·) because they occur as the (¸-) in
the sentence. You have learnt in Lesson 43.9 that
the noun that describes the condition of the (¸··)
or (¸,··) or both is called the (¸-) and it is
(.,.·).

A new fact here is that the word ( · ` ` ·) indicates
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the condition of the word ( -` ) which is a
(,~) while ( .` , ` ·) indicates the condition of
( ¸` , - ) which is (_,,-). This shows that a (,~)
and (_,,-) can also have a (¸-).

2. The person or thing whose condition is being
described is called ( ¸ - , ·) or ( ¸ - ` . - .).
In the first example, the ( ¸ - , ·) is the pronoun
of the (¸··), namely the (,);
in the second example, it is ( . );
in the third example, it is ( ,` · ` `, _),
in the fourth example, it is ( -` )
and in the fifth example, it is ( ¸` , - ).

3. In order to recognize the (¸-) in the sentence,
one should ask the question, “in what condition?”
or “how?” The answer to these questions will
provide the (¸-) as you can see in the above
examples.

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4. The (¸-) is generally a derived noun
(¸ ` ` · ,) and indefinite (·,´). The ( ¸ - , ·) is
definite (··,··). Sometimes the (¸-) is (··,··)
because of (··.¸), e.g.
(` · ` - , = , ` .` ·¯) – I believed in Allāh alone.
In this sentence, the word (` · ` - ,) is the (¸-) of
the word (=). Therefore it is (.,.·). The word
(` · ` - ,) has become (··,··) because of (··.¸).

5. An (·- ,)
51
can also be (¸-) in the
following cases:
• when it indicates a resemblance, e.g.
( ' ¯ ¸ · ` , ¯) – Álī turned around and
attacked like a lion.
• when it indicates sequence, e.g.
( ·` - _ ·` - _ ` , ` -` · ') – Enter one person at a
time.
• it is a number, e.g. ( · · ` ,` , - _ ,` _ , . · , _ ) –
They came in twos, threes and fours.

51
A noun from which no other words are derived.
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• it indicates a price, e.g. ( ·` _ , · ~ _ ` .`,` , _` , , ¸ , )
– The oil was sold for one dirham per ritl (a
weight).
• it is a word being described (,.,·), e.g.
(' , , , · ¯` , · ` · ,` ' ` ¸) – We revealed it as an
Arabic Qur’ān.
• it indicates a transaction between two
parties, e.g. ( , _` ` .` · , ¸ , , ) – I sold the
wheat from hand to hand (in cash).

6. A sentence, whether (·,- ·~) or (·,·· ·~) can
also be the (¸-). This requires a connector ( , _)
between the (¸-) and the ( ¸ - , ·). The ( , _) can
either be (·` , - ,,) or a (.· _. - third person
pronoun) or both.

Type of
Examples
Sentence Meaning
Example of
(·` , - ,,)
.` ' , , · ,` ~ '
_ ·
Seek
knowledge
when you are
a youth.
Example of ` : -` ., ` ` , _ . - Rashīd came
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(.· _.)
laughing.
Example of
both
,` · , ` ` , _ . -
` : -` .,
Rashīd came
laughing.

See Lesson 43.11.

Note 1: If you say (` : -` ., ¸` - _ . -), the word
(` : -` .,) being a (·,·· ·~), will form the (·. -
adjective) of ( ¸` - _). It will not be the (¸-) because
( ¸` - _) is indefinite and a sentence is also regarded
as indefinite. In this case, the ( ¸ - , ·) will not be
definite. Therefore it is referred to as the (,.,·).
However, although the analysis of the sentence
changes, there is no significant difference in the
meaning.

7. The (¸-) can be numerous, e.g.
( ' ..· ··,· ¸¸ _,· _-_) – Mūsā returned
to his nation in anger and regret.

8. If the context permits, the sentence preceding
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the (¸-) can be elided, e.g. when a person is
returning from a journey, it is said to him,
( · ` _ -` _ , ` . · · ¸ ¸' · ) – Go safely
and return profitably.

Exercise No. 103

Observe the analysis of the following sentences:

(1) ' ,. ,´- ·,¯

·,,= ,´-· · ··,·¹
¸,· ¸-
¸,.
¸ . ¸,··
,· ·, ¸,··
¸-
_· ¸·
¸·
·,·· ·~

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(2) .,´, .· ,·,' ,,-,

.,´,, ··=- ,··,| ·¸¡·-
_· ¸·
¸· ·~
·,··
¸-
·,· ¸,··
.'
·,¸ .',
·, ¸,··
_· ¸·
¸·
_. ,,
,· ¸·
¸-
·,·· ·~


Vocabulary List 54

Word Meaning
` ¸ ·` ,`, ¸·¯ to harm, to hurt, to trouble
,` (4) to smile
` . , (4) to be ready
` .` ` - one who is in need of a bath
¸ - (2) to shave
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·` - · unripe
,` . · (2) to trim (the hair), to shorten
` _ ,` ` · having a saddle
. · (2) to turn upside down

Exercise No. 104

Determine the (¸-) and the (¸- ,·) in the
following sentences:

, 1 , _¯ · _·. .= ,- ·¸ .
, 2 , ·,¯ ` .` · ,' ,,,· ` ¸ · .
, 3 , ,,· ' ,· _ , .
, 4 , ·¯, ¸¯' . ' _- ··= ., ·` - · .
, 5 , - ,` ` · ¸, ¯_ .
, 6 , ,, ,, ·',·, ·-. ·-. .´ ` · .
, 7 , ¸ ·-, ¸¸ ,-, ·- ¸ = .,·, .· .
, 8 , ··,_' ··,_' · ·· ` .=. .
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, 9 , ·,= ···, ¯ ¸·=` · ·` ·, ' ¸ ` .,· ' ¸ ` .,·,
` ·` ` ., ·,, ` ·` , ·`, ·` _., .
, 10 , · ` - , ·, ` _` ,- . .
, 11 , .,_ ¸ -·, `, · ··¸,, ' ,_ =, ` .,._ , _.
,, ·,· = . ,
, 12 , _·' ·
, ¯ , :' · ' :` , ¸ .' ` ¸` ,
_,,` .,´-., : ` , -
` ¸ ,` - · ` , ´ , ·¸ .` , ´ ¸ ¸ · _·
_,,· ´-. : ,· ·,, ¸

Exercise No. 105

Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān:

, 1 , , ,', ' ¸, ,` ·¯ . ,` , , · ·` .. ` ,` . ' ,
_ ´` ¸ _` - ,` ` · · ., , . , ` ` - .
, 2 , ` ,` · , · ¯` _ ` -` .,` · ` , ` . · ¸` · · ,` . _ , .
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, 3 , ` ¸ ` -` -` · , - . ¸ . ` · ¸ ·¯ ¸. -` ·
` , ´ ,` ,` _ ¸, ,` . ` · , ., · - .
, 4 , ,` · ´ - . ¸` · ` , · , .
, 5 , · ¸ , ,` · · _ ¸ · ·` . ,` · · _ ¯ .
, 6 , ` , = ` · ` , ´` .` · , ¸ ¸` · ¯ ,` · .
, 7 , · , . ¯ ` · ` ,` , , ·` , . ' , ` , ,, · · , .. ¯ ` ·.
` ,` , , ·` · ` ,` · , .,` , ` · ` , .
, 8 , · ¸ , ¸ · . ` , · ,` · , ` · = ·, , ` ¸ ` , ` · ,` ` · ,
. ¸ ·` ,` ` , = ` ,, = · .
, 9 , · ` ,` , ¸ · · , ¯ ` ¸ . ,` ·` · .
, 10 , · ¸ , ¸ · _ ,` · · ·` , , ·` , · , ¸ , ·` ,.` . · ,
.,` ` ·` ¸` ' ¸,` _ · ´` , ¸ ` , .
, 11 , · · ` ¸` ,` . ¸ ,` ' , .,` ` ' · .
, 12 , · ¸ , ¸ · _ , · ` ¸` , ,,` , · , ¸ , ¸, ,` ¸ ¸` ¸ ¸,` _
· , ´` , ¸ ·` .' · ¸` , , ` ¸ , ¸ · · _` ,` ,` ` · , ¸ ¸,` , ,
¸ ', ¸ · ¸ ` · , ` ·` ` ` ` - ' .

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Exercise No. 106

Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) When children strive in their youth, they
become leaders when they are adults.
(2) Do not drink hot tea because it is harmful for
the teeth.
(3) I entered the madrasah while all the boys in
my class were present.
(4) My father and I came to the musjid when the
khatīb (imām) was delivering the sermon on the
mimbar (pulpit).
(5) The hypocrite stands for salāh while he is lazy
and showing off.
(6) My brothers, do not ever leave the madrasah
except when you are perfect in the knowledge of
Dīn and in the subjects of Logic.
(7) I turned each page of this book and I read each
and every chapter.
(8) O noble woman, why are you distressing me
whereas you know that I intend good for you?
(9) Allāh does not punish any slave when he
seeks forgiveness.
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Lesson 64
Specification
(¸ , , «·| ·)

Examine the following sentences:

Translation Sentences
(1) I purchased a ritl
(a weight) of clarified
butter.
, 1 , ` · ~ _ ` .`, , `
(2) Sadaqatul fitr is
one sā (a weight) of
barley.
, 2 , ,` , · ` _ . , = · ¯ _
(3) I sold ten dhirā (an
arm’s length) of silk.
, 3 , ,`, , - ¸ _ _ · · , · ` .` · ,
(4) I have twenty
horses.
, 4 , , · .` ,` ,` · ` ¸ ` ·
(5) The date has a
similar amount of
butter.
, 5 , ` ,` _ , · · · ,` ` _ ·
(6) There is not a
cloud in the sky that
is equivalent to a
palm.
, 6 , ¸ · - _ ` _` · . ` ¸ · ·
, -

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(7) The utensil was full
of milk.
, 7 , · ` · . ,
(8) The place was good
with regards to its air.
, 8 , . , · . ´ . ~
(9) The best of people
are those with the best
character.
, 9 , ` ,` ,` ` - ' ¸` ` ,` , -
` -
(10) I have more wealth
than you.
, 10 , . · :` · ` , · ¯ ' '

1. In the above-mentioned ten examples, the final
word is called (,` , ,` ` ) or (,` , ` ) in the terminology
of Arabic Grammar.
You have learnt in Lesson 43.12, that the noun
which removes the vagueness in meaning from
any word or sentence is called ( ` , ,` ` , ). The noun
from which the vagueness is removed is called
(,` , ` ).

2. In the first group of examples (from 1 to 6), the
(,` , ` ·) refers to different amounts or measures of
an item, e.g. (¸ ~ _) ritl is a weight, (_ .) sā is a
kind of measure, (_ _ ·) dhirā is a measurement
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and (.` ,` ,` ·) is a number while (¸ · ·) and (_` ·) are
not any specific weights but together with their
(·,¸ .·), they indicate an estimate. In short, all
the above-mentioned nouns have some kind of
vagueness in them which cannot be removed
without a ( ,` , ,` ).

There is no vague noun in the second group of
four examples. However, there is a vagueness in
the sentences themselves, e.g. when you say,
( ` · · . , - the utensil was filled), this is a sentence
which is vague because we do not know what the
utensil was filled with. Was it filled with water,
milk, honey or something else? When you say
( ), the commodity has been specified.

3. Sometimes the ( ,` , ,` ) of something that is not a
commodity, is also used if it has vagueness, e.g.
( `, - ` , -) – a ring of silver.

4. Remember that the (,` , ` ·) will always be an
(` · ,` ), that is, such a noun that either has
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tanwīn or the nūn of the dual or plural or it is
(.·). A word having the definite article ( ¸ ) is
not regarded as an ( ` · ,` ).

5. The (,` , ` ·) is always (·,´) – indefinite.
However, if the particle (` ¸ ·) precedes it, it can be
(··,··) – definite, e.g. (¸ ¸ ` ¸ · ¸ ~ _) or ( ¸ ¸ · ¸ ~ _).


6. The ( ` ,` , , ) of weights, measures and distance is
always (.,.·). Sometimes, due to (··.¸) or
prefixing the particle (` ¸ ·), it becomes (_,,- ·).
Examine the undermentioned examples:
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¸ « , _¸¸¬ -
, ·¸´· ,
¸ « , _¸¸¬ -
, -·¸-- ,
¸,,« ·
, -,|, =·=- ,
¸ , , « ·
·- =,=
¸ ¸ ` ¸ ·
¸ · · ~ _
¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ~ _
, 1 , ` .` , ,
· ~ _
I drank a ritl of milk.
¸ _` · ` ¸ ·
¸ · ` , ¯
_`
¸ _` · ¸` , ¯
, 2 , ` .`, , `
-` · ` , ¯
I bought a sack of wheat.
¸ ¸` _ ' ` ¸ ·
¸ · .` ·
¸` _ '
· ¸ ¸` _ ' .`
, 3 , ` ¸ ` ·
.` _ ' .` ·
I have a feddan
52
of land.
7. The ( ,` , ,` ) of numbers has been explained in
detail in Lessons 44 and 45.
8. The sign of recognizing a ( ,` , ,` ) is that it will
occur in answer to the question, “what thing?”, or
“from what thing?”, or “regarding what?”, or
“concerning what?”


52
A square measure equivalent to 4200.330 m
2
in Egypt.
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Allusion to Numbers
( · · ` ., ¯)

9. The following words are used to allude to
unspecified numbers:

Word Meaning
` , ¯ how much, how many
` ¸`, ' ¯ how much, how many
¯ so much, so many

Accordingly, they are called (·,´ .-'). They are
indeclinable (` ¸ '). These words also have
vagueness in their meanings and to remove this
vagueness, a (,` , ` ·) is required.
The ( ,` , ,` ) of (·,·, ` , ¯) is (.,.·) and singular
(·,·) e.g. ( . ' , · , ¯ ` , ¯- How many books did
you read?) while the ( ,` , ,` ) of (·,_- ` , ¯) is (_,,- ·).
Sometimes it is singular (·,·) e.g. (` . ' , · ¸ . ¯ ` , ¯ -
How many books I read.) and sometimes it is
plural, e.g. ( ¯ ` , ¯ ` . ' , · ¸ .` - How many books I
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read.) See 13.6 and 13.7.

If (·,·, ` , ¯) is in (` , - ·-), its ( ,` , ,` ) will also
be in (` , - ·-), e.g. ( .`, , ` ¸ , ·` _ · ` , ´ ,) – For how
many dirhams did you purchase (it)?
Due to the particle (.) in this sentence, the
(·,·, ` , ¯) is in (` , - ·-).
One can also say ( ·` _ · ` , ´ ,).
The particle (` ¸ ·) always precedes the ( ,` , ,` ) of
(` ¸`, ' ¯). Accordingly, it will always be (_,,- ·), e.g.
( ` , _ ` · · · ¸ · ´ ¸ ` ¸ · ` ¸`, ' ¯ , ` ,` , · ¯ .` ,' , ) – There were
many prophets with whom many saints fought
battles.

The ( ,` , ,` ) of ( ¯) is (·,·) and (.,.·), e.g.
( ·` _ · ¯ ` . ` ') - I spent so many dirhams.
( _ `, · ¯ ` ¸ ` ·) - I have so many dinars.
( ` ·` , ,` _ ´ , . ´ ` .`, , ) - I bought the book for so
many rupees.

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The word ( ¯) is most often repeated when used,
e.g. ( , ¯ ` . ` ' ·` _ · ¯ ) - I spent so many
dirhams.

The words (` , ¯) and (` ¸`, ' ¯) are always used at the
beginning of a sentence. This is not essential for
the word ( ¯).

Note 1: The word ( ¯) does not only denote
allusion to numbers but it can also denote an
allusion to some matter or speech, e.g.
( , ¯ ` `, _ ¸ · ,' ¸ · · ¯ ) – Zaid did such and such
thing or said such and such thing.
For this purpose, the words ( .`, · , .` , ¯) are also
used, e.g.
( .`, · , .` , ¯ ` `, _ ¸ · ,' ¸ · ·) – Zaid did such and
such thing or said such and such thing.

Note 2: The words (·,_- ` , ¯) and ( ¯ ` ¸`, ' ) denote
large amounts while the word ( ¯) denotes a
small amount.

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Exercise No. 107

Determine the different types of ( ,` , ,` ) in the
following sentences:


, 1 , -` ¸ ¸ ~` _ ' · · ` ¸ · · ` , · ` _ ·` _ ' · · ¸ · · .
, 2 , ¯ _ -` · ¸ _ . ` .` . ` , ' ,` , · ` _ . , = · .
, 3 , ' _` _ ' ` · ` .` · _ _ .
, 4 , ` , · · ,` · ` ¸ ` ,` _ ` , ` ,- -` · ¸ · ` · ' · ` - .
, 5 , ¸ ¸ ` ¸ ~_, ¸ ·,,· .-· ` .,, .
, 6 , ' ¸ · ¸_ .,` ` , ,=· , -', ·~ ·¯,
., , ,~', .
, 7 , ,` ,· ,' ,~ ` ¸,, ., ··= ·, ·,,· -· ` .,¸
·¸ ` _¯', _,. ` ,·¯', · ¸·' .
, 8 , ·` ,-
¬¬
¸ · ` , · .` ,` ·,, ¸´ .·
¬1
·_·. .
, 9 , .··' ·¯', -,· .,,- ¸·' . ` , ' - ·=', .

53
earthenware jug
54
family
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, 10 , -.
¬¬
,- ¸ ·-_ _· ·,· ¸, · ' ,- .
, 11 , ,. ¸· ,, ¸ __·' ··, ,,,- .·_· ¸· .
, 12 , ¸·
¬6
.,-- ··.,' .' ··, ' _,, , ` .·
.
, 13 , ¸-- ··· ¸'_ ·¸ ·_' ` ¸,_ .~ .
, 14 , ,-·' ¸·. _- ··
¬¯
·· ·,·¯', .
, 15 , ,,,· .´, ¸· ` ¸ ` ,
-,, ·_, _,, ` .` · , ·
¬8
·,· ¸ · ´ ' _ ¸· ·
-, ` ¸ ,´, ,' ` ¸ ,´

Exercise No. 108

Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān:

, 1 , ` · · ` ,` , - = · - ,` · , ` , -` _ ' ¸ -` , .

55
to become clear, to regain consciousness
56
to overflow
57
result
58
joy
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, 2 , ` ,` - · , ¸` _ ' ,` ,` · .
, 3 , . .,` _` ` ,` ,', ' ` . , · ' ` , ´ · .
, 4 , . ¸ ¸, ., ¯ ', ¸ ,` · ' · , _ ~ ` ¸ ., ¯ ', ¸ ·
` , , , =` , _ .` , ` . , , _ · .
, 5 , · ¸ ¸ · ` , ´ ·` ` ¸, , ` - ' , ` · ' . . ¸, ¸ . ` ,` ,` ,` · ¸ ·
· , - ,` ' ` ,` · , .,` ` -, ` ,` ,` ' .,` ` -`, ·` ` . .
, 6 , .,` ` · , · ` ¸ · ,` · ¯ , ´` · ` . ·` . ' , ` - .
, 7 , · , -: , ` , ¯ ' ¸ . - _ · ` , ¯ ' , ·, . .
, 8 , , ,', ' ¸, ,` · ¯ , ., , · ., · . ,` ¯ · ·
· . ' , , · ., · . . ¸ · ' . -`, ¸, ., `, ¸ ·
· , . ,` ,` ' ¯ . ,` , ` ,` · ` ¸,` . .
, 9 , ¸ · , ` .` _ ¸ ` · _ · .
, 10 , ¸`, ' ¯ , ¸` · ¸ ·,` , · ` . · ` ¸ · ,` · ' ,` , _ · ` ` _ , · ` - ·
, - , · ` , · , , · , ´' .

Exercise No. 109

Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

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(1) We bought one gram of gold for 100 dollars.
(2) Nowadays one kilogram of good wheat is
obtained for 15 rupees.
(3) I drank two cups of coffee now.
(4) Two kilograms of ghee (clarified butter) is
enough for six kilograms of meat.
(5) Mahmūd is younger than Khalid in age but he
has more knowledge.
(6) From all the animals, the camel is the most
well known with regards to its size, obedience
and contentment.
(7) The mango is a very famous fruit in India and
Pakistan for its taste, fragrance and colour.
(8) When I heard about the success of your
younger brother, my heart was filled with joy.
(9) The one who has more knowledge and
intelligence is greater.
(10) This house is 20 metres in length and 15
metres in breadth.

Exercise No. 110

Examine the analysis of the following sentences.

, 1 , , ´` ¸` ,` · ` .` · , , . 2 , ` - ` ,` ,` ` - ' ¸` ` ,` , - .
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, .,- ,

. - , ¸ ,· - · ¸´ =
¸· _· ¸·
·, ¸,··
, .,.· ,
,,,· , .,.· ,
·,_- ·,·· ·~

¸ , - ¸··|· ¸ . - | , · · « · -

, ,
. ¸, ,

_,,- ·,¸

, ,
¸,. ,
_.

_,,- ·,¸
,` , ` ·
,,,

'· _-
·,_- ·,- ·~

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Exercise No. 111

From now, the instructions for most exercises will
be in Arabic.
` ' _` . , , · , ¯ ¸ ` - ¸ ¯ ' ¸ ¯ · ' ¸ · · ` ,` , ,`
· , - .
(Complete the following sentences by placing
suitable words of tamīz in the empty spaces.)

, 1 , ` _·_' ·` . ¸-' ¸ · .
, 2 , _' ¸· ' ¸, ·` ´ .
, 3 , ¸ ` · .' .,. .
, 4 , ` _¯' ` ¸ ` _ =', , ¸· .
, 5 , ` ,` ` . ¸· ,,· · ` .·, .,,- ·,- ` .-·
¬'
·· _` , ` .-,· .,,-

·,~' ¸,` ,=,
61
,~'
.


59
types
60
giraffe
61
peacock
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Exercise No. 112

` · ¸ ·` - ¸ · ,` , ,` · , ¯ .-' ¸· ¸ , ¸ ¯ ¸ ·- ¸ · .
Make each of the following words a tamīz in a
suitable sentence.

, ´` . ' , . .` , ~ . · ·` - ' . · ~ _ . . , · . ´ ¸` , ` ¸ · .
· . . . .` ´ ¸ · . ¸ ¸ · ` ¸ · . ¸ , .
Exercise No. 113

· ,` , ,` ` ,` , · ¸¸ ,,· .- ` ¸ · _,` . ` ¸ · · , ¯ ¸ ` - ¸
_,` ·` ¸ · :· ·,·, · _ _ , ` · ¸ · ´` ` · ¸,-' ¸ · _,` . ¸ ¯
,` , ` ¸ · .
(Change the tamīz in the following sentences from
the present form to every other possible form.
Take into consideration the change that this will
cause in the mumayyaz.)

, 1 , ¸ . · ·` , - ¸ ` - .` ` .`, ' _ .
, 2 , -` ¸ ¸~_ ¸· _- · · ¸ · · .
, 3 , ` ¯ ¸ __ · ` ¸ · ` .,, (linen) .
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, 4 , · ¸ . · ` ¸ .,, ¸·
, 5 , ` _, _=· ` , - (a weight) ,,. .
, 6 , ' ,` , ¸ _. ` .. ,= ·¯_ .

Exercise No. 114

, ¸ . ·` ,` ` · , · , ¯ ¸ ` - ¸ · · _` ,¯ · ` · . ,` , · .
, 1 , ,· · ¸ ,, ¸, .,·
.,,·, _,_' ·,, ¸, .
, 2 , ,~ ·· ¸,,= ¸ .,,· ·.,·,
.
, 3 , ·, .,, ·~ ·_' ¸ ,· ··,
.
, 4 , ¸~ ·· ¸ _= _=, .
, 5 , ' ¸, . ¸`, ,` , , _· ¸,
6`
_, .

62
reception hall.
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Exercise No. 115

, 1 , , ,` ,', ,,.· ,,· ` ,,, .,´, ¸ ¸` - .· .` , ¯
.-' ¸· ¸,´ .
, 2 , , ,` ,', _,,- ,,· ` ,,, .,´, ¸ ¸` - .· .` , ¯
._, .-' ¸· .
, 3 , , ,` ,', ,,.· ,,· ` ,,, .,´, ¸ ¸` - .· .` , ¯
·-' .-' ¸· .
, 4 , ,` ,', _,,- ·~ ,,· ` ,,, .,´, ¸ ¸` - .· .` ,¯
·· .-' ¸· , .
, 5 , ,,.· ·,· ,,· ` ,,, .,´, ¸ ¸` - .· .` , ¯
·· .-' ¸· , ,` ,', .
, 6 , , ,` ,', _,,- ,,· ` ,,, .,´, ¸ ¸` - .· .` , ¯
·· .-' ¸· .
, 7 , ·- ¸ ~,-· ,,· ` ,` ,' .,´, ¸ ¸` - .· .` , ¯ .


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Lesson 65
The Exception
( ` ` · . , , _ )

1. You have read the explanation of ( ` ` · . , , _ )
in Volume 3, Lesson 43.8. Here additional
information will be provided.

2. The meaning of (.·) is to exclude something
from several things. In the terminology of Arabic
Grammar, it refers to the exclusion of the words
succeeding the particle of exception from the
statement preceding it, whether positive or
negative, that is, to indicate that the succeeding
statement is different from the preceding one, e.g.
( · . ¸ · ¯ , ` . ¯ ') – I ate the fruits except the
grapes, that is, I did not eat the grapes.
( · . ¸ · ¯ , ` . ¯ ' ·) – I did not eat the fruits
except the grapes, that is, I only ate the grapes.

3. There are two categories of (.·):
1) (¸ .` ` · _ · ` ` ·) where the excluded word is
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from the same species as the (` ·` · _ · ` ` ·) –
the word from which the exclusion is
made, e.g. ( `, _ . ¸ ` ·` , . -) – The people
came except Zaid.
2) (_ = ` ` · _ · ` ` ·) where the excluded word is
not from the same species as the (` ·` · _ · ` ` ·),
e.g. ( _ - . ¸ ` ¸ , · ' . . -) – The horses
came except the donkey.

Note 1: The (_ = ` ` · _ · ` ` ·) is used very seldom.

4. You have learnt that ( ` ` · . , , _ · ) is counted
among the (.,,.·) but it is not always (.,.·).
Its (.,·¸) is of three types:
1) If the (` ·` · _ · ` ` ·) is mentioned and the
sentence preceding ( . ¸) is (` · . -` ,` ·) – a
positive sentence not having (·,) or
(¸); or it is (_ = ` ` · _ · ` ` ·), then (..) will
be rendered to the (_ · ` ` ·) as explained in
the above examples.
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2) If the (` ·` · _ · ` ` ·) is mentioned and the
sentence preceding ( . ¸) is (. -` ,` · _ ·) – a
negative sentence, then (..) can be
rendered to the (_ · ` ` ·) or the (.,·¸) of the
preceding words can be followed, e.g.
(` ·` _ , ,' ·` _ , . ¸ ` _ ·` _ ' _` ` , - The flowers
did not bloom except for one rose).
( ,' ¸` , ' . ¸ ¸` , · · _ · ` .` · ¸` , ' - I did
not greet those who returned from a
journey except the first one).
3) If the (` ·` · _ · ` ` ·) is not mentioned and the
sentence preceding ( . ¸) is (. -` ,` · _ ·) – an
incomplete statement, the (.,·¸) of the
(_ · ` ` ·) will be according to its position in
the sentence. The particle ( . ¸) will have no
effect on the sentence, e.g.
(¸ `, _ _ · . ¸ ` , · ' ` , . `, _ . ¸ ` .`, ' _ · . ` `, _ . ¸ . - ·)
Such a (_ · ` ` ·) is called (_` , ` · _ · ` ` ·).

5. Besides ( . ¸), the other words of (.·) are:
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( · · · - · · · - ¸, ,` , · - ). They all mean
“except” or “besides”.

6. The words (,` , ·) and (¸, ) are nouns. The word
succeeding them is (_,,- ·) because of being
(·,¸ .·).
The (.,·¸) of the word ( ,` , ·) itself is similar to
( . , , _ · ` ` ·). It will therefore be of three types, e.g.
1 , ¸ - , ,` , · ` _` , , . . ` ¸ .
2 , ¸ ` , · ,` , · ¸` , · · _ · ` .` .
3 , = ,` , · ` · ¸`, , · · · .` , .
4 , = ,` , · ,' = ,` , · ¸ - ' _ · ` ` · . .
5 , ¸` , · · ` ,` , · ` - ¸ , . .
6 , ¸ · · ,` , · ` . ` ¸ , , ` , .
7 , = ,` , · _ · ` ` · . .

7. The words ( · -) and ( ·) are originally
(¸.' ¸·) but they were found to be (.,.·) in
Arabic sentences. Accordingly, the grammarians
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counted them amongst the (·` _- ,,-). The
word ( -) is also counted as a (,- ,-), while
sometimes it is regarded as a (¸.' ¸·). The
(_ · ` ` ·) succeeding it could be read (.,.·) or
(_,,- ·). The words ( · · - ) and ( · · ) always
remain as verbs. The (_ · ` ` ·) succeeding them
will always be a (·, ¸,··) and hence (.,.·).

Examine the following examples:
1. ( ·_, ,' ·_, ·- _·_. ` .=·) – I plucked the
flowers except the rose.
2. (¸ -, ,' -, · ·,' -· ` ._` _) – I visited
the musjids of the city except one.
3. ( ¸,- ,' ¸,- - _-. .·=·) – I cut the
trees except the date palm.
4. ( ·-. · · ,' · - · .´ ` .',·) – I recited the
book except one page.

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Vocabulary List No. 55

Word Meaning
` . = `
(10) to seek medical advice, to
consult (a doctor)
` ¸ ,` ·`, _,` · ' to tire, to disable
· _ to correct, to make amends
_-` , - . ` _`, , - injured
, · - ` ¸` , - to surround
` , ` -, · -
to be empty, to be alone with
someone
` ¸ , `, ¸, · to treat (a patient)
. ,` · ' . . · illness
_` , evil, bad
. - . , ¸ , to accompany, to befriend
¸ · . misguidance
· · , , , ¸ , to stray, to wander about
¸ , · love poetry, flirtation
· -` · . certainly
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` ,` , shining star
` . ,` , the sun and the moon
_, ', _, ' to reject

Exercise No. 116

Determine the (_ · ` ` ·) and the (.,·¸) in the
following examples:

, 1 , ` ·,` - ·· ¸ _.` , ' ·_ ¸ ¸,·· ·` ,· .
· ·, ,' · ` · , , _-` , - , .
, 2 , ··-. _,, .·´ . ¸ ¸ · -, , ` ¸` ` ¸,·, .
, 3 , _´ .,-, ¸, ,,· ¸·' . ¸ .,' ·
,, ,,· ¸ · ,,,~' ,· · ·, .,,' ..·, ·,· ¸ ·
¸' ·· . ¸ .` , , ',, ¸' ¸· _·¯ ,·,
,, ,, .
, 4 , ¸,_´' . ¸ .,` , - ¸¯ ` .··. .
, 5 , : ,· · :` -` ., ` , : · . ¸ .
, 6 , . ¸ · ` · ·,´ . ¸ ¸- ` _, . , ···. ¸·, ¸ · .,´
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·- -, ··,·· ¸- .
, 7 , ¸` , . ,`,· ¸, ¸ , · ¸ · .,·' ` .·` , = · ¸` - ` ,
. ` - , ·, · · .
, 8 , .´ ¸, ` ¸` , ' ` ¸ · .
, 9 , ·,· ,· . ¸ · · , ·,· · ,' , , , ' ,` , - ' ` - '
, ,· .-. ¸, ¸,- .·´ ¸·- . ¸ ¸· ·, ¸·
¸,· .
, 10 , ´ ¸ ¸· . ¸ ¸¯' ., ¯ ¸ . ¸ : · ¸¯',. .
, 11 , = _· _-' ¸, ` ¸- _· _` ' ¸ .
_·' ·
, 12 , · , ' . = ` `, .,· ¸ .· ¸ ´
`, ` ¸ · ` . ,` · ' ··- . ¸ ,`, , .
, 13 , ¸ ~ , = ·- · ¸ _` , ¸ ¯ . '
¸_ ·-. ¸ ,,· ¸¯, .

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Exercise No. 117

Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān:

, 1 , · ¸ , · · ´ · ,` ` -` · ·. ,` - . · . ¸
¸, ` , ¸ .
, 2 , · , · · · , - ,` ' . ¸ ` ,` , ` . · , .
, 3 , , ` ¸, -, ` , ´ _` ,` ¸ · ` · ' , .
, 4 , · ` - , ,, · ,` , · ¸ .` , , ¸` · ¸ ` ` .
, 5 , · · ` · , ` ¸ - . ¸ ¸ ·` . .
, 6 , = . ¸ .` , · ` , ` ·, . .
, 7 , .-¸ . , - ¸ · . ¸ .-¸ .

Exercise No. 118

Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) All the boys were successful except the lazy
boy.
(2) The Muslim women go out with hijāb except
Khālidah.
(3) I did not take anything from these fruits
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except one orange.
(4) A Muslim does not fear anyone except Allāh.
(5) I befriended everyone except the arrogant one.
(6) We do not worship anyone besides Allāh.
(7) All the boys are present in our school today
except Mahmūd.
(8) All the girls succeeded except one lazy girl
who wasted her time in play and amusement.

Exercise No. 119
(A)
· , - ¸ ¯ · ' ¸ · . , , _ · ` ` · _` . , , · , ¯ ¸ ` - ¸ ¯ '
· , ,` · ¸ ` ¸ · . ,` - , ` _` ,` -, · ` ¸` , , , ` · ´` , .
Complete the following sentences by placing
( . , , _ · ` ` ·) in the blanks, fill in the i’rāb and
explain where two possibilities of i’rāb are
permissible.

, 1 , ' _- · ·
, 2 , . ´ ` . ' , ·
, 3 , ` - ' ` _ -` , ` ,
, 4 , ` , · ` ,` ` . · ,
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, 5 , . . · _ ` · ·` · · .
, 6 , ¸ - ' _ · ·` ,` - ' ` , `, ` ,
, 7 , . ` , ` _ ` , .
, 8 , · ¯ , ` . ¯ '
(B)
. · ` , · · ' , _ · ` ` ¸ ´` , · , ¯ ¸ ` - ¸ · ,` , · , ¸ · ` .
By using the word (,` , ·), make an exception in the
following sentences and fill in the i’rāb of the
(_ · ` ` ·) and the particle of (. · ` ¸), that is, the
word (,` , ·).

, 9 , _ ·` _ ' ` .` · = · ·
, 10 , .` , ` · , . ` , _` , .
, 11 , ' ` . . · ·
, 12 , ` ·` ,` . ., ` ,
, 13 , . · ` . ' ` _` , - · ` , , , . -
, 14 , ` ·` ,` ` - · ·
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(C)
· , ¯ ¸ ` - , ` ' · , - ¸ ¯ · ' ¸ · ,` · ` , ` - _` ., ,

, 15 , : ,` , · _ · .
, 16 , ¸ · . .
, 17 , .` , · · . ¸ .
, 18 , ¸ ,` , · .
, 19 , ,· · · · .
, 20 , ¸` , · - .

Exercise No. 120

¸ · ` ` · · , ¯ . ` ' ¸ · ¸ ,` ¸ ¯ ¸·` - ¸ · ` , ` · ¸ · ` ` - ` ¸ · ` ·` · .

¸` , ` _ -. .` ' _` -' .,,.
.,,·' ¸, _,,= ,·· _·_.

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Exercise No. 121

, 1 , ,` · ¸ ¯ ` ¸ · . , , _ · ` ` .` , ´, ¸ ¸` - . · .` , ¯
` ·` . - , .
Construct 3 sentences in such a manner that the
( . , , _ · ` ` ·) must have (..).

, 2 , ,` · ¸ ¯ ` ¸ · . , , _ · ` ` .` , ´, ¸ ¸ ` - . · .` , ¯
_` ,` . ` _` ,` -, . ,` · ¸ ¸ · . .
Construct 3 sentences with ( . , , _ · ` ` ·) whereby
two types of i’rāb are permissible.

, 3 , ` - . · .` , ¯ , ,` ·` · ,` · ¸ ¯ ` ¸ · . , , _ · ` ` .` , ´, ¸ ¸
· ` ` - ¸ · ` ·` · ·` , · ·` , . , · . - _ · .
Construct 3 sentences using ( . , , _ · ` ` ·) whereby
the i’rāb of each one corresponds to its
requirement in the sentence.

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Lesson 66
The Vocative
(;.· · « | ·)

1. You have learnt in brief about the vocative in
Lesson 43.9 of Volume 3 that it also falls in the
category of the (.,,.·). It will only be (.,.·)
in the following cases:
(a) when it is (.·), whether it is singular, dual
or plural, e.g. ( ` , ¸ ¯ , – O the citizen of India),
( · ´ · ` ¸ ¯ , – O the two citizens of Makkah),
( · `, ¸ ¯ , – O the citizens of Madīnah),
(b) when it resembles a (.·), e.g.
( · - · ~ , - O the one climbing the mountain),
(c) it is (··,.· _· ·,´) - indefinite and
unintended, e.g.
(` ¸ , , ` - ·` - _ , - O man, hold my hand).

Note 1: The word ( · ~) is not a (.·) but it has
the meaning of ( ¸ - _ ~), therefore it is called
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( .` , · , ` ·) – resembling a mudāf.
In the phrase, ( ·` - _ ,) no specific person is
intended as in the case of a blind person who calls
out to someone without looking or pondering.
2. If the ( · ` · ¸ ) is (·,` ·) - singular, that is, it is not
(.·), it is regarded as ( ` ¸ ) in (_·, ·-),
whether it is singular, dual or plural, e.g.
(` ` -` · ,), ( ¸` - _ ,), ( . ·` - _ ,) and ( .` ,` ` ` · ,).

Note 2: The word (·,` ·) has 3 meanings:
(1) singular
(2) not to be (.¯,·) – a compound and
(3) not to be (.·).
In the context here, the third meaning is intended.

In a phrase such as (¸ ,` · ` ¸` , ` `, _), when it is ( · ` · ¸ ),
the following factors have to be observed:
1. One can read fathah or dammah on the
word (` `, _), but a fathah is better:
(¸ ,` · ¸` , `, _,) or (¸ ,` · ¸` , ` `, _,).
2. Although the word (` ¸` , ) is the adjective of
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(` `, _), only a fathah can be read on it
because it is (.·).
3. The hamzatul wasl in such examples is also
elided in writing from the word (` ¸` , ).

4. Sometimes the (. ` ` ,- - vocative particle) is
elided, e.g.

After Elision Original Word
· ` ¸ · ` ¸ ,` · ' ` .` ` ,`, · ` ¸ · ` ¸ ,` · ' ` .` ` ,`, ,
` , · ` , _ ` , · ` , _ ,
` . _ ` ¸` , _ ,
` . _ ` ¸ ` , · ` ¸ ` , · ` ¸` , _ ,

5. You have learnt in Lesson 11.5. (Volume 1) that
when the (¸· ` ·) has (¸) – the definite article,
either the particle ( ,', ') for masculine or ( ,` .`, ')
for feminine is prefixed to it. Sometimes the
indicative pronoun (·_¸ ,) is prefixed to it,
e.g. ( _ , ¸` ,` ` , ,', ' ,) – O messenger, convey;
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( ·` · =` ` ¸ ` ,` .`, ' ,) – O the peaceful soul;
( = , ` ¸ ·¯ ¸` -` , · ,) – O man, believe in Allāh.
Sometimes, the particle (,) is elided, e.g.
(` , ´` , _ ` , ` ` ¸` ,', ')
However, although the word ( = ) is definite, it is
used simply as ( = ,) without the word ( ,', ')
being prefixed to it. The phrase (` ,` , ) is generally
used in place of ( = ,).
6. When the (¸· ` ·) is (.·) to (` , ´ ` · ¸ - the first
person pronoun), it can be read in several ways:

·· - : - · , · - : - · , ; : - · , _ - : - · , _ - : - · ,

The following forms are permitted for the words
( , ` ¸ , ' ) and (` ¸` · ' ,):


· ·- | · , .- | · , .- | · , · · , | · , . , | · , . , | · ,

7. When the word (` ¸` , ) is (.·) to the words
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(` ¸` · ') or (` ¸` ·), they can be read as ( , ` · ' ¸` , ) or
( , ` , · ¸` , ). This is not permissible for any other
word.

8.You have read in Lesson 43, Note 8, that the
(¸· ` ·) is succeeded by a sentence called the
(. ` ` . , -). The (¸· ` ·) together with the
(. ` ` . , -) form a ( ·` , ` ¸ ·` , · ` ` -). Look at
Lesson 43, page 319 for an analysis of the
sentences.

Abbreviated Vocative
(, , - ¸ ·)

9. Sometimes the final alphabet of the (¸· ` ·) is
elided for the sake of making the word lighter in
pronunciation, e.g. to say ( ¸ · ,) or ( ¸ · ,) instead
of ( , ` : · ). Instead of ( · ~ · ,), one can say
( , ~ · ,) or (` , ~ · ,). This is called (,` , -` , ) and such
a (¸· ` ·) is called (,` - ,` · ¸· ` ·).

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Note 3: It was mentioned in Lesson 49 (e) that the
( . ` ,,-) – the vocative particles are (,), (, '),
( , ·), (` ¸ ') and ( '). From these, (,) is used for near
and far; (` ¸ ') and ( ') for near; and (, ') and ( , ·) for
far.

Lamenting
( - , = ·)

10. Lamenting or mourning over a deceased is
called ( · ,` ` ). The one who is addressed is called
(.` ,` ` ·). The particle ( ,) is used most often
instead of (,) before the (.` ,` ` ·). An alif and hā
(.·) are suffixed to the (.` ,` ` ·), e.g.
(·` · ,) – O my mother, (· ` , ,) – O my daughter.

The Appositive of the Vocative
(¸· ` ` _ , , )

11. If the (` ¸ ` ¸· ` ), which is (·` ,` ` . ·), is
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succeeded by an adjective,
• if it is (.·) and without the ( ¸ ), it is
necessary to read a (.. ) on it, e.g.
( · · -' . - . ` - ,), ( _ , ¸ - ¸` , ` `, ).
• if it has ( ¸ ), whether it is (.·) or (· , ` ·), it
is permissible to read it with a (.. ) or
(_·_), e.g. ( . ' ` ,`, , ´ ` ` , _ ,) – O Rashīd,
the one whose father is noble,
( , ` .`, , = ` ` , _ ) - O the charming Rashīd.

If any noun is (,=··) on a (¸· ` ·), it will have
the same i’rāb as the (¸· ` ·), but if the (,=··)
has ( ¸ ), (.. ) or (_·_) can be read on it, e.g.
(` · · ' , = ` · ,) – O the bondsman and
bondswoman of Allāh,
( ¸ - , ,` , = , ` · · · ` ¸ ,` , ' ) – O mountains and birds,
hymn the praises (of Allāh) with him.

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Vocabulary List No. 56

Word Meaning
, ` , '
(1) to announce good news,
glad tidings
` _ ` ¸
(1) to shine, the brightness of
dawn
_ · ' , , , (1) to pass a legal verdict
¯ ¸ · , prostitute, rebel
¸ (4) to flirt
_ · , , · ,
to make free from want, to
become independent
. ´
(4) to do in an affected manner,
to do reluctantly
¯ - good fortune, grandfather
` . - successor
· ' ,` ` · ` ,` ` , to go close to
_· _ , , to observe, to graze
. · _ obscenity, intercourse
. . ` ¸` , fat, obese
¸ , . · ` ` ` spike (of grain), ear (of corn)
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` , . clarity, purity
` · · ~ darkness
` ¸ · , ¸ , to present itself, to arise
` . -` · ' . ` - · .
` - ·
lean, emaciated
. ´ · - · Sūrah Fātihah
` ·` ,` · sin, transgression
,' _ - . · ,` -
_ -
beard
¸ .` , . ,` · ¸ an evil man
·` , · take it easy, slowly
, ' ¸ '` , ¸ ' to go far, distant
¸ . one who is far
- , . – , , to be saved, to be delivered
_ , , ¸ , to snatch, to remove, to extract
` · ·` , ' . ¯ · , affection, love
` · · , loving, affectionate
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` ¸ ,, dry

Exercise No. 122

Find all the different types of ( ,,.· . ) in the
following sentences, especially the nouns of
(¸· ` ·) and (¸- ¸ .).

1 , .,' .,´ .' · _` , : _· - .~, · ,
:.· ¸ .
2 , ` ,,· · ¸,, ` ¸ ¯ ·,,,· ·· · , ` , ·` ·· ¸ ,· ,' ,
.¯, .
3 , _- ¸ ,· , ' ,,=· _, , ` , ` , ' .
4 , :,.,, · ¸,` -` .` , ·` . , , -¯ , · .
5 , · ·.,', : , ·` , ·, .¯, ` ¸ · ` .,_ ¸' .
6 , ¸ ` · ¸·, ·` , · , ~ · ' .
7 , ` , - ¸' ¸· .` ' ,',', · ·` - ' , ¸,,
¸-. ,,´ , ,´` ,· ¸,, .- ¸` , , ,,·,
,´ · ·` - ' ,- , · ··,´-, ··, .
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8 , ·¯,,, = ·~_, _ ,,' , ,´,· ·· .
9 , ¸- ·,.·· ¸ ·,-' ··~. .
10 , . ´ · - , .¸ ··. . .
11 , . ` ,, · ` _, ., .·· ' ¸=·· ., .,=·' ' _·
' - :· ` - .
_·' ·
12 , .·- ` ¸ · .¸ :' ¸·· ·,~ _.·
¸,~ ¸,- _. ····
···~ ·, ¸, .' , ,'
¸,· _. _¸ ·,·
13 , ´ .¸ ··,, . .` , ' ·¸
··· ' '` ·,· ` ,·´ .,
· ·` , ~ · · , , . ` ¸ ´, ` , · ¸
´ _` , -, ´ · , ` ¸ · ,` , - · ·
14 , ` ¸ ` · , · :` · .` ` ¸` · .` . ¸ ·
, :` · ` ¸ ` ¸` · '` . ¸ ,
15 , ` , - ' ` ¸ · ¯ ¸ · · ¯ ` · , - ·
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, · ' ' ` · · ¸ ` ¸` - ,
Exercise No. 123

Translate the following verses of the holy Qur’ān.

1 , ` , _ ¯ ¸ · ,` ' · - ¸ · , · , -. · - · ,
. · _` .
2 , ¸ · ` ,` , : · : ` ¸ ` ,` : ` ¸ · . .` , ` _ ,
: ` ¸` · . ' , ·` , ¸ · . ¸ ` , ¸ · . . · . , ,
` ,` , - :` ¸ _ · ¸ ¯ ¸ .` ¸ ` ,, · .
3 , , ` ¸ , ` , ,` ¸ ¸ ` ,` , ¯ · ¸ ` · ` ¸ ` .` ·` ' ` , ´` , · .
4 , , ' ,` `, ` ¸ ` ·` · =` . ` ¸ · -` _ _ ¸ :.` , _ · ,. . _
·` , .` ,` · .
5 , · , ` _ ` , ¯ ¸ ·` , , , · · _ · ` , · ,` , ¸ , .
6 , ` .` ,`, ,', ' ` ¸,` ` . · ' ¸ · _` ¸ . , , ¸ . ` ¸` , ¯ ',
` _` ` - · _` , ¸ . ·` ` ¸ ,` .` - , - ' , ¸ . ,, .
7 , , .` - ' .,` _ · · . ¯ ·,` , ' ' ,` · ¸ .` , · , ` .. ¯
:' · ' ' , · , .
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8 , ¸ · , ¸` , ` · ' ` - ' ¸ ,` - , , ¸ ' , , .
9 , , . , ' ¸ · · · ` , ·` ,` ¸ ` - . ¸ .. ` ·. ¸. ·
¸, , ,` . .
10 , : · ` . ´ . .`, _ ·, · .
11 , ` , · : -` ` . , · . ¸ · ` · :` ¸ .` ' .
` , · ` , ` , ´ - ` , .
12 , · · . · _ . , ` ,` · · . , ¸ - ¸ · ` _ - .

Exercise No. 124

Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) O Abdul Karīm, why are you not striving to
succeed in the final examination.
(2) O my paternal uncle’s son, wake up early
every morning and come with me for salāh.
(3) O the sons of Hājī Ismāīl, follow your pious
father and become his true successors.
(4) O youth, understand the Qur’ān and practice
on its guidance. In it lies your success and the
success of your nation.
(5) O student, if you read this book and
remember it, it will be sufficient for you for the
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knowledge of Morphology (,.) and Grammar
(,-).
(6) There is no book more beneficial than the holy
Qur’ān.
(7) I have neither any book nor any paper.
(8) There is no means of salvation greater than the
oneness of Allāh.


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Lesson 67
The Genetive
(. _` ,` ,` - )
(1) ( ` , - , ` _` ,` ,` - ) (2) ( · · . , , ` _` ,` ,` - )

1. A noun will be in (` , - · -) in only two
instances:
1) when it succeeds any of the (` , - ` ` , -), e.g
(¸ ·` . · ` ¸ · ` , -) – a ring of silver.
2) when it is (·` , ¸ .` ·), e.g. (¸ ·` . · ` , -) – a ring
of silver.

2. The details of the (` , - ` ` ,` ,` -) were mentioned
in Lesson 49 while (· · . ¸) was discussed in
Lessons 7 and 11. More details are mentioned
here.
The Types of (- ·· = ,)
3. There are two types of (· · . ¸):
(1) ·` , = and (2) ·`, , ` · ·
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The ( ·` , = · · . ¸) occurs in a compound where the
( .` ·) is one of the derived nouns (·` . .-'),
like the (¸· ,), (¸,·' ,) and (·,` · ·.),
e.g.
( = ` : ¸`, , ) – one treading the path, ( , ` _` , = ·) –
one whose hand is cut, ( ·` - , ` ¸ -) – one whose
face is handsome.
The ( ·`, , ` · · · · . ¸) occurs in a compound where the
( .` ·) is a noun besides the (·` . .-'), e.g.
( , ` _,) – the light of the moon, ( : ` ¸,,~) –
the path of the one who treads it, ( ¸ - ` ·` - ,) –
Hasan’s face. In this example, the word ( ¸ - ) is
the name of a person.

4. In ( ·`, , ` · · · · . ¸), the ( .` ·) is (··,··) without the
particle ( ¸ ). Therefore, the particle ( ¸ ) cannot be
prefixed to the ( .` ·). However, in ( ·` , = · · . ¸),
the ( .` ·) is not (··,··). Accordingly, when the
need arises, the particle ( ¸ ) can be prefixed to it
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when it is (·,·) or (, ,¯· _~). It can also be
prefixed to a singular word (·,·) when the
( .` ·) has the particle ( ¸ ) prefixed to it or it is
( .` ·) to another word having ( ¸ ), e.g.
(` _` ,` .` · ` ¸ - ` _ ` ` ) – The one following the truth is
assisted.
( , ~ ` : ` ¸` , ` - · ¸ ~ ¸`, ) – The one treading the
wrong path is forsaken.
(,· = ¸._ · ` , ` · ` ,` , ' , ` - ·` · · , - ) – The
two conquerors of Syria are Khālid and Abū
Úbaydah .
( ` ,` , ¯ ` _` -` - , · ´ · ` ,` ¯` . = ' ` , · ` ¸ · ·` , , .` ,` ·¯
·` ,` · ¸, – , ·` ' _ ` ` · ·· · ¸' · ,` . , = ` · `, '
¸·. ··,- · -` ·) – The citizens of Makkah
and the pilgrims are all safe today in the era of
King Ibn Sa’ūd – May Allāh assist him with his
open help – as long as he follows the sunnah and
safeguards the sanctity of the safe city.

According to the above explanation, one can say
( ¸` -` , ` , .` ) but not (¸ `, _ ` , .` ). If the (,.,·) is
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(··,··), then instead of (¸ `, _ ` , .` ), one should say
( `, _ ` , .` ), e.g.
( `, _ ` , .` ` -) – Khālid, the helper of Zaid. In
this case, the word ( `, _) is not a (·` , ¸ .` ·) but
infact is a (¸,··). The details of this follow in
Lesson 70.

Note 1: Revise the section on the (· · . ¸) of
(·` . .-') once more in Lesson 23.

5. If a singular word is ( .` ·) to the first person
pronoun (` ¸), a jazm and a fathah can be read on
the (` ¸), e.g. (` ¸ , ¯) or ( ¸ , ¯). If such a word
occurs at the end of a sentence, it is permissible to
append a ( · . ) to it, e.g. (` · , , ¯) – my book; (` · , , -)
– my reckoning.

If an (_,.· ,)
63
or (¸,· ,) are ( .` ·) to
the first person pronoun (` ¸), a fathah will be read

63
See Lesson 10.8 and 10.9. of Volume One.
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on the (¸), e.g. ( ¸ . ·) – my staff; (` ¸ . ·) – my
judge.

The same applies to the dual (·,·) and sound
masculine plural (, ,¯· _~), e.g.

original word changes to
. , ¯ ¸ , ¯
¸` , , ¯ ` ¸ , ¯
.` ,' -` · ¸` ,' -` ·
¸` ,` -` · ` ¸` -` ·
.` ,` . · ¸` ,` . ·
¸` , . · ` ¸ . ·

In all these examples, the (·,,,·¸ .,) falls off due
to (· · . ¸).

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Vocabulary List No. 57

Word Meaning
¸ ` , ¸ to degrade, abuse
· ,` - ' to incinerate, burn
_ ,` · ' to be or become poor
. , · ' to join, combine, interrelate
` ¸
to spread, to be glad, to be
delighted
¸ ` ¸
to contract, to be depressed, to be
dejected
· , ` ¸
to withdraw, to segregate, to be
isolated
` . ´` ¸
to devote, to apply oneself
eagerly
¸` - to search
.` · ,
to enter a monastic life, to
abandon secular pleasures
` . steadfastness
` _ , - anxiety, uneasiness
_ · - to be careful, to be wary
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. .`, -
.`, · - '
talk, speech, thought, new
¸ - , . , to arrive, to untie (a knot)
·` - - ` _ - - . year
.` - ' . ` ,` , - close friend
¸` ,` - , ·` , ¸ , to imagine, to think
¸ - · disorder, imbalance
. ` ·` _ . ` . · _
one who abandons the world,
monk
_ ,` _ . · ,` , _ hill
` _` , _ mercy, help, leisure
. ´ , . , to pour out, to spill
. = `
, _.· ,
power, reign
,` ' . ` , circuit
_ , to consult
_ . , . , , , , to mold, to create
_` , . to make a picture
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. , · consolation, solace
. · , ¸ , to treat harshly
· ` , · life
. · , ¸ , to be absent
` ¸ ·`, _ ·
to be excessive, to demand a very
high price
_ · , ¸ , , ¸ , to deceive, to betray
¸ = · , . , ,` · · to comprehend, to understand
` ·` , · . ` · commander
_· , ¸ · · ,
` ,` · ,
to talk nonsense
` ¸ `, _ to give someone something
¸ ` ` · despised
· ·` · effort
` ¸ ` ` · sunny day
` , ` · moonlit night
¯ ¸ · a long period
` ¸ · · life, means of subsistence
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_ , , , to incite to evil
_` ,
incitement to evil, satanic
inspiration
' , , to postpone, to delay
_ ´ , ¸ , to marry
¸ , , , to get up, to rise
` _ ,` ' . ` _` , flower, blossom
·` - , , ·` , ¸ , to direct, to steer
· ,` - , direction, course, angle
` · · , . · ` · , deep pit, gorge
,' · , . ` ` , ,
. ,
child

Exercise No. 125

Determine the (.·,·,·), (.,,.·) and (._,,-)
in the following sentences. Pay particular
attention to the types of (··.¸), the (.·) and
(·,¸ .·).
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.¯, ¸·
1 , ¸ · , ¸, ,` , ¯ ,` · ` , .¯` , ` , · ,
·, · · ` , ´ .,` ` · .
2 , ` ¸ · , ` ¸ ` - ' ` , · ¸` ` · · · _ ¸ · ¸. · ,
- . ¸ · , ¸ ` ¸ ¸ · ¸ ` ` . , ¸ , ` · -
, · ·` ,` ` _ ·` · ¸ , ¸ · ` ¸ ` - ' · , · ¸ : ` , ,
` · ` , , , · , · ` ·` ' ¯ ¯ ¸ , ` ,, - . · , · `, ¸ ¸,
,` , . · , · `, ¸ , · - ¸ ,, = · . ` · ¸ , ` , :` · ,
¸ · . =` ,` _` , · ` · · , ` ·` ¸ ,` · ` _, ` ` ,, · .
3 , ` · ' · ` ¸ · ¸ , ' , ¯ ` · · , , , ¸, , · ` ·` , · ,` , , ·
` ·, , ¯ , _¯ , . ¸` ¸ ` . ~ ¸` ' ¸ · ` · ` ·, , - , _- , .
,` , · ¸ · ¸ · , · ¸ · , .` _ .
4 , ` · ' , ` ¸ · ¸ , ' ` · , ¯ · , ¸, , · , ¸ ` , ` ,
., ' ` ·, , ¯ . ` , , _` · ' · ` ·, , - . , , ` , . ¯
· , . . · _ · ' ¸` · ` ·, · , _· , . : · ¸.` ·
` ·, = ` , _= , .
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5 , ¸ · ¸` ¸ ` , _ ' . ' : - ´ ' ¸ ` - ¸ ` ¸ ` , ¸` , ·
_ · . ' ¸ ,` - ' ¸ ¸ _ - - .
6 , , ` ¸ , · ,` · ,` ` - · ¸ · .` ,`, ·, - ' , . ,
,` '` , ¸ · _` ,` _ · ` ·` ¸ . ` ¸ '` ,, ¸ · _` ,` _ · . ¸
` ·` , .,` , · ´ .
Exercise No. 126

Translate the following letter of Abū Bakr :

. ,´, ,,' , ¸·,' _·' .¯ ¸¸ ·· = ¸._ ¸,
··,· ¸·, . ., _ ¸ :,-.' _· ` . ` · ·· ., ·¸
¸· ¸·, ,·. ¸ ,·_,, :·,· ` . .` ·` . ·,,
_· ,,. ., ,~ ·,· _·' · ·,· _,-, ,= :·
,·,· . ,· ., -, ., ,, , ·· ,,. ·¸, ' ., ·
, ., ·~ ,·· ,- ,·= ., ·__ ,·,- ., ·- ,,
. ,-. ·¸ ,. ., ,·· ·¸ ,_· ., . .,,,
.·_ _·,. ¸ ·,· _· , ` · ` ` , · ,·, ·, ,·,·· =
,,. ·,._, . ,·, ., ,,··,. ,·· ·· .
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··,
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Exercise No. 127

Translate the following poetry of Tughrāī (514
A.H.):
· ,,, _·,· ¸, ¸
` .· ` ` ` · _ ¸,-_ ¸· , ` ¸ ¸
' ` · ` ,· ¸ , ¸· ¸·' · . ·,
·-· , ¸ _ ` . - ` ` , ` , · _· - ¸ ¸

¸ ¸,' ¸, .,- ¸ ·` _. _,,, .., ¸ , 231 .· ,
` _-. , ` . ,= , `, ´
, , ` , ·,- ` .,¯ ¸_. . ` , ` _
, , ` · _· ` _ · ·
_ ` · ` , ' , , '´· ` ` · ,· ` ,
' ` . - ` . ` . ` , _ ` , = ` , ` , = ` , ` , _ ·
_, ., · ·´ ` , ` _
` · ` , ` ¸·· , _ ·¸ ¸- ¸
- ¸ ` , , ` , ` _ ,· ` · ¸· ` = ` ,
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Exercise No. 128
Translate the following letter into English:
·_' ¸¸ ·,., ·, ,·' ¸¸ ·, ¸·
` ·· ·,-, ·,~ :, ¸· . ` ·,, ` _-'· , , _· .' · · ` .
, :· · , , ` ¸ . :,· ` , ` ,, ¸·,- _, ,- · ¸_´·' . ` ·' , ·
` .., ' _' ¸¸ .~', ¸_. ·. · ¸ , _,·
¯ ·,·' ¸ ¸` ' _¸ ¸` ,` - ¸- ` ¸ , ` · : .
· · ` . ·' _- ` . =· ~ ` ¸ ` -,, _¸ ¸, ·,· ,·
·., ·, . ` , · ` ¸ ` ´ . . .' ¸ ` ,,, ¯· ·,, , ` .,
' ¸· . ·' .' .¸ ¸· ·, _, ··¯ ` ' , ¸,,~ – .´·
¸,~ ··, · ¸ · ` , ., , . · , . ` . · _ ` ` ¸ ¸·
, ` · · .,-., _,- – ¸. ·, _· , –
.,,, ,,· .,· ` ¸ · ,·, ~, = - , ` .` , ·
,` ·`, ,, ` _ ` ¸ ' ¸, ,·· ` ¸- ·-. : , . · ` · ` ¸
` , _- .,¯', ·,,- : – ' ¸ = :, ¸ .
··,
··· :,
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Exercise No. 129

Translate the response to the above letter:

_,,,· –
·¯,,, = ·~_, ·· :,·, –
¸ ·-_,' :` _ , ..` · ¯ . ,,· .'~ ·,
. ¸·, ~ -,· ¸,- .¯ :·,· .,· .· , .·, -
.· . _,· .´' ,· .·´· _,· : , ' , .,
.·_, ¸- ´· ¸, ,, _, ,~, ¸, .¯ _,·
¸· ·,¸ .,. · ¸, ·_ :,- .. :_ ,·
, _. ¸,~ ·,_' :· _· .´. . = -·
.· ¸- :·_,,, ·,·· ·- :,· <, .' ·', ¸·
_,~ ¸· :=-, .·,. .,·' ¸ ··,.· :·,,
.·. .
··, .
··· :·'
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Lesson 68
Apposition
(_,·,·|·)

Note 1: You have learnt the cases of a noun: (_·_),
(..) and (,-). Now the occasions where a noun
follows its preceding noun in i’rāb will be
indicated.

1. (_,,) is the plural of (_,). A (_,) is a word
that adopts the i’rāb of its preceding noun. The
preceding noun is called the (_,·).

2. There are four types of (_,):
(a) (.·) or (·.)
(b) (,¯,)
(c) (¸,)
(d) (,=··)

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The Adjective
.-·|· (-«=|·)

3. A (.·) or (·.) is a (_,) which describes the
being of the (_,·) or something related to the
(_,·), e.g. ( ¸-, ` <,´ ) – the noble man.
( ¸-, ` <,´ ' ` , ` , ` · ) – the man whose father is noble.

In the first example, the word (<,¯) describes the
man while in the second example, it describes the
man’s father. However, when analyzing, it will be
called a (·.) of (¸-,) in both cases.

The first type of (.·) is called ( ` ` · ` . - ` , ' ¸ ),
while the second type is called ( ` ` · ` . ` . ' _ ).

4. The (¸,- .·) corresponds to the (_,·) in
(.,·¸), in (_´, .,,·) – being definite or
indefinite, in gender and in number as you have
learnt in Lessons 3, 4 and 5. However, the
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( .· . _ ) only corresponds with the (.,··) in
(.,·¸) and (_´, .,,·). The (.·) always
remains singular even if the (.,·· - _,·) is
dual or plural. Secondly, the (.·) corresponds in
gender to the succeeding word and not the
preceding word as you have learnt in Lesson 23.7.
Hereunder follow more examples so that you can
understand the rule more thoroughly.

' -, .,·
,.|· .-·|· . _ _«,«-· .-·|· -|·-
¸-, .- ` .,'
·,-'
¸-, .- ` . ,' _·, ·-
,¯·
·, .,.- ¸··
` -,_ ,
.,.- ·` ,
···
_·, ·-
.,·
` . ·,- =,·
- ` · ,
` . ·,-
·=,·
.. ·-
·_' ¸ ` .` ·
,` ·= ,,·'
·_' ¸ ` .` ·
·,·
,- ·-
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' ·,· .,·
_,.|· .-·|· _«,«-· .-·|· -|·-
¸,~ ._,. .·
` · _ ~ ¸
._,. .·
.,~
_·, ·-
' , ·, ¸~, ` .,,
` ,`
¸` , ~, ` .,,
¸` ,` , ·` ,
·-
..
' ` , . ` , ` . , = , `, ¸ ¸ .,,·
´ ` ,
' ` , . ` , ` . , = , `, ¸
· , `, ` , ¸
,- ·-

_~ .,·'
_,.|· .-·|· _«,«-· .-·|· -|·-
` ., ..,· ¸··
.,¯ ¸·
` ., ..,· ` .··· _·, ·-
,-¸ ` .,·
,· .,¯ , ,·
,-¸ ` .,·
,· , `, ` ¸
·-
.. ,
,-

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-,·-· -·< _«,«-· .-·|· ·.¸« - _«,«-· .-·|·
· ¸· ` _, ` _· ¸· ·
` .,.,' ·-_ ` _, - , ·-_ ` .,.,'
` .,= ¸ ¸· ¸¸ ` ¸,- ¸ ·,_- ¸ ¸· ¸¸ ` .,=

-,r· -·< .-·|· ¸·=, .·¸- .-·|·
` ·,, _.· ' ,- ` · ` , ` ·,, _.· ` , ` ,-
` .·,' -.· ` _, ` · ¯ ¸,· ` .·,' -.· ` ¸,· _,
. ¸ ·¯, , ¸ , ´- , ` _·¯ ¸ ·¯, , ¸ ,. ·_·¯ :

5. You have learnt in the previous lessons that
there is very little difference between a (·.) and
a (_-). See Lesson 6, Note 1, in Volume One.
Similarly, there is a resemblance between (·.),
(_-) and (¸-). Hereunder follow more examples
so that you can distinguish between them easily.
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,·- .-· ¸-
. - ` , ´-. ` , · ` :-. ` , · ` :-.
. - ` , -., ` : ` , · -., ` : ` , · -., ` :
. - ´-. ,
·,-'
` , · ` :-.
-' ·,
` :-. , ·
·,-'
' ` · - ` ` ¸ .·
._,. ·,~
=` · ` , ` ·
.· ._,.
¸,~ =` · ` , ` ·
.· ._,` .
¸,~ =` · ` , ` ·

Now ponder over the difference between each
one. In the first example, (, ·), after
constituting the (·_¸ ,) and (·,¸ _·) form the
('·). (:-.) which is (·,´) cannot be anything
else except the (_-).

In the second example, the words, (,) and
(:-.) are (·,´). Hence they can only be
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(,.,·) and (·.).

In the third example, (,) is (··,··), being the
(¸··) of (.-). Thereafter, (:-.) is (·,´).
Therefore it cannot be the (·.). However, it can
be the (¸-) because it indicates the condition of
the (¸··). Consequently, it is (.,.·).

Similarly, in the first example of line 2, ( -., : )
together with its (,· _.), forms a (·,_- ·~)
and can only be a (_-) because a (·~) is always
(·,´). How can it be the (·.) of a (··,··)? Yes, in
the second example, (,) is (·,´). Therefore,
(:-.,) can become its (·.).

In the third example, (,) is the (¸··) and it is
(··,··). Hence, (:-.,) which is a (·,·· ·~), can
only be the (¸-) of the (¸··).

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In the third and fourth lines, (·,-' :-.) and
(·,=· ¸,~) are (·,- ·~)
64
and form the (_-) in
the first case, a (·.) in the second and (¸-) in
the third.

6. Remember that an (¸· ,) is generally used
as a (·.). Only in a few instances is (·- ,) a
(·.), e.g. (,¸ ,· ` ¸, ` ,_) – Zayd, the son of Ámr;
( ` -
.
` , · ´ ' ¸ ) – Khalid, the Barmak;
( ¸-, ·) – this man;
( ` ,_ · ) – this Zayd;
( ` ¸, :' · ) – this son of the king;
( .,' ..,· ) – these sons of ours.

In these examples, the second word is technically
the (·.) although it is an (·- ,).

The (·,¸ _·) is regarded as a (·.). See Lesson

64
See Lesson 8.23.
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2.12. The (·_¸ ,) itself can be the (·.) of an
(··,·· ,) or it can be the (·.) of its (.·).
Examine the third example where (¸-,) is the
(·,¸ _·). It is the (·.) of the (·_¸ ,). In the
fourth example, the (·_¸ ,) is the (·.) of
( · , , ) – a proper noun.

In the fifth and sixth examples, the (·_¸ ,) is
the (·.) of the (.·).

Note 2: In the first example (,¸ ,· ` ¸, ` ,_).., the
word (,_) is the (,.,·) while (,¸ ,· ` ¸,) is the
(·.). You will find two unique points in this
phrase. The first is that the tanwīn of the word
(,_) has been elided without any reason. In the
second example, the hamzah of the word (¸,) has
not been written. The reason for this is that this
phrase is used extensively and it was regarded as
necessary to lighten the phrase (.,-).

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Note 3: You are reminded that a (·~) after a
(·,´) is regarded as a (·.) and it is regarded as a
(¸-) after (··,··). Do not forget this point.

Vocabulary List No. 58

Word Meaning
' ` , . ,
to look
' · `, ` ,
surface, tanned skin
` _ ' to guide
, - ·` _ , ·.'
, - ` _ , ` · - ·` _
, _.· ,
to crowd
. ` . _ ~ ¸ . ` _ ~ ¸
` , ~ '
frame, tyre
' ~ ' to extinguish, to stifle
. , ~ ' to please, to delight
_ · ¸ to pluck out, to exterminate
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· , - , steamship
` · , , . · ¯` , , pond
¸ , brave, fearless
` ` , . , mat
, ·` · , to scatter, to disarrange
¸ , to moisten
` to prevent, to frustrate
· - noise
·, ` - ' . . - shoe, boot
` ¸ - , , ` ,` ` -, -
` -, ¸ - ` ¸ ,
sympathizer, one who feels
pity
. ,` - ' . ¯ ¸- suburb, tribe, alive
` _ . ` _` ,` tourist
_ , , to swim
_ ´` house, dwelling
` .` ,` ·` . ` .` · nation, tribe, masses
` ` , ., · . to hunt
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_ _ . to be similar to
. .` , . noise, din, uproar
¸` ,` ·, ¸ · to support, to sustain
. · , ' ¸ · ' ` ·` , ¯ · , lush (garden), luxurious
` ¸ _ · severe, bitterly cold
` . · . ·` · dome
.` , to soil, to stain
. , , ,
to loll one’s tongue with thirst
or fatigue, to pant
¯ _ · , ' ,` , ` , · ` ¸ · , passer by
·`, ,` · _ ,' ·`, , ·` , · flower vase
` , =` ` · , , =` · ' , raining
` ¸ ·` ` · , ¸ ·` ' , refreshing, invigorating
` , ` ,` · , , `, ' , wealthy, prosperous
` _ ,` ` · , _ ,` ' , having a saddle
` , - ·` ,` · crowded place
¸ ` ·` · moderate
_ , , ,
to be far off, to leave, to depart,
to emigrate, to immigrate
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` . ,, . · to fear
` ¸ · · calm, peaceful, tranquil
` · ` · neatness, attire, dress

Exercise No. 130

·_· ¸ ` ¸ ` ¸· ¸,- .· ,,· ·,.
Determine which phrase is (¸,- .·) and
(` ¸ ` .·) in the following paragraph:

·~ ¸ ·,,_,. .' ¸· _·¯ __. ·,=· ·,· ·,·
,,_, . ·,=· ··,_ ·_-. ·,. ¸ ·´ ·_ ·, .
-, ··, ¸,·,' ¸· ·_·¯ ,,·, .· ¸ . .~ ·¸,
·· ·,· -·, ·,, - _,.· .-, ,-' ¸
,·_, ··· .,-', . ,-·, _.· .-,, , ··,
.` ·, . ¸· .,,,' _, ,,¸ _,` , . ¸¯ ¸,
··,, ¸_ _=·. , ,- .- ,, · .,,,·
.,·,, ,··' ¸. ¸,- ¸·' ,,· .
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Exercise No. 131

¸,-., _-., .,· ·,. ¸- ¸ ¸·
Determine which words are (.·), (_-) or (¸-)
in the following sentences:

1 . ¸· ·,· ¸- . ¸- ·,=· ., -' _,, .
_¯ .,· :· .,· .- .,· .,· .
2 . _·. ,·,·, ·` , _· _- ..¯ ¸·· ··¸
_¯ ,·,,, .
3 . ,·~ , ·,¯· ¸_ , ,-_ ·,~ , ¸· ,·,
. ·,,= . ·,¯· .

Exercise No. 132

· · ¸- .´· ¸¯ ¸ _.
, 1 , .,· ............. ·-· ` ¸ ·` ` ·
, 2 , .' ... .......... ·` ,, ¯ , .` ·
, 3 , ,~' ............. ¸, ` _` , `
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, 4 , _-. ............. ·_' ¸=
, 5 , ,-, ¸ ¸·, .............
, 6 , .,· ............. ·, ¸, ` ·`,
, 7 , .- ............. · ' ,` .,
, 8 , ., .,. ' , `, ., .............
, 9 , ¸¯·. ¸ ´` . .............
, 10 , , -_ ` .,· ` ·` , ´` .............

Exercise No. 133

· ,·· ¸- .´· ¸¯ ¸ _.
, 1 ............., .,- .,,,, . .,
, 2 , .· ............. ¸,
, 3 ............. , =, _·´ ·-. _
, 4 , . ¸ .,,~ ............. ·,·¯
, 5 , .` · ............. _-. .··,
, 6 , . ¸· ¸, ............. ,,,·

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Exercise No. 134

· ·,. .,. ,,· .,´ ·~ .,¯ ·
,,` ·~ ··,¯ , ,` ·,,· ·, , ¸- , ·` ··¯ ` , ,` · , ·,=
·· ·` , , ·` ·· ` ¸- , ·` _, ` _~ , ` .,· .

Exercise No. 135

·, ,· ·,. .,. ,,· .,´ ·~ .,¯ ·
¸- . ,·' . _, . ¸,~ . ¸· . ¸··
Exercise No. 136

, , ¸ ·,·, ,¯· _-, ¸·' ¸¸ ·,' .· ¸,-
·,. ·- ·
· ¯ ,· ¸ ¸·- ¸ ¸,. ¸· ` _- ¸·


, . , ·` ,., ¸~ ¸¸ ·,. ¸- ¸ ··,' .,· ¸,- ·
, 1 , . ´' , ¸ , -·,` · ´ ¸ - , ` ._,·
, 2 , , ,=` · ,. .·-
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, 3 , ·,· · ,` · ` ,.· ` .
, 4 , ··. ¯ ` .,
, 5 , ¸ , ·` · ` · ¸· ` _- ` ,` ,· ¸,·
, 6 , ` .` ¸ · ¸ ¸ ¸ ` -` · ¸ _ ' ¸· ·· -

, _ , ··,' .,· ¸¸ ·,., ¸- ¸,- ·
, 1 , _,., , ` .,·
, 2 , ·,·· ¸ ` , ,`, ,=- .·-
, 3 , · · ` ¸ ` `, ¸ ¸·· ¸¯ ' . - '
, 4 , ` _,, ·` _ _=· ` .·
, 5 , ·,· ·` ¸ _· _· ` .=·
, 6 , , · , · ·,-, ` .¯_ ·,~

, · , .,· ¸¸ ·,. ¸- ¸ _ ¸,-. ¸,- ·
, 1 , :-. . ..-
, 2 , - ,` ` · ..- ` .¯_
, 3 , ·~ ` _, ,,~
, 4 , ` _ , ·_ ,.,'
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, , , , _ _-. ¸·- ·,. ¸- ¸· ·~ ¸¯ _· ,
,· ·
, 1 , ,` _- ·,= ·,--
, 2 , - ·_' ·,. ·, ` _ ·
, 3 , ··· ` ·,,· ¸_
, 4 , ` _. ·,·, (clear) ,` .,,

Exercise No. 137

, 1 , ¸ .` · _ · ,` · ¸ - , ¸ ¯ ¸ ¸ ¸ ` - ` . .,¯
·,·¸, .,', _¯ ¸ .,· ·- _· ¸,-
_-, ·,·, .
, 2 , ¯ ¸ ¸ ¸ ` - ` . .,¯ ¸ .` · _ · ,` · ¸ - , ¸
·,·¸, .,', _¯ ¸ .,· ·- _· ¸.
_-, ·,·, .
, 3 , ,· ¸,. .·· ¸ .· .,´, ¸ ¸ ` - ` . .,¯
·,·· ·~ ¸,-. .·· ¸, ·,- ·~ .
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, 4 , ~ ,· ¸,. .·· ¸ ¸- .,´, ¸ ¸ ` - ` . .,¯ ·
·,·· ·~ ¸,-. .·· ¸, ·,- .
, 5 , ·~ ,· ¸,. .·· ¸ _- .,´, ¸ ¸ ` - ` . .,¯
·,·· ·~ ¸,-. .·· ¸, ·,- .

Exercise No. 138

Translate the following passage into Arabic. Try
to use as many (` ¸ ` .·) as possible.

My Room
I have a room. My room is not cramped
65
but is
spacious and beautiful. Its walls are coloured. Its
ceiling is high. It has four windows that are 2m in
length and 1.5m in breadth. Each window has
clear pieces of glass in it so that when it is closed,
it does not prevent the light from entering. My
room has a broad door whose height is 3m. Both
its doorframes
66
are very beautiful.

65
` ¸` , .
66
` _ ,` . ·
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My room has a very long table, the four sides of
which are engraved
67
. I place my books on it by
arranging them neatly. I sit at this table to study
my books. There are two extremely beautifully-
made and beautifully woven (` _` ) chairs. There
is a beautiful bed whose legs (·· – ,,·) are
engraved. There is a clean bed sheet on it which
looks very pleasing. There is a large mirror on
one side whose frame (·_~¸) is gilded (···).
Besides the above-mentioned items, my room has
a small round table which pleases the onlooker.
There is a very beautiful vase in the middle of it,
whose sides are golden. Every morning, the
garderner (_,) brings fragrant flowers
( .-_ - ¸-,_) and arranges (.` _ or ¸`,_) them.
Therefore my room is, with the grace of Allah,
like a room from among the rooms of Jannah. I
live comfortably and sleep peacefully in it. All
praises and gratitude are due to Allah.

67
¸,·
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Lesson 69
Emphasis
(=,·,·|·)

1. The second kind of (_,) is (,¯'). Its purpose is
to remove the doubt of the listener regarding the
(_,·). Read the following examples:

1 . ·` ` ,,_, _·-
(1) The minister himself spoke to me.
2 . ,· ` · ,· ,,_, ` .
(2) I met the minister himself.
3 . · ,,_, ¸¸ ` .¯
(3) I wrote to the minister himself.
4 . ` · ¯ ` ¸` , - · ` · ¸
(4) The whole pond was filled.
5 . · ¯ .´ ` .',·
(5) I read the entire book.
6 . ¯ ¸·. ¸· ` .·,· ,
(6) I completed all the work.
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7 . ` · · ¯ . , -. _ -
(7) Both the brothers succeeded.
8 . ,` , ¯ ¸`, , , = ·
(8) Honour both the parents.
9 . ¸` , ,` ' ¸ ` ´ ,` , ¯
(9) We lived in both the houses.
10 . ` - ' ` .-- ` · ¯ ¸
(10) Both my sisters succeeded.
11 . ,` , ¯ ` ¸ ` - ' ' . - '
(11) I love both my sisters.
12 . ,` , ¯ ` ¸ ` - ' , ` .` , ._
(12) I am pleased with both my sisters.
13 . _` ` _` ` ` .,'_
(13) I saw the crocodile, the crocodile.
14 . ¸ · , , , ~ , , ~
(14) The crescent appeared, it appeared.
15 . ` , · .` ,` - ' . .
(15) I will not, I will not betray the pledge.
16 . ` ·` , .` ' ` ·` , .` '
(16) You are blamed, you are blamed.

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2. Since you said, “The minister spoke to me,” the
listener could have a doubt in your statement
because it is no ordinary feat to speak to
ministers. He may think that perhaps the
minister’s deputy or his secretary spoke to you
and you attributed it to the minister
metaphorically. By saying (· ) – himself, you
have removed the listener’s doubt and created
emphasis in the statement. Hence, such words are
referred to as (,¯') and the word that is being
emphasized is called the ( ¯,·).

Note 1: In place of the word ( ¸ ), the word (¸·)
can also be used. In place of ( ¸¯), (` _,~) can be
used. The words (· ¯) and ( ¯ ) are specific for
the dual case. This is a total of six words. It is
essential to have a (_. – pronoun) with these
words. The pronoun will correspond with the
( ¯,·). Examine the previous examples.

3. In the last four examples, the words have been
repeated for the sake of emphasis. In the first
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example, the (,) is repeated, in the second, the
(¸··), in the third, the (,-) and in the fourth, the
entire sentence is repeated.

4. The emphasis derived by the repetition of
words is called ( = ,¯' ¸ ) and the emphasis
achieved by words that are different from the
( ¯,·) but conform in meaning to them, is called
(¸,·· ,¯'). Hence the first 12 examples above
are (¸,·· ,¯') while the last four examples are
( = ,¯' ¸ ).

5. Like the (.·), the (,¯') follows the (_,·) in
(i’rāb).

6. The emphasis of a (__, ,' ¸.· _.) is done
with a (¸.· _,·,· _.), whether the pronouns
are (_,·,·), ( · .,. ) or (_,,-). Observe the
following examples:
, 1 , . - , , ' ` .` · .
(1) I myself fulfilled the task.
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, 2 , ` - ' .` ' ·¯ _ · .
(2) No one saw you, you.
, 3 , ,` · ·` , · ` .` .
(3) I greeted him, him.
, 4 , ¸ , ' ` _ ,` ' .
(4) I myself will saddle the horse.
, 5 , · ·` .` ' ` _ · ¸ .
(5) You, you open the window.
, 6 , . ´ ,` · ' , · ` `, , · .
(6) Farīd himself read the book.

The first three examples have ( . .· , · __, · )
while the second three have ( ,.· · . , ).
Observe the second example: the ( ¯ ,` ·) is a (_.
.,.·) and in the third example, it is (_,,-), but
for emphasis, only a (_. ¸.· _,·,· ) has been
used. This type of emphasis using pronouns is
also ( = ,¯' ¸ ).

7. If you want to render the (¸,·· ,¯') of a
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(¸.· _.) using the words (¸) or (¸·), first
you have to construct the (,¯') with a
( _. _,·,· ¸.· ) as done above. Thereafter, the
emphasis using (¸) or (¸·) can be done.
Observe the following examples:

, 1 , ' ` .` · ` ¸ . - , , .
, 2 , ` ,` ` ' ` · · · .
, 3 , ` ,` ,` ` ' ` ,` · ` ,` , - .
, 4 , ' ` _ ,` ' ` ¸ ¸ , .
, 5 , .` ' ` _ · ¸ :` · ·` .
, 6 , ,` · ' , · ` `, , · ` ·` . ´

In these examples, the word (¸·) can also be used
in place of (¸).

Note 2: If you want to emphasize the dual form
with the words (¸) or (¸·), their plural forms
will be used, e.g. ( . ·` -` , . - ` ,` ` ,` · ' ,' ` ,` ` ' )
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It is incorrect to say ( ` · ).

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Exercise No. 139

, , ,` ,·, ` , ´` , ¯,', ,¯, ·,. ._· ¸ ` ¸` , ·
¸,·' ¸· ¸= ,¯,

, 1 , ` - ' ¸·· _· ,,` ·,~ ` ¸` ¸ ·`, .
, 2 , = ` · ¯ ` :' .
, 3 , ` , ,,· .,·` , .' .¯ .
, 4 , ` .` ' ' ` ¸ , ·,~ ,` -,· , ¯ . ` ` _ -`
·, ·` · .
, 5 , ,,·,~ :,-¸ _· ` . =` ·, ,,¯ :, , ` _ ~ ' .
, 6 , · ` , ` , ·`,¸ ·`,¸ .
, 7 , ¸,` ¸` -, ·` ,· ¸,, ·· .
, 8 , · _` ,` , ` .¯_ (boat) ,,¯ ` ¸ ,. _· · ,· .
, 9 , ¸ - ' ` · .,- ` ¸ - _ , ¸ - ' .
, 10 , ` ·` ` , , (console) ' ` · , - ' ` · , ` · , · ¯ ' ` ¸
` ,` ` ' .
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, 11 , _ - _ - (beware) ¸ ` · ¸ ¸· (neglect) .
, 12 , ··. .·· · ··. .·· · .
, 13 , =, , · ' .¸ ,,¯ .,
· ,´`, ` , · ·¸ .-.,. .
, 14 , ,_. ` ` , _ ' ._ .¯ ·¸
` ¸·` , ,, ¯ _ ¸·' ·,· .

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān:

, 1 , - · · ´ : ` ,` , ¯ . ¸ .,` · ` - ' ¸, ` , ¸ _ , ' ' .
., ´, _ · ¸, -` .
, 2 , ¯ · ¸ . ¯` · ` ¸` _ ' ¯ · ¯ · . - , :' , _ ` : ,
. . .
, 3 , · , ,` ·` ` , ´ ' ` ¸` · ¸ ,` , - ` ·,` - · · ,.` ·
,` , - , =` · ' , ,` - ' .
, 4 , ` · ` , · , ¸ . ¯ . ' ., ·` , ` , ,` , · .

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Exercise No. 140

, , · ',,·· ,¯, ¸ ¸- .´· ¸¯ ¸ _.

, 1 , . , ` .· , ...
, 2 , ·,-', ·,,' ... ·,· .=·, .
, 3 , :,,· - .. . ¸ _` · , ¸·_ .
, 4 , ·,-' ... _- ¸ ¸ ,· .
, 5 , .·· ... · .,·,´, .
, 6 , ` ,,' __ ...

, . , · ¯,· ¸ ¸- .´· ¸¯ ¸ _.
, 1 ... , ·,- . ,,' .
, 2 ... , ·,= ,¯ .
, 3 ... , ¸,. ` , ` ¸·' . .
, 4 ... , ·', . ` , ` · ·¯ .
, 5 ... , _· , ·. .
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, 6 , ¸¸ ` ¸ ` - ' ... ,,¯
, 7 , ¸,,' · ,· ... ` ·` ,· .
, 8 , ` ¸ ·` ... ` - ' _· ' .

, _ , ',,·· ,¯, ·¯,· ·,. . ,,· _,- ·~ .` , ¯
·_,,- ·,·, ·,,.· ·,·, ··,·,· ·` ,· . ` _ .,-
, ' · . ·` ,·, ` ` . .,,·' . ,¯- . ·,
¸. . .,,,' ¸-, . .,- . .·,-
, .· , ·- ¸· _` . , .·´ ` _ -, . , ,¯, ···' ··,_'
' ,= ,¯, ·-, ,-, ¸·, ,¸

Exercise No. 141

·,',' ·__ ·.' ,. ¸· ·,. ¸- ¸ · ` ¯ '
' ,= ,¯,
, 1 , ,¯' . ...
, 2 , ··¸ ... . ¸¸ .
, 3 , ,¯'' ¸ · ... · .
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, 4 , ,·' ... . ¸¸ .
, 5 , ¸` _ ... ·' .
, 6 , ` ' ... ` _-. .
, 7 , ·,· ` , `, ` , ... ` -' .
, 8 , ` _· ... _,' .

Exercise No. 142

.' _·, ,. ` ¯ ' ',,·· ,¯, ·,', ·__ ·
¸·, ¸,

, 1 , ` ¸-¸ ... ` ¸-' .,- .
, 2 , ` ,` ·,` · ... ¸,,' .
, 3 , ¸·` ,· ... ,- .
, 4 , ¸` ` _·' ... _,.' _, .
, 5 , ` .,, ... ¸,.' .' .
, 6 , -,' ... ¸,- .
, 7 , ··, ` - _,- ... ·· ·, .
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, 8 , ,·- ¸· ... ·. ·· .
Exercise No. 143

, 1 , ¯ ,' · ´ , ¯,· _` · ' ,,· _,- ¸~ .· .`, ¯
··· ¸, ,,.· ·,· ¸, ·,·,· ¸,. ¸ .,´, .,-
_,,- .
, 2 , ¸, ¸ ,¯, _· ,· ¸¯ ¸ ¸~ .· .` , ¯
` ¯,' .,´,, ¸·, ·,· ¸, ' ,¯· _~ ¸,. ¸
¸ _´ _~ ··· ¸, ' .,· _~ .
, 3 , ¸´, ¸ ,¯, _· ,· ¸¯ ¸ ¸~ .· .` , ¯
,¯' _- ·,· ¸, ·,· ¸,. ¸ ` ¯,' .,´,, _,~,'
, .,' _- ··· ¸, , .
, 4 , ¸~ _,_' .` , ¯ ¯,· _·_ _. _· ,· ¸¯ ¸
¸·, ¸, ¸, ·.· ¸,,. ¸ _. .,´,,
,· ¸_-. .
Exercise No. 144

·,. ¸- .,·' , · 1 , ·¯ ` · , ` . =
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, 2 , ·,, ` -' .' ·__ ¸·
. « = · ·· = , ·'····
, . = , ¸ ¸· ¸··
_· ¯ ¸ · _
···· .,
.,'
, ` · , , ¸··
·. .., ` _,·,·
.· ,·, _' ··
.· _.,
_· ¯ ¸ · ·,¸
´ ,- ¸- ¸ ` ,.
, ·¯ , ¯
·· _` · ` ,¯,
,·, .., ` _,·,·
_., .·
·,¸ .· ··,
.. _· ¯ ¸ ·
´ ,- ¸- ¸

Note 3: Sentences are most often analyzed in this
manner in Arabic.
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;,,|· ` =-| .·| = _·_ ¸·
` ,~
¸ .·_
.,.·
·.
¸,··
¸· ·,·
__
¸··
. __
_,·,·
_.
_,·,·
¸.·
¯ ¸ ·

. _
` .,.·
·. ·-
` ,¯,
` _,
_.
.,.'
_.
.,.·
¸.` ·
· ¯ ¸

. _
` .,.·
·. ·-
¸,··
·,
¸··
¸ ¸·
¯ ¸ ·

_
,-
·,
¯ ¸ ·

.,´

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Lesson 70
( , = , | ·)

1. (¸,) is a (_,) which is intended in the
sentence. The (_,·) or (` ·` · ¸ ` ` ·) is merely
mentioned as an introduction. There are 4 types
of (¸,):

(1) ¸ ´ ¸,
(2) ¸` · ¸,
(3) ¸ ` , ¸,
(4) · ¸,

Examine the following examples carefully.

(A) ¸ ´ |· ,=,

, 1 , ¯ ¸ · ` ·· ¸ ¸· .
, 2 , ·` , - , -` ` . · · .
, 3 , ¯ · ¸ ¸` , ` - :` , - ' ` . .
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(B) ¸ - , |· ,=,

, 1 , ,` ·` ,` , · · , -` . · = · .
, 2 , ` · · ¸`,` ` .` , . · .
, 3 , , · , ·, _ ¸ ` .` , =
68
.

(C) ,· « · = , |· ,=,

, 1 , ` ·` -`, _ ' .` _` , .
6'
.
, 2 , ` ¸ , ·` ` .·- ` · ·
¯¤
.
, 3 , · ·- ¸ - ` ¸ · ` .` - · .

(D) = · - |· ,=,

, 1 , ` ,,_, ` _·. ·· .

68
_ , - sail
69
The fragrance of the garden diffused.
70
· ` ¸ - recital
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, 2 , ·_· ,·_ ¸ ` · ' .
, 3 , ¸ ¸` ,` , · ··,_ ', .´ ` .,,¸
¯1
¸ .., _ .

2. You will find a common factor in all the above-
mentioned examples where the first noun is not
the intended aim, but in fact, the second one is.
The second noun is called the (¸,). In the first
example, if one has to say only (` ·· ¸ ¸·), the aim
of the speaker will not be understood. However,
if one has to say (¯ ¸ · ¸·), the original aim is
understood. By saying (` ·· ¸), one benefit is
obtained and that is, before understanding the
original aim, the listener prepares for it.

By pondering over the remaining examples, you
will reach this conclusion. However, in ( · ¸, ),
the (_,·) is not intentionally mentioned first, but
is a slip of the tongue. In order to correct the
mistake, the (¸,) is mentioned.


71
¸` ,` , · – piastre - currency of Turkey
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3. Now examine the difference in the four types
of examples. First ponder over the examples of
( ¸ ´ ¸,) and you will realize that the (_,) refers
exactly to the (_,·), that is, Alī refers to the same
person indicated by Al-Imām. Similarly, Khalīl
refers in total to the trader. The word ( :` , - ')
refers to Husain. This is therefore a full
representation by the (¸,) of the (_,·). Hence it
is called ( ¸ ´ ¸,) or (¸ · ,` ¸,).

By pondering over the examples of ( ¸` · ¸,),
you will realize that the (¸,) is part of the ( ¸ ` ·
··), not the (·· ¸ ` ·) in total. In the first example,
( ` ,` , · _ ) is a part of (· , - ). Accordingly, it is called
( ¸` · ¸,).

In (¸ ` , ¸,), the (¸,) is neither part of the
(·· ¸ ` ·) nor the total of it. It is something related
to the (·· ¸ ` ·). In the sentence,
( _ ' . ` ` _` , . ` ·` -`, ) – The garden was fragrant, the
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actual aim of the sentence is to indicate that the
fragrance of the flowers of the garden spread
around whereas this fragrance is neither part of
the garden nor a whole of it. The fragrance is
something related to the garden. The land of the
garden is not something that emits a fragrance.
As an introduction, the garden was mentioned.
Such a (¸,) is called (¸ ` , ¸,).

By reading the examples of (· ¸,), you will
understand that the first word was mentioned by
mistake. By mentioning the (¸,), one rectifies the
error, e.g. in the sentence (` ,`, _ , ` ,` , · ' · ·), the
word (` ,` , · ' ) was mentioned by mistake. The aim
was to say (` ,`, _ , · ·). Hence, such a (¸,) is called
(· ¸,).

4. The ( ¸` · ¸,) and ( ¸ ` , ¸,) require a
(_.) that refers to the (_,·) as you can see in
the previous examples.

5. The (¸,) is sometimes (·,´) and the (·· ¸ ` ·)
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is (··,··) and sometimes vice versa.

6. If the (·· ¸ ` ·) is ( · ··,· ) and the (¸,) is (·,´), a
(·.) is required with the (¸,), e.g.
( · ` - ¸ · · ~ - ¸ · , · ¯ ¸ · , . · , .` , ` ¸ · ` ).
See Lesson 20, Note 2.
In this example, the first ( · , .` ) is the (·· ¸ ` ·)
and the second one is the (¸,) being
(··,.,· ·,´).


Exercise No. 145

· ` , , ¸ ¸', ·, ·· ` , _, ¸ ¯ ¸ ¸ ¸
` - · ¯ ¸ ·,
1 , ` . ¯ ·,,_ ¸ ·` -` - ,· = _._ · · ¸·,' ` ·
., - .
2 , ¸· ¸ , · ¸ ·- ,, .¯ ' ., ¸ ¸,` ¸-_ ,,¯
·,-· ¸· ¸·- .
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3 , · ` ·` _ · · ·` , · .
4 , · , ,· ·,' ¸·, ·_,, ,·` ,·¯ _` ,' .·· .
5 , ' ·,' -· ' ,` ·= ` __, ` ` , , ,` , ` , .
6 , · ·· · ` .´ ·` , .
7 , , · · ·` , ´ · = · ' · ,, . · .

(B) Translate the following verses of the holy
Qur’ān.

1 , · ,` . ,, ` . , . ¸, . · ' ` , ,, · .
2 , . ¸ ¸ ` ` ¸ · ¸ · · ¸ ¸ · ' . ¸ · ¸ .` - ¸ .,` ,` · , .
3 , ,` , · ' , ` . · · , . ,` , ´ ¸ · ` ` ¸ · ¸ ¯ , ¸, , ·` , ·
` ,` , , · ,` ¯ , · ,
4 , ¸ . ¸ · . ¸ ·¯ , ¸ · , - . : · ` , ' · ., ` -` , ·` - , .
.,` =`, ·` , . .` - ¸ .` · ¸ · , ` ¸ ` -` , ` · · · .` , · ,
5 , . , - ¸` · ` ,` _ : . = · , - . ` . _ . , ` ¸` _ ' , · ,
` , ` , , ¸ ` -,
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Exercise No. 146
. ¸ - ¸· ·,- ¸¯·. ¸ · ., _. ·,
1 , ·,- ` .· , .......
2 , ·,, · .......
3 , ¸` ` - .....
4 , ` ,- -` · ..... .
5 , ·, · .....
6 , ., .` ·` .....
7 , . . ......
8 , _` ,` ` .` , .....
Exercise No. 147

` ` · _. . . ¸ ·` · ·· ¸· ·,- ¸¯· . ¸- ·,
1 , ··· ` . - .....
2 , ··· . - .....
3 , _,- ...... ' ·,·¯ , .
4 , ` .·=· ...... , ·,, · .
5 , ¸· ....... ·` -` .` .
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6 , ` _ -` · ... ·` .` , · .
7 , ` . · ` ... ,·_, .
8 , _` ` , ... ·` ,. .
9 , .` · . ... ·` _, .
10 , ` .,· ..... · . .
Exercise No. 148

· ,· ¸ -, ¸¯ ¸ ·` - .` , ¯ ¸ ¸, _ ·· ¸ ¸· ,
`, . .´ ¸· ._- ¸ ¸ · ' .·,` · _· ·, _,- .

` ·` ` ·-` ` ··- ¸,` ` . · · ' ,` - ,
¯`

·` `,_ , `
¯¬
` . ` · · ·· . ·` . , -
,` ,
·,-
· - ,= ¸ ,´ , ,` , ·` - -` _


72
dates
73
cheetah
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Exercise No. 149

1 , ¸ ·` ,·, ·,·,· ·` ,· .,´, .,- ¸´ ¸ · ·· ···, .,
_,,- ·` ,·, ,,.· . ·, ¸., ¸· ¸, ´
2 , ·,` · - . ,` ·
·` _` ,` ` , _ =
, _ = , – ¸·· ¸ ¸· _ _· ¸ ¸` ·
, , , – ·,·= ·` ` ., ` _,·,· ¸··
, ·_, , – · ,·= ·` ` ., _,·, · , ¸· ¸ ¸ ¸ , _,
.· _. .·, .· ,·, ·,·,· ·· ¸' .,´
·, ·,` · ¸ ,- ¸- ¸ ,` . _·
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Lesson 71
(=,=-'·)

1. The fourth kind of (_,) is the (,=··) which is
preceded by any of the (·~· ,,-). Its (_,·) is
called the (·,· ,=··).

Note 1: The (·~· ,,-) were discussed in detail
in Lesson 50.1. Revise it once more.

2. Like the other ( , _,, , the (,=··) follows its
(_,·) in (.,·).

3. The (.=·) of one (,) can occur on another
(,), one (¸··) on another ( ·· ¸ ) and one (·~) on
another (·~).
Examples:

` . ·, ` _, - _ .
(1) The apricots and the grapes ripened.
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.·, _, - .¯
(2) I ate the apricots and the grapes.

` _- · · . ·, _, -
(3) These are apricot and grape trees.

` · ,` ` , . ` ·` ,`
(4) The sky thundered and it gleamed with
lightning.

·_` , . ·,` . ` ¸ · ¸~. ` -
(5) The children are fearing the thunder and
lightning of the sky.

_` ,` - ` ¸ · ` · ,` ` , . ·` ,` .
(6) If the sky thunders and gleams with lightning,
you will never come out.

In the first three examples, the (.=·) of one (,)
on another is shown in all three cases (_·_), (..)
and (,-). In the second three examples, the (.=·)
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of one (¸··) on another is shown in all three cases.
The (.=·) of one (·~) on another is shown in
these three very examples because a (¸··) together
with the (¸··) constitutes a (·~).

4. If you want to render (.=·) on a
( _. ¸.· _,·,· ), first emphasize (,¯') it with a
(¸.· _,·,· _.), e.g.
( ` ,` ` , - ' , ´ · · ` ¸ ·, , ) – You and the ones with you
succeeded.
( , ·` - :` -,_, . ` ¸ ´` ` ·· ) – O Adam, you and
your wife live in Jannah.
In the second example, the (·,· ,=··) is a
(¸.· _,·,· _.) which is concealed in the verb
(¸´).

Note 2: In such sentences, if one does not
emphasize the (¸.· _.), the (,,) will not be
regarded as (·~· ,,) but will be (·,·· ,,). The
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noun succeeding it will have ( . . ), e.g.
( -,_, ·` - : ` ¸ ´` ) – You live with your wife in
Jannah.

5. If you want to make (.=·) on a (_,,- _.), it
is generally regarded as essential to repeat the
(,- ,-) on the (,=··), e.g. ( _·, ·,· , . ¯ · )
and not ·,· , . , ¯ · , ). However, sometimes the
repetition of the (,- ,-) is overlooked in
poetry. The following stanza of Sa’dī Shīrāzī is
well known:

` · _ , -' . ¯ · ´ , _ · - , _
. · . - ` _,~ ` . ` - , ·,· ` , ¯ ·

He reached the heights with his perfection. He
removed the darkness with his beauty.
All his attributes are excellent. Send blessings
upon him and his family.

Note 3: After repeating a (,- ,-) once, if there
are further (.=·), it will not be necessary to
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repeat the (,-) again, e.g.
( _·, ·,· , . ¯ , · ' , ·,-. ' ·· )

Note 4: If (.=·) is made on an (,·~ ,), it is not
necessary to repeat the (,- ,-), e.g.
( , - _· , . ¯ , · ' ·,-. )

6. Most Grammarians have stipulated a fifth (_,),
namely (., .=·). In this, the second word
explains the first. The (·~· ,,-) are not used
for this purpose, e.g.
( ` _· ` ¸,_ ¸,,· ) Alī who is better known by the
name of Zaynul Abidīn;
( ` ,,´ _` ,` · ) – Al Kaleem who is Mūsā ().;
(` , ` · ¸ ¸ - ,,) – Abū Hafs who is Úmar ().
In such examples, the second word is the
(., .=·). However, according to some
Grammarians, these can fall into the category of
(¸´ ¸,).

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Exercise No. 150

· ` ' · ` - ' _ · ' ¸` , , ¸ .=· ,,- ·- ¸· ·
· ,. ¸ -
1 , _` , _·` ` _ · _,
2 , _` · _·` ` _ · _,
3 , _` ` , _·` ` _ · _,
4 , _·` ` _ · _, ' _` ,
5 , ` _ · _, _· ' -` · ` ·
6 , _·` ` _ · _, . _
7 , _ ¸, _·` ` _ · _,
8 , _ ¸ ´ _·` ` _ · _, ·
Exercise No. 151
¸ ·,· ¸ ,=··, ,=·· ¸¯ ¸` , , ·· ¸ . = · `, - _ .
. ¸ - ·,
1 , - ` ' .¯ ... · ·
2 , ·,-` _,· ... ·,·
3 , ,· ' .´ . ... ·,·
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4 , ·-. ·,¯ ¸ ¯ ... ·` -
5 , · _ · _, ... · ,` ·
6 , ·` ,· · ... · ,¯, ` .,·
7 , ` ·,- ·· ... ,··
8 , · ¯ .´ ',· · ... ·.·,
9 , ' ' · .·· . ... ·:··-
10 , ` .·` · ¸ ··= ·, ... · ' ·¯

Exercise No. 152

·· ·,=·· ` _ . ¸· ,- ¸¯ ·, - ¸ ·~· ,,
. ¸ - ·,
1 , _ , ' ,` . · ` _· ...
2 , , . - ` .,, ...
3 , ' .,, - ' · ...
4 , ¸´ ·- ` .` ,· · ...
5 , ' ¸, . ,` _ ...
6 , ` ¸- _` ¸ ` ¸ · _,- ...
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7 , . ¸-· .,· ...
8 , ` , ~ ' , ' ., . . ¸, ...
Exercise No. 153

. ¸ ·,· ·,=·· _. . ¸ - ¸· · ,- ¸¯· ·,
1 ... , , ·,. ' · `
2 , : ' ¸ ` ... .··
3 , ` .,· · ... ¸` , ` , · ¸,
4 , ' ... ,· ' ·¸ · ·, ` ·
59 ' ·, ` ._ ... .,` _ ` ,
6 , · ... ' ·,, ¸·, ,
Exercise No. 154

_ = ¸, . ··, .=· ,,- ` , ' . .,, '
' :,,, ' ¸ ¸,_,,- , ¸ ,,.· , ¸ ·,·,· · ` ¸ =` ,
·,· ¸ ` -

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Lesson 72
The Verbal Noun
( ' , ` _ ` . ' ` · ·, ` ·` _` , )

Note 1: Most of the basic rules of Morphology
and Grammar have been enumerated in the
previous lessons. In the following lessons, some
remaining essential and miscellaneous rules of
Morphology will be explained.

Note 2: In the terminology of Grammar, any
effect of (.,·¸) on the case of a noun or verb is
called (¸·). The words causing the effect are
called (¸··) and the words on which the effect
occurs are called (¸,··). An (¸··) is mostly a
verb or (,-). The derived nouns (·· .-') and
the (_.·), like the verb, sometimes render (_·_)
to the (¸··) and (..) to the (¸,··).

1. The scales of the verbal nouns of (·,- _·) are
not (_,·) that is, there is no fixed rule for them.
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They are based on (_-) – as heard from the
people of the language. Nevertheless, by
investigation it is known that with regards to the
meaning, the scales do follow a pattern. The
following occurs most often:

(a) the (_.·) of those verbs which indicate an
occupation come on the scale of ( · · ·), e.g.
(·¯ , - – to weave), ( · ~ , - – to sew), ( · · _ _ –
agriculture), ( · , ~ – medicine);
or they indicate a position, e.g. ( - · · · –
successorship), ( ¸ · · · – leadership), ( · , , –
deputyship), ( · , = - – to deliver a sermon) etc.

(b) the scale of ( · · · . ) indicates movement, e.g
( . , · – to boil), ( ., , - – to flow), ( , - . . – to move
around), ( . -– palpitation) etc.

(c) the scale of ( · ` · ·) indicates colours, e.g.
( · ,` ` -– red), ( · ·` _` _– blue), ( · ,` .` -– green), etc.
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Note 3: However, the verbs of these verbal nouns
(_·.·) are not used from (·,- _·) but are used
from (·,· ,,· _·), namely the verb ( ¸ · · ), e.g.
(` , ` - – to be red), (` , .` - – to be green).

(d) the scale of ( ¸ · ·) is used for illnesses, e.g.
(` _ ` . – headache), (` · ¯` _ – colds), (` _ ,` · –
dizziness), etc.

Note 4: The above-mentioned three verbal nouns
are made from the (¸,,- ¸··) – the passive tense.
The perfect (past) tense of these verbs is ( _ ` .),
( , ¯` _) and ( ,`, ·). The one who suffers from a
headache is called (` _` ,` ` . ·), the one who has a
cold is (` ·` , ¯` , ·) and the one who is dizzy is (` _` ,` ·).

(e) the scales (_ ` , ` · ·) and ( ¸ · ) are used for the
intensive form, e.g (_ ` , · – to indicate properly).
This is derived from ( , ¸ · ¸` ).
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( ¸ ,` - – to move around thoroughly). This is
derived from ( ¸` ,` -, ¸ -).
(` _ ¯ – to remember a lot). This is derived from
(` , ¯ , , ¯ ·).

If a verb does not indicate any of the above-
mentioned meanings, then most often the
following will occur:

(f) the scales ( · ` ,` · ·) or ( · · ·) are used for those
verbs whose (¸.' - perfect tense) is on the scale
of ( ¸` · ·), e.g. ( · ` ,` ,` – to be easy, soft) – derived
from ( ¸` ,` , ¸` , ), ( · · – to be clever) – derived
from (` ·` ` , ·` ).

(g) the scale of ( ¸ · ·) is used for those passive
verbs whose (¸.' - perfect tense) is on the scale
of ( ¸ · ·), e.g. (` _ , · – to be happy) – derived from
(` _ , , _ , ·),
(` ¸ = · – to be thirsty) – derived from (` ¸ =` ·, ¸ = ·),
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etc.

(h) the scale of ( ¸` ,` · ·) is used for those passive
verbs whose (¸.' - perfect tense) is on the scale
of ( ¸ · ·), e.g. (` ·` ,` · ·– to sit) – derived from (` ` · , · ·),
(` ·` ,` ,` – to wake up, to stand) – derived from
(` ,` , , ), etc.

(i) the scale of ( ¸` · ·) is used for those active verbs
whose (¸.' - perfect tense) is on the scale of
( ¸ · ·) or ( ¸ · ·), e.g. ( ¸` · – to wash) – derived from
( ¸ ` ·, ¸ ·),
( ¸ ¯ – to eat), (` ,` · – to command), ( ¸` , · - to speak),
(` ,` , · – to understand), (` _` – to listen), etc.

(j) only three verbal nouns are used on the scale
of ( ¸` ,` · ·), e.g. (` _` ,` , ~ – to be clean), ( ¸` ,` · – to
accept), (` _` , , – to covet).

Note 5: The total number of scales for the verbal
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nouns of (·,- _·) is approximately 32 among
which ( ¸` · ·), ( ¸` · ·), ( ¸` ,` · ·) and ( · · ·) are very
common.

(_«,'· _=='·)

2. The ( · _,· _. ) of all the (·` ,- _·) is generally
used on the scale of ( ¸ · ·), e.g. (` _` ,` ,` - ¸·· ` _ ,` - ·),
( ` · ¸` ,` -` · ¸·· ¸ - ), ( ¸` , · ¸·· ¸ ·).

Only seven verbal nouns come on the scale of
( · ¸ · ), namely:

Meaning =·,|· _=='·
to return ¸ ` _ -` ,
to be gentle . ` ¸ ·` ,
to come
¸ _ -
to take a siesta ¸` , , ¸ · ` , ¸
to become old
¸ ` .` ,
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to travel
¸ ` ,` ,
to return
¸ ` ,` , .

If a verb is ( ¸ ` ·` · – see 26.3), the scale will
always be ( ¸ · ·), e.g. (` ·` , · – derived from · ,
` ·,) – to promise,
( ¸ -` , · – derived from - , ¸ -` ,, ¸ ) – to fear.

Sometimes a (·) is suffixed to the scales of ( ¸ · ·)
and ( ¸ · ·), e.g.

Meaning =·,|· _=='·
to be
merciful
¸ · -` , ·
to ask · ·` ·
to be close by · · , , ·
to promise ¸ · ·` , ·
to advise ¸ · = ·` , ·

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Note 6: You may remember that the scales ( ¸ · ·),
( ¸ · ·) and ( · · ·) are used for (,= ,). See
22.4.

Verbs that are not from (,,· _·) have their
( · _,· _. ) on the scale of the (¸,·' ,), e.g.
( ¸·· ` _ ,` - · ¸ ` _ ,` - ), ( ¸ -` · ¸ ¸·· ¸ -` · ), ( , ` ` ¸·· _
. , ` ).

( ¸ ,- _.·=- |· · : _ · |· ¬ « ¸ . )

3. The verbal nouns of (,,· _· ) and
(,,· , ·` ,- _·,` _) are (_,·), that is, they follow a
rule. See 25 (a). Regarding them, remember the
following:

The ( · _. ) of ( ¸` · · .,), although generally on
the scale of (¸,·), sometimes comes on the scale
of ( · · ), e.g. from ( ,` . , – to show) – ( · , .` ), from
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( , ¯ · – to remind) – ( · , ¯ ). This scale is
specifically used in ( _,,· · · ) most of the time
and always in ( ¸·· · · ), e.g. from ( '` · – to
congratulate) – ( · · ` , ), from (_` . , – to make a
bequest) – ( · , .` , ). See Lesson 33, note 6.

The scale ( · · ) is not used in ( ' ,- ). See 26.3.
For ( ' ,- ), only ( ¸,· ) is used, e.g. (` ,`, , – to
correct), (` ,` , ,` · - to change).

The (_·.·) of ( ., ' ¸ · · ) and ( ¸ · ` ), instead of
being ( ¸ ` · , · ) and ( ¸ ` · , ` ) are ( ¸ · · · ) and ( ¸ · · ` ).
See Lesson 31, Note 5.

( =·¸ =¸¸-'· _=='· ,, , )

4. The (_.·) of an intransitive verb always
remains active (,,··). Without changing the
word-form of a transitive (_.·), the active or
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passive meaning can be used according to the
need, e.g. (¸ `, _ ¸` ·) can refer to the killing of Zaid,
that is, Zaid being the killer (¸·) or the victim of
being killed (¸,·). The meaning will be
determined according to the context. It is mostly
used in the active tense.

Note 7: The active tense is also referred to as
( ` ` _ · ¸ ) and the passive tense is referred to
as ( ` _ ` ¸,· ).

The Effect of the (_==-)

5. The (_.·), like its verb, renders (_·_) to the the
(¸··) and (..) to the (¸,··). It is most often
(.·) to its (¸··), e.g. ( ` , _ ·., · ` _ ` ,
.
` , ¯ . …
- Rashīd’s recitation of the Qur’ān pleased me.)
Sometimes it is (.·) to the (¸,··). Then it will
be ( ` _ ` ¸,· ), e.g. ( , ·.,· ` _ ` , ¯ . – The
recitation of the Qur’ān pleased me.) There are
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very few examples where the (_.·) renders (_·_)
to the (¸··), e.g.
( ` .,' _ . ` , ,` · ` `,_ ·,, . – Today I saw Zaid hitting
Ámr.)

Vocabulary List No. 59

In the following list of words, similar to verbs,
alphabets or numbers are inserted next to the
(_·.·) to indicate the ( , . ).

Word Meaning
¸ ` · ` _ , _.· , (1) to guide
' ` , . (1) to render deaf
` · _ , ` _ ` ·`, , (1) to render blind
·, ` . , ¸` . , (2) to clap hands
` ,`, (2) to estimate
¸ ´ , ` ¸ · ,
to gain power, to
consolidate
` ¸` , ´` , ` ¸ · , to enable, to strengthen
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·, , ¸ _
` _ ` , ,
to give water to drink
· _ · , . ,
to build
¯ : · , . ,
to open, to separate
,` ¯ , · ,
to become burdensome
· ·` · , . ¸ ,
to become hungry
· , ,` · , ¸ ,
to become dusty, to be poor
· , , · , · ,
relative
' _ `
(1) to bear, yield, produce
¸ · ~ ·
(1) to remove
` _ ¯ , ` , ¯ , , ¯ · ,
to mention, remembrance
. ´ · , ` , ´` , ´ · ,
to whistle
· ·` ,` ` ' . ` ` ,
song, hymn, anthem
` , = - ' . ` _ =` -
danger
· · _ . ` . · _
neck
` ·` , . ` · ,`
thorn
` , = · . ` · = ·
bone
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·` , ` · · _` ·
national school
` ¸ ` , ,` ·
guardian, protector
· ` , · , ` ¸` ` ,, ¸` , ,
to be blessed, right flank of
army

Exercise No. 155

.' ¸ ¸` · ' · _ , ' . ¸ , ·, , _, ··· ¯ ·,
1 , ' , .`,, _ ` ·`, _` :' ` - .
2 , . · = -` · ¸· _, ' ,=· . _=- .
3 , ,· ¸ ` ,,·· .,` . .,· ·,¯ .
4 , ' ´ _· ¸, ¸- ¸· ¸,- ·,=· .·,,¯ ¸ .
5 , ` ., ¸ ' ¸ _ . · ¸` ,· ·` ,· ¸ . ,··` ' · ·` ,` `
¸ ·,= ¸ ··, ·` ,~, .
6 , ,` ,` ·` , . ` · ¸ ` <,´ ¸ ` . -` ,` · .- ¸ ,· ,
. ._, ¸~, ··· ` _ ` ` ·, ·` · .
7 , ¸ _ ` , ··, ¸ ¸~ _· ·· ' . . ¸ · .¸ , = ' ` - .
, ·,` _, ·` · ¸ , ·,` . ·· ¸ ·,., ` _-, ·,¯, .,
..·_ .
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8 , = ¸,_ ¸· ·-, ¸ :` ' ' , · · . :,- ' ·` ,` ·
¸·` , ¸-, ·` ,` ., ··. , ´ ` ' ¸· :` ,` , , ,,·',
, ··. : ,. ¸ ¸,,= ¸· , = ·, ·` ,` , , - - :` ~ ·
··. : .
9 , , ¸` , - ¸· ¸, ¸ ·,,, ,, ,·_ · ¸' ` _` ,
· ¸` , =` · , ¸· ·,` ,, ¸´· ·,- ¸ ·` ¸ ¸' ,,-,-
. ¸· _· ··,, ·,-` . _¯ ,,· ¸ ·' ¸_
¸ . ¸' ·,- ,, =-, ·` ' ·´· ¸ ·· · · ,
,· ,· .
10 , · ·,· , ` . ` · _, ,` ` · ¸ ¯, ' ` .·, · ¸ ,·
_,,
¸ ¸ ` , ,` , ` , = .- ,, · _, ·,·,

Exercise No. 156

Translate the following verses of the Qu’rān.

1 , .` , , ` _ · · · ¸` ` ,` , .` · , ¸ ¸` · , . . ` ¸` _
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` ¸ ´. , · , · ¸ ¸` . · _ · ¸ · .
2 , , ·` , · . ¸ . ¯ ,` ¯ , ´` , · ¸ · ` · ¸ _ ¯ , .,¯ , · _ · ·
· ` . ¯ ,
3 , ` ,` · - ' ·, ` _ - · _ · , -` · , - ` ¸ ¯ ¸ ·¯
· , ·` , , , , -. · - , ¸ · ¸, · . .,` , ` , .
4 , · . ¯ ` ,` ,` · . · .` , . ¸ . ´` · ·, ` . , .
5 , · . ¯ ` _ ` · ` ,, · ,` , ¸ ·, , ' . ¸ ¸ · ¸ · ·` ,` · · · , ` ·`, ¸ .
6 , ' : · ¸ · · _ ` , ' ¸ ` · · ~ ¸ · ¸ ·` ,, ¸ · ¸ · ·` · , , · ¸ · , , · ` , '
, ´` · · ¸ · , ,` · ` , . ¯ ¸ · ¸, ,` ·¯ ` , . , , ,` ` . ,
` , . , , · -` , , . : · ` , ' ` . -` . ' · ` , .
7 , . · ` ·,' , ¸ · _ ` · ' ¸` _ ' ,` · , ¸` · ` · , ` , , · .,` ` · ,
.
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Lesson 73
(-«=|· ··r·)

Note 1: Although the term (·. ,) generally
indicates the ( ` · ·. ` ·, ), but the (¸· ,),
(¸,·' ,), (¸,. ,) and (··' ,) are also
included in it.

In (_·) and (_· _·), the scales of the
(¸· ,), ( , ¸,·' ), (¸,. ,) and some of
the (·. ,) were discussed from Lessons 22 till
25. The remaining (·. ,) and (··' ,)
scales will be enumerated in this lesson.

1. The ( , ¸· ), like its verb, also renders (_·_)
to the (¸··) and (..) to the (¸,··), if the
following conditions are met:
a) It must have ( ¸ ),
b) It must occur after ( ·,· ¸ ·, ),
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c) It must occur after (·,· ·),
d) It occurs as a (_-) in the sentence,
e) It occurs as a (.·) in the sentence.

Examples:
1 , ,· ·` _~ ¸, .- -, ¸ ` , , ¸ ¸ .-
, · ·` _ - , .
2 , · ·,, ` ,_ ` . _
3 , ·,, ` ,_ ` . _ · .
4 , ` ._ ` · - ' ·,, ·,- .
5 , · , _ ¸-_ .- ' ·,, ·` , - .
6 , .,' .,- ' ,· ·,` . ` .,', ·,` . .
7 , ` , ·` · ` ,_ ' ·~,- ·- ·,- .

Note 2: You have learnt in Lesson 42.6 and 52.4
that the ( ¸ ) prefixed to the (¸· ,) and the
(¸,·' ,) is generally in the meaning of (¸),
the ( ' , ,., ¸ ).

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2. In the above-mentioned five sentences, the first
noun after the (¸· ,) is the (¸··) and the
second noun is the (¸,··). In the sixth example,
the pronouns of the dual and the plural which
can be understood from the (¸· ,) are the
(¸··) and the word ( . · · ) is the (¸,··). In the
final example, the (¸· ,) has two objects
(¸,··).

3. The (¸· ,) is used most often with (··.),
that is, it is (.·) to its (¸,··). This is
particularly in the case when the action occurs in
the past tense, e.g. ( ` ._ ` ,_ ·,, ) – Zaid is the
drinker of the coffee, that is, he is a habitual
drinker of coffee.
( ¸_., ·, ,~· = -) – All praises are due
to Allāh, the originator of the skies and the earth.
( . ¸· ` ·,- ) – Mahmūd is the killer of the
lion.
In these three examples, the action is understood
to have occurred already.
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4. You know that the ( ., ¸ ·,,,· ) of the (·,·) and
(, ,¯· _~) is elided when it is (.·).
However, a speciality of the (¸· ,) is that
even without (··.), the (.,) is sometimes elided.
Examples:

·,. ,' ·,. ,'
·,. ,,' ·,. ,,'

On the right side, the (¸· ,) is (.·) while
on the left, it is not (.·) because the
succeeding word is the ( · ¸,· ) and is therefore
(.,.·).

(,,-«'· ,=·)

5. In Lessons 22 and 25, from the (·,- _·) and
(·,- _· _·), the scales of the (¸· ,) were
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enumerated. Revise those scales.
6. The (¸,·' ,) does the work of the
(¸,,- ¸··), that is, it renders (_·_) to the
(¸· .) and if there are two (¸· .), it
renders (..) to the second one, e.g.
(` ·` , · ` ·` ,` ` · ` ,_) – Zaid’s horse was surpassed.
( ` , ·` · ` - ' ·,´ - ` · , - ) – Khālid’s two brothers
were taught weaving.

( · -,,='· -«=| )

7. The ( ·. ·,· ) is a word that is derived from
an intransitive verb to indicate the attribute of
some being, e.g. (` ¸ - – good), ( ¸` , - – beautiful),
( ¸` , – easy), ( ` _ , · – happy), ( ·` ¯ . – lazy).

Note 3: The difference between (¸· ,) and
( ·. ·,` · ) is that the meaning of the verbal noun
is temporary in the (¸· ,) and permanent in
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the ( ·. ·,` · ), e.g. the word (` ._.) indicates the
act of hitting, emanating from a doer and this
attribute does not remain with him all the time.
The word (` ¸ -) indicates that beauty is a
permanent attribute of someone. It is not
something that emanated temporarily from him.

8. The word-forms of ( ·. ·,· ) come on
different scales and they are all (_·-) – as heard
from the Arabs. Only a few are (_,·) and these
are as follows:

(1) the words which indicate colours,
defects and forms are on the scale of ( ' ¸ · · ) for the
singular masculine and ( ·` · · . ) for the singular
feminine. The plural of both is ( ¸` · ·) as you learnt
in Lesson 23, e.g. ( ' ` , ` - – . ,` - – ` ,` ` -) – red.

Note 4: When the scale of ( ' ¸ · · ) is used for
( ·. ·,` · ), it is called ( ' ·. ¸ · · ) and when it is
used for (¸,. , – the superlative), it is called
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( ' ¸,. ¸ · · ).
(2) The scale ( ¸` · ·) is used mostly to
indicate the profession of someone, e.g. ( ` , - –
tailor), (` _` - - carpenter), (` _` - - baker), (` ·` - - –
one who cups blood), (` _` , , – cloth merchant), etc.

Sometimes this scale is made from (·- ,), e.g.
from ( · , – vegetables) the word ( ¸ , –
greengrocer) is derived and from ( ¸ - – camel),
the word ( ¸` - – camel driver) is derived.

9. For words other than (·` ,- _·), the scale of the
(¸· ,) is used for the ( ·. ·,` · ), e.g. (¯ ¸ · =` · –
peaceful), (` ,` , ` ` · – straight).

10. The ( ·. ·,` · ) also renders (_·_) to the (¸··)
but it is used most often with ( ¸ ··.), e.g.
(` ·` ,` - , ` ¸ - – his face is handsome). The word
(` ·` - ,) is the (¸··) of (` ¸ -) and is therefore
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(_,·,·). In the phrase ( ·` -, ` ¸ - – handsome
faced), the ( ·. ·,` · ) is (.·) to its (¸··). (It
would be preferable to revise Lesson 23 in
Volume 2.)

Besides these two forms, the ( ·. ·,` · ) is used in
other ways which are rarely used. You may read
about these in the detailed books of Grammar.

(- - |· , « |· - - , =)

11. If the ( ·. ·,` · ) has an intensive meaning, it
is referred to as (··' ,), e.g. ( · · ` · – very
learned), ( ¸` ,` , - – most ignorant).

Note 5: Although the ( . , ¸, ) also has an
intensive meaning, the intensity is in comparison
to something else. See Lesson 24. The (··' ,)
is not compared to anything else.

12. All the scales of (···) are (_·-), the most
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common of which are:

Scale Example Meaning
` · · ¸ ` · shedder of blood
· ` · · · · · · very learned
¸` · · ` _` ¯ very big
¸` ,` · · ` ¸`,` . very truthful
¸` ,' · · ` ·` ,' , · eternal
¸` ,' · · ` ¸` ,' · very sacred
¸` · · ` . · one who changes a lot
¸ · · ` . ,` - · very quarrelsome
¸ · · ¸ . · very virtuous
¸` , · · ` ¸` , =` · one who speaks a lot
¸ · · ` . -` · very amazing
¸` ,` · · ` ·` ,` _ · distinguisher
· · · · , ` · one who finds faults
¸ · · - ` _ very cautious
¸` , · · ` ,` , · very learned
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¸` ,` · · ¸` ,` - one with a big load

13. There is no difference in gender for the scales
of (···). Some word-forms which have a (·)
suffixed to them, are not feminine. This is the (·)
of (···), e.g. ( · · · · – very learned). However, if
the scale of ( ¸` , · ·) is used for the (¸··), a (·) is used
to denote the feminine form, e.g. (` ,` , . ¸` - _– a
very helpful man), ( ¸ · ,` , . ·',· – a very helpful
woman). If the scale of ( ¸` , · ·) is used for the
(¸,··), there will be no difference, e.g. (` _`, , - ¸` - _
= ` _` ,` ,` - · – an injured man), ( ·',· ¸ ` _`, , - – an injured
woman). Yes, in some examples, the adjective
corresponds to the (,.,·), e.g.
( ·,- ·',· · ,` ,` ` - · ` ¸ ' – a beloved woman).

If the scale ( ¸` ,` · ·) is used for a (¸,··), a (·) will be
suffixed to it for the feminine form, e.g.
( ¸` ,` - ¸ - – a male camel with a load),
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( · ` ,` - · · – a female camel with a load).
However, if it has the meaning of a (¸··), there
will be no difference, e.g. ( , ¸` - _ ¸` ,` – an ascetic
man), (¸` ,` , ·',· – an ascetic woman).

( | ¸,=«·|· ¸-· )

14. You have studied the paradigm of
( ' ¸,. ¸·· ) and the method of its usage in
Lesson 24 in detail.

The word-form of ( ' ¸,. ¸·· ) is generally used
for the (¸··). However, sometimes it is used for
the (¸,··), e.g. ( ' ` _ ` · ) – very excused, ( ' ¸ ·` – very
preoccupied), ( ' ` , ,` – very famous), ( ' ` ,` · – very
well-known).

The ( ' ¸,. ¸·· ) also renders (_·_) to the (¸··).
However, with regards to (,·= ,), this effect
of it is only found in one sentence, namely,
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(¸ ,_ ¸· ¸ ·· ¸` - ´ ·,· ¸ ¸ ` - ·` - _ .,' _ ·) - I
have not seen anyone in whose eye the collirium
looks more beautiful than the eye of Zaid. The
word (` ¸ ` - ) has rendered (_·_) to the word
( ¸` - ´) in this sentence. Many examples of this
nature can be constructed. More details can be
found in the elaborate and exhaustive books.

( -,.·|· ,=· ¸| ·'· ,=v· . =, )

15. The noun which has a (· .,) suffixed to it
is called ( ' ,. ., ), e.g. ( · ` . , ¯ ¸ ) – Egyptian,
(¯ _ ·) – one connected to knowledge.

Although the ( · , ., ) is generally an
(·- ,), by suffixing a (· .,) to it, an
adjectival meaning is created in it. Hence, like an
(·. ,), it occurs as the adjective of a noun, or
the (_-) of a ( · ' ), e.g. ( ·` ,·,, ·,,-) – a daily
newspaper, ( ¸-, · ¯ ¸ ,` . · ) – This man is an
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Egyptian.

16. Keep the following factors in mind when
constructing the ( · , ., ):

(1) delete the (·) from the end of a noun,
e.g. from ( · ´ ·), the ( · , ., ) will be (¯ _ ´ ·);
from ( · · .), it will be (¯ _ · .).

(2) the extra alphabets within a word are
elided, e.g. (¯ _ ·) from the word ( · `, ·).

(3) some nouns are ( ` _,=· . - , ) – their
final alphabets are elided. At the time of (·),
these alphabets revert to their original positions,
e.g. from the word ( ' ` .) which was originally ( ' ` ,` , ),
we attain ( ' ¯ ¸ , , ); from (` · ·) which was originally
(` ,` · ·), we obtain (¯ ¸ , · ·).
(4) the (·_,.· .) and the hamzah (') of
(··,· .) when it is extra, will be changed to a
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(,,), e.g. ( · . ) changes to (¯ ¸ , . ·), ( ` , · _ ) changes
to (¯ ¸ , ` , ·), ( . , .) changes to (¯ ¸ , , .).
If the hamzah of (··,· .) is original, it
will remain, e.g. ( . ` , ) changes to (¯ ¸ ,).

(5) the plural of ( · , ., ) is most often
(, _~), e.g. ( · ` . , ` ,', . ) – Egyptians. Sometimes
the broken plural is used, e.g. ( · ··) is the plural
of (¯ _ ·), ( · , _ · ·) is the plural of ( ,` · · ¯ ¸ , ).

17. Remember the following ( ' · .- ·,, ) in
particular:

Original
Noun
=,.·- ,=· Meaning
·` , · ' ¯ ¸ , · Umayyad
·, · , ¯ ¸ , , Bedouin
` .` , · ,` . - ¯ ¸ · ,` . -
of Hadramout, a city
of Yemen
` _` ,` _ ¯ ¸ -` ,` _ spiritual
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¯ . _ ` , _ ¯ ¸ of the Lord
` ¸`, , · ¯ ¸ , · Quraishite
· , . ¯ ¸ ,` . Nazarene
· ·` , ~ ¯ _ ·` , ~ natural
¯ ¸ _ ¯ ¸ _ _
of Rayy, a city of
Persia
` ¸ ,
' _ , ¸ . ,
' _ ,
Yemeni

Vocabulary List No. 60

Word Meaning
' ¸ ,` - (1) to make dumb
¸ =` ' (1) to make someone speak
¸` , -` , the book revealed to Ísā
' . , time, season
' ¯ _` · maternal, illiterate
' , , . ' , , harm, misery
. ,` explanation, exposition
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` .` ,` , . to repent
¯ , complete
· , - ember
· ` - ¸ ` - . clothing
` ,` , - bosom friend, hot water
` .` , - . ` - . true believer, orthodox
· ` ,` , to be hard-hearted
· , fault-finder
¯ _ · ·` , ingenious, quick-witted
` ¸` , soft
` ¸` , ` · clear
` ,` ` · living in ease and luxury
- _ ` ,` -` ,, to hope
.` · _ . ·` _ ' . helper
` ·` , · _ an infernal tree
¸ _ , ¸, , night traveller, to penetrate
` ¸ , vicious, malicious
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` ,` , edge
` ,-` . . ' , . the hard rock
¸ _ · nude, naked
.` , · rain
` , ` · brave
` · ´ · cheerful, humourous
` _` ,` ` · · flooded, covered,obscure
, · . ·` , · death
¸ ¯ , helpless
¸ _ · tottering, reeling
, · . ·`, · gift
` .` , · timid, fearful, coward
· = , awake

Note: ( · ¸ _ ) was originally (` , ·) – (¸,, ,-). It
was inverted and made into (¸·). This is similar
to the word ( ` : – weapon belt) when it is used
in the phrase, ( ` _ ¯ · _ ) – bristling with arms.
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Exercise No. 157

,` ,· ' , ·` . . ` ' ·· , , ,·· .,·¸ ¸ ,= ¸ ,
. ··· ¯ · , .

1 , ¸` , ' ` · ¸ ´ , ` · ` · .
2 , ,` ` ` · , · ¸ . ` -` · ` · ¸,` . ` - .
3 , ¸ ¯ ¸ ¸ · ¯ · .` , .
4 , ¸` ¸ · ` ,` · , ,` , ¸ ¸ ·`, , , · , ~ · , , -` ,, ` _ ., ` ,` .
5 , ` ' , ¯ _ , ¯ ¸ , · ¸ .,` ` -` · .
6 , ¸ · - ' · , ¯ , ¸ - , . ¸ · .` ¸ ` . -` · .
7 , ¸`, , · · , ,` ,` ,, · ¸` · , ¯ · · .
8 , ¸` ¸ , ` _ · ¸ . ¸ ·¯ , · , ¸ - . .
9 , . ¸ ¸ · : · ¸ .,¯ ¸ ´ ¸ _` . ¸ _, ´ .
10 , ¸ - ' , .,` _ · ,` · ` _ . · ' ¸` · ` · ` _ ' · ¸ · · .` · _
¸ ·` .`, .
11 , . ¸ . , ' ¸ · ' : · · , , . _ · · ¸` , _ . ' ¸ , ` ,`, ` , - ,
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¸` · : ` - .
12 , ,` · ¸ . · , ¸ · ¸` ,` · ' ,` _ . ` ,` ,` ` · , ` , ` , ,` , · · ,¯
` , ,, ¯ ,`, , ` ,` ,` ·`, , . ´ · ´ - , . ¸ , ,` ¯ ¸ · ¸` · ¸
· . ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ' · .

Exercise No. 158

Translate the following poetry into English:

` ,` ·, ` . = ¸ ¸` ,` ,` ` _- ¸, ·_ · , ' ¸` · ¸` ,-
· ´ , ` ,.. ,-` . ` ¸ =` ` · ,` ¸ . · ` ` ¸ ,- ',
·` , _ ' , ¸ -` - ', ` - ¸ .,·, · ` ` - ¸ ·

, · ~ ` . ·`,. ` . ´` ·, _ · , - .' ¸ ` . = ` ·
` · ¸` ,- ` ' .` , - _ · , _· ¸ _ _· .-` , ¸`
· = , ·` , ', ` ·, ` ¸` , ·· _ ¸, - ,,, ., ',

` . ¸· ` ' ` ¸ ¯, . ¸ ` ,.. ,` - ¸ · · ¸· ··. ¸ , ,` ', ',
, ` , ` ,` · ·· ' , ` - ¸ , -, ,´' ,,=· .` , · ` · .
, ´ · ` , ~ ' , ··` , , ,` · ¸ ¯ , ., ¸ . ` , · ,` , · ` ·
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¸ ` - ` ¸ ´ , ` ¸ · , ¸ ` - ¸· _,` ·· .¯ . ¸ , ¸ _ · ` ·` ,· · ¸ ,`
,´- ¸ ·,·· ·,. ¸· ·· ·_,¯' .,,.
¸,' ` ¸` . ¸, _·. 764 ¸· = ·~_ .·
_', · ¸ ·,. ¸` ,' ¸· .,,. ¸·, ,,¸ .,., ·

¸ .·, -, ` - _ · ' - ¸ ´
¸·. ·,· .,,· ¸· ` . .` ` . . ·
·, .·` , _', · ¸ ¯ _· _. ,
¸ = __` ` .´, · - ,` .
` · ·· - . ¸ ¸- , .,` , .,
¸ , ,, _ , :` ¯ ¸ ´·
` · , ` ,` ` ` ¸ · :` ,` ·, . ,
. · :,¸ ` ·` · ¸ · ¸ ` ,`
¸` · _,, ,' -- .·_' .¸,
¸ · ` ` ·, ¸ - ¸· ·_,·' ,` ¯·

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Lesson 74
The Dual, Plural and Diminutive
The Dual

1. You have learnt the method of constructing the
dual in Lesson 5. Hereunder follow a few specific
points:

Those nouns which are ( . _,=· ,- ) – that is, the
final alphabet is elided, at the time of making the
dual, this alphabet returns, e.g. from ( ' ` .) = ( ' . , ,
and ( ' ¸`, , , ), from ( ' ` _ ) = ( ' . , - ) and ( ' ¸`, , - ).

However, if an alphabet is prefixed or suffixed to
the word in place of the elided letter, it will not
return in the dual form, e.g. (` ¸` , ) was originally
(` ,` ,), (` ,` ) was (` ,` ), ( · ) was (` ,` ). The dual of
these words will respectively be ( . ` , ), ( . ` ) and
( . ).

The word (` ,) was originally (` ¸` ,), (` , ·) was (` ·` , ·).
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The dual forms will be ( . ,) and ( . ·). The
elided alphabet does not revert.

The (·_,.· .) and the hamzah of (··,· .)
most often change into a (,,), e.g. from ( . ·), we
obtain ( . , . ·), from ( . ,` -), we obtain ( . , ,` -).
The dual of ( . ) can be ( . , ) or ( . . ), but
the (¸) which had been changed to an alif,
changes into a (¸) in the dual, e.g. (_ ·) changes to
( . , ·).

The Plural

2. You may remember that the plural is of two
types: (, _~) and (,` ´` · _~). (, _~) is
further divided into (, ¯·) and (.` ,·). See Lesson
5.3.

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The Sound Masculine Plural
(, ¯' ,` ` _-)

3. The sound masculine plural is made from those
nouns which form a (·.) or (_-) of a male
intelligent being, e.g. (.,··. ¸-_) – truthful
men. Besides adjectival nouns, very few other
words have a masculine sound plural, e.g. ( ' .,._ )
– plural of ( ' ` ¸` _ ), ( ` · ` , . ) – plural of ( · ` , ), ( ' ` · ` , . )
– plural of ( ' ¸` · ), ( ` ,` , . ) – plural of (` ¸` , ), ( .` ,` ) –
plural of ( · ) and ( .` , · ·) – plural of ( · · ·).
The plurals of proper names are made on the
sound masculine scale, e.g. ( .` ,` `, _), etc.

The Sound Feminine Plural
( .` ,` ` , ` ` _` - )

4. The plurals of adjectival nouns which form the
(·.) or (_-) of (.···) – intelligent female
beings, are normally ( .` ,` ` , ` ` _` - ), e.g.
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(.-. . ) – pious women.
Besides the (·. .- _·), the plural of the
following nouns is also ( .` ,` ` , ` ` _` - ):
a) The noun which has a ( ~,,,· · ) – a round
tā at the end, whether it is for the feminine
gender or for the singular form, e.g. ( ` _ , · ) –
the plural is (` .` _ ,). This tā is for ( ' ., ).
The plural of ( · ,` ) is (` . , ). This tā is for
(·-,) - the singular form. However, there
are a few words which do not have a sound
plural, e.g. ( · ' ,` · ¸), ( · ) etc. The plural of
( · ) is ( . ) and (` · , ), while the plural of
( · ' ,` · ¸) is ( . ) and ( · ,` ).
b) Proper names of females, e.g. the plural of
(` ,,` , ·) is (` . ,` , ·).
c) Those verbal nouns (_·.·) which have
more than three alphabets, e.g. (` . `, ,` · ),
(` . _ , ` · ).
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d) Those nouns which have an (·_,.· .) or
(··,· .) suffixed to them for the sake of
(.,'), e.g. the plural of (_` ` - - fever) is
(` . ,` ` -) and the plural of ( . ,` - .) is
(` . , ,` - .). It also has a broken plural,
namely (¸_ - .).

The Broken Plural
(,` ´' _-)
5. The (,` ´· _~) is of two types
74
: (· _~) and
( ´ _~ · ·, ).
The (· _~) is a plural expressing an amount
not exceeding ten. It has only four scales which
are:

Example Scale
` ,` ,` ' ¸` · · '
` · · · ' ¸ · · '

74
See Lesson 5.3.
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· · · ` · ·
·` _ ' · · · · '

Note 1: If ( ¸ ) is prefixed to (· _~) or it is
(.·) to such a word which indicates an excess
amount ( ¯ · ·, ), it can refer to more than ten, e.g.
( , ·` , , ` · ,,· ' , ` ¸ ` ' ` ¸` ,` · ) – In it (heaven) are
those things which the souls desire and which
please the eyes.
( ' ` ,` · , ¯ ' ` , . ` , ¯ · ) – Honour your children.
In these examples, the words ( ' ` ¸ ` ), ( ' ` ¸` ,` · ) and
( ' ` , . · ) indicate an excess amount.
If the plural of a noun has only one scale, it may
indicate (· ) or ( ¯ · ·, ), e.g. the plural of ( ¸` - _) is
only ( ' ¸` -` _ ) and the plural of (` · , ·) is only ( ' · · · ).

The scales of ( ´ _~ · ·, ) are many and most of
them are (_·-) - as heard from the Arabs. Only
the following scales follow a rule:

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1. ( ¸ · ·) is the plural of ( · ` · ·), e.g. ( · · ·` , - ` , ·),
( ` , · ·` · ), ( ` _ ,` . · _` ,` . ).
2. ( ¸ · ·) is the plural of ( · ` · ·), e.g. ( · · = · ` _ = ·),
( ¸ · · · ), ( ¸ ¯ · ¯ ).
3. ( · · ·) is the plural of the ( , ¸· ) that is
( · ¸·· · ), e.g. ( ¸ · _ · , ·` _), ( · . · ¸ ¸ · ),
( · .` · ¸ ¸ · ).
4. ( ¸ · ·) is the plural of (·` ,- _·,_),
(·` ,- _` -) and (,,·), e.g ( ¸` ` , , · ¸ , ),
( ` _ _ ¸ -` , ), ( ` ¸ _ - ` ¸`, _ ` - ). One
alphabet has been elided from (·` ,- _` -)
and two from ( _` - ,,· ).
5. ( ¸ · , ·) is the plural of ( ¸ ·` , ·) and ( ¸ · ·), e.g.
(` , ·` , - ` , · , -), ( ` , , - ` , - ). When the
scale of ( ¸ · ·) is used for a feminine word,
its plural also comes on this scale ( ¸ · , ·),
e.g. ( ¸ · - ¸ · , -), ( ` , · , · ` , · · ).
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6. ( ¸ · ·) is the plural of ( · ` , · ·) and ( · · ·), e.g.
( ` . ¯ · ` , ¯ ), ( ¸ _ · _ ).
7. ( ' ¸ · · ) is the plural of ( ¸ · · ) and ( · ` · · ), e.g.
( ' ` _ , . ` _ ` . ), ( ¸ · ' ' · ` ` ). The plural of the
superlative ( ' ¸,. ¸·· ) also comes on this
scale, e.g. ( ' ` , ¯ ' ` , , ¯ ), ( ' ¸ . · ' ¸ . · ). This
is the case even though it has a sound
plural, e.g. ( ' .` ,` , ¯ ). See Lesson 24.
8. ( ' ¸` , · · ) is the plural of ( ' ¸` ,` · · ) and ( ' · ` ,` · · ),
e.g. ( ' ` .` , ` ' ` .` , ), ( ` ,` , - _ ' ' · _` ,` -` _ ).
9. If the penultimate alphabet of a four-letter
word is a ( ` · · _ · ), its plural will be
( ¸` , · ·), e.g. (` _` , ` .` · · . · ` ,` , ), ( ` ¸` , ~ , · ` ¸ ~` , · ).
10. ( ¸ · ·) is the plural of ( ¸ · ·), ( ¸ · ·), ( ¸ · ·),
( · · ·) and ( · · ·), e.g. (` . ´ · - ` . ´ ·),
( ` · _ · ` · ,` · ), ( ` _ . · ` _ .` · ),
( ` ¸ ´ · · ´ · ).
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11. ( ¸` , · ·) is the plural of ( ¸ · ·), ( ¸` , · ·) and
( ¸` ,` · ·), e.g. (` _ · - ` _` , ·), (` ¸` , ´` · - ` ¸` , ¯ ·),
( ` .` , ´ · ` .` ,` ´ · ).

The Diminutive
(_-=·|· ,=·)

6. To indicate the diminutive of anything, a noun
that is (_· – 3 letter word) is transferred to the
scale of ( ¸` , · ·) or ( · ` , · ·). This is called (_·. ,)
or (,` · . ' ,.) and the original word is referred
to as (` ,` ´` ·), e.g. (` .` , ¯) from the word (` . ¯– dog),
( · ` , ¯) from ( · ¯), ( ¸` , ~) from ( ¸ ~), (` .`, ,` ,) from
(` . ,) which was originally (` .` , ,), (¯ _ ·) from (_ ·)
and ( ` , -' . ) from ( -' . _ ). The first noun is
(,` · . ' ,.) and the second one is (,` ´` ·).

If the word is ( _·,_ – 4 lettered), the scale for the
diminutive is ( ¸ ` , · ·), e.g. (` . ,` , ` ·) from (` . , ·) and
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(` , `, ,` ·) from (` , ·).

If a word is ( _` - – 5 lettered), and it does not
have a ( ` · · ), the same scale of ( ¸ ` , · ·) is used for
the (_·. ,), e.g. (` _ ,` , ` ) from ( ¸ -` , ). The
final alphabet has been elided.
If the word has a (·` ·), the scale for the
(_·. ,) will be ( ¸` , ` , · ·), e.g. (` ¸` , =` , ` ) from
( . = ` ) and (` .` , ,`, ,` ·) from (` .` ,` ·` , ·).

Note 2: If the harakah of the alphabet preceding
the ( ,- · · ) corresponds to it, that is, an (.)
preceded by (·-·), a (,,) preceded by (·` .) or a
(,) preceded by a (·,¯), it is called ( ` · · ), e.g. ( ,),
(` ,` ,), (` _ ,).
If it does not correspond, it will be called (¸` , ), e.g.
(` _ ,), (` , ,).

7. Remember the (_·. ,) of the following
nouns in particular:
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Noun Diminutive
' ` _ ¯ _ -
' ` .` - ·` , -
' ` . ' ¯ _ ,
· · ·`, ·
` ¸` , ¯ _ ` ,
` .` , ·` , ` ,
_` , ·`, ,`
` ¸ `, ` _ ` ,

Vocabulary List No. 61

Word Meaning
.` _ (1) to keep ready, to observe
' ¸ , ¸- , , spear
_ those (same as ¸`, )
¸ . `
(7) to take out or to throw an
arrow
'` , , (2) to provide accommodation
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. ` ¸ ,` , ' ` ¸` , , white, sharp sword
, · . · ¸ , · ¸ , , ·, fine spear
. ¸ · _ · ·` _ archer
· , _ ` . , _ .
¸ ¸ , _,
fixed, immovable
` ,` ` _ ` ' . curtain
` ,`, , , ·` , ' .
` _` ,`
bed
` ,` , ` ,` ,` ' .
` · , ,
arrow
` _ _ . one who cries or screams
. ` _ -` , . crown
. ¸ ·` ¸` , idol
. · - . - large bowl
. · , , - ¸ . , - pool, basin
= - ·` , of Khatt – a port of Bahrain
` · _ . ` · _ , . . sharp sword
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·` ` · ` · ` · . equipment, instrument, device
` `, · ` · . compatriot, among, numerous
` ,`, , · ·` , · ' . honourable, dominant
` ¸ _ · ` ¸ _ , · .
. ` , ·,
horserider
` _` · ` _` ,` · . cooking pot, deg
. · , ¸ , ,
. · ¸
to intend, to adopt moderation
` .`, _ - · . ` . ,` -
part of the front of a house that
is attractive, recess in musjid
wall
` · ` · ` , fresh, living in luxury

Exercise No. 159

Examine the plurals in the following verses and
determine the singular form of each one.

1 , ` ¸ · , · ,¯ ` ¸ - . , ` ¸` _ ' , ` - , · ` ' ` , ´
` , ´ , ' , . ¸ ¸ · : · ¸ .,¯ ¸ · .
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2 , ., ` ·, ` · · . , ¸ · ., _ -` · ¸, , ¸ . - , . , - ¯
¸ _,` · , ¸ . , ` _ , ` · ¸¯ ·` , · , ´` ¸, · , ` ¸` · ¸ · · ` _, ´`
.
3 , ` . · . ¸ ·, ` · ¸ , - · ·,` , · ·,` · ' , · - , ·` , · ' , ` · '
· · ' .
4 , , ` ¸ ` , , · ' ` . · · ` ,` · ' , ,` ,` · , ·` , ¸ · , ´` ` , ` . ,
_ · · : , . ' . ¸ : · ` ¸ · ·` , · _,` · ' .
` . · , ¸ · · : ,` ` ¸` . · , ¸ · : ` , . . ¸ , ´ ' . ,` . '
` .` , . _ - .
5 , ¸, , ,` ·¯ , · , . - ` . ,` ,` ` , ` ¸` · ·` - · , ·
¸ ,` - ¸ · , ` - ` _ ,` ' ¸, - ,, · ,` · ` ,` - ' ¸ · · .
6 , ` . ` , = ¸ ` , = .,` ` , = , . ` , = .

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Exercise No. 160

(A) Translate the following poetry:

· · ` · ,, ._' _ . ` , · ¸`, '
· ¸ ' , ` ¸` , ¸,', , · ¸`, '
. · . ·, ` ¸ _ , ¸`, ' ·` ,` ·
·¸` , ·` , =-, ·_,` . ¸`, '
·, , ` ,` ' , ` _ ` ` , ' ··' , ¸`, '
¸ . ` ` .,' ·, :` '
· · ` · ` · .¯ ¸ ·,` -` , ¸`, '
¸ ´, _` . ` .,.` , ` ,` · ¸·
` _ _. ` ,` ·· ,` ·` · · ·, ¸·
· ¸ ` - , . -` , , ·` , . ¸`, '

(B) The following verses have the (_·. ,)
contained in them. Underline each of the
(_·. ,). The origins of these words are
provided after the verses.
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` · ¸· ` , ` ¸ :` , ' : `, ,` - ¸ ,_` , ¸ · `, ` - ¸ ` ,` , ` , ·
:` ,` , -` , ` , -' . ¸ ` _ `, , ·`, ·, ' · ` , ·` ¸ ` ,` , · ·
¯ _ ` . ' ~ · . ´ _ · ¸ ¯ _ ' ¯ · ,` , =' ` . ,`, ,` · · ` ,

Original
word
Diminutive Meaning
· = ` ` ` , dot
` :` · ` :` , ` · musk
` ·` _ , ,_` , ` rose
¸ - ¸`, ,` -
birthmark, beauty
spot
` ,` , ` ,` , ` , tatoo
¯ - ` `, ` - cheek
· · `, · ` · that
. ` _ · ` _ `, , shining
-` . _ ` . ` , - forenoon
` ·` - , ` ·` , -` , face
· ` , ` ,` , · moon
` ` · ` ` , ·` good luck
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¯ _ . ¯ _ ` . child
` _` ~ ¯ _ ~ antelope
· . ¯ _ · outer garment, jubbah
· ` , ` · ` , ` . ` . ,`, ,` · dreadful
· , = ` · ,` , = influence, attack
' ` ' ` ` , lion

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Lesson 75
The (,·-·v· ··r·)

1. The (¸··. .-) are those words which are not
verbs but have the meanings of verbs. They are
all indeclinable (¸').

2. Most of them have the meaning of the
imperative (,·) while some have the meaning of
the perfect tense (_.'). The following verbs
have the meaning of the imperative (,·):

1) ( ¸ · ) – come. Like the (,·), it also has a
paradigm:
¸ · · , · ` , · ` ¸ , · ¸` , ·
e.g.
( · ¸ , ` · ¸ ´ . · ` , ¯ _ ¸ · ¸ ., , ` , , , ` , ,´ . .
` · ` . = ) – Say O people of the book, come to a
word that is equal between us and you that we do
not worship anyone besides Allah.

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2) ( . ·) – give, bring. It also has a paradigm:
. · , · ` ,` · ` ¸ · , · · ¸` ,
e.g.
( ,´ ·` ,` , ` ,` · ¸ · ¸ ¸ ··. ,¯ . ) – Say, bring your
evidence if you are truthful.

3) (·) – take. Its plural is (` · .·), e.g.
(` · , , ¯ ` , . , · ` · .·) – Here, take my book of
deeds and read it. Sometimes the pronoun
of the second person ( ·) is attached to it
and a paradigm is constructed as follows:

4) (` , ·) – come, go, bring. This verb can either
be transitive, e.g. ( , ¸` , , ` , ` , · ` , , ,` - ) –
Those who are saying to their brothers,
“Come to us,” or intransitive, e.g.
(` , ¯ . ,` ` , ·) – Bring your witnesses.

The phrase (' , - ` , ·) is very commonly used.
Literally it means, “continue pulling”.
Consequently it conveys the meaning,
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“understand this in a like manner, and so on,
etc.” similar to the phrase, (¸, · _ ·),
which means, by analogy or correspondingly.

Note 1: This word is (` , . ` · _·) in the dialect of
Hijaz, that is, it is used with this word-form for
the singular, dual, plural, masculine and feminine
without any change, as is clear from the above
examples. However, in the dialect of the Banū
Tamīm, it is (` , . ` ·) and it has a paradigm,
namely,
( ` , · ` · ` ,' · ` _` · ¸` ` · ).

5) ( : .` , ·) – come, e.g.
( : .` , · ` . · = · · · ¸ · ) – She said, “Come
to me.” He replied, “I seek the refuge of
Allah.” The pronoun of the second person
(.=-) changes according to the number of
listeners, e.g.
( ´ .,· , ` , ´ .` , · ).

6) ( :` , ·) – choose, take, help yourself to, e.g.
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( ` , :` , · ¸ · , ¸ ·` , , :` , · ) – Choose gentleness;
(= ¸ , , ` , ´` , ·) – Adopt the fear of Allah.
The feminine forms can also be constructed
from it.

7) ( · , ` _ ·) – Bring him to me.

8) (` _` · :` , ) – Keep away from me.

9) ( · :` , ) – take this.

10) ( : ` ,` ·) – take, e.g. ( ,` ` : ` ,` ·) – take the
date.

11) ( ` _ - . ,` , - · ) – hasten, advance, e.g.
( ·` . _ · ` _ - · ) – Hasten towards salāh.

12) ( `, ,` _ . · `, ,` _ ) – wait, leave it.

13) ( · ,) – leave, e.g. ( , ´` · , :` , ` ·, . · ¸ ) –
Leave thinking about something that is not
necessary for you.
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14) (` · ·) – stop.

15) (` · .) – be silent, keep quiet.

16) ( ¯ ¸` , · ) – accept.

17) ( _ -) – beware, be cautious; ( ¸ , ) –
descend. Similarly, there can be many
( ·. .- ¸· ) on the scale of ( ¸ · ·).

3. The (¸··. .-) which have the meaning of the
perfect tense (_.') are as follows:

1) ( . ,` , ·) – to be distant, e.g.
( .` ,` ·` ,` . ,` , · . ,` , ·) – Distant (far-
fetched) is that which you are promised.

2) ( .` ) – what a difference between, how
different they are, e.g. (¸ ·-, , · ¸` , , .` )
– What a difference is there between the
learned and the ignorant one.
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3) ( . ·` , ) – hastened, e.g.
( ·,` · ¸,· _ ` .` ,` . ·` , ) – Old age
hastened to the ones with worry.

Note 2: There is (···- intensity) in the above-
mentioned three words.

The Specialities of Some Verbs

4. The following verbs are most often used in the
passive tense (¸,,` - ·):
Translation Example Meaning Word
I was pleased
to meet you.
` .` _ ,`
: ,
to be happy
,,· ` ,`
` _` ,` ,` ·
The one who
disbelieved
was puzzled.
` ¸ . ,` ,
, ¯
to be
puzzled
,` , · . ,` ,
` .` ,` ,` ·
He is
unconscious.
¯ _ ` · · ,` , ·
·, ·
to be
unconscious
_ ·
` , · ·
Rashīd liked
the speech of
. -` · to like . -` ·
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the Bedouin.
` ` , ` ,
´ , · ·
. ` _ , ,` ·
,` , · · ,
` . -` ·` ·
There is no
harm on the
one who is
compelled (to
eat harām).
` , =` . ¸ ·
· · . ,` ` ·
·` , ·
to be
compelled
` , =` .
¸ ,` , · ·` ,
' , =` .` ·
to adore
· , ·, ·
` · ,` ·` · ,` , ·
to adore
· , _ ` ,
` _ ` ,` · ,` , ·

to have a
cold
` _ ¯ , ,,·
· ` , ¯ ` , ` ·

to have a
headache
_ ` .
,` , ·
` _` ,` ` . ·
So and so
was
concerned
with the
_` = , _ ` ·
. ´ ·
to be
concerned
· , _ ` ·
¸ . · ,` , ·
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publishing of
this book.
· · ` ¸, .
¸ .· ·

The verb ( -` ) can be read as ( - ) as well, e.g.
( `, . :` - ) – I made you a friend.

From the verb ( - - ¸ ¸ ), the form of the first
person ( ' ¸ - ) is most often used as ( ¸ ¸ - ), e.g.
( , . ¸ ` , · , : · ¸ - ).

Vocabulary List No. 62

Word Meaning
` · ` , (7) to smile
' _ · (1) to have enmity
¸ · · ' . ¯ ,` · , ' . ` · enemy
. · ' . . · ` _ .` ·`, _ (1) to overlook
' ` -` · . ' ` - · more glorious
-` , , ` _` ,` , _ , to reveal, to disclose
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· , ` , ` , to test, to try
` · , potency
- , _ ` _` ,` ,, _ _
to arrive in the evening, to
leave
` `, . ` · relevant, correct
· . · ¸ chain
·` , to go east, to go
´ , ´ ` , ´` , ¸
·, ´ ,
to complain
_ ´` , _ ´ to complain
` . . , . , to pour
_ . , , to pardon, to forgive
` ¸ . , ¸ ¸ , to be miserly
· _ ~ (3) to assault, to attack
· · . , · ` benefit, gift, award
' ,` · ` ,` ` ·, ·
to come early in the morning,
to go, to leave
·` , · . ` _ , · the finest, the best
.` , · to go west, to go away
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¸ · iron collar
` ` , , stupid, dull-witted
` - - denier
_ , - _ , - to be a neighbour
¸` -, ¸ - to untie, to unravel
` .` , - war
- · ` ·
share (of positive qualities, of
religion)
·` _` · parrot
` · ·` _ sleep
: · , ¸ . ,
to attack suddenly, to
assasinate
_ , · , ¸ , to dispel worries, grief
· ,` , ¯ , ` .` , ¯ worry, sorry, grief, distress
` , ` · peaceable, peace-loving
· _` , .` · picture
` · _ , , ` _ ·
¸ . · · ,
habitation, eg. villa
¸` , , ¸ · to incline
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` ·` · ¸ ·
to turn away, to deviate, to
digress
` ., ´ · realm, kingdom
` ¸` · . , ¸
¸ `
arrow
· . ` . , vicissitudes, ups and downs
` ` - , strong emotion, passion
, · ¸ desire, love
' ¸ _ ` · ¸ , , excusable love, legal desire

Exercise No. 161

(A) Translate the following stanzas of poetry and
note the use of the verbs.

, 1 , .` , ·` · , ¸ ·` ,` · ¸, .` ,` , ·` · ` .,, ··` , ` · ._
, 2 , , ·_, - ¸, .` ` ·` , _ _ ,- , ` ¸·' ` .` _,-
¸_, -
, 3 , ` ¸ ` · ,·, ` ·· · ' . ' . ,` , ·
··_ ` .` , - ` , - .,·. . ¸
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, 4 , ¸ - ·, ' , `, , ` ¸ . . . ' ` ¸ _ ` · ¸ , ·, :`
, 5 , _·' ¸ ·,- _,` , ., _` , ¯ ·· .·. ¸ ` - , ,·
, 6 , ¸··· ¸´ , ·,´· ·,_` · ` ,,` - ¸ .,-¸,
, 7 , ¸ ¸´ , ·,´· · ·` ,, - ¸ .¯, ¸· , ·
, 8 , ,,· ¸ , ¸, , _·
¸ ´` · , ¸` , ¯ ¸· _ - _ -
, 9 , _ ´` ` · ¸` ·, ` : -` .` · ¸, · ` ·` , _` · ` ,¯` _` ,` ·, ··

(B) Translate the following anecdote which
contains some of the (¸··. .-).
_,,' ` ¸·, ´ ¸ ,.· .,` ¸ .` ,~ ¸ . ` .,= · ¸·
· ,.· .,` `, ,` _ , · -,` -` ,` ` ¸,- ¸· ·` . .` ·` . ´ ·
, . .` ·` . · , · ¸· , . ·` , · ·-,-, ` ¸, - ¸·
_,, ¸· ` _` .,,· ¸ · _ ¸ · _ ´` · . · .
··' , · · · _´· ·-,-, ` ¸,- ¸· _` .·` . .
` _,,, ` ··' , .` ¸· . ` ¸,- ¸· ··` , · · .·
·-,-, . · .·` . · _ ´· . ` .·. . ·` , ¸·
· ¸ _,, ¸ . . , · ·-,-, ` ¸,- ¸· · .·. .
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_, ¸· . , -` . ` , ¯·, ¸·- ,´,·, ¸~. ` , ´ ` ,` · ·
, ¸ . ·` _' ¸,, ·,, ·,· . ·` · · ,` , · . ¸ ·_` ,.',
¸ ·` , ·` , · _,=, . . ¸ , , ´ , . , ,` · ¸´ ¸` ,
· _, , . . ·, ¸ ,` , - ¸·, .,= , · . ' ¸· .,
·-,-, ` ¸,- . , ,- .¯ ¸· ,


Some Specialities of Poetry

The following factors which are not permitted in
prose are permitted in verse:

(1) It is permissible to read a tanwīn on a
(,.· _·) word, e.g.
` , ` . .· ` _ · ` .` ` . ' ` , . _ · ` .` ` . , , .` , . ·`,

Sometimes, in order for the words to
correspond, this is permitted in prose as well,
e.g. ( · ¸ ) and ( ¸ · · ') can be read as ( · · )
and ( ' .·· ).

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(2) It is very common to lengthen the fathah,
dammah and kasrah and read them like an
(.), (,,) and (,). The sound of a yaa is made
on the final jazam. Sometimes the sound of a
(,,) is made, e.g.
, ¯ - , ` , ·_ ` . -
-_, ·, ··~ ¸ ·,

, ' ¸ ,=· ¸ ` - ¸ ¸ _
, ' ¸ , · ¯ ¸ ` _ ¸· . . ·
` , ` ·` · .,, · ,· ` .` ,
· ` , ·· ' ¸ ¸ ¸` , ' ¸ ¸` ,

, · · ¸ ` .,'_ ¸ ¸· ` ·· ` ¸ · _
` , · · ` ¸` ` ·` · · ¸· ` ·· . ¸·,

In these verses, ( _ ,) has been read as ( - ,),
( _ _) as ( - _) and ( ¸) as ( ¸` ) in order that
these words rhyme.

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(3) Sometimes a kasrah is read at the end of a
verb for the sake of rhyming, e.g.
` , ` , . , ` · ·· - . ¸ ¸` - , .
¯ ` ¸ ´ · ' ` , :` ¸ , ` , , ` _ `


Here the word ( ¸ , ` , ) is read as ( ¸ , ` , ).

(4) The sound of a (,,) is read at the end of the
particles (` ,` ·), (` , ¯) and (` ,` ` ). They are read as
(` ,` ·), (` , ¯) and (` ,` ` ), e.g.
` ,' ,· _· ¸· ` ,´,· ` ··
` ,` ` ` - · ` ¸·,,` · ` ,¯' ` ,· ·'

(5) The hamzah of ( ¸ . ), ( ' . ) and ( ¸ . ) is deleted
in pronunciation, e.g.
, · · ·,· . ´ ·` · . _ · ·` ` , ¸ ¸ _` ' :,
, : - ` - · . .· - , ` _ ` ·· :

In order to fit the scale of the poetry, ( ` , · ' . ) is
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read as ( . , ·) and ( , ¸ . ) is read as ( . ,).
(6) It is also permitted in Arabic poetry at the time
of necessity to divide the final word of the first
stanza into two parts. The first part remains in the
first stanza, while the second part of the word
forms the beginning of the second stanza, e.g.

·, ¯ , ¸` -, ` ¸ · , ¸` , .,` ·
-, ., ´ ' ¸ .', · · _· .,·, .'
~ ' ` ¸ ,` · .' -- ¸´ ¸ , : ·
· ' ¸ ·` , _· ·, . · ` `, := ' _ - ·
· _=` · _` · . · , ,` ,` - ·,` · . ¸
, · ¸- · ` ¸ · , _ ,` , ¯ :` , - , ` _` , · ·
, .` ' . ' · ', ¸` , ', ,.......` ,'
` ·` . _ · , .......,,· - , · ` .`
·,., . _·. ¸· ` ......` , ' · _ ~_ ` ¸ ¯
-·. _ ,` · · ¯, ¸......` _· · ·` . ` ,

With the help of Allāh and His divinely-given
ability, the fourth volume of Arabic Tutor has
been completed. All praises are due to Allah .
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May He accept it from me and grant benefit to the
students by means of it.

¸,, .¯ ¸· _,, .,- , ·,·,, ¸· = .,·,
.,· . ¸ .·.
· .´ ,, - ·
¸= ·, _, ¸` · = ·
¸'· ._ = - .' ,·· ,-¯,

The End.

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