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IPM DPT

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Drill String and BHA Design

DPT Drill String and BHA design

References
API RP 7G Drill Stem Design and Op Limits API SPEC 7 Specifications for Rotary Drilling Elements API SPEC 5D Specifications for Drill Pipe SLB Drill String Design manual TH Hill DS-1 Drill String Design

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Objectives
At the end of this lecture YOU will be able to describe: Functions of Drill Pipe , Drill Collars and BHA selection Grades of Drill Pipe and strength properties Thread types and tool-joints Drill collar weight and neutral point Bending Stress Ratios and Stiffness Ratios Margin Of Overpull Basic design calculations based on depth to be drilled. Functions of stabilizers and roller reamers.

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Agenda
I. II. Introduction to Drill String Design: Overview Drill String Components Drill Collars - Drill Pipe - HWDP Bottom Hole Assembly Design Drill Pipe Selection Buckling and max WOB
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III. Drill String Design

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Functions of the Drill String


The drill string is the mechanical linkage connecting the drill bit on bottom to the rotary drive system on the surface.
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The drillstring serves the three main following functions : 1. Transmit and support axial loads - WOB 2. Transmit and support torsional loads - rpm 3. Transmit hydraulics to clean the hole and cool the bit.
DC D P

WOB

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill String Components


The Drill String includes all tubular equipment between the Kelly Swivel and the bit

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Kelly
Surface Safety Valves Drill Pipe Heavy Walled Drill Pipe Drill Collar Jars Shock Subs Bumper Subs Junk Baskets Accelerators etc
DPT Drill String and BHA design

The Kelly/Top Drive


Strictly speaking, Kelly/ Topdrive are not components of the drill string; however, they provide the essential requirements for drilling a well: 1) Transmit rotation to the drillstring. 2) Provide access to the drilling fluid into the drillstring. 3) Support the weight of the string.

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

The Kelly
The Kelly is the rotating link between the rotary table and the drill string. Transmits rotation and weight-on-bit to the drillbit Supports the weight of the drillstring Connects to the swivel and allow circulation thru pipe.

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The Kelly comes in lengths ranging from 40 to 54 ft with cross sections such as hexagonal (most common), square or triangular. Connected to a Kelly Saver Sub
DPT Drill String and BHA design

Kelly Cock
The Kelly is usually provided with two safety valves, one at the top and one at the bottom, called Kelly cock. The Kelly cock is used to close the inside of the drillstring in the event of a kick. The upper & lower Kelly cocks operate manually. IBOP / DPSV are not run in the drill string but kept handy on the rig floor

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Top Drive
The top drive is basically a combined rotary table and kelly. It is powered by a separate motor and transmits rotation to the drill string directly without the need for a rotary table.
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Advantages over the kelly system:


1. Efficient reaming and back reaming. 2. Circulating while running in stands hole or pulling out of hole in

3. The kelly system can only do this in singles; ie 30 ft.

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Stabilizers

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Stabilizers
Reasons for Using Stabilizers: 1. They are used as a fundamental method of controlling the directional behavior of most BHAs. 2. Help concentrate the weight of the BHA on the bit. 3. Minimize bending and vibrations which cause tool joint wear and damage to BHA components such as MWDs. 4. Reduce drilling torque by preventing collar contact with the side of the hole and by keeping them concentric in the hole. (FG!!) 5. Help preventing differential sticking and key seating.

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Roller Reamers

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Drill Pipe

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Pipe
Function
To serve as a conduit or conductor for drilling fluid To transmit the rotation from surface to the bit on bottom
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Components
A pierced, seamless tube of forged steel or extruded Aluminum Tool joints attached to each end of the seamless tube

Tool Joints
Provide connections for the drill string Separate pieces of metal welded to the seamless tube Thick enough to have pin or box cut into them

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Pipe Classification


1. Size 2. Length 3. Grade 2 3/8 to 6 5/8 refers to OD of pipe body Range 1 18 to 22 ft, Range 2 27 to 30ft, Range 3 38 to 45 ft
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E - 75, X 95, G 105, S 135 the numbers denote 1000s of psi minimum yield strength Depending upon the size of pipe different weight ranges API classification for used pipe

4. Weight 5. Class

For example a drill pipe could be - 5, Range 2, G-105, 19.5ppf, New


DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Pipe Grades


There are four grades of pipe commonly used today.

Grade
E or E-75 X or X-95 G or G-105 S or S-135

Min Yield
75,000 95,000 105,000 135,000

Avg / MaxYield
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85,000 / 105,000 110,000 / 125,000 120,000 / 135,000 145,000 / 165,000

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Mechanical Properties of Steel


Young Modulus E = Stress divided by Strain = 30,000,000
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Stress & Strength Stress = Strength divided by Cross Section Area

Strain & stretch Strain = Stretch divided by original length

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Mechanical Properties of Steel


Elastic Limit Limit of stress beyond which, when the stress is removed, the steel will have acquired a permanent stretch.
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Minimum Yield Stress The stress which gives a stretch of 0.5% (0.005). When the stress is removed, the steel will have acquired 0.2% of permanent deformation. Ultimate Tensile Stress The stress which will break the steel

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Exercise DP-00

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Used Drill Pipe Classification


Unlike casing and tubing, which are normally run new, drill pipe is normally used in a worn condition. It therefore has Classes:
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New: Premium: Class 2: Class 3:

No wear, has never been used Remaining wall not less than 80%. Remaining wall not less than 70%. Remaining wall less than 70%.

Other details such as, dents and mashing, slip area mechanical damage, stress induced diameter variations, corrosion cuts and gouges, specified on Table 24 ( Classification of Used Drill Pipe ) of API RP 7G.
DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drillpipe Upsets
Where the pipe joins the tooljoint, the pipe wall thickness is increased or upset. This increased thickness is used to decrease the frequency of pipe failure at the point where the pipe meets the tool-joint. The drill-pipe can have Internal upsets (IU), ( OD stays the same ) External upsets (EU), ( ID stays the same ) Internal and External Upsets (IEU).
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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Pipe Weights


When referring to Drill Pipe Weights, there are four important ones: Plain end Weight Refers to the weight per foot of the pipe body.
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Nominal Weight - Refers to an obsolete standard. ( Weight of Range I pipe with connections ) Is used today to refer a class of Drill pipe. Adjusted Weight Refers to the weight per foot of pipe including the upset but excluding the tool joint based on a length of 29.4 ft Approximate Weight The average weight per foot of pipe and tool joints of Range II pipe. This approximate weight is the number to use in Design calculations.
DPT Drill String and BHA design

Calculating Approximate Weights


Wt/ft = approx. adj. wt.DP 29.4 + approx. wt. tool jt 29.4 + tool jt adjusted length

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Wt/ft =

Wt DP Adjusted 29.4 + Wt ToolJt Approx 29.4 +L ToolJtAdj

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Calculating Approximate Weights


Wt DP Adj Nom upset Wt =Tube Wt + 29 .4
.(1)
Data from Table 7API 5D
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Wt Tool Jt Adj = 0 .222 L D 2 d 2 + 0 .167 D 3 D 3TE 0 .501d (D DTE )


2

)
.(2)

L= combined length of pin and box (in) d= inside diameter of pin (in) Data from Spec 7 Fig 6 Table 7

D= outside diameter of pin (in)

DTE= diameter of box at elevator upset (in)

LTool Jt Adj =

L + 2 .253(D DTE ) ft 12

.(3)
Datat from Spec 7 Fig 6 Table 7

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Exercise DP-01
Calculate the approximate weight of tool joint and drillpipe assembly for 5 in OD, 19.5 lb/ft Drill Pipe having NC50 tool joints with 6.625 in OD, 2.75 in ID and being internallyexternally upset. ( IEU ). Compare the value against the one published on Table 9 of API RP7G.

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Tables 7API 5D and Table 7 of the Specification can be found in handout # 1 of tables. Table 9 of API RP7G can be found on handout # 2 of tables.
DPT Drill String and BHA design

DP Data from Table 7 Spec 5d

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DP Data from Table 7 Spec 7

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API RP 7G
Table 1-3 New Pipe Data Table 4-5 Premium Pipe Data
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Table 6-7 Class Two Pipe Data Table 8-9 Tool-joint Data Table 10 Make-up Torque Data Table 12 Connection interchangeability Table 24 Classification of used DP

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Tool Joints
All API tool joints have a minimum yield strength of 120,000 psi regardless of the grade of the drill pipe they are used on (E, X, G, S) . API sets tool joint torsional strength at minimum 80% of the tube torsional strength. Make up torque is determined by pin ID or box OD. The make up torque is 60% of the tool joint torsional capacity. The equation for determining make up can be obtained from the appendix of API RPG7. ( Numeral A.8.2 ). This equation is rather complex, so the API developed a series of charts to find the recommended make up torque to any connection given the tool jt OD of box and ID of pin. These charts can be found in API RP 7G ( Figures 1 to 25 )
DPT Drill String and BHA design
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Exercise DP02
Using some tables (?) and some figures (?) of API RP7G what should be the make up torque of NEW 19.5 ppf G105 and S135 drill pipe ?
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How do these values compare to the ones reported on Table 10 ?

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Make-Up Torque Charts

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Drillstring Connections
The most common thread style in drillpipe is NC The thread has a V-shaped form and is identified by the pitch diameter, measured at a point 5/8 inches from the shoulder
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Connection Number is Pitch dia*10 truncated to two digits


The size of a rotary shouldered connection is fixed by its gauge point pitch diameter.

5/8 GAUGE POINT PITCH DIAMETER

If the pitch diameter is 5.0417 in This is an NC50 connection Multiply 5.0417 by 10 50.417 Choose first two digits 50 Hence NC 50

DPT Drill String and BHA design

NC Drillstring Connections
There are 17 NCs in use : NC-10 (1 1/16) through NC-77 (7 3/4) Typical sizes: NC 50 for tool joints with 6 1/2 OD for 5 pipe and NC 38 for 4 3/4 tool joints and 3 1/2 pipe. Seal is provided by shoulder not threads. A clearance exists between the crest of one thread and the root of the mating thread Use of Lead based dope vs Copper based dope for DCs. Not for sealing but for lubrication, to help make-up and prevent galling

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Connection Interchangeability
NC 26 NC 31 NC 38 NC 40 NC46 3-1/2 4 2-7/8 3-1/2 3-1/2 3-1/2 4 4-1/2 4-1/2 4-1/2 4-1/2 5 5-1/2 4 NC50 4-1/2
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Int Flush Full Hole Extra Hole


Dbl Streamline

IF FH XH
DSL

2-3/8

2-7/8

Slim Hole SH 2-7/8 Ext Flush EF

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Collars

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Collars
Description They are heavy walled metal tubes The ends are threaded (box and pin) Functions To put weight on bit (WOB) To keep the drill string from buckling Types Comes in many OD and ID sizes Typically 4 to 9 OD Most commonly in lengths of 30-31 feet Square collars where the holes tend to be crooked Spiral collars where there is chance of getting stuck Collars with elevator and slip recesses
DPT Drill String and BHA design
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More functions of Drill Collars


1. Protect the Drill string from Bending and Torsion 2. Control direction and inclination of wells
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3. Drill straighter holes or vertical holes 4. Provide Pendulum effect 5. Reduce dog legs, key seats and ledges 6. Improve the probabilities of getting casing in the hole. 7. Increase bit performance 8. Reduce rough drilling, sticking and jumping 9. As a tool in fishing, testing, completing
DPT Drill String and BHA design

More Types of Drill Collars


Slick Drill Collar Spiral Drill Collar 1. Both slick and spiral drill collars are used . 2. In areas where differential sticking is a possibility spiral drill collars and spiral HWDP should be used in order to minimize contact area with the formation.

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Drill Collars Strapping


length OD elevator Fish neck recess slip recess
TRG 1 28-Jul-03 IDPT 1 26" Bit # Sl # Type Manuf Jets 1 1234 atm 234 Hughes 20-20-20

connection

I D

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Well# Date: Rig: BHA#: Hole Size

Item Bit Bit Sub 9 1/2" Drill Collar Stab 9 1/2" Drill Collar 9 1/2" Drill Collar 9 1/2" Drill Collar

Sl # 1234 SL 235 9546 237689 9503 9521 9520

ID 3 1/8" 3 1/8" 3 1/8" 3 1/8" 3 1/8" 3 1/8"

OD 26" 9 1/2" 9 1/2" 9 1/2" 9 1/2" 9 1/2" 9 1/2"

FN

Pin 7 5/8" R 7 5/8" 7 5/8" 7 5/8" 7 5/8" 7 5/8" R R R R R

Box 7 5/8 R 7 5/8 R 7 5/8 R 7 5/8 R 7 5/8 R 7 5/8 R

0.67 0.93 0.78 0.95 1.03

Length 0.75 1.01 8.96 2.36 9.01 9.04 8.99

Remarks New

DPT Drill String and BHA design

API Drill Collar Sizes


OD 2 7/8 3 3 1/8 3 1/4 3 1/2 3 3/4 4 4 1/8 4 1/4 4 1/2 4 3/4 5 5 1/4 5 1/2 5 3/4 6 ID Range 1 - 1.5 1 - 1.5 1 - 1.5 1 - 1.5 1 - 1.5 1 - 1.5 1 - 2.25 1 - 2.25 1 - 2.25 1 - 2.25 1.5 - 2.5 1.5 - 2.5 1.5 - 2.5 1.5 - 2.8125 1.5 - 3.25 1.5 - 3.25 Weight Range ppf 16 - 19 18 - 21 20 - 22 22 - 26 27 - 30 32 - 35 29 - 40 32 - 43 35 - 46 41 - 51 44 - 54 50 - 61 57 - 68 60 - 75 60 - 82 68 - 90 OD 6 1/4 6 1/2 6 3/4 7 7 1/4 7.5 7.75 8 8 1/4 8 1/2 9 9 1/2 9 3/4 10 11 12 ID Range 1.5 - 3.5 1.5 - 3.5 1.5 - 3.5 1.5 - 4 1.5 - 4 1.5 - 4 1.5 - 4 1.5 - 4 1.5 - 4 1.5 - 4 1.5 - 4 1.5 - 4 1.5 - 4 1.5 - 4 1.5 - 4 1.5 - 4 Weight Range ppf 72 - 98 80 - 107 89 - 116 84 - 125 93 - 134 102 - 144 112 - 154 122 - 165 133 - 176 150 - 187 174 - 210 198 - 234 211 - 248 225 - 261 281 - 317 342 - 379

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Drill Collar Connections


Characteristics DC connections are rotary shouldered connections and can mate the various DP connections
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The shoulder provide the only positive seal against fluid leakage The lubricant is Copper based dope The connection is the weakest part of the entire BHA The DC connections go through cycles of tension-compression and are subject to bending stresses Improper M/U torque, improper or insufficient lubricant, galling can all lead to connection failure
DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Collar Connections


Stress Relief Features Stresses in DC connections are concentrated at the base of the pin and in the bottom of the box (stronger)
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DP body bends easily and takes up the majority of the applied bending stress, DP connections are therefore subjected to less bending than the DP body. DCs and other BHA components are however much stiffer than the DPs and much of the bending stresses are transferred to the connections. These bending stresses can cause fatigue failure at the connections Stress Relief Groove / Bore Back
DPT Drill String and BHA design

Stress Relief Pin Feature

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Stress Relief Pin & Box Features

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Collar Connections


The stress relief groove is to mitigate the fatigue cracks where the face and threads would have otherwise joined The Bore Back serves the same purpose at the bottom of the box Stress relief features should be specified on all BHA connections NC-38 or larger. Pin stress relief grooves are not recommended on connections smaller than NC-38 because they may weaken the connections tensile and torsional strength. Bore Back boxes could be used on smaller connections. The Low-Torque face is to increase the compressive stress at normal M/U torque above that of a regular face
DPT Drill String and BHA design

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Lo-Torq Feature
The low torque feature consists in removing part of the shoulder area of the pin and box. This allows for lower make up torque maintaining adequate shoulder loading. It is a common feature in large OD connections.

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Torsion limits for DC


Torque is rarely limited by the DC connection because it is usually higher in the DP at surface and lower in the DC.
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If DC make-up torque >Dp make-up torque you have no routine problems. BH Torque at any point should not exceed 80% of makeup torque for the connections in the hole to avoid over tightening connections which can lead to damage of seals.

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Torque Limits for DC


API recommended makeup torque for connections is a percentage of the total torsional yield of the connection M/U Torque as % of total torque PAC H-90 API NC DC< 7 in DC>7 in 79.5% N/a 51.1% 56.2% 56.8% 62.5%

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Make Up Torque Tables for DCs

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Heavy Weight Drill Pipe

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Heavy Weight Drill Pipe


Design Heavier wall and longer tool joints Center wall pad Also available in spiral design Function Used in transition zones between DC and DP This prevents the DP from buckling Can be used in compression (?) Used for directional drilling Used in place of DC sometimes (?) To keep Drill Pipe in tension Not to be used for Weight on Bit in normal circumstances
DPT Drill String and BHA design

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Heavy Weight Drill Pipe


Characteristics Has the same OD as a standard drill pipe but with much reduced inside diameter (usually 3 for 5 DP) and has an integral wear pad upset in the middle. It is used between standard Drill Pipe and Drill Collars to provide a smooth transition between the different sections of the drillstring components. Tool-Joint and Rotary shouldered connection just like DP HWDP, although stiffer than DP, can also buckle
DPT Drill String and BHA design

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Heavy Weight Drill Pipe


HWDP in Compression? HWDP can be run both in tension and in compression BUT!!! Manufacturers recommend not to run HWDP in compression in hole sizes larger than 12 Experience shows that they should not be run in compression in Vertical Holes If run in compression, rules of thumb are: TJOD + 6 > OH diameter 2 x TJOD > OH diameter
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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Agenda
I. II. Introduction to Drill String Design: Overview Drill String Components Drill Collars - Drill Pipe - HWDP Bottom Hole Assembly Selection Drill Pipe Selection Buckling and max WOB
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III. Drill String Design

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Collar Selection Principles


Drill Collar selection is governed by two major factors: Weight and Stiffness --- Size! Usually the largest OD collar that can be safely run is the best selection
More weight available for WOB Greatest stiffness to resist buckling and smooth directional tendencies Cyclical movement is restricted due to tighter Clearances
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Usually Shortest BHA possible to


Reduce handling time at surface Minimize # of Connections in the hole Minimize total DC in contact with the wall for differential sticking exposure

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Weight
BHA Weight must be sufficient for the planned WOB BHA Weight must be sufficient to account for Buoyancy BHA Weight must be sufficient to account for hole inclination BHA Weight must be sufficient so that the neutral point of axial loads is within the BHA with a safety factor of 15%

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

BHA Design
Drill Collar Weight & Neutral Point
DF for excess BHA=1.15
Tension
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Neutral point Compression

Max Available Wt = 1.15 Max Working Wt


Neutral Point (NP) to tension should be in drill collars

Design WOB

WOB

DPT Drill String and BHA design

BHA Design
Procedure For Selecting Drill Collars:
1. Determine the buoyancy factor for the mud weight in use using
the formula below:
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BF = 1- (MW/65.5)
where BF =Buoyancy Factor, dimensionless MW =Mud weight in use, ppg 65.5 =Weight of a gallon of steel, ppg

DPT Drill String and BHA design

BHA Design
2. Calculate the required collar length to achieve the desired weight on bit: DC Length = 1.15* WOB / (BF*Wdc) where: WOB=Desired weight on bit , lbf (x 1000) BF =Buoyancy Factor, dimensionless W dc =Drill collar weight in air, lb/ft 1.15 =15% safety factor. The 15% safety factor ensures that the neutral point remains within the collars when unforeseen forces (bounce, minor deviation and hole friction) are present.
DPT Drill String and BHA design
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BHA Design
3. For directional wells:
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DC Length = DC Length Vertical / Cos I

where: I= Well inclination Note that for horizontal wells drill collars are not normally used and BHA selection is based entirely on the prevention of buckling

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Exercise DP-03
Number And Size Of Drill Collars
Determine the number of 9 inch OD by 3 in ID drill collars required to provide a weight-on-bit of 55,000 lbf assuming Hole deviation = 0 Mud density = 12 ppg

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Stiffness
The BHA must have sufficient Stiffness to stabilize the BHA, optimize ROP and prevent the formation of Key Seats, ledges and doglegs The larger the DC, the stiffer the BHA Stiffness Coefficient :
= Moment of Inertia x Youngs Modulus of Elasticity = (OD4 ID4) / 64 x 30.000.000

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Exercise DP-04

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Bending Strength Ratio


BSR is the relative stiffness of the box to the pin of a given connection. Describes the Balance between two members of a connection and how they are likely to behave in a rotational cyclical environment

(D4 b4 )
Z box 32 D BSR = = 4 4 Z pin ( R d ) R 32 (D4 b4 ) Z box BSR = = 4D 4 Z pin ( R d ) R
Where: Zbox = box section modulus Zpin = pin section modulus D = Outside diameter of pin and box b = thread root diameter of box threads at . end of pin. R = Thread root diameter of pin threads . of an inch from shoulder of pin. . d= inside diameter or bore.

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Section Modulus for Connections

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

BSR in DC Connections
A Connection is said to be balanced if the BSR is 2.5 When BSR is higher tend to see pin failures When BSR is lower tend to see more box failures However, field experience has shown that: 8 Dc having BSRs of 2.5 usually fail in the box 4-3/4 DC having BSR as low as 1.8 very rarely fail in the box.

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

BSR in Connections

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This table is from T.H. Hill & Associates Inc. Standard DS-1.

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Additional BSR Guidelines


High RPM, Soft Formation Small DC (8 in in 12.25 hole or 6 in in 8.25 hole) 2.25-2.75
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Low RPM Hard Formations Large DC (10 in in 12-1/4 hole 2.5-3.2 (3.4 if using lo-torq connection) Abrasive formations 2.5-3.0 New DCs 2.75 more wear resistant

DPT Drill String and BHA design

API BSR Charts


Fortunately for you API have worked the problem!!! Pages 39-44 of Spec 7G list the BSR of Connections by OD and ID of the collar

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

T.H.Hill BSR Tables

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Stiffness Ratio
The SR measures the stiffness of a connection in a transition between 2 types of pipe Based on field experience, in a transition from one collar or pipe to another the SR should not exceed 5.5 for routine drilling 3.5 for severe or rough drilling

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Z lwr SR = = 4 4 Z upr ODlwr ODupr IDupr

4 4 ODupr ODlwr IDlwr

( (

) )

Note: Stiffness ratios are calculated using tube ODs & IDs, not connections.
DPT Drill String and BHA design

BHA Design Process


Design the Collars
Max OD DC which can be handled, fished and drilled with Excess BHA wt WOB Buoyancy Safety factor Connection Selection BSR SR Torque capability Stabilization and other directional requirements

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Exercise DP-05
On Seeyoulater land rig we find the following collars: 9 OD x 3 ID 6 5/8 FH connection 8 OD x 3 ID 6 5/8 REG connection 6 OD x 2 ID NC46 connection
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Given that we will drill a vertical 12 hole, with 9.5 ppg mud and 65000 pounds in a relatively hard formations, what API collar would you recommend? What would your recommendation on BSR be for the connection chosen? Check your recommended DCs with your recommended BSR What would be the SR between the DC and 5 DP be? Is it acceptable? If not what would you do? What would be your final BHA? Length? Buoyed Weight?

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Agenda
I. II. Introduction to Drill String Design: Overview Drill String Components Drill Collars - Drill Pipe - HWDP Bottom Hole Assembly Selection Drill Pipe Selection Buckling and max WOB
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III. Drill String Design

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Pipe Selection Principles


Drill Pipe selection is governed by two major factors: Size+Weight and Strength Usually the Drill Pipe with largest OD and ID is preferred
Less pressure loss in the string More hydraulics available at the bit
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The Drill Pipe selection must address the following:


Drill Pipe must allow to drill to TD Drill Pipe must support all weight below it (BHA+DP) Drill Pipe must provide Overpull capacity Drill Pipe must withstand slip crushing force Drill Pipe must resist burst and collapse loads Drill Pipe might have to work in H2S environment
DPT Drill String and BHA design

Axial Loads
P Tension Design The greatest tension (working load Pw) on the drillstring occurs at the top joint at the maximum drilled depth
Working Strength

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Drillpipe

Ldp

Drillcollars

Ldc

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Pipe Selection Parameters


Tension Design
Total weight, Tsurf, carried by the top joint of drillpipe when the drill bit is just off bottom ;

P
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Tsurf = (Ldp W dp + Ldc W dc ) BF


Ldp = length of Drill Pipe Wdp = weight of Drill Pipe per unit length Ldc = weight of Drill Collars Wdc = weight of Drill Collars per unit length

.(1)
Drillpipe

Ld
p

Drillcollars Ldc

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Pipe Selection Parameters


Tension Design
The drillstring is not designed according to the minimum yield strength!!! If Drill Pipe reaches yield: Drill Pipe can have permanent deformation.
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To prevent deformation damage to drillpipe, API recommends the use of maximum allowable design load ( Pa) Tmax = 0.9 x Tyield .(2) Tmax = Max. allowable design load in tension , lb Tyield = theoretical yield strength from API tables , lb 0.9 = a constant relating proportional limit to yield strength IPM Defines a tension Design factor of 1.1 be applied to design loads. These accomplish the same thing. Do not double dip!
DPT Drill String and BHA design

Margin of Overpull
Margin of overpull is nominally 50-100k, or in the limit of the difference between the maximum allowable load less the actual load Choice of MOP should consider Overall drilling conditions Hole drag Likelihood of getting stuck Slip crushing Dynamic loading
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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Pipe Selection Parameters


Margin of Overpull
1. Determine max design load (Tmax) : (maximum load that drillstring should be designed for) Tmax = 0.9 x Minimum Yield Strength lb Class of pipe must be considered

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Pipe Selection Parameters


Margin of Overpull
2. Calculate total load at surface using

Tsurf = (Ldp W dp + Ldc W dc ) BF

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.(1)

3. Margin Of Overpull : Minimum tension force above expected working load to account for any drag or stuck pipe.

MOP = Tmax - Tsurf

.(3)

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Pipe Selection Parameters


Margin of Overpull
4. The maximum length of Drill Pipe that can be used is obtained by combining equations 1 and 3 and solving for the length of Drill Pipe

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Ldp =

T yield 0 .9 MOP W dp BF

W dc Ldc .(4) W dp

DPT Drill String and BHA design

THINK OF STUCK PIPE!!!


When the Drill String is stuck, (and it most certainly is if there is Overpull !) the buoyancy is lost!
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Ldp =

T yield 0 .9 MOP W dp BF

W dc Ldc W dp .(4)

When the Drill String is stuck, (and it most certainly is if there is Overpull !) the buoyancy is lost!

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Exercise DP-06
Drill Collars length : 600 and weight in air is 150 lb/ft. MOP = 100,000 lbs. 5 / 19.5 lb/ft Premium G-105 DP with NC50 connections. Calculate the maximum hole depth that can be drilled ? Assume BF= 0.85 Carry out calculations without MOP and with MOP of 100,000 lb Use API - RP7G Tables for the values of Approximate Weight (Wdp) and for Minimum Yield Strength

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Slip Crushing Force


Slips because of the taper try to crush the Drill Pipe. This hoop stress is resisted by the tube, and this increases the overall stress in the steel
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Hoop Stress S h DK DK = 1+ + Tensile Stress St 2 Ls 2 Ls D = Pipe OD (in) ; Ls = Slip length (in )

K = 1 / tan( y + z ) ; y = Slip Taper (9 27 ' 45'' )

z = ArcTan( ) ; = coeff Friction (0.08 for dope )

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Slip Crushing Force


Generally expressed as a Factor

Hoop Stress Working load * = Equivalent Axial Load Tensile Stress

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PLoad

Sh = PAxial St

Horz to Tang Stress Ratio DP SLIP LENGTH TUBE 12 in 16 in


2 3/8 2 7/8 3 1/2 4 4 1/2 5 5 1/2 6 5/8 1.25 1.31 1.39 1.45 1.52 1.59 1.66 1.82 1.18 1.22 1.28 1.32 1.37 1.42 1.47 1.59

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill Pipe Selection Parameters


You can only drill as far as you can set pipe in the slips. Different than overpull, this is based on working loads
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L dp

T yield 0 . 9 Sh W dc ST = L dc W dp BF W dp

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Exercise DP-07
A drill string consists of 600 ft of 8 in x 2 13/16 in drill collars and the rest is a 5 in, 19.5 lbm/ft Grade X95 drill pipe with NC50 connections. If the required MOP is 100,000 lb and mud weight is 10 ppg, calculate:
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1) The maximum depth of hole that can be drilled when using (a) new and (b) Premium Drill Pipe. (MOP only) 2) What is the maximum depth that can be drilled taking into consideration slip crushing force for (a) and (b) above? To what hook-load does this correspond? What is the MOP in this case?

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Mixed String Design


Step 1 If we use different drill pipe, the weaker pipe goes on bottom and stronger on top Apply equation to bottom drill pipe first
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Ldp

Pt 0 .9 MOP W dc = Ldc W dp W dp

Step 2 Drill collars and bottom drillpipe act as the weight carried by top sectioneffectively the drill collar Apply the equation for top drill pipe last
DPT Drill String and BHA design

Exercise DP - 09 Mixed Drill Pipe


An exploration rig has the following grades of DP to be run in a 15,000 ft deep well : Grade E : New 5 OD 19.5 # NC 50 Grade G : New 5 OD 19.5# NC 50
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It is desired to have an MOP of 50000 lbs on the grade E pipe. The total length and weight of DCs plus HWDP are 984 ft and 101,000 lb respectively. MW at 15,000 = 13.4 ppg. Calculate : 1. 2. 3. 4. Max. length of E pipe that can be used. Length of G pipe to use. MOP for the G and E pipe. Max weight on slips for the G and E pipe.

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Other Loads
Collapse under Tension Burst Other loads not covered here
Shock Loads Bending Loads Buckling Loads Torsion Torsion with Simultaneous Tension

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Biaxial Collapse
The DP will collapse if: External Pressure Load > Collapse pressure rating A Design factor of 1.15 is used: External Pressure Load < Collapse rating / 1.15 When the string is in tension, the Collapse rating is further de-rated:

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PBiaxial Collapse PNonimal Collapse

= K <1

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Biaxial Collapse
Collapse load is worst when For dry test work where pipe is run in empty

PBiaxial Collapse PNo min al Collapse

4 3Z 2 Z = 2

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Load Z= 2 2 0.7854(OD ID ) * Yp Average


Note the use of the Average Yield Point not minimum

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Biaxial Collapse
For nominal Collapse Use D/t and correct formula Spec 7G Appendix A 3 Use the results found in Table 3-6 RP-7G For OD and ID, use Table 1 RP-7G For Avg Yp Use Table in section 12.8 RP 7G Grade E X G S YpAvg 85,000 110,000 120,000 145,000
DPT Drill String and BHA design

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Exercise DP-10
We are going to dry test a liner lap at 9,000 ft. We will run in with a packer set in tension with 50,000 lb. We will run the packer in on 5 in 19.5 #/ft Grade E premium grade DP. At the time of the test there will be nothing inside the drill pipe. The annulus will have 12.0 ppg mud. What is the collapse load on the bottom joint of DP? New 5 Gr E 5 OD, 4.276 ID, Avg Yp= 85,000 psi

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

DP-10
Premium has 80% wall remaining Wall will be 0.8*(5-4.276)/2=0.2896 ID will be 4.276 OD will be 4.276+2*0.2896 =4.855

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Load Z= 2 2 0.7854(OD ID ) * Yp Average 50,000 Z= 2 2 0.7854(4.855 4.276 ) * 85,000 Z = 0.1417


DPT Drill String and BHA design

DP -10
PBiaxial Collapse PNo min al Collapse 4 3Z 2 Z = 2
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4 3 * 0.14167 0.14167 = 2 PBiaxial Collapse = 0.922 PNo min al Collapse


2

Nominal Collapse is 7,041 Biaxial reduced collapse is 6,489


DPT Drill String and BHA design

DP-10
Collapse load is 9,000*0.052*12= 5616 psi Design load is 5616*1.15= 6,458 Derated collapse is 6489, so we are ok Collapse design factor is 6489/5616=1.16

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IPM Specified Collapse design factor is 1.1-1.15

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Burst
Barlows formula applies

PBurst

2 * Yp * t = D

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Results are found in Spec 7G Table 3,5 & 7 Burst will occur if internal pressure load > burst rating

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Exercise DP11 - Burst Load Case


Worst load case happens during DST operations in a gas well. Pressure at surface is BHP- gas gradient with no backup In the last example assume we are performing a DST test in the well at 9000 ft with BHP 200 psi less than the mud wt. What is the burst DF on the top of the Premium Grade E

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

DP-11
From last Example 5 19.5# E Premium
OD=5, Wall = 0.2896 Yp= 75,000

Burst = 8688 psi BHP= 12*0.052*9,000-200=5,416 psi P Surf= 5416-900=4516 psi Design factor = 8688/4516=1.92

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill String Design Process-2


After the BHA Design is performed: Slip Crushing forces on DP Overpull tensile design at surface Lengths of DP Sections Burst Design Check Collapse under tension Design check

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill String Design Factors


Tension DFt Governs Max allowable tension on the system SLB DFt is 1.1
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Margin of OverPull MOP Desired excess tensile capacity over an above the hanging weight of the string at Surface. SLB MOP 50-100K Excess BHA Wt Dfbha Amount of BHA in terms of Wt in excess of that used to drill to assure all Compressive and torsional loads are kept in the Collars, SLB Dfbha is 1.15

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill String Design Factors


Torsion No Design Factor Required. Tool Joints are made up to 60% of Torsional Capacity, and Tool joints are designed to 80% of the tube Torsion Capacity. Thus if the design limits to tool joint make-up there is an adequate design factor built into the system Collapse DFc Tube is de-rated to account for Biaxial Tensile reduction and a design factor of is used SLB DFc is 1.1-1.15

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drill String Design Factors


Burst DFb Simple burst is used with no allowance for axial effects SLB DFB is 1.0
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Buckling DFB In Highly deviated wells it is possible to use DP in compression, provided it is not buckled.

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Agenda
I. II. Introduction to Drill String Design: Overview Drill String Components Drill Collars - Drill Pipe - HWDP Bottom Hole Assembly Selection Drill Pipe Selection Buckling and max WOB
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III. Drill String Design

DPT Drill String and BHA design

Buoyancy
Buoyancy is the weight of the displaced fluid Buoyancy is usually accounted for via BF
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Buoyancy is creating a hydrostatic effect: the Pressure-Area Force The forces acting on a drillstring are the self-weight and the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid Buoyancy is creating a force acting at the bottom of the drill string and placing the lower portion of the drill string in compression and reducing the hook load by HP x CSA
DPT Drill String and BHA design

DP12 - Buoyancy
We are running open ended DCs 9 x 3 192ppf The fluid in the well is 14 ppg The depth is 10000 ft What is the hook load with BF? What is the hook load with Pressure Area Force?

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Bending & Buckling


A tube subjected to a load will bend Bent is a condition in which the bending increases proportionally with load When a little increase in load will result in large displacements, the tube is said to be buckling The tube may not necessarily be yielded as buckling does not necessarily occurs plastically The load which produces buckling is called the Critical Buckling Load
DPT Drill String and BHA design

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Neutral Points
Neutral Point of Tension & Compression: The point within a tube where the sum of the axial forces are equal to zero
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Neutral Point of Bending:

The point within a tube where the sum of moments are equal to zero The point within a tube where the average of the radial and tangential stress in the tube equals the axial stress The point within a tube where the buoyed weight of the tube hanging below that point is equal to an applied force at its bottom end
DPT Drill String and BHA design

Forces in the Drill String


Neutral Point of Bending occurs where the effective hydrostatic force equals the compressive force in the drillstring.

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Buckling
Neutral point of bending is H = WOB / buoyed weight per foot of string In vertical wells, buckling will occur only below the neutral point of bending, hence the necessity to keep the buoyed weight of the BHA exceeding the WOB
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In deviated wells, buckling will not only occur below the neutral point of bending but also above the neutral point of bending when the compressive force in the drillstring exceeds a critical load

(OD 4 ID 4 ) * BF * (OD 2 ID 2 ) * sin( ) Fcrit = 1617 Dhole ODtooljt

DPT Drill String and BHA design

DP13 Max WOB in inclined holes

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DPT Drill String and BHA design

Drillstring Design
Now you should be able to describe:
Functions of Drill Pipe , Drill Collars and BHA selection Grades of Drill Pipe and strength properties Thread types and tool joints Drill collar weight and neutral point Bending Stress Ratios and Stiffness Ratios Margin of overpull Slip crushing force Basic design calculations based on depth to be drilled. Functions of stabilizers and roller reamers Critical Buckling force and Neutral Point of Bending
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DPT Drill String and BHA design