Lecture Reading Audio Visual Demonstration Discussion Group Practice by Doing Teach others/Immediate Use

5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 75% 80%


Level of Memory 10% 20% 30% 50% 70% 90%

If you read If you listen If you see If you listen and see If you say

If you say and do

Philips, P.J. (1950)

Stimuli Taste Touch Smell Hear Visual 1.0% 1.5% 3.5% 11.0%




The Classic Five-Minute Washroom Control Technique
Problem 1:
Most students who ask to leave the class to use the washroom facilities genuinely do need to; however, there are a few students who ask to go to the washroom who do not need to go at all. They are either trying to avoid in-class work or they want to fool around in the hall or washroom. You, as a lecturer, are in doubt bind situation here. You have no way of telling whether a student really needs to go or not. To deny a request for washroom privileges could spell disaster as you well know and by the same token to let a student wander the halls avoiding work is also wrong. How do you stop or prevent abuse of washroom privileges while allowing for genuine needs in this area?

The Stick Jar
Problem 2 You want to keep all students on their toes. This is perhaps the hardest task for all of us in the area of teaching. We want our audiences to pay attention to us one hundred percent of the time because we give one hundred percent effort in our presentations. How can we keep students’ attention at a high level?


Change the behavior and character of students through the acquisition of knowledge and belief. Thomas F.Green (1970s)




Knowledge & Skill Organizing Facilitating Implementing

Four Groups of Ideology: 3. Behaviorists – Parlov, Thondike, Skinner - learning is a change of behavior stimulus vs response 6. Cognitive – Kohler, Bruner, Gagne, Ausubel, Piaget - Focus on mental ability



Social – Neobehavior The combination of behavior and cognitive Teaching through modeling. Learning through observation Humanist – Students’ learning depends on their feeling and emotion. Therefore teaching strategy must follow the development of students’ emotion


Physical Punishment

Training Through Conditioning

Mental Intelligence

Instructing through Indoctrination


MEANING OF TEACHING • • • • • • Must create student’s interests Facilitate them Help them to solve problems Provide learning materials Increase student’s ability to derive skills Guide them towards positive learning attitudes

MEANING OF TEACHING • Process – Systematic planning, implementing, assessment • Communication/Interaction • Science – Teaching based on theory given by educational expertise systematic • Arts – Apply teaching strategy appropriately.

Learning and teaching theories are formulated by educationists to form teaching model
Expository Teaching Model: -Direct explanation, narration or demonstration -Students listen until they understand and then they record

Inquiry Teaching Model: Contain questionnaire and procedure to derive answer and make conclusion from proposed questions. Types of Inquiry Model 8. Scientific 9. Social 10. Juris-Prudential 11. Suchman’s

Discussion Model:




Plan – Introduction – Discussion – Wind-up - Conclusion

Academic Discussion: • What to learn? • Why it should be learned? • How it can be learned? Strategy: • Socratic – a series of questions to clarify the ideas • Didactic – Dialogue, seminar, debate or forum

CONCEPT OF PEDAGOGY • Pedagogy (ped-a-go-je) means the arts and science of educating children • Came from the word pedagogue (Greek) which means a tutor or talented educator who is able to teach efficiently. • Pedagogy is an art of teaching that involves the use of methods and technique of teaching


Individual differences

Methods & Techniques




• • • • • • • Select appropriate methods and techniques Select suitable teaching aids Encourage student-centered approach Active participation from students Attractive set induction Variation of methods Understand the importance of formative evaluation • Incentive, appreciation and empathy rather than punishment, critics and penalty.

Concept It is the process of collecting and interpreting information then make generalization or conclusion

Method Suitable for all subjects especially technical subjects which always involved inquiry-discovery method.

The principles of using inductive approach 3. At the beginning of TL process, a teacher should provide examples to enable students to make conclusions. It must be followed by questions to help students to draw conclusion 7. Do not explain the content related to the conclusion. But guide them so that they can draw conclusion themselves

Concept The use of conclusions, theorem, laws, principles or regulations and apply it to a specific example. Sometimes these are used to make a new conclusion

Method • Required in-depth understanding and able to summarize principles, theorem, laws, regulations etc and apply to specific examples • Students are guided to create a new formulation

Aims of deductive approach • • • Problem solving To create a new generalization To proof hypothesis

The absorption of various kinds of skills in one teaching event. It is not a mere integration of languages, but also an integration subjects/disciplines.

of skills from various

The Characteristics of Integration • It is the integration of skills within single subject or a number of subjects • Integration occurs holistically • There is one focus skill

Implementing Integration • Identify the main skill then followed by ‘the by-side skills’ • Focused skill should be emphasized in the TL process – development stage • This strategy must be planned based on lesson objectives, performance and the ability of students

Concept of Strategy
• Proper/systematic plan aims to achieve the goal • In education, strategy means the ability to select suitable approach in teaching by means of using appropriate methods and techniques

CRITERIA FOR SELECTING T-L STRATEGY • • • • Refer to the subject that will be taught Based on the objective of the lesson ex. Discussion (domain cognitive) Based on students’ capability ex. Homogenous – heterogeneous Types of lesson activities ex. Looking for decision – questioning tech

• Selecting methods and techniques based on teaching approach • Arrange methods and techniques systematically • Distribute materials and organize time wisely • Class management

SELECTING T-L STRATEGY Consider two factors: • • Classroom environment Teaching-learning activities

SELECTING T-L STRATEGY • • • Teacher-Centered Material-Centered Student-Centered

Teacher-Centered • A teacher controls the class • One-way approach - demo, lecture, story telling, group teaching

Characteristics of Teacher-Centered • In TL activities, a teacher plays an important role – students as spectators • One way communication – students as listeners • Autocratic • The teaching strategy mainly to achieve teachers’ objectives

Characteristics of Teacher-Centered
• Exclude human value and emotional development • Prime concern is given to students achievement through tests and examination • Memorization rather than interpretation • No student interactions – poor interpersonal/social value • Students’ ability and interest are not a prime concern

• Two types of materials – Teaching materials and learning materials • Teaching materials – chart, model, picture, slide, recorder, TV, projector etc • Learning materials – books, printed matter, equipment, computer etc • Self access • Entitles for both teacher and student centered

Characteristics of Material-Centered
• As a teaching aid in TL process • As a platform to develop communication and interaction between teacher and student as well as teacher or student and material • Using material needs skill in order to achieve maximum objective • As a helper during teacher’s absence • As an attraction

Student-Centered • Students actively participate in the learning process • In a classroom teacher as facilitator • Time is always allocated for learning activities • Two-way approach – group, discussion, problem solving, simulation, role play, brain storming etc.

Characteristics of Student-Centered
• Students play important role whilst a teacher as a facilitator • A two-way approach – questioning method invites students respond • Democratic • TL aims to achieve students learning objectives • Develop students’ interpersonal skills through learning activities – initiative and creative • Teaching strategy considers student differences

Selecting Methods & Techniques
• • • • • • • • • Contents Time Teaching aids/materials Students’ psychology Students’ maturity Facilities Teaching approach & strategy Objective Etc

Teaching Methods • • • • • • Class Group Individual Inquiry-discovery Project Problem-solving

Teaching Techniques • • • • • • • • • • Story Telling Lecture Facilitation Discussion Questioning Demonstration Role Play Games Simulation Etc

T-L STRATEGY IN SMART PEDAGOGY • • • • • Facilitation Student-Centered Material-Centered Mastery - individualized Collaborative



Individual Smart Learning



Mastery Learning
• • • • • Focused Quality of teaching Enough time Mastery through sub-unit/program Assessment – feedback - correction - congruent (test what they have learnt)

Mastery Learning Steps to carry out ability test - Identify aspects to be tested - Ascertain degree of proficiency - Appropriate measuring instrument - Administer test - Evaluate students’ response - Prepare report

Self-Paced Learning • • • • • Use of module and learning packages Use of program where step of knowledge is developed Audio-tutorial “Keller Plan” text books which provide levels of achievement using questions Use of computer

Self-Access Learning • • No direct control from teachers Learning materials are provided and are lodged at the place called SelfAccess Center

Self-Directed Learning • • Students feel to improve themselves – initiative Need commitment

Directive Observational Learning Strategy Collaborative



Outside Context


Directive • Ask students to practice, mastery

Observation • Learning through observation

Mediative • Students are assisted in learning on how to apply knowledge in solving problem • Use reasoning, guidance and discussion

Outside Context •Learning based on practice, seminar and doing their own project

Generative •Students are guided on how to behave in certain situation using their differences in ability •Use of various techniques in teaching suitable with students’ differences in ability

Meta Cognitive •Thinking of higher level. Its main function is to plan, direct, control, examine and evaluate all cognitive thinking processes, covering critical and creative thinking, so as to make appropriate decision to solve problems

Collaborative •Help students to develop interpersonal skill in carrying out the tasks

Teacher’s Ability Model
Creative Ability Teaching Ability Organizing Ability

Teaching Skills
Cognitive Ability Communication Ability Expressive Ability

Method of Teaching
• The method of teaching includes a series of action or steps taken by a teacher to achieve a certain teaching and learning objectives “Method of teaching is an organization and application of
teaching technique, teaching materials, teaching aids and supplementary material by the teacher, with the aim of achieving the teaching and learning objective”
Clark, L.H & Starr, I.S (1970s)

Technique of Teaching • Teaching technique is considered an important element in the method of teaching. The success of achieving teaching and learning objective depends, to a large extent, on the current application of the teaching technique

Technique of Teaching

“Teaching technique refers to a certain trap, strategy, or skill which is used by teachers to achieve teaching and learning objective optimally”
Anthony, E.M (1963)

• A process which activate a certain learning activity so that it can be carried out smoothly without hindrance. • Facilitation skill is actually a lecturers’ successful effort in motivating his students to learn, guiding them to carry out learning activities efficiently, encouraging them to involve themselves actively in learning activities and smoothing all learning process continuously without any interference or half-way interruption.


• Most suitable technique for group activity such as discussion, debate, seminar, forum, brainstorming, buzz session and other student-centered approach

Seven Habits of Effective Facilitator 1. Be proactive – must know faci techniques 2. Begin with the end in mind – leadership habit. Each w/shop must have mission statement (objectives). 3. Put first thing first:

Quadrant – Dr Stephen R. Covey

Should focus most

Time wasters Not urgent and not Important to anyone

Quadrant 2 Not Urgent and Important Quadrant 4 Not Urgent and Not Important

Quadrant 1 Urgent and Important Quadrant 3 Urgent and Not Important

Crisis quadrant/ problem Critical issues that potentially delay the project

Time wasters Urgent to others but Not the project team

1. Think win/win 2. Seek first to understand – listen until you understand 3. Synergize – cooperate creatively 4. Renewal – self maintenance habit
Click for more on Facilitation skills

Characteristics of Effective Facilitator
Attending Trialing Reflecting

Goal Setting

Facilitation Techniques


Disclosing Challenging


SCORING KEY Dimension Centrality Integration Initiative Creativity Connections Help Wider Value Influence Development Problems Total Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 …………. Responses a b c +2 +1 -1 +1 -1 +2 -1 +1 +2 +1 +2 -1 -1 +2 +1 +1 +2 -1 -1 +2 +1 +1 -1 +2 +1 -1 +2 -1 +2 +1 Item 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Responses a b c +2 +1 -1 -1 +2 +1 -1 +2 +1 +1 +2 -1 +2 +1 -1 -1 +2 +1 +1 +2 -1 +2 +1 -1 +2 +1 -1 +1 -1 +2 Dimension Score ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ………

Role effectiveness index = Total score + 20 60

X 100 = %

• Involve lecturer and students or among students in small group • Exchange idea or opinion/information – sometimes under the guidance of a lecturer • Enable students to compare, analyze, interpret various ideas, learn from each other and adopt the best for selfimprovement

Principles of Discussion • Selection of discussion topic - experience, ability, interest - avoid sensitive issues - suitable to topic and time allocated • Clear the aim of discussion • Chairman and secretary should be selected

Principles of Discussion • • • • Comply with the rule of discussion Lecturer is only a facilitator Record the necessary points Allow time for comment by a lecturer

Two Forms of Discussion: • Class discussion – facilitate by a lecturer • Group discussion or buzz session – led by student elected under the supervision of a lecturer

Require lecturer’s skill to show the way or steps to perform a certain activity in the class

Principles of Demonstration Before • • • • Determine objective and content of demo Prepare equipment and apparatus Ensure all students can observe / listen Beware of safety measures

Principles of Demonstration During • Face students during demonstration • Repeat the steps until students fully understood • Encourage student to repeat if time permits

Principles of Demonstration After • Discuss the important parts • Strengthening activity

• Students use their prior knowledge, experience, skill to solve the arisen problem • Lecturer to guide students to identify the characteristics of the problem, recollect past experience, to select suitable strategy to carry out problem solving activities

Principles of PS
• Give students problematic types of questions as soon as they have acquired the relevant knowledge or skill • Problem should be set according to their ability • Lecturer should guide students to understand and identify the problem before the process of PS begins • Open to multiple ways of PS • Avoid from teaching them directly. All thinking process should be carried out by students

Dewey’s PS Model

To identify the problem

To look for clues/info

To set up hypothesis

To test the hypothesis

To evaluate and record Find conclusion

Polya’s PS Model

Preliminary stage

Strategy planning

Strategy implementation

Checking answers

Diagrammatic approach Analogy approach

Lester’s PS Model

Awareness of the problem

Understanding of the problem

Objective analysis

Planning of strategies

Implementation Of strategies

Procedures and evaluation of the solution - analysis approach - deduction approach

• Similar ability – maths & language skills (remedial & enrichment) • Mixed ability – brainstorming, experiment, project, games, quiz

Principles of Group Teaching • Pre-assessment • Appoint leader – assist lecturer and members • Arrangement of chairs • Clear instruction should be given before start with group activities • Prepare required learning materials

Principles of Group Teaching • Students are aloud to move around within their own group • Change of members between groups should be done from time to time based on current performance • Lecturer to supervise • Conclude with discussion

Occur in a controlled condition and purposely created to resemble to actual situation with the aim to carry out teaching to serve certain problem

Three Types • Socio drama • Role play • Use of simulator

PROJECT • Learning through games, practical work, experiment, project, visit and other outdoor activities. • Full interest because student learns in actual situations. • Must mastered certain related skills • Develop potential physically and socially. • Individually or group activity.

Some Consideration
• • • Be specific of the project objective. Prepare material / instrument. Plan activities.

Types of Project • Research • Handicraft • Educational visit

BEFORE - Identify place - Permission -Arrange transport - Briefing - Preparation

DURING AFTER - Report - Divide group - Participation - Safety measures

• Introduced in USA in 1956. • A group of teachers specializing in various subject.
Senior teacher Teacher Teacher trainee Tutor Technician / Lab / Lib officers

• Team teaching covers 3 stages. 1. Teach large group 80 – 320 students. 2. Teaching-learning for smaller group. 3. Learning activities conducted individually.

• Physical facilities – lecture hall / theatre, classroom, laboratory, resource centre - well equipped. Time table – flexible. Lecturers cooperation and staffs support. Division of time for teaching-learning. e.g. large class teaching act – 40% small group act – 20%

• • •

Senior lecturer - Specialist Lecturer – Tutor Tutor – Engineer Teacher Resource – Officers / Laboratory assistant Librarian
Large classroom Small class Supervise learning activities Assess coursework / script Prepare equipment, laboratory, classroom Supply materials for individual learning


WHY PRACTICAL OR LAB TEACHING? • • • • • • • • Train and develop manipulative skills Problem-solving through practical works To brief understanding in terms of concept and theory To try out/to transform theoretical into real project To enhance interest about the lesson To search facts To develop social skills To expose real materials to students


• • • • • • • • •

Create instruction orally Do not assume students understand as we do Clarify the steps Need to assess own skills Prepare lab/workshop – conducive, safe Begin demo (if necessary) Start work Lecturer facilitate Assess the project

Planning Lab Session
• • • • Store room Location of first aid Basic first aid rules Procedure for getting emergency assistance

• Create Safety Rules for your lab

Plan What you are going to do

PIE Evaluate
What you have done

What you have planned

Good Lab Teaching Practice

• Objective of lab teaching – Students will get deeper understanding • Need close communication between lab assistant and the lecturer in charge

• What project? • What theory related to project? • How to organize cooperative study in the lab? • What equipment used?

Group Work
• Projects are conducive to group learning • Divide students into groups of 2 or 4 (depends on class size and quantity of equipment)

• Suitable for the project – neither so complex nor so rudimentary • A fancy, expensive – distract students attention • Antiquate instrument ‘dry labbing’ the results • Suitable illuminate experience

• Rehearsing the procedure • Review the results • To avoid problem: - Prepare lab assignment at least 1 week before and - Try it out (lab assistant or JP) • Lab schedule should include time for the lecturer or JP to review the results with the class – class discussion

Preparing Lab
• Preview texts and lab manuals used in the lab – meeting required • Find out where supplies are stored and who orders course materials • Give students the laboratory and safety rules in writing and verbally and enforce them • Test all equipment

For Each Class Meeting
• Know the material thoroughly • Compare the content of your lab to the lecture – what information to enforce what to omit • Know how to cope with equipment breakdown • Complete demonstration

• Materials required are in the right amount • Prepare lab notes, outlines, diagrams, and other necessary handouts • Write those on board/slides before class

In The Lab
• Short quiz (5-10minutes) at the beginning of the lab – inspire punctuality and focus on the lab • Lecturing: What you will be doing
How it fits into past and future work What the students should learn

- Announce the day’s project - Explain the task – demo or show samples - Furnish information with handouts

• Supervising students’ work - Make yourself available - Build rapport - Be around - Watch signs of students having difficulties:
Frustrated noises Confused expressions Flipping of text or lab manual pages

- Interrupt the entire class only when find many students in the same predicament - Rephrase a student’s question before answering

• Summarizing - Reviewing what students have learned • Visual Aids - Vary your presentation - Assist students who best learn visually