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# OPERA TIONS RESEARCH

**LESSON 7: LINEAR PROGRAMMING - GRAPHICAL METHOD
**

Learning Outcomes

1. Graphical approach for generating optimal solutions to a LP problem. Dear students,during the preceding lectures, we have learnt how to formulate a given problem as a Linear Programming model. The next step, after the formulation, is to devise effective methods to solve the model and ascertain the optimal solution. Dear friends, we start with the graphical method and once having mastered the same, would subsequently move on to simplex algorithm for solving the Linear Programming model. But let’s not get carried away. First thing first. Here we go. We seek to understand the Importance of Graphical Method Of Solution In Linear Programming and seek to find out as to how the graphical method of solution be used to generate optimal solution to a Linear Programming problem. Once the Linear programming model has been formulated on the basis of the given objective & the associated constraint functions, the next step is to solve the problem & obtain the best possible or the optimal solution various mathematical & analytical techniques can be employed for solving the Linearprogramming model. The graphic solution procedure is one of the method of solving two variable Linear programming problems. It consists of the following steps:Step I Defining the problem. Formulate the problem mathematically. Express it in terms of several mathematical constraints & an objective function. The objective function relates to the optimization aspect is, maximisation or minimisation Criterion. Step II Plot the constraints Graphically. Each inequality in the constraint equation has to be treated as an equation. An arbitrary value is assigned to one variable & the value of the other variable is obtained by solving the equation. In the similar manner, a different arbitrary value is again assigned to the variable & the corresponding value of other variable is easily obtained. These 2 sets of values are now plotted on a graph and connected by a straight line. The same procedure has to be repeated for all the constraints. Hence, the total straight lines would be equal to the total no of equations, each straight line representing one constraint equation. Step III Locate the solution space. Solution space or the feasible region is the graphical area which satisfies all the constraints at the same

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time. Such a solution point (x, y) always occurs at the comer. points of the feasible Region the feasible region is determined as follows: a. For” greater than” & “ greater than or equal to” constraints (i.e.;), the feasible region or the solution space is the area that lies above the constraint lines. b. For” Less Then” &” Less than or equal to” constraint (ie; ). The feasible region or the solution space is the area that lies below the constraint lines. Step IV Selecting the graphic technique. Select the appropriate graphic technique to be used for generating the solution. Two techniques viz; Corner Point Method and Iso-profit (or Iso-cost) method may be used we give below both there techniques, however, it is easier to generate solution by using the corner point method. a. Corner Point Method. i. Since the solution point (x. y) always occurs at the corner point of the feasible or solution space, identify each of the extreme points or corner points of the feasible region by the method of simultaneous equations. ii. By putting the value of the corner point’s co-ordinates [e.g. (2,3)] into the objective function, calculate the profit (or the cost) at each of the corner points. iii. In a maximisation problem, the optimal solution occurs at that corner point which gives the highest profit. iv. In a minimisation problem, the optimal solution occurs at that corner point which gives the lowest profit. b. Iso-Profit (or Iso-Cost) method. The term Iso-profit sign if is that any combination of points produces the same profit as any other combination on the same line. The various steps involved in this method are given below. c. Selecting a specific figure of profit or cost, an iso-profit or iso-cost line is drawn up so that it lies within the shaded area. d. This line is moved parallel to itself and farther or closer with respect to the origin till that point after which any further movement would lead to this line falling totally out of the feasible region. e. The optimal solution lies at the point on the feasible region which is touched by the highest possible iso-profit or the lowest possible iso-cost line. f. The co-ordinates of the optimal point (x. Y) are calculated with the help of simultaneous equations and the optimal profit or cost is as curtained. Dear students, let us now turn our attention to the important theorems which are used in solving a linear programming

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problem. Also allow me to explain the important terms used in Linear programming. Here we go.

Important Theorems

While obtaining the optimum feasible solution to the linear programming problem, the statement of the following four important theorems is used:Theorems I The feasible solution space constitutes a convex set. Theorems II within the feasible solution space, feasible solution correspond to the extreme ( or Corner) points of the feasible solution space. Theorem III There are a finite number of basic feasible solution with the feasible solution space. Theorem IV The optimum feasible solution, if it exists. will occur at one, or more, of the extreme points that are basic feasible solutions. Note. Convex set is a polygon “Convex” implies that if any two points of the polygon are selected arbitrarily then straight line segment Joining these two points lies completely within the polygon. The extreme points of the convex set are the basic solution to the linear programming problem.

vii. Degenerate Solution A basic solution to the system of equations is termed as degenerate if one or more of the basic variables become equal to zero. I hope the concepts that we have so far discussed have been fully understood by all of you. Friends, it is now the time to supplement our understanding with the help of examples. Example X Ltd wishes to purchase a maximum of3600 units of a product two types of product a. & are available in the market Product a occupies a space of 3 cubic Jeet & cost Rs. 9 whereas occupies a space of 1 cubic feet & cost Rs. 13 per unit. The budgetary constraints of the company do not allow to spend more than Rs. 39,000. The total availability of space in the company’s godown is 6000 cubic feet. Profit margin of both the product a & is Rs. 3 & Rs. 4 respectively. Formulate as a linear programming model and solve using graphical method. You are required to ascertain the best possible combination of purchase of a & so that the total profits are maximized. Solution Let x1 = no of units of product α & x2 = no of units of product β Then the problem can be formulated as a P model as follows:Objective function, Maximise Z = 3x 1 + 4x 2 Constraint equations :- x1 + x 2 ≤ 3600( MaximumUnitsConstraint)

3x 1 + x 2 ≤ 6000 (Storage area constraint) 9 x 1 + 13 x 2 ≤ 39000 (Budgetary constraint)

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Important Terms

Some of the important terms commonly used is linear programming are disclosed as follows: i. Solution Values of the decision variable x;(i = 1,2,3, in) satisfying the constraints of a general linear programming model is known as the solution to that linear programming model. ii. Feasible Solution Out of the total available solution a solution that also satisfies the non-negativity restrictions of the linear programming problem is called a feasible solution. iii. Basic Solution For a set of simultaneous equations in Q unknowns (p Q) a solution obtained by setting (P - Q) of the variables equal to zero & solving the remaining P equation in P unknowns is known as a basic solution. The variables which take zero values at any solution are detained as non-basic variables & remaining are known as-basic variables, often called basic. iv. Basic Feasible Solution A feasible solution to a general linear programming problem which is also basic solution is called a basic feasible solution. v. Optimal Feasible Solution vi. Optimal Feasible Solution Any basic feasible solution which optimizes (ie; maximise or minimises) the objective function of a linear programming modes known as the optimal feasible solution to that linear programming model.

x1 + x 2 ≤ 0

Step I Treating all the constraints as equality, the first constraint is x 1 + x 2 = 3600 Put x 1 = o ⇒ x 2 = 3600∴ The point is (0, 3600) Put x 2 = o ⇒ x 1 = 3600 The point is (3600, 0) ∴ Draw is graph with x1 on x-axis & x2 on y-axis as shown in the figure. Step II Determine the set of the points which satisfy the constraint: x 1 + x 2 = 3600 This can easily be done by verifying whether the origin (0,0) satisfies the constraint. Here, 0+0 = 3600. Hence all the points below the line will satisfy the constraint. Step III The 2nd constraint is: 3x 1 + x 2 ≤ 6000 Put x 1 = o ⇒ x 2 = 6000 and the point is ( 0, 6000) Put x 2 = o ⇒ x1 = 200 and the point is ( 200, 0) Now draw its graph.

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Step IV Like it’s in the above step II, determine the set of points which satisfy the constraint 3x 1 + x 2 ≤ 6000. At origin;

0 + 0 < 6000 Hence, all the points below the line will satisfy the

**(∴ A + B , these two lines are intersecting) ie,
**

3x 1 + x 2 = 6000 9x 1 + x 2 = 39000

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…(1) …(2) …(3) …(4)

constraint. Step V The 3rd constraint is: 9x1 + 12x 2 ≤ 39000 Put x 1 = o ⇒ x 2 = 3000 & the point is (0, 3000) Put x 2 = o ⇒ x 1 =

13000 13000 & the po int is ,0 3 3

**Multiply equ (i) by 3 on both sides:
**

⇒ 9 x 1 + 3 x 2 = 18000

9x1 + 13x 2 = 39000 _ _ _ ————————

− 10x2 = −21000

∴ x 2 = 2100

Now draw its graph. Step VI Again the point (0,0) ie; the origin satisfies the constraint 9x1 + 12x 2 ≤ 39000 . Hence, all the points below the line will satisfy the constraint. Step VII The intersection of the above graphic denotes the feasible region for the given problem. Step VIII

Finding Optimal Solution

**Put the Value of x2 in first equation:
**

⇒ x 1 = 1300

**At point (1300,2100)
**

Z = 3x 1 + 4 x 2

= 3 x1300 + 4 x 2100

= 12,300 which is the maximum value. Result The optimal solution is: No of units of product α = 1300 No of units of product β = 2100 Total profit, = 12300 which is the maximum. Well friends, it’s really very simple. Isn’t it? Let’s consider some more examples. Example Greatwell Ltd. Produces & sell two different types of products P1 & P2 at a profit margin of Rs. 4 & Rs. 3 respectively. The availability of raw materials the maximum no of production hours available and the limiting factor of P2 can be expressed in terms of the following in equations:

4x1 + 2x2 ≤ 10 8 2x 1 + x 2 ≤ 8 3

Always keep in mind two things: i. For ≥ constraint the feasible region will be the area, which lies above the constraint lines, and for ≤ constraints, it will lie below the constraint lines. This would be useful in identifying the feasible region. ii. According to a theorem on linear programming, an optimal solution to a problem (if it exists) is found at a corner point of the solution space.

x2 ≤ 6

x1, x 2 ≥ 0

Formulate & solve the LP problem by using graphical method so as to optimize both P1 & P2 Solution Objective: Maximise Z = 4 x 1 + 3 x 2 Since the origin (0,0) satisfies each and every constraint, all points below the line will satisfy the corresponding constraints.

Step IX At corner points ( O, A, B, C), find the profit value from the objective function. That point which maximize the profit is the optimal point.

Corner Point O A C W-Ordinates (0,0) (0,3000) (2000,0) Objective Func Z = 3x1 + 4 x 2 Z=0+0 Z=0+4x3000 Z=0+3x2000+0 Value 0 12,000 6,000

**For point B, solve the equation 9x 1 + 12x 2 ≤ 39000 And 3x 1 + 6x 2 ≤ 6000 to find point B
**

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Consider constraints as equations & plot then as under: 4x1 + 2x2 ≤ 10 put x1 = 0 ⇒ x = 5 and the point is (0,5) …(1) Put x2 = 0 ⇒ x = 5 2 and the point is ( 5/2, 0) 8 2x 1 + x 2 = 8 2 put x1 = 0 ⇒ x 2 = 3 and the point is (, 3) put x2 = 0 ⇒ x1 = 4 and the point is ( 4, 0) x1 = 6 …(3) The area under the curve OABC is the solution space. The constraint x1=6 is not considered since it does not contain the variable x2. Getting optimal solution.

Corner Point 0 A B C Co-ordinates (0,0) (0,3) * (5/2,0) Obj.-Func. Z = 4 x1 + 3 x2 Z=0+0 Z=0+3x3 * 5 Z = 4 x x2 = 8 2 Value 0 9 * 10

**purchased so as to provide the cows nutrients not less then the minimum required? Solution
**

Step 1

Mathematical formulation of the problem

OPERA TIONS RESEARCH

…(2)

Let x1 and x2 be the number of units of product P1 and p2. The objective is to determine the value of these decision variables which yields the minimum of total cost subject to constraints. The data of the given problem can be summarized as bellow:

Decision Variables X1 X2 Min. Requirement Number of Product 1 2 Type of Nutrient Constituent A 36 6 108 B 3 12 36 C 20 10 100 Cost of Product 20 40

The above problem can be formulated and follows: Minimize Z = 20x 1 + 40x 2 subject to the constraints: Step 2 Graph the Constraints Inequalities. Next we construct the graph by drawing a horizontal and vertical axes, viz., x1 axes in the Cartesian X1 OX2 plane. Since any point satisfying the conditions x1 ≥ 0 and x 2 ≥ 0 lies in the first quadrant only, search for or the desired pair (x1, x2) is restricted to the points of the first quadrant only.

**Point B is the intersection of the curves 4x 1 + 2x 2 = 10 &
**

8 2x 1 x 2 = 8 3

Solving as system of simultaneous equation: Point B is ( 8/5, 9/5 ∴ Z = 4 x 1 + 3x 2

= 4(8 / 5) + 3(9 /5) = 59/5

Result

The optimal solution is: Not of units of P2 = 9/5 Total profit = 59/5 Remarks. Since 8/5 & 9/5 units of a product can not be produced, hence these values must be rounded off. This is the limitation of the linear programming technique. Example Fresh Products Ltd. Is engaged in the business of breading cows quits farm. Since it is necessary to ensure a particular level of nutrients in their diet, Fresh Product Ltd. Buys two products P1 & P2 the details of nutrient constituents in each of which are as follows:

Nutrient Type A B C Nutrient Constituents in the product P1 P2 36 6 3 12 20 10 Minimum nutrient requirements 108 36 100

**The constraints of the given problem are plotted as described earlier by treating them as equations:
**

36 x 1 + 6 x 2 = 108 ; 3 x 1 + 12 x 2 = 36 ; and 20 x 1 + 10 x 2 = 100

Since each of them happened to be ‘greater than or equal to type’, the points ( x1,x2) satisfying them all will lie in the region that falls towards the right of each of these straight lines. The solution space is the intersection of all these regions in the first quadrant. This is shown shaded in the adjoining figure. Step 3 Locate the solution point. The solution space is open with B,P,Q and C as lower points.

The cost prices of both P1 & p2 are Rs. 20 per unit & Rs. 40 per unit respectively. Formulate as a linear programming model & solve graphically to ascertain how much of the products P1 & p2 must be

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Note 1. For ≥ constraints soln. Space is above the constraint line, as space 2. Now, consider only corner Pb of the sdn. Space according to LP therein. Step 4 Value of objective function at corner points.

Corner points B P Q C Co-ordinates of Corner Points (x1,x2) (0,18) (2,6) (4,2) (12,0) Objective function Z = 20x1 + 40x2 20(0) + 40(18) 20(2) + 40(6) 20(4) + 40(2) 20(12) + 40(0) Value 720 280 160 240

the area POQ and not be the line PQ. As far as the constraint of input A is concerned, production is possible at any point on the line PQ or left to it [dotted area in the graph.] In a similar way the second constraint 10x1 15x 2 ≤ 450. 45, 0 be drawn graphically. For this purpose we obtain two points as follows: a. If production of product I is zero, the maximum production of product II is units. Point R ( 0,30) represents this combination in graph.

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Step 5 Optimum value of the objective function . Here, we find that minimum cost of Rs. 160 is found at point Q(4,2), i.e., x1 = 4 and x2 = 2 Hence the first should purchase 4 units of product P1 and 2 units of product P2 in order to maintain a minimum cost of Rs. 160. Example A firm manufactures & sells two product p1 & p2 at a profit of Rs. 45 per unit & Rs. 80 per unit respectively. The quantities of raw materials required for both p1 & p2 are given below: b. If production of product II is zero, the maximum production of product I is 45 units. Point S ( 45, 0) in the graph represents this combination. By joining points R and S we get a straight line RS. This line again represents the maximum quantities of product I and II that can be produced with the help of input B. ROS represents the feasibility region as far as the input B is concerned. After plotting the two constraints next step is to find out the feasibility region. Feasibility region is that region in the graph which satisfies all the constraints simultaneously. Region POST in third graph represents feasible region. This region POST satisfies first constraint as well as second constraint. ROS is the feasible region under first constant. But out of this RPT region does not fulfill second constraint. In a same way region POQ is the feasibility under constraint second but out of this, region TSQ does not satisfy constraint first.

Raw Materials R1 R2

Product P1 5 10

P2 20 15

The maximum availability of both R1 & R2 is 400 & 450 units respectively. You are required to formulate as a CP model & solve using the graphical method. Solution To find the second point let us assume that the entire amount of input A is used to produce the produce I and no unit of product II is produced, i.e., X2 = 0. Therefore x1 ≤ i.e., the firm can produce either 80 or less then 80 units of product I. If we take the maximum production x1 = 80. So the second point is (80,0) and this point Q in graph denotes product of 80 units of product I and zero unit of product II.

By joining the two points P (0,20) and Q (80,0) we get a straight line shows the maximum quantities of product I and product II that can be produced with the help of input A. The area POQ is the graphic representation of constraint 5 x 1 20 x 2 ≤ 400 . It may be emphasized here that the constraint is represented by

Region POST thus satisfies first constraint as well as second constraint and is thus feasible region. Each point in the feasible region POST satisfies both the linear constraints and is therefore a feasible solution. Non-negative constraints are also being satisfied in this region because we are taking first quadrant of the graph in which both the axes are positive. The feasible region is covered by the linked boundary PTS. The corner points on the kinked boundary P, T and S are called as extreme points.

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Extreme points occur either at the inter-section of the two constraints (T in this example’ or at the intersection of one constraint and one axis (P and S in our example). These extreme points are of great significance in optimal solution. Optimal solution will always be one of the these extreme points. Final step in solving linear programming problem with the help of graph is to find out the optimal solution out of many feasible solution in the region POST. For this purpose we will have to introduce objective function into our graph. Our objective function is :-

Point T, x1 = 24, x2 = 0 Z=45x1+80x2 = (45)(24) +(80)(14) = Rs. 2200 Point S, x1=45, x2 = 0 Z=45x1+80x2 = (45)(245 +(80)(0) = Rs. 2025 So combination T (24,14) is the intimation and Rs. 2200 is the maximum possible level of profits. Dear students, we have now reached the end of our discussion scheduled for today. See you all in the next lecture. Bye.

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Z = 45 x 1 + 80x 2

Or Or

80x 2 = Z − 45x1

x2 = Z 9 − x1 80 16

x3 =

Z 45 − x1 80 80

Our objective function which is linear has negative slope. It is plotted as dotted line z 1z 1 in the following z 1z 1 is in-fact Iso-profit line. The different combinations of I and product II of this line yield same profits ( say 20 units ) firm. Any line ( parallel to this line ) which is higher ( right to this z 1z 1 line signifies higher profit level ( say 25 units ) a line which is lower to the line z 1z 1 implies lower profit above graph; z 1z 1 line representing a specified level of profit be moved rightward still remaining in the feasible region. In words profits can be increase still remaining in the feasible.

However, this is possible only up to z n z n . Different combination on z n z n give the first a same level of profits. Point T (24,14) is in the feasible region POST and also on line z n z n. In other words this point ‘T’ represents a combination of the two products which can be produced under the combination of unputs and profits are maximum possible. Point T represents optimum combination. z n z n iso-profit line, though signify higher profit is not in the feasible region. The firm, therefore, should produce 24 units of product I and 14 units of product II. Its profits will be maximum possible, equal to :Z=45x1+80x2 = (45)(24) +(80)(14) = 1080 +1120 =Rs. 2200. Optimum combination can be found also, without the introduction of profits function in our graph. As written above the corner points. P, T and S of the kinked cover of feasible region POST are called as extreme point and optimum T and S yields Maximum profit to the firm. Point P, x1 = 0 x2 = 20 Z=45x1+80x2 = 45(0) +80(20) = Rs. 1600

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