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improving students' writing ability through teacher's indirect feedback

improving students' writing ability through teacher's indirect feedback


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5 and opened the opportunity to do more study or research in this school. data and techni8ue of collecting data. cohesive. 'n this study. teachers should familiari. logical se8uencing. both consciously and unconsciously. Montent of $riting must be knowledgeable. The teacher would prepare some topic option that can be chosen by student to make their writing.* S age% #n 2r# #ng Fardner and Gohnson *(33A. 2ppelebe in 1appe *+. For the purpose of the assignment however :feedback< will strictly refer to indirect feedback given by teacher as response to their writing.2. Bere are the criteria of E"E composition9 Table !. three basic stages in writing also delivered by )on $hite *(36A95+@. the teaching should engage students in peer %self7evaluation. effective but simple construction. To pass the process from the first draft until the final draft.and to reduce student confusion. The students also didn&t really know how to correct their own writing because they had gotten the correct answer from their mistakes.a genre is kind of text types that have structured in different way and (6 characteri. tasted. the teacher evaluated the students writing from the first draft until the final draft. The students are sometimes afraid and shy to speak what they want to say but they can tell what they think and what they want to say into draft or writing before speaking. 'f the students are only provided by direct feedback. speaking and listening. $riting will help students mastering the other skills and of course in mastery English completely. article. animal. and then asked one to ten students to write their essay on the whiteboard.ation based on the feedback from him or herself and teacher or peers. have several paragraphs that develop and describe the topic. generic structure and language feature. which told the description about the most important person in their life or their family. particularly in language use and organi. +. in which the evaluation of writing consist of four component bur the researcher only focused on two component of 5+ writing.2 5eedback Hne of the ways to make students be able to create good writing is the teacher should provide constructive feedback to their writing. Hbservation is activity to collect data that is related to the application of writing..-.ation and language use. 't is focused and concentrated only on the aspects that add something to the main purpose of the description. the role of teacher here as a guide.P ne2 +aragra+' 4norgani. before the action was conducted. 5( +. 7!epner *(33(9 (=(. ing as well an awareness of different points of view.. make it interesting. (. they are direct and indirect feedback. but also need a serious attention of how to write English sentences grammatically and systematically. clause and sentence pattern.ed. or they may use their senses.. pronoun. The purpose in descriptive writing is to engage a reader>s attention.e and develop a sustained piece of writing.A. eside that there are some reasons why indirect feedback is so helpful for the students& writing. +. in order students feel good with their writing and carry the activity through completion *Frabe and !aplan. the teaching and learning process are divided into two meetings. and% or fragment run7ons.. #aryatun *(33A.The researcher checked whether each indicator of descriptive text has applied.+ and in post test was A6. few errors of agreement. 2ccording to 1artin in Frabe and !aplan *(33D-.D9 5=. the writer can explore and improve his%her idea.states more complete stages. $hile. !.state that indirect feedback can be done by a symbol representing a specific kind of error *TKverb tense. first the researcher did observation by interviewing the teacher to know the students& problem in writing and giving test to the students to know their writing performance. and reflection *!emmis and 1c Taggart in "tringer. in modern society. how their composition should be arranged and their composition will be better. The result of brainstorming session to provide a plan of description of topic. (33@-. whereas they felt that indirect feedback was useful in encouraging them to reflect on aspects of their writing and to develop improvements. the rater conducts following procedures9 (. 0D. teacher must teach the students in order to organi..6. report.Q. the lecturer asked the students to write about a given topic. ) D) !.. students appreciated its beneficial effect on their learning and direct feedback to be more helpful when revising syntax and vocabulary. The feedback is important to tell which the words%sentence should be changed or need correction. tense number.Teacher responded to the second draft checking whether the student is able to deal with the problems.to do the observation during the teaching and learning process. The researcher in doing her action put the target on the first grade students in "12 Negeri 3 !endari with the purpose of students were able to write a composition better than before and to apply their knowledge into writing text. indirect feedback is when the teacher%tutor alerts students to error using general comments. which results in action. the students check their final text for some mistakes they have made based on the feedback given. such as spelling. The last is 1echanics of $riting which consists of "pelling and #unctuation *Mapital letter. organi.. ART Ar #cle 4se article a. also suggestion and praise. several errors of agreement. The writer exposed direct correction techni8ue in her experimental class and exposed indirect correction in the control class. article. whether both raters have significant correlation or not. They were /ust asked to write a composition based on the picture or topic that had been prepared in the text book without checking their ability in mastery aspects of writing. students are not only expected to speak English fluently but they also have to be able to fulfill four language skills.. however. The strategies of teacher in solving the problem during process. preposition. T'e 6ark#ng Sc'eme o& ES3 Com+o%# #on #n T2o Com+onen % A%+ec o& /r# #ng 3e$elCr# er#a Organ#Ea #on +. the text will be focused on the descriptive text. *"ee observation sheet in appendix A-. in improving the effectiveness of writing.. 4sing teacher&s indirect feedback might be a starting point to start the improvement for students& ability in writing. The researcher and the teacher work together to find out the mistake or obstacle they have during the action is conducted. language use. well7organi. the researcher took the students& composition. completeness and consciousness. (36+-. both teacher and student can be improved. and then. pg. to investigate the effect of teacher&s feedback on students& writing. it is because oral%direct feedback can be durable. Hthers have reported that (( indirect feedback may be more beneficial to students than direct feedback in editing. 't indicates that under teacher&s feedback. Eesson plan is prepared in appendix (. the teacher would conduct the /oins construction section. To find the sub/ect that was observed.ation and language use in descriptive writing. fluent expression. 2postrophe P?Q-.ed or unclear. 1ore clearly about the classes can be seen in table + below9 Table 2. !..1 Teac'#ng /r# #ng $riting is one of important skills that language learners need to learn as an essential component not only for their academic practice but also later in their professional life. length. editing morphological errors re8uire checking to see that affixes and grammatical function words. ecause the researcher thinks that the evaluation in writing process in classroom should be started by the teacher first before it can affect the students& ability to evaluate their writing by themselves. word order%function. ((. minor problem in complex construction. 1. "o. those are organi.A%+.. ased on that. "trong development of the experience that Sputs the reader thereS focuses on key details. they decide what ways will be applied in the next cycle as the problem solving in the previous cycle and arrange the second lesson plan.says that :in the context of teaching general.. and vocabulary. The revising always comes up after giving feedback to the writing. d. Momma P. Through feedback.and mechanics.-Procedure o& g#$#ng #nd#rec &eedback on % uden %1 2r# #ng The procedure that was conducted in this study consisted as follows9 (. The researcher did preliminary class observation to find the problem in class 0( "12 Negeri 3 !endari. and taking conclusion. there are three basic stages writers go through9 prewriting.+9 (5. The model text is prepared in appendix =. Teachers may. The teacher would notice the students that they can use their senses to describe the scene. the students review a draft to check content and organi. This study would be stopped if the students were able to write a good composition relating to the organi.2003 : 152). !. 'n providing feedback. and give ideas for directing further learning definitions. )oger *+. describe a thing. dominated by error.ed. Furthermore. +. )evising is a series of strategies designed to re7examine and re7evaluate the choices that have created a piece of writing. the student will not have opportunity to reflect and correct the errors for themselves. more informative and more convincing to the reader. which consisted of 56 students.. 'n here.. or an animal and ask them to give the detail description.5D. The #resentation of Iata. 7For students9 the student were hoped to be able to correct their own writing independently. the researcher used two ways as follows9 a. description and re7orientation% conclusion. 't was aimed to know whether there was an improvement of students& writing performance after the action. 'f teacher want to help the students to be a good writer in English. 2fter describing the data. metaphors to create images%pictures in the mind. also the teacher and the researcher analy. the students responded and gave their understanding about the discussion.. writing should get much attention as reading. such as9 phrase. 2. 1oreover. Furthermore. taste. language use. b. and )eview of )elated "tudies. 1. Teaching or learning how to write successfully gets even more complicated and challenged for both language teachers and students. )eduction. ob/ects etc *1artin in Frabe and !aplan. implementation. 'n this school. 'n addition. students would be asked to deliver their knowledge about descriptive text and what they have written before.. there are still some teachers who haven&t given their attention on this case completely. $hile. the author%writer /ust builds basic of a topic that should depends on the writer%author&s knowledge. *Eee. Teaching $riting. #lanning is the activity of preparing the problem solving to be used in reflecting the problem that is gotten before action. Eanguage use *grammar. on the one hand. 7/r# #ng is a discovery process. 3 7 A E0cellen o $er( good. but a typically through model identifies four stages9 pre7writing. $riting is a thinking process *$hite..ation and language use both in the text model and their writing. The teacher would start the action by giving the students model text and asked the students to compare the text with their first composition. preposition 8ood o a$erage. sub/ect of the study.6. vocabulary. grammar. 7De%cr#+ #$e e0 is a text which says what a person or a thing is like or to provide enough vivid detail to help the reader create a mental picture of what is being written about *1artin in Frabe and !aplan. 't contains at the following sections. the researcher believes that indirect feedback will be more increasing the students& ability in writing and students who get indirect feedback will be preserved in his%her brain in a long time. (= 2.5. !. +.)5ac or% 'a 2ere ob%er$ed 'n this study. $hile this study only uses indirect feedback that is used to solve the problem in two aspects of writing.(. many teachers agree that in the classroom. does not communicate.e their composition by using pattern orientation. English becomes more important as a tool of communication. all skills in teaching and learning English that are integrated each other must be learnt and taught by both students and teacher. The 2ssessment Techni8ue of "tudents& $riting. powerful verbs and precise nouns.in writing activity. These four skills are integrated and related to each other..(-. students are able to express their ideas more clearly in writing and to get clarification on any comments indirectly that teachers have made to their writing. 'n here.e their errors.ation and (6 upper *good. A CHAPTER II 3ITERATURE RE4IE/ This chapter presents some actual theories as references to support this study. The writer needs to focus his%her special attention on the ends of words in order to catch the missing of an incorrect ending9 s%es. pronoun.. )eflecting on the effects as a basis for further action enhances informed decision7making. ut there will always be of what feedback will give the best impact of the improvement toward the students& writing itself not only in the short time but also in a long time of their life. +.@. To respond the error teacher can use a feedback that contains specific criteria for the writing task and criteria that have been taught and communicated to the learners. because indirect feedback can guide learning and help the students solve problem by themselves *Ealande. the students had problem in writing a text because they learnt writing without using a good approach and treatment.Ten compositions were taken to evaluate in order to represent different level of 8uality. teacher should be a reader and as advisor for them. or indirectly by indicating in the margins that there is an error on that line but without providing the correct form. )esults are shared with those directly affected.defines Iirect feedback is provided when the correct form is written on student&s paper whereas indirect feedback is provided if the teacher indicates the location of the error indirectly on the paper by underlining.3=A. some research evidences suggest that indirect feedback is more helpful on students& long7term writing development than direct feedback *Ferris. highlighting or circling. speaking. The first grade students of "14 Negeri 3 !endari who enrolled in academic year +... more interesting. deletions meaning confused or obscured 4er( +oor. Thus. students& writing and teacher feedback itself and the strategies of teacher to solve the problem. 5. although the students may /ust pick one or two. * D* !. language use *grammar.ation..Re$#e2 o& Rela ed S ud#e% "ome studies have been done to investigate the use of feedback on students& writing in teaching and learning process. 2lthough she investigated the effect of teacher feedback only focused on giving feedback in students& homework in general. asked them to pick something specific.ed by own language feature. Eee *+. O$er$#e2 o& Proce%% #n De%cr#+ #$e /r# #ng There are some approaches in writing. grammar.the researcher observed the teacher&s strategies in solving the problem 5. +. The cycle consists of planning. This stage also concentrates to the content tan punctuation. 2. students which had been taken randomly. pronoun. Editing at sentence level is to find out the errors in sentences. such as9 auxiliary verb. and revising. they couldn&t evaluate their own writing because they haven&t trained to do so because the teacher hadn&t had a good approach or strategy to make their writing better. +. !. effective word%idiom choice. 5. such as reading. observer and counselor during the process. the writer did not also explain clearly why there was no significant different between direct and indirect correction on students& writing performance. the total score was AA. Mrimmon . number. the writer not only wants to prove that the students writing performance will be better than direct feedback but also indirect feedback as the way to solve the problem of student&s writing performance. a person.-. researcher and teacher saw and took a note about students& progress in the classroom 5. ideas and experiences. 'n reflection. To make students understand easily about the use of language feature itself. detail. then following by description *characteristic-. Iewi "anti investigated the effect of teacher&s feedback on students& writing and found that teacher&s feedback was effective. The reason why the researcher focused only two aspects because based on pre7observation. one of them is genre based approach. Frodesen *+.5.. organi. Student will respond if teachers are encouraging as well as allowing mistakes. "tudents are able to express their ideas more clearly in writing and to get clarification on any comments that teachers have made. it was used to check the application of teacher&s indirect teacher feedback in teaching and learning process.Da a and ec'n#>ue o& collec #ng da a The data of this study was 8ualitative and 8uantitative data. fre8uent errors of negation. the researcher found that most of students had problem on those aspects of writing and the students can improve their ability in writing if the teacher help them to give the constructive feedback. (33D-. revising and editing The description of each stage is shown as follows9 (PreB2r# #ng 'n this stage. ++ CHAPTER III 6ETHODO3O8C O5 THE STUDC This chapter explained the methodology of the research that was conducted. 2ccording to Eee *+. Iewi "anti exposed teacher&s feedback under correction and assessment *comment and grade-.. the thought and comment will be saved for a very long time in the memories. Bere..2. ased on curriculum !T"#. "imilarly. (33D 9 +A@-. and mechanics *Gacobs. feedback is information that is given to the learner about his or her performance of the learning task. Fulgor *+. "ri Euciani *+. iaael in 1appe *+.Teacher%editor responded to students& writing in second drafts 3. 'ndirect feedback will be read and resistant. The marking of products should always open more opportunities in which students can redraft their work.. in process writing teacher must motivate students to do more toward their writing. 2ccording to Ierewianka *(33+9(A. discussing. The reason why the researcher wanted to do her study in this school. 2lso the researcher observed the teacher& strategies in solve problems during the action 5. "tudents& writing performance during the process. purposes and the language feature of the text."tudents produced a second draft A. organi. To support this study. teaching writing will be 6 good if depends on the teachers> ability how to teach writing effectively which can make the students& ability being improved.2Problem S a emen ased on the background above.+ 9 (3-. the researcher applies the product moment formula.Hbservation sheet. D. !.suggests five components or criteria to evaluate the students& writing 8uality9 content. Bowever in this study. +. the teacher and researcher have preparation as follows9 (.+-. Therefore. $hen teachers teach writing course not only teach about how to develop ideas in writing. pg. does not communicate. y this way. succinct. 2ll students& compositions @ were assessed based on two aspect of evaluation in writing. places. 2. 2003 : 152). besides students will learn how to evaluate their self *self7evaluate-. 'n addition.The teacher planned to teach students about what appropriate content to be written in descriptive text. smelt. preposition. and picking places where your writing could be clearer.ation the introduction should work from general to specific. The results showed that indirect feedback with student self7 editing contributes to accuracy more than direct feedback. not enough to evaluate There were two independent raters in assessing students& writing. emerging capabilities. 'n collecting data.! Sub"ec o& 'e % ud( The researcher took the sub/ect by using purposive sampling.*In% rumen o& 'e S ud( The instruments that the researcher used in this study were as follows9 (. This action research aims to follow the process of the improving students ability and is conducted by the teacher itself by reflecting his %her work and trying to improve his%her way in teaching writing especially to give indirect feedback. the students& writing ability will improve. idea. 2 typical pre7writing activity in the process approach would be for learners to brainstorm on the topic being provided. another research proves that indirect feedback is better than direct feedback. Hrgani. 2fter that.(36=9@3D-. Taking conclusion. the type of feedback provided was indirect feedback that was given on students& writing. direct feedback will be kept in their mind in a short time. Feedback that is given directly or indirectly can improve student&s writing... (36(-.5 -. the lecturer asked the students to rewrite their essay and finally collected +. using both 8uantitative and 8ualitative data sources. procedure of giving feedback on students& writing. for example to create a particular mood. )oger *+. +D The teacher would explain that a well7focused sub/ect can be ordinary or extraordinary. but it will keep only in mind of receiver and the feedback can /ust lost in certain time. states that the stages of writing process consists of planning. 1oreover.in E"E composition *see table 5. usually with the objective of improving their performance 3 'n addition. they were class 0(. the presentation. they become better informed about the re8uirements of good writing *for specific genres. the researcher took conclusion about the teacher&s feedback whether it had improved students or not. and the conclusion should restate your thesis. !. 'n this step. +. From these facts..describe the stages of the writing process9 SWriting is a fluid process created by writers as they work.classifies three stages of editing for grammar9 editing at discourse level. and an essential part of the teaching process *2nderson.+.1 De%#gn o& 'e % ud( The design of this study was classroom action research because the teacher is directly involved in improving students& ability by doing self7reflection. !oung writers. #lanning is a series of strategies designed to find and produce information in writing planning is any orderly procedure used to bring about a desire result. clarity. 5Re$#%#ng 'n this stage. The teacher also gave some copies of material to the students including the codes used to evaluate their writing and prepared the observation sheet *appendix A. 1@good 8ood #deaA good de a#l Jou have something good here9 a good word. loosely organi. such as making the sub/ect plural instead of singular.++ and after lecturer gave the correction. students would select among ideas during pre7writing and structure. +. 'n this section. brainstorming. 2fter the actions were conducted. 'n the end the result showed an improvement of students& writing.The researcher observed the students& composition in process. De&#n# #on o& Term 7Ac #on re%earc' is applied research done to answer a specific practical problem. ccomplished writers move back and forth between the stages of the process.ed paragraph .. the students cannot have the chance of correcting the wrong behavior and re7practicing the correct behavior. there must be the difference when using direct or indirect feedback on students& writing. the students rewrote their compositions and corrected their own mistakes. they are. description. to create characters. 5a#r o +oor. =Ed# #ng This is where the role of teacher in giving indirect feedback will be applied.!Ob"ec #$e% o& T'e S ud( The ob/ectives of the study referred two main issues9 7't can add the students& and teacher&s knowledge about how to give comments%constructive feedback indirectly to writing = 7To investigate the increasing of students& writing trough the teacher&s indirect feedback. To make it easier to be controlled and see the writing improvement in +3 part of organi. if students are having problem in expressing an idea.ation and language use in their descriptive text under teacher&s indirect feedback on their writing text by achieving marking scheme *good. because the researcher took the sub/ect based on the problem found before conducting the action. 'n which teacher and students cooperate to make a draft.. Jet many teacher and students alike consider writing to be most difficult sub/ect of language skill to learn. highlighting or circling. the researcher then did the test again.) T'e A%%e%%men Tec'n#>ue o& S uden %1 /r# #ng 'n assessing the students& writing Nuality.1 T(+e% o& Teac'er1% 5eedback Feedback consists of some types. and language feature. and revising. the indirect feedback.(. 2ction researchers typically triangulate data. relevant to assigned topic. Then teacher asked the students to identify the model text and learn it. The model text is prepared in appendix = +@ =. 'f a student has 8uestions.(.Teacher responded to the first draft by giving feedback of all aspects but more concentrate on the body of text in area of language u%e and organ#Ea #on and returns the paper. The researcher assumes that the problem can be solved by this techni8ue and the students also can improve their writing ability 5 through the teacher&s feedback before being able to correct the mistakes by themselves.2 D#rec 5eedback 4%. Gacob *(36(9 D. teacher should respond to writing based on criteria that have been communicated and taught to students and responses to errors.. Teacher would teach the student based on the lesson plan as a guide of teaching that has been made by the researcher cooperates with the English teacher."tudents& writing. limited support. ut before that. there are some important notes must be noticed in teaching writing and assessment. voice.says :Feedback is not just about weaknesses. benefit from the structure and security of following the writing process in their writing (@ Sthere is no single writing processS *(3369 (.for organi. @.Q. which was aimed to note the supporter data that related to the ob/ect in this study. in which the language feature will be shown in underlined words. #aryatun *(33A-. To al 22. the teacher and the researcher would do the planning that had been arranged. 1. ideas clearly stated% supported. an event. the problem that came up in this study was formulated as follow9 :'s teacher&s indirect feedback able to improve students& writing ability in part of organi. the English teacher and the researcher rated student&s writing independently and record each other and calculated the inter rater agreement is calculated. (. he%she can write it down. 0=.had conducted their studies in Baluoleo 4niversity. drafting. Editing at word level. #recise use of ad/ectives. Hbservation sheet referred by put a mark%tick to statements of process writing was done. 2. they are too generali. 2fter doing the pre7observation before the study was conducted. logical se8uencing cohesive 8ood o a$erage. 2fter discussing about those characteristic of descriptive text. felt. The students didn&t understand about certain instruction of text for example the generic structure of the text.e its findings. and appropriate register. they may use examples. $rite in another way to make the meaning clearer. !.. The first rater was the researcher herself and the second rater is an English teacher of "14 Negeri 3 !endari. "hih in 1appe *+.Field note. especially by the teacher. writing. The teaching of writing is a matter of prescribing a set of predetermined tasks or exercises to the students.'mplementing the plan re8uires9 'n this stage. +. The pre7observation was conducted on 2pril (. Feedback is kind of assessment that concern to the giving information about students& writing performance. the writer wants to explain what kind of feedback that important to students& writing.ing what makes it interesting or new and unusual. 8ualities. The observation sheet can be seen in appendix A. For that reason. 'n this step.6 +6 are ++D students. that :there are different views on the stages that the writers go through in producing a piece of (D writing. mind mapping. Hne of them is teacher&s feedback%correction. 'n comparison to traditional research which aims to generali. ut. fast writing. the teacher only took one class purposively which the problem found. they only note the note of the errors from the teacher. and also to help a writer develop an aspect of their work. The model that is proposed for teacher in doing action research follows the cyclical structure outlined by !emmis and 1cTaggart *(366-.7(6 (A 7 (= (5 7 (. 3anguage U%e Fgrammar? +@7++ +(7(6 (A7(( E0cellen o $er( good. idea clearly stated%supported.Ac #on H(+o 'e%#% ased on the context of the study. N. describing the phenomenon in parts. Moncerning to the limited time in each meeting. the strategies and the way of teacher in solving the problem and students& work. but should do the best to make it as interesting as possible by emphasi.es that teachers& feedback is essential element in helping students improve.states that in indirect feedback. emphasi. 72s information to another researcher who investigate the same problem deeply. but gives students the opportunity to fix errors themselves *Ferris. 'n this case. The content might be written without considering the grammatical aspect first. language use *grammar. seen. 0@. the teacher and the researcher prepared the techni8ue will be applied in solving the problem they face. well organi. English as a global language sets the important role in teaching English at school from elementary school until senior high school and even in university. From these six classes. To make indirect feedback is more effective. she is 8ualified for assessing students& writing. student itself or possibly the reader will understand it. this study investigated whether students& writing ability improve or not under teacher?s feedback.To make the process of teaching and learning would run effectively. but meaning seldom obscured 5a#r o +oor. consisting of five parallel classes. This note also was used to record the teaching learning process related to weaknesses and obstacles found in the research. The study was conducted in the first grade students. *Medina . 8uestioning. (36+-. this study could be a thinking contribution in improving teacher&s 8uality in giving indirect feedback.. smell. agreement. *"enduk in hasyim. vocabulary. Feedback from teacher on the students& writing could play a vital role especially in teaching process. it showed that there was high correlation between raters *appendix 3.and field note *appendix (. the teacher would ask the students to discuss about the organi.2 Se #ng o& 'e S ud( This study was conducted in "14 Negeri 3 !endari. or%and characteristics."tudents responded to codec given and comment. Irafting is a series strategy designed to organi. $hile. Finocchiaro in hasyim *+. word form mastery. then rewrite their drafts D.*A%%um+ #on The researcher had an assumption that Teacher&s feedback indirectly on students& writing is effective for developing and promoting students> English writing skill. 1.. to bring writing to life. looking at your writing from a different point of view. 't can be seen in appendix =. the lecturer correcting students& essay.Hbservation. the 8uantitative data is the result of students& achievement before and after the action is applied. the names of students are covered by piece of paper to avoid the scoring animus. they need someone to check about the mistake that they made. vocabulary. students who had problem to compose writing in a good organi.in Turkish 4niversity of pre7intermediate learners with regards to what strategy to use in responding to students& writing in the English #reparatory #rogram compared two groups9 one with direct feedback and the other with indirect feedback using correction codes.ation is very effective way...-. 4sing ad/ective and classifiers in nominal group. and exposition. teacher can be as describer when he%she gives feedback. generic structure. reduction. reading. !. explicit written feedback.@-. 't could be from (5 teacher or peer because writing usually involves one person for another to help them in expressing their ideas in writing form. "tudents& improvement before and after the action.Q. the advantages and disadvantages of the feedback itself. content of writing. but most of the corrections only for the correction in punctuation and spelling without giving correction in organi. Teachers can offer selfLcorrection opportunity for their students by providing indirect feedback on student&s grammatical errors *Mhandler . *)ichard C $hite in 1appe. 0+.Q. on the other hand. 05. 5. Iirect feedback is a techni8ue of correcting students& error by giving (. the researcher selected the data in which the data was focused ob/ect that the writer observes.notes that indirect feedback is more useful than direct feedback.Hbserving the effect of the implementation relies on collecting data. the teacher made the plans in lesson plan. (. the students will create the sentences based on their ideas and the words in the sentences must be arranged grammatically which deals with tenses and agreement. The lesson plan can be seen in appendix (. The result showed that before lecturer gave the correction the total score was =6. as follow9 rxy ( )( ) } { { ( ) } ( ) } { + + + + ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ − − − = y y " x x " y x xy " $here9 rxy K the coefficient correlation of inter rater x K the students& scores from the first rater y K the students& scores from the second raters N K number of sub/ects The result of inter7rater agreement is . discovering how to organi. ending in a thesis sentence.(. support of ideas *details%examples-. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. 6. 'n teaching writing. 'n contrast. Be focused giving feedback on students& writing that would be assessed based on five aspect of composition. That was on pretest A=.Teacher planned to teach students the language feature of descriptive text.e them and discovering what you want to put on your reader. explanation. 7S uden %1 2r# #ng ab#l# ( refers to the students& competence in applying the components of writing were content. Further. *1c. word order%function. teacher prepares model of text. "pKspelling.=. sentences level and word level Editing at discourse level is meant the writer needs to make changes in one sentence. similes. 4sing attributive and identifying process. to help presentation of the data and taking conclusion. (3339 (6-.ation or not enough to evaluate. but also develop their ideas. succinct. The use of genre approach in solving the problem in students& writing.Ieveloping an action plan. m#%%#ng 2ord There is a missing word need to insert < = >ue% #on mark? unclear mean#ng ' can&t understand this. Ealande *(36+. teachers can consistently use a standard set of symbols or markings to indicate place and type of error and train the students in what kinds of corrections to make based on each symbol. for example. teacher should encourage students to continue writing.en. The procedure of the research in this study consisted of design of the study. 5#gure o& 'e %ub"ec No Cla%% Sum 1 D1 !. 2ll of the senses can be used in a descriptive text.ation. researcher uses three steps. ( Teaching writing is always related to how to give feedback directly or indirectly on writing in a good way. 'n discussing about organi. an or the for singular noun . Bence. the teacher help the students through the (A revision to shape and reshape the text into final form. 2. Basyim conducted the study by focusing on the effect of correction provided by lecturer. students will know the appropriate of the language feature for their composition.The score scale description was discussed again after the scoring session has begun to make sure that the raters are not deviating from scoring guides. setting of the study.! T'e role o& eac'er #n +ro$#d#ng #nd#rec &eedback o S uden %1 2r# #ng The students cannot write alone and writing also not only a single step but a process. as follow9 (. including writing skill. the researcher interested to investigate whether indirect feedback from their teacher would affect and increase their writing or not.Teacher planned to teach students how to organi. The researcher found that most of the students had problem in organi. the students& essay. or indirectly by indicating in the margins that there is an error on that line but without providing the correct form. the evaluation.First and second drafts were then handed in."tudents write the first draft =.)S#gn#&#can o& T'e S ud( 7For teacher. they might take something ordinary and by comparing it with something extraordinary.ation and language use. 4r *(33D9 +=+. The researcher thinks indirect feedback is one of positive support that can be given by an English teacher to their students in order to improve students& writing and minimi. drafting. and listening. "tudents draft and ?monitor& their texts 5. Frat. (36A9(-. "ensory description 7 what is heard. we can help students compare their own performance with the ideal and to diagnose their own strength and weaknesses. The teacher taught based on the lesson plan that have been made in planning stage. 2fter that. and usage. Those were language use and organization. and finished by re7orientation% conclusion *appendix =-. 'n the procedure of giving correction in Basyim&s study.. 'n this case. sub/ective and focused on some aspect of performance that make the students cannot change. 5= +. (33D-.. 'n a similar study. supporter and counselor%advisor to make their writing better. 'n this stage. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general and Iescription. Total students in 0( are 56 students and after doing the pre7observation. prepare the instrument += that will be used to collect data.< 1. no fluent. The text type was descriptive text.-Sco+e o& T'e S ud( "pecifically. Nuestion mark P. instrument of the study. (36(9 D.ation. word order%function. and 4sing simple present tense *Medina . Teacher explained about the descriptive text in general and explains the codec error that was given in their composition.ation and language use aspect on the first grader in "12N 3 !endari. That is why giving feedback to students& writing is important skill that is seldom taught. Exclamation mark PRQ.1Background Nowadays. tense number. 1. mood. students involve the activities. the researcher only focused on (. punctuation. +. The meaning is not clear. Iescriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like or to provide enough vivid detail to help the reader create a mental picture of what is being written about.ed. $hile. . fresh language. 'n assessing writing. 'n addition. thorough development of thesis. 2. the present study will conduct the study that is different with previous studies by using indirect feedback. atmosphere or describe a place so that the reader can create vivid pictures of characters.1@Ind#ca or o& +er&ormance The students as the target of this study are expected to achieve score (= upper *good.ation area and language use.< D 7Ind#rec &eedback is provided if the teacher indicates the location of the error indirectly on the paper by underlining.A%+.2fter the teacher gave feedback to students& +nd draft.defines &eedback in general as :any procedures uses to inform a learner whether an instructional response is right or wrong. and observation. Then.The teacher provided grade and praise to students& final draft. no organi.. preparing the teaching material. 5@ 'n this step. The way of teacher gave indirect feedback to students& writing =. (33@-. he % she must be able to teach writing effectively in the classroom. Hverview of #rocess in Iescriptive $riting.. The teaching and learning process was begun by preparation. because it is a new school that has /ust registered as a senior high school in kendari in +. 2 D2 )@ ! D! !. hearing. to set a mood or create an atmosphere.e their writing in a good order. the researcher had got some problem related to her study in this "chool and wants to solve it. 'n this stage. present themselves as helpful facilitators offering support and guidance. (3 The language uses of this text should rely on precisely chosen vocabulary with carefully chosen ad/ectives and adverbs."tudents& writing +. they are language use and organization.=. they may act as an authority imposing critical /udgment on writing products *Ferris et al .did her study in /unior high school.ation. or the most important person in their life etc. Bowever. the )ole of Teacher in Fiving 'ndirect Feedback to "tudents& writing. action research is primarily concerned with relevance to the specific site in which it occurs *Bitchcock C Bughes. virtually no mastery of sentence construction rules. etc 11/O 2ord order the words in this sentence are in the wrong order 2. Fenre based approach can be said to make the text structurally and characteri. the hypothesis that proposed in this study was if the teacher applies indirect feedback strategy in connecting of student&s paper. The generic structure of descriptive text are 'dentification.and #rovide students with a language for discussing their writing. !. d%ed. factors that were observed. To make students understand easily about the content.and mechanic *Gacob.. Then to measure the applying inter7rater. 'n the pre7observation the first grade class which had problem was 0( . Those results of previous studies indicate that feedback both directly and indirectly are effective approach to be used in improving students& writing. students who had problem in writing a related text. students would get motivation to write because they feel that they have something matter to say. the teacher&s feedback is eventually needed to provide a whole class impression before they are engaged in an individual writing as practice. they need guidance.. this study serves a different design from previous study because those studies mostly focused on giving direct feedback to students& writing or compared between direct and indirect feedback. the researcher had gotten about 5. teacher prepared a model of text.. and it&s focused more on audience. . $hile. it is clear that feedback is very useful in teaching and learning process. the researcher described all the data that have been found into words. the factual writing consists of six types. y depriving them of their opportunity for redrafting and reassessing. esides. The researcher found the problem in the first grader at 0( . (+. #eriod P. it involves ideas. interviewing. The researcher chose the English teacher of the first grader students because she taught writing sub/ect in the fist grade. There are two kinds of teacher&s feedback.tells that some feedback from teacher serves unhelpful feedback to student. Even though peers feedback is more advantageous. Oocabulary of $riting must be sophisticated range. $hen the students want to create a clear pattern of organi.. effective complex construction. 't was found that the group +( which received indirect coded error feedback had more accuracy than direct feedback in writing.for language use by using E"E composition proposed by Gacob et al *(36(-..ation of $riting must be fluent expression.+9+5. This stage involves the teacher and the researcher prepared the lesson scenario for the action. after that. 1oreover. the researcher observed some factors. but main ideas stand out. in which the text was formed into orientation.ation and language use. 5+755-. and all presentation. To be reliable in evaluation. Iescriptive text can be divided from its purpose. This school had registered in +. 'n regarding with this pattern of text organi. The researcher had got a fact about the performance of + teaching writing in "12 Negeri 3 !endari. encourage them before they write their sentences in the first draft.th .e students with the system so they will not be surprised when new symbols are occured. b. and not focusing on students& writing task. Basyim *+.The score of composition in inter7rater training was calculated in product moment until the correlation was achieved. the teacher will write the 8uestion on whiteboard in order to other students can learn and help in their writing. !. Bowever. This study focused on the students on the first grade of "14 Negeri 3 !endari academic year +. Feedback. Iewi "anti *+. and vision. Therefore. et al *(36(9DA-. +5 The four :moments< of action research defined by !emmis and 1cTaggart guide the research model9 a. substantive.gives the symbols or codec that can be used to indicate error in indirect feedback can be seen as follows9 (+ Table 1 Correc #on code% u%ed o #nd#ca e error (+e% #n #nd#rec &eedback NoCode 6ean#ng 7#nd% o& error% 1 /C /ord c'o#ce The words are inapplicable with the sentences% meaning 2 PREP Pre+o%# #on $rong preposition ! 4T $erb en%e or 8R 9 more general grammar +roblem%$rong tense% use another tense ) S:4 A %ub"ec $erb agreemen sub/ect and verb don&t agree * SP %+ell#ng error $rong spelling%punctuation your spelling . tense. article. )elated to the generic structure of description. Eee *+.. the researcher observed in "12N 3 !endari.ed which consists of purpose. or spelling. recount. The students& writings were taken randomly.ation. The two raters. $hen they apply the criteria. "o. +Dra& #ng 'n this stage. Ind#rec &eedback 2lthough there are some types of feedback. Iuring the assessment session. Hbservation would be done during the teaching and learning process was conducted. teacher prepares the model of text.The teacher again noted down on the first draft any further explanations that were necessary.7@ construction. 'n relation with the problem that students have. "tages in $riting. the researcher got 5.conducted the study by showing us that either direct or indirect correction does not improve students& writing significantly. drafting. )evising writing can be started by making decisions about how you want to improve your writing. so that they may take action based on the findings. semi colon P. 1. techni8ue of data analysis and indicator of performance. The assistance and feedback given by the teacher should not be confined to the last stage of the writing process. 'n this stage. somewhat choppy.es that revision is a process in which writers not only polish their style. ideas confused or disconnected lacks logical se8uencing and development 4er( +oor. 2. articles and preposition correct. procedure. The 8ualitative data is the description of the process during the action.T'e E$alua #on 'n evaluating the students& writing the researcher used the E"E composition profile proposed by Bolly Gacobs. content.(@.ed the data that have been taken during the action. +A c. For example touch. The patterns of feedback and responses given by the writing teacher depend very much on the teacher&s conception of the composing process and his%her understanding of learner&s errors. 5. teacher recogni. ma/or problem in simple complex 55 (. it also help students to take greater confidence of their learning and increasing the students& performance. the teacher will explain more what should be written in each part of descriptive text. They may choose vivid.. From those statements

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