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Exhaust Emission Measurement and Control

Preet Ferozepuria 1
Content
1. Exhaust Smoke, Measurement, Regulations & Control
 General Considerations, Smoke Types
 Smoke Measuring Instrumentation
◦ Filter Soiling Spot Meters
◦ Opacimeters, Light Absorption Coeff., Hartridge No.
 Transient Smoke as per EPA
 Free Acceleration Smoke
 Smoke limit for off-highway & commercial Vehicles & Genset Engines
2. Pollution test procedures – ECE R49, ESC, ETC, ELR.
3. Emission Standards for HD vehicles in USA, European Union & India
4. Emission Standards for off-highway vehicles in USA, European Union & India
5. Emission Standards for Power Generation engines in India
6. Certification & Self Audit
7. Deterioration factors
8. On Board Diagnostics for diesel engines

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Content
9. Exhaust Pollutants and their formation
 Formation in diesel engine of:
◦ NOx
◦ HC
◦ CO
◦ PM
◦ Effect of Sulfur on pollutant Formation
 Control of pollutants in diesel engine:
◦ NOx
◦ HC
◦ CO
◦ PM
10. Exhaust Gas After treatments
 Three- Way Catalytic Converters for spark ignition engines
 Diesel Oxidation Catalysts
 DeNOx
 Diesel Particulate Filters
 Selective Catalyst Reduction

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Training Content
11. EGR (Exhaust Gas Re-circulation)
 Internal EGR
 External EGR
 On/Off vs. Proportionate EGR
 ECU and sensors for EGR
12. CO2 emission from diesel engines
13. Diesel vs. CNG engines
14. Analyzers for Measurement of NOx, HC, CO, CO2, PM etc.
15. Wet and Dry measurement of emission contents
16. Units of emission measurement – Emission Index and Specific Emission
17. Equivalence Ratio determination from Exhaust Gas constituents
18. Combustion Inefficiency

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EXHAUST SMOKE, MEASUREMENT,
REGULATIONS & CONTROL

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GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

 The presence of smoke in the diesel engine exhaust is an


indication of poor combustion resulting from some malfunction
or maladjustment.
 Most industrialized countries have therefore introduced
regulations of varying degrees of complexity to control smoke
emission from road vehicles.
 The regulations have been in addition to the relatively simple
existing regulations covering industrial plant and have involved
much development both of test methods and instrumentation.

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SMOKE TYPES

 Smoke may be defined as particles, either solid or liquid


(aerosols), suspended in the exhaust gases, which obstruct, reflect,
or refract light.
 Diesel engine exhaust smoke can be categorized under two
headings:
1. Blue/white in appearance under direct illumination, and consisting of a mixture
of fuel and lubricating oil particles in an unburnt, partly burnt, or cracked state.
2. Grey/black in appearance, and consisting of solid particles of carbon from
otherwise complete combustion of fuel.

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BLUE/WHITE
 The blue component derives
mainly from an excess of
lubricating oil in the combustion
chamber, resulting from
deterioration of piston ring sealing,
or value guide wear, and is thus
an indication of a need for
mechanical overhaul.
 Unburnt fuel can also appear as
blue smoke if the droplet size is
circa 0.5 µm.

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BLUE/WHITE
 The white component is mainly a result of
too low a temperature in the combustion
chamber during the fuel injection period.
 It has a droplet size of circa 1.3 µm.
 This can occur as a transient condition
during the starting period, in low ambient
temperatures or at high altitude,
disappearing as the engine warms up.
 It can result from too late fuel injection or
may even be an indication of a design
fault, in the sense that the compression
ratio is too low, or has been optimized for
an inappropriate combination of operating
conditions.

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GREY/BLACK
 Grey/black smoke is produced at or near full load if fuel in excess of
the maximum designed value is injected, or if the air intake is
restricted.
 In normal operation its onset is associated with reduced thermal
efficiency and sets a limit to power output before any serious
proportion of toxic component such as carbon monoxide is
discharged.
 The main causes of excessive black smoke emission in service are
either poor maintenance of air filters and/or fuel injectors, or
incorrect setting of the fuel injection pump.

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GREY/BLACK
 Such smoke consists essentially of carbon particles or coagulates
of a wide range of sizes, ranging from 0.02 µm upwards to over
0.12 µm mean diameter.
 This size distribution depends to some extent on the type of
combustion system, which also affects the onset of smoke emission
as fuel input quantity is increased.

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SMOKE MEASURING INSTRUMENTATION

1. Filter-soiling 'spot' meters


2. Opacimeters
1. Sampling opacimeters
2. Full-flow opacimeters

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FILTER-SOILING 'SPOT' METERS

 If exhaust gas is passed through a


white filter paper, the carbon
particles are deposited, and the
darkening of the paper can be
taken as a measure of the smoke
density.
 For consistency of measurement it
is essential that a fixed volume of
gas is passed through a defined
area of filter paper, and the paper
itself needs to be closely specified.

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FILTER-SOILING 'SPOT' METERS
 The gas sample should be passed through the paper at a
constant rate, and excessive pressure fluctuations at the
point in the exhaust system from which the gas sample is
extracted will produce erroneous results, as will
condensation of moisture on the filter paper.
 A high proportion of aerosols in the exhaust gives a
reduced value of smoke density, since the paper is
rendered transparent, to some extent.
 Such smoke meters are therefore of no use in cases
where blue/white smoke is present.

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OPACIMETERS
 The visibility of smoke is by definition
an optical phenomenon, and its density
most easily measured in terms of light
absorption.
 Photocell output is related linearly to
the reduction in light intensity (opacity)
resulting from the presence of smoke,
and opacity is usually expressed as a
percentage:

where
 I is the light intensity at the photocell with smoke present
in the light path;
 Io is the light intensity at the photocell with only clean air
present in the light path.

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TYPES OF OPACIMETERS
Opacimeters may be classified as:
 Sampling, or
 Full- flow,
• In-line and
• End-of- line types.

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SAMPLING OPACIMETERS
 In its simplest classical form, the
exhaust gas sample is extracted
from the system by a probe, and
passed through a tube having a
photocell at one end and a filament
bulb at the other.
 Zero is checked by passing
scavenging air through the tube.
 Not only is this scavenging
uncertain in its efficiency, but zero
errors occur from soiling of the light
source and the photocell.
 Diffusion of light from both smoke
particles and condensation droplets
also forms a source of error.

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FULL-FLOW OPACIMETERS
 The full-flow end-of-line opacimeter designed by USPHS for the measurement of
smoke emitted by heavy-duty vehicle engines is based logically on the premise
that the appearance of the smoke plume discharged from the tail pipe is the
essential quality to be assessed.
 The sensor, as shown in Figure, consisting of the light source and photocell, is
carried on a rigid ring which is mounted close above the vertical exhaust pipe, so
that the collimated light beam is transmitted diametrically through the plume.
 A supply of clean air under pressure to the optical system is required both to keep
the system cool and avoid soiling by smoke.

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LIGHT ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT
 Smoke density is defined by naQ = k,
where
 n is the concentration of smoke particles (for black smoke
gm/cu m carbon);
 a is the average particle projected area;
 Q is the average particle extinction coefficient;
 The parameter k being referred to as either the 'extinction coefficient', or the 'coefficient of light
absorption‘.
 This is related to the opacity and effective length of light path by
the equation:

where
 L is the effective light path length within the smoke (in meters)

 k thus represents a smoke density parameter independent of


the particular design configuration of the opacimeter.

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FREE ACCELERATION SMOKE

 Free Acceleration Test: means the test conducted by abruptly but not
violently, accelerating the vehicle from idle to full speed with the
vehicle stationary in neutral gear.

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FREE ACCELERATION SMOKE TEST - ISSUES
 Smoke readings differ with warming up of the vehicle. It is very
difficult to achieve the specified 10 km warming up in the field to
get the consistent readings.
 The free acceleration test is a transient test. (raising the speed from
idling to max rpm). The smoke readings may vary depending on the
way the accelerator pedal is pressed by various operators.
 There is a complaint in the field that the smoke readings at different
PUC centers do not match.

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SMOKE LIMIT FOR OFF-HIGHWAY & COMMERCIAL
VEHICLES & GENSET ENGINES

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SMOKE LIMIT FOR OFF-HIGHWAY & COMMERCIAL
VEHICLES & GENSET ENGINES
GENSET ENGINES

Power (kw) Smoke


(1/m)
Kw<= 37 0.7
37<kw<=75 0.7
75<kw<=130 0.7
130<kw<800 0.7

1. Time – lines: April 2015/April 2014 Considering product


development, Certification.
2. Fuel Specifications: Less than 50ppm sulfur Diesel fuel, across
the Country

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POLLUTION TEST PROCEDURES –
ECE R49, ESC, ETC, ELR.

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POLLUTION TEST PROCEDURES
ECE R49
 The R49 is a 13-mode steady-state diesel engine test cycle
introduced by ECE Regulation No.49 .
 It had been used for type approval emission testing of heavy-
duty highway engines through the Euro II emission standard.
Effective October 2000 (Euro III), the R49 cycle was replaced by
the ESC schedule.
 The R49 test is performed on an engine dynamometer operated
through a sequence of 13 speed and load conditions.
 Exhaust emissions measured at each mode are expressed in
g/kWh.
 The final test result is a weighted average of the 13 modes.

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ECE R49
The test conditions of the R49 cycle are shown in Table
ECE R49 and US 13-mode Cycles

Mode No. Speed Load, % Weighting Factors


R49 US
1 idle - 0.25/3 0.20/3
2 maximum 10 0.08 0.08
3 torque 25 0.08 0.08
speed
4 50 0.08 0.08
5 75 0.08 0.08
6 100 0.25 0.08
7 idle - 0.25/3 0.20/3
8 rated 100 0.10 0.08
9 power 75 0.02 0.08
speed
10 50 0.02 0.08
11 25 0.02 0.08
12 10 0.02 0.08
13 idle - 0.25/3 0.20/3

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ECE R49

 The weighting factors of the R49 cycle are


shown in Figure .
 The areas of circles in the graph are
proportional to the weighting factors for
the respective modes.
 The running conditions of the R49 test
cycle are identical to those of the US 13-
mode cycle. The weighting factors,
however, are different.
 Due to high weighting factors for modes 6
and 8 (high engine load), the European
cycle is characterized by high average
exhaust gas temperatures.

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ESC

 The ESC test cycle (also known as OICA/ACEA cycle) has


been introduced, together with the ETC (European Transient
Cycle) and the ELR (European Load Response) tests, for
emission certification of heavy-duty diesel engines in Europe
starting in the year 2000
 The ESC is a 13-mode, steady-state procedure that replaces
the R-49 test.

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ESC
The engine is tested on an engine dynamometer over a sequence of
steady-state modes (Table )
ESC Test Modes
Mode Engine Speed % Load Weight factor, Duration
%
1 Low idle 0 15 4 minutes
2 A 100 8 2 minutes
3 B 50 10 2 minutes
4 B 75 10 2 minutes
5 A 50 5 2 minutes
6 A 75 5 2 minutes
7 A 25 5 2 minutes
8 B 100 9 2 minutes
9 B 25 10 2 minutes
10 C 100 8 2 minutes
11 C 25 5 2 minutes
12 C 75 5 2 minutes
13 C 50 5 2 minutes

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ESC
 The engine is tested on an engine
dynamometer over a sequence of
steady-state modes (Figure)
 The engine must be operated for the
prescribed time in each mode,
completing engine speed and load
changes in the first 20 seconds.
 The specified speed shall be held to
within 50 rpm and the specified torque
shall be held to within 2% of the
maximum torque at the test speed.
 Emissions are measured during each
mode and averaged over the cycle
using a set of weighting factors.
Particulate matter emissions are
sampled on one filter over the 13
modes.

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ESC
 Maximum emission at these extra modes are determined by
interpolation between results from the neighboring regular test modes.
 The engine speeds are defined as follows:
1. The high speed nhi is determined by calculating 70% of the
declared maximum net power.
2. The low speed nlo is determined by calculating 50% of the declared
maximum net power.
3. The engine speeds A, B, and C to be used during the test are then
calculated from the following formulas:
A = nlo + 0.25(nhi - nlo)
B = nlo + 0.50(nhi - nlo)
C = nlo + 0.75(nhi - nlo)
The ESC test is characterized by high average load factors and very high
exhaust gas temperatures.

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ETC

 The ETC test cycle (also known as FIGE transient cycle) has been
introduced, together with the ESC (European Stationary Cycle),
for emission certification of heavy-duty diesel engines in Europe
starting in the year 2000The ESC and ETC cycles replace the
earlier R-49 test.
 The ETC cycle has been developed by the FIGE Institute,
Aachen, Germany, based on real road cycle measurements of
heavy duty vehicles.
 The final ETC cycle is a shortened and slightly modified version of
the original FIGE proposal.

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ETC
 Different driving conditions are represented by three parts of the
ETC cycle, including urban, rural and motorway driving.
 The duration of the entire cycle is 1800s. The duration of each
part is 600s.
◦ Part one represents city driving with a maximum speed of 50 km/h, frequent
starts, stops, and idling.
◦ Part two is rural driving starting with a steep acceleration segment. The
average speed is about 72 km/h
◦ Part three is motorway driving with average speed of about 88 km/h.

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ETC

Vehicle speed vs time over the duration of the cycle

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ETC
ETC Transient Cycle - Engine Speed

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ETC
ETC Transient Cycle - Engine Torque

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ELR

 The ELR engine test has been introduced by the Euro III
emission regulation, effective year 2000, for the purpose of
smoke opacity measurement from heavy-duty diesel engines.
 The test consists of a sequence of three load steps at each of
the three engine speeds A (cycle 1), B (cycle 2) and C (cycle 3),
followed by cycle 4 at a speed between speed A and speed C
and a load between 10% and 100%, selected by the certification
personnel.
 Speeds A, B, and C are defined in the ESC cycle.

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ELR
The sequence of dynamometer operation on the test engine

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ELR
Smoke measurement values are continuously sampled during the ELR
test with a frequency of at least 20 Hz.
 The smoke traces are then analyzed to determine the final smoke
values by calculation.
 First, smoke values are averaged over 1 second time intervals using
a special averaging algorithm.
 Second, load step smoke values are determined as the highest 1s
average value at each of the three load steps for each of the test
speeds.
 Third, mean smoke values for each cycle (test speed) are calculated
as arithmetic averages from the cycle's three load step smoke values.
 The final smoke value is determined as a weighted average from the
mean values at speeds A (weighting factor 0.43) , B (0.56), and C
(0.01).

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EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HD
VEHICLES IN USA, EUROPEAN UNION &
INDIA

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EPA EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HEAVY-DUTY
DIESEL ENGINES

PM NOx NMHC
(g/ bhp-hr) (g/ bhp-hr) (g/ bhp-hr)

0.01 0.20 0.14

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EU EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HD DIESEL
ENGINES, G/KWH (SMOKE IN M-1)
Tier Date CO HC NOx PM Smoke

Euro IV 2005.10 1.5 0.46 3.5 0.02 0.5

Euro V 2008.10 1.5 0.46 2.0 0.02 0.5

Euro 2013.01 1.5 0.13 0.4 0.01


VI†

† Proposal (2008.12.16)

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INDIAN EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HD DIESEL
ENGINES, G/KWH (SMOKE IN M-1)

Year Reference CO HC NOx PM

2005† Euro II 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15

2010† Euro III 2.1 0.66 5.0 0.10

† earlier introduction in selected regions,

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EMISSION STANDARDS FOR OFF-
HIGHWAY VEHICLES IN USA, EUROPEAN
UNION & INDIA

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TIER IV EMISSION STANDARD (g/kWh)
Engine Year CO NMHC NMHC NOx PM
power + NOx
kW<8 2008 8.0 - 7.5 - 0.4
8≤ kW<19 2008 6.6 - 7.5 - 0.4
19≤ kW<37 2008 5.5 - 7.5 - 0.3
2013 5.5 - 4.7 - 0.03
37≤ kW<56 2008 5.0 - 4.7 - 0.3a
2013 5.0 - 4.7 - 0.03
56≤ kW<130 2012 5.0 0.19 - 0.40 0.02
-
2014
a - 0.4 gm/kWh(Tier 2) cmanufacturer complies with the 0.03 gm/kWh standard
from 2012
c- 25% engines must comply in 2012-2014, with full compliance from 31st
December
500ppm diesel2014
available from June 2007. 50ppm (ULSD) availability from June
2010
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EU-OFF HIGHWAY EMISSION NORMS
STAGE IIIA
Category Applicabl CO NMHC + PM
e (g/kwh) NOx (g/ kwh)
From (g/ kwh)

19≤P<37 2007-01 5.5 7.5 0.6

37≤P<75 2008-01 5.0 4.7 0.4

75≤P<130 2007-01 5.0 4.0 0.3

Test cycle NRTC(Non road transient cycle) :


(with 10% weightage of cold start, 90%
for hot start run)
Diesel fuel : Maximum sulphur limit of 350 ppm and cetane No. of 51.(presently
)

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STAGE IIIB (G / KWH)
Categor Applicab CO NMHC NMHC + NOx PM
(g/
y le (g/kw (g/ kwh) NOx kwh)
(g/
h) kwh)
From (g/ kwh)

37≤P<5 2013-01 5.0 - 4.7 - 0.025


6
56≤P<7 2012-01 5.0 0.19 - 3.3 0.025
5
75≤P<1 2012-01 5.0 0.19 - 3.3 0.025
30

 Engine torque is expressed in present of maximum available torque at a


given Engine speed.
 Rated speed is the speed at which the manufactures specifies the rated
engine speed.
 Intermediate speed lies between 60% to 75% of rated speed.

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CURRENT BHARAT (TREM) STAGE-III NORMS FOR
AGRICULTURAL TRACTOR ENGINES (w.e.f Year 2005)

CO HC + NOx PM
(g/ kWh) (g/ kWh) (g/ kWh)

5.5 9.5 0.8

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PROPOSED BHARAT (TREM) STAGE-III A NORMS FOR
AGRICULTURAL TRACTOR ENGINES

Category Applicabl CO HC + NOx PM


e (g/kWh) (g/ kWh) (g/ kWh)
From
kW < 19 1.4.2010 5.5 8.5 0.8

19 ≤ kW < 1.4.2010 5.5 7.5 0.6


37
37 ≤kW < 1.4.2011 5.0 4.7 0.4
75

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EMISSION STANDARDS FOR POWER
GENERATION ENGINES IN INDIA

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CURRENT EMISSION NORMS FOR DIESEL ENGINE
FOR GENERATOR SETS

Engine Date CO HC Nox PM Smoke


power (P) (g/ (g/ (g/ (g/ (1/m)
kwh) kwh) kwh) kwh)

P≤800KW 2004.7 3.5 1.3 9.2 0.3 0.7

Test cycle : ISO 8178- 5 mode –D2

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NEXT LEVEL(PROPOSED) GENERATOR ENGINE
EMISSION NORMS:CPCB STAGE-II

Power (kw) NOx HC CO PM Smoke


(g/ kwh) (g/ (g/ (g/ (1/m)
kwh) kwh) kwh)

Kw<= 37 8 1.3 3.5 0.3 0.7


37<kw<=75 7 1.3 3.5 0.3 0.7
75<kw<=13 6 1 3.5 0.3 0.7
0
130<kw<80 6 1 3.5 0.2 0.7
1. Time – lines: April 2011/April 2010 Considering product
0
development, Certification.
2. Fuel Specifications: Less than 350ppm sulfur Diesel fuel,
across the Country

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FURTHER NEXT LEVEL PURPOSED GENSETS
ENGINE EMISSION NORMS:CPCB STAGE-II

Power (kw) NOx + HC CO PM


(g/ kwh) (g/ kwh) (g/ kwh)

Kw<= 37 7.5 3.5 0.3


37<kw<=75 4.7 3.5 0.3
75<kw<=130 4 3.5 0.3
130<kw<800 4 3.5 0.2

1. Time – lines: April 2015/April 2014 Considering product


development, Certification.
2. Fuel Specifications: Less than 50ppm sulfur Diesel fuel, across
the Country

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CERTIFICATION & SELF AUDIT

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BIS APPROVAL STEPS
1) For new manufacturer, manufacturer has to get approval of plant facilities
from BIS. (ISO:9001/2 desirable for the plant).
2) Application for first engine model to be sent to BIS on prescribed format
declaring power, SFC, governing class etc.
3) As listed in BIS:10000,all major components drawings to be submitted
4) Before assembly of engine, dimensional inspection of components to be
done &submitted.
5) Engine to run 500hrs endurance

-BIS may insist for submission of the engine at their lab for endurance.
-Mainly engine power , SFC ,governing, overload 10% for one how to be
checked by BIS.
• Power should not to be less than 97% declared
• Tolerance on SFC 5%

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CPCB DIRECTIVE:
- Declaration to be made to CPCB that the manufacture hasn’t
produced any un-canopised genset engine in last 3 yrs.

- As per CPCB directive, Genset engine below 19 KW should be


BIS approved.

NOISE TEST OF CANOPISED GENSETS

- Noise at a distance of 1m from canopy surface to be less than 75


dB(A)
- During canopy noise test, intake temperature at 50mm from air
filter or air intake point shall not exceed 7˚C above ambient.

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DETERIORATION FACTORS

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AGING TEST FOR EVALUATING
DETERIORATION FACTORS (D.F)
Category Useful life (hours)
(Emission Durability
Period)
≤19 kw 3, 000
19 < kw ≤ 37 5, 000
> 37 kw 8, 000
FIXED DETERIORATION FACTORS FOR BHARAT(TREM)
STAGE-III A NORMS
CO HC NOx PM

1.1 1.05 1.05 1.1

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ON BOARD DIAGNOSTICS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

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ON BOARD DIAGNOSTICS
• A system in the engine’s on-board computer that monitors the
performance of emission-related components for malfunctions.
• Uses information from sensors.
• Mostly software that runs diagnostics in the background.

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MALFUNCTION INDICATOR LIGHT (MIL)

 Should a malfunction be
detected, a warning light will
appear on the vehicle's
instrument panel to alert the
driver.

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STANDARDIZED INFORMATION
 When a malfunction is detected, information about the malfunctioning
component is stored.
 Technicians can download the information with a “scan tool”.
 Information is communicated in a standardized format so one tool
works with all vehicles.

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WORKING OF OBD
• Uses information from sensors to judge the performance of the
emission controls
• These sensors do not directly measure emissions

EXAMPLE OF HOW OBD WORKS


• Fuel system pressure control
• Fuel pressure sensor measures how well pressure is controlled
• Manufacturer correlates pressure control error to corresponding
emission increase
• OBD system is calibrated to turn on MIL when pressure is outside
limits

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BENEFITS OF OBD
• Encourages design of durable emission control systems.
• Aids diagnosis and repair of complex electronic engine controls.
• Helps keep emissions low by identifying emission controls in
need of repair.
• Works for life of the vehicle.

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APPLICATION
• All passenger cars, SUVs, and small trucks
 Started in 1996 for gasoline and 1997 for diesel
• Over 120 million OBD II-equipped vehicles operating in the United
States today.

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EXHAUST POLLUTANTS AND THEIR FORMATION
FORMATION IN DIESEL ENGINE

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EXHAUST POLLUTANTS AND THEIR FORMATION

EMISSION FROM DI DIESEL ENGINE

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NOx FORMATION IN DI DIESEL ENGINE

 NOx consisting of NO(nitric oxide) & NO2(nitrogen dioxide)


 NO is predominant component being generated from atmospheric
nitrogen
Rate of NOx formation:

 There is strong dependence of NOx generation on resident temperature


as it comes in exponential terms
 Higher oxygen concentration also results in higher NO formation rates
 The NO formation rate peaks at the mixtures leaner than Stoichiometric
composition (A/F ratios 22 to 25) and decreases rapidly as the mixture
becomes richer

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HC EMISSION MECHANISM IN DIESEL ENGINES

OVERLEANING UNDERMIXING
(Fuel escaping burning due to - Fuel evaporating from the
overleaning appears in nozzle sac late into
exhaust as HC emission) combustion at the time or
(depends on ignition delay) after needle has taken back
Factors effecting overleaning its seat after injection
condition
-Low ambient temperature
-Poor air fuel mixing due to low injection
pressure
-Load on engine

Over leaning results into white smoke


and misfiring in extreme conditions

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CARBON MONOXIDE

 Depends upon fuel/air equivalence


ratio
 As diesels operate on the lean side
of Stoichiometric, CO emissions
from diesels are low enough
 But for high speed engines greater
than 3000rpm,CO generation also
become critical for diesel engines
due to less time available for mixing
and combustion

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PARTICULATES

 It is composed of soot (carbonaceous solid matter similar to carbon


black), an extractable fraction (hydrocarbons extractable with a strong
solvent) adsorbed onto the soot, and other contained inorganic
compounds (largely sulphates, water and ash).
 Particulate concentrations are measured by drawing exhaust gas
through a filter maintained at 52º C, and computing the change in filter
weight.
 The soot component of the Pm corresponds to the smoke
measurement, while the extractable fraction corresponds to a portion
(ranging from about 25-50%) of the gaseous HC emissions.
 The exact fraction depends on the engine type and operating
conditions, as these affect the distribution of the boiling range of the
gaseous HCs emissions.

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EFFECT OF SULFUR ON POLLUTANT FORMATION

 S is a natural component of crude oil. Can be removed


effectively by hydrodesulfurization.
◦ Adverse (though reversible) effect on efficiency of TWC and DPF.
Low sulfur fuel increases efficiency of modern TWC and makes it
possible to use advanced diesel exhaust after-treatment like DPF
◦ contribution to PM emissions as sulfate
◦ contribution to gaseous Sox emissions
 Current trends: coming down to 15 ppm (ULSD ultra low sulfur
diesel), from 300-500 ppm.

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EXHAUST POLLUTANTS AND THEIR FORMATION
CONTROL OF POLLUTANTS IN DIESEL ENGINE

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CONTROL OF POLLUTANTS IN DIESEL ENGINE
NOx

EFFECT OF INJECTION TIMING RETARD ON NOX FORMATION

 The easiest way-out for NOx reduction in an existing engine is to


retard the fuel-injection timing. This also reduces combustion
noise and cylinder pressures.
 The engine cycle efficiency decreases at later injection timings as
the heat release shifts away from TDC in this situation. This
explains the fuel-consumption and smoke/particulate increase at
retarded injection.
 The effect of retard on smoke level, particulate matter and
increased fuel consumption can be overcome by using higher fuel
injection rates.

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NOx
DIRECTION TOWARDS CLEAN & EFFICIENT COMBUSTION

1. LOWER INITIAL HEAT RELEASE RATE, LOWER INITIAL COMBUSTION


TEMPERATURE AND LESS NOx. ACHIEVED THROUGH LATE FUEL
INJECTION.
2. SHORTEN DIFFUSION COMBUSTION FOR IMPOROVED FUEL
ECONOMY AND LESS PM. ACHIEVED THROUGH HIGHER INJECTION
PRESSURES AND RE-ENTRANT COMBUSTION BOWLS.

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NOx
Following figure shows the effect of retard on NOx emission of a turbo-
charged inter-cooled engine running with rotary pump with injection
pressure in the range of 1200 bar.

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HC
The overall reduction in HC emission due to reduction in sac hole
volume is shown below in fig. below as weighted mass emission
for 8 mode emission cycle applicable for off-road vehicles.

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HC
The effect of nozzle sac volume on HC emission of a one-litre per
cylinder displacement engine is shown below:

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HC

- Lower crevice volumes in the combustion chamber


- – 80%
- Good C.R of the order of minimum 18:1
- - sacless nozzles with hydro – emission of the holes for
- Optimizing coefficient of discharge
- Tighten flow – rate tolerances
- Allows use of smaller holes
-Smoke reduction advantage

.)
- For taking care of nozzle choking , mini – sac design available from BOSCH
- Has less choking tendency
- But HC ,CO & PM increases
- Not recommended for tractor and Genset engines at the moment

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CREVICE HC MECHANISM

CREVICE VOLUME SOURCES

- TOP LAND VOLUME


- CREVICE AROUND INTAKE AND
EXHAUST VALUE HEAD
- CYLINDER HEAD GASKET CREVICE
ZONES

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CARBON MONOXIDE

 As diesel engines operate with an overall lean mixture, their CO


emissions are normally well below legislated limits and not of
much concern.
 Any CO from a diesel engine is due to incomplete mixing:
combustion taking place in locally rich conditions.

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SMOKE/PM REDUCTION TECHNIQUES ON DI DIESEL
ENGINE
1. Advance fuel injection timing: For early start of combustion so as to give more
time for fuel to burn, before the exhaust valve is opened.

2. Higher fuel injection pressure: For better and faster mixing of fuel and air, the
injection pressure shall be as high as possible. This is achieved by larger
diameter fuel injection pump plungers, higher injection velocity fuel cams, high
pre-stroke of pumps etc.

3. Better air swirl: The intake air port is so designed that intake air has better
swirling properties so as to cause faster air & fuel mixing.

4. More air mass induction: To burn fuel in an efficient way, more mass of air to
be inducted into the cylinder using turbocharger, intake air cooling or by tuning
intake manifolds to desired speeds.

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APPLICATION OF SMOKE REDUCTION
TECHNIQUES

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EXHAUST GAS AFTER TREATMENTS

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THREE- WAY CATALYTIC CONVERTERS FOR SPARK
IGNITION ENGINES

 Conversion of harmful of
products combustion into less
toxic products.
 Catalytic convertors can
achieve conversion at lower
temperatures ~ 350 C
 Simple device fitted in the
exhaust system of all
modern Automobile.
 Catalyst: Pt/Pd/Rh

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THREE- WAY CATALYTIC CONVERTERS FOR SPARK
IGNITION ENGINES

 Three-way catalytic convertor .


Ceramic honeycomb structures:
 Reduction catalyst (Pt/Rh).
- Reduction of nitrogen oxides
 Oxidation catalyst (Pt/Pd).
- Oxidising unburnt hydrocarbons
& CO

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THREE- WAY CATALYTIC CONVERTERS FOR SPARK
IGNITION ENGINES
EFFICIENCY
 Require near stoichiometric
combustion for effective
conversion of all three pollutants,
CO and HC conversion efficiency
drop for rich mixtures, NOx
conversion efficiency drops for
lean mixtures
 Exhaust gas oxygen sensor
(Zirconia, ZrO2 based) essential
to keeping the Air/fuel ratio in
window of optimum conversion
efficiency for all three

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DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYSTS
 Flow through oxidation catalyst (two-way catalytic convertor) for
reduction of CO and VOC (80%), and PM SOF (20-30%), does
not retain PM.

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DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER (DPF)
 Trap oxidizer (Diesel particulate filter), reduce PM by 95%, filter + oxidation
(regeneration) functions
 The performance of the engine, as well as the consumption of fuel and the
Co2 emissions similar levels to the ones of the functioning without filter are
remained it.
 The escape system, that includes a pre catalysis next to the engine and a
catalysis of oxidation, was conceived to reduce all the emissions of gases, in
special of hydro-carbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO).

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DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER (DPF)

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SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION [SCR]

 Conversion of NOx into N2 and H2O.


 Gaseous reductant: Ammonia/Urea
Scheme of reactions:

Reaction temperature: 450 – 800 F

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SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION [SCR]
CATALYST

 Ceramic materials used as a carrier (Titanium oxide)

 Active catalytic components:: oxides of base metals, zeolites &


precious metals

 Base metal catalysts – lack thermal stability but inexpensive

 Zeolite catalysts – high thermal stability.

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SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION [SCR]
CATALYST GEOMETRY

 Commonly used today are honeycomb and plate type

 Honeycomb type
- smaller,
- higher pressure drops,
- plugging

 Plate type – larger, less susceptible to plugging, expensive.

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EGR (EXHAUST GAS RE-CIRCULATION)

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EGR (EXHAUST GAS RE-CIRCULATION)
Concept : exhaust –gas recirculation (EGR) is highly effective
measure for NOx emissions on diesel engines.

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EGR IS EFFECTIVE MAINLY DUE TO :

- Reduction in fresh intake air mass going into cylinder as it is


replaced with inert exhaust gases.
-This results in drop in rate of combustion and thus leads into
reduction of peak temperature.

Reduction in local excess – air factor.

- At part load with higher EGR rates, almost homogeneous mixture


conditions are achieved resulting into extremely low – NOx and low –
particulate combustion.

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WORKING OF EGR

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INTERNAL EGR
 Internal EGR occurs when the valve timing is
arranged so that there is some back-flow into
the combustion chamber from the exhaust, or
all exhaust gases are not pushed out of the
combustion chamber on the exhaust stroke.
 Such engines normally have variable valve
timing so that internal EGR occurs only when
dictated by the ECU; when internal EGR is
required, this is achieved by increasing valve
overlap.
 Internal EGR appears to be a better approach
(at least on engines with variable valve timing)
as it avoids the need for external pipes and
valves, reducing cost and improving
packaging.

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EXTERNAL EGR
 External EGR is achieved by
means of a pipe that connects
the exhaust to the inlet manifold,
with a control valve interposed in
this line to regulate EGR flow.
 For exhaust gas to flow in this
pipe, the pressure in the exhaust
must be higher than the pressure
in the intake.

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ON/OFF EGR USING VALVE :
-Solenoid operated on/off EGR
value
-Value put on intake side for longer
life
-On/off status to be decided by
-Position of accelerator lever of fuel
injection pump
-Usually valve is switched at 80 -90 % of
full travel of accelerator
-A micro – switch or a throttle
position sensor (TPS) used to
signal On/ Off position
-Around 10-20 % NOx reduction
possible under steady state
testing.

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MAPPED / PROPORTIONATE EGR:

- Very high rates of EGR flows possible (upto 30% at part load
conditions).

- Possible reduction of NOx by 50%.

- Exhaust flow still driven by differential pressure between exhaust


and intake.

- Requires higher exhaust back pressures .This drawback can be


overcome by having an intake throttle.

- Costlier equipment .

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TYPICAL EGR MAP
(% OF VALVE OPENING)

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ADDITIONAL MAPS FOR EGR OPERATION

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ECU AND SENSORS FOR EGR

The EGR system is having a control valve which is controlled by the


electronic control unit (ECU).The ECU output to control EGR valve
depends on the three inputs:
1. Throttle Position: Throttle position is sensed by the throttle
position sensor(TPS), which is mounted on the accelerator lever
of on FI pump or throttle paddle in the cabin.
2. Water Temperature: Water temperature sensor is mounted on
the water out let of the engine.
3. R.P.M: R.P.M is sensed by the magnetic r.p.m sensor which is
mounted on the bell housing of the flywheel.

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EGR OPERATION

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CO2 EMISSION FROM DIESEL ENGINES

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CO2 EMISSION FROM DIESEL ENGINES

 Combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel should produce only carbon


dioxide and water (H2O).
 The relative proportion of these two depends on the carbon-
to-hydrogen ratio in the fuel, about 1 : 1.75 for ordinary diesel
fuel.
 Thus, an engine's CO2 emissions can be reduced by reducing
the fuel's carbon content per unit energy, or by improving the
fuel efficiency of the engine.
 The high fuel efficiency of diesel engines gives them an
environmental advantage over some fossil fuels, though the
processing of crude oil into diesel fuel has fairly high CO
emissions.

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DIESEL VS. CNG ENGINES

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 CNG vehicles emit 60 to 95% less PM and 0 to 30% less NOx than
equivalent diesel vehicles.

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 Relative emissions depend on driving behavior.

With non-aggressive driving in CBD cycle, With aggressive driving in CBD cycle, CNG
CNG NMHC emissions are double, NOx is NMHC emissions are 10X, NOx is 30% less,
50% less, and PM is 97% less than diesel and PM is 97% less than diesel

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 CNG with catalysts have reduced emissions vs. diesel, but
advanced after treatment can make them similar.
CNG vs. diesel Diesel after
treatment

NMHC +2X to +10X -60 to -95%


+2X typ. catalysts and filters

NOx -10 to –75% -20% catalysts


-10 to –40% typ. -40% cooled EGR
-70% SCR

PM -60 to –97% -70 to –95% filters


-85 to –97% typ.

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 In the critical sub-100 nm range, CNG particulate numbers may
not be much different from diesel

ELPI used for measurements

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 PM Particle Count by Size.

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 Emissions Summary

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 CNG Cost Factors.

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 Clean Diesel Cost Factors.

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COMPARISON
 In comparison to CNG, diesel is inherently more fuel efficient

 While CNG has historically had an inherent emissions


advantage, new technologies applied to diesel have
dramatically closed the gap

 Even with the new technologies (which have added cost),


diesel retains a significant cost advantage over CNG.

 Chassis testing shows CNG NOx is much more variable than


diesel NOx.

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ANALYZERS FOR MEASUREMENT OF
NOX, HC, CO, CO2, PM ETC.

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ANALYZERS

 Analyzers used for measuring diesel exhaust gases must be


sensitive enough to detect the sometimes low levels of gases in
the exhaust, especially in diluted exhaust streams, and be
devoid of any significant interference from other gases which
might be present.

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NITRIC OXIDE

 Nitric oxide can be measured using the


non-dispersive infra-red principle.
 In this instance, if thin film interference
filters were not used the filter cells
would be filled with a mixture of carbon
dioxide and carbon monoxide to avoid
their interfering with the nitric oxide
measurement.
 The detector would of course contain
nitric oxide.
 Water vapour absorbs infra-red
radiation and since diesel exhaust,
whether it be raw or diluted with air,
contains water vapour the sample has
to be dried before it passes through the
sample cell

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NITRIC OXIDE

 Rather displacing the non-dispersive


infra-red detector is the
chemiluminescence analyzer.
 This has the advantage that it can be
used to detect not just nitric oxide but
also nitrogen dioxide (or dinitrogen
tetroxide).
 This is particularly important for the
measurement of the exhaust from the
larger medium speed engines.
 Nitrogen oxide emissions from high
speed diesel engines tend to be
mostly as nitric oxide, although up to
30% dioxide can be detected under
certain operating conditions such as
at low speed and high air-fuel ratios

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HYDROCARBONS

 Hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust are


universally measured using a heated
flame ionization detector (HFID).
 A flame ionization detector cell, such as
that used on gas chromatographs,
together with the necessary electronic
signal processing and readout equipment.
 For diesel exhaust measurement where
the hydrocarbons are of fairly high
molecular weight and consequently of
higher boiling points, it is essential to avoid
losses due to condensation on any
surfaces in contact with the gas sample.

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CARBON MONOXIDE

 Carbon monoxide is also


measured using a non-dispersive
infra-red detector.
 This would be identical in principle
to carbon dioxide except that, if a
thin film interference filter were not
used, the filter cells would be filled
with pure carbon dioxide to avoid
carbon dioxide interference , and
the detector would contain carbon
monoxide.

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CARBON DIOXIDE

 Although not legislated for, the analysis


system for carbon dioxide is defined by
a number of regulatory bodies.
 Carbon dioxide is almost invariably
measured using a non-dispersive infra-
red (NDIR) analyzer.
 This is possible because carbon dioxide
absorbs radiation in the infra-red region.
 The degree of attenuation depends on
the amount of carbon dioxide present in
the path of the beam; the more carbon
dioxide the greater the attenuation.

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WET AND DRY MEASUREMENT OF
EMISSION CONTENTS

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WET AND DRY MEASUREMENT OF
EMISSION CONTENTS
Emission Concentration Monitors
 Transmissiometry
– Dry gases
– Accuracy: +/- 2%
• Scatter-light
– Dry and wet gases
– Accuracy: <+/- 2%

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TRANSMISSIOMETRY

 When a light beam shines through a mixture of gas and particles,


the particles weaken the beam by absorption and scattering. The
more particles in the light beam, the stronger the weakening of the
beam.
• The comparison of the intensities of initial light and received light
supports a precise statement of the transmission.
• After conversion of the transmission in extinction and gravimetric
comparison measurement, the result is displayed in mg/m3.

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TRANSMISSIOMETRY

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SCATTER-LIGHT

 A light sender radiates light that is scattered by the particles in the


gas which is then detected by a sensitive detector. The dispersed
light principle is suited for small dust loads – also under 1 mg/m3.
• The correlation between measured value indication and dust load
is determined by means of gravimetric comparison measurements.
• Both backwards and forwards scattering are used for scattered
light measurement applications.

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SCATTER-LIGHT (DRY-GASES)

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SCATTER-LIGHT (WET-GASES)

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Emission measurement equipment – for passenger car
engine without catalyst converter

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Emission measurement equipment – for passenger car
engine with catalyst converter

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UNITS OF EMISSION MEASUREMENT
– EMISSION INDEX AND SPECIFIC
EMISSION

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EMISSION INDEX

 The emission index for species i is the ratio of the mass of species
i to the mass of fuel burned by the combustion process:

 In principle, the emission index is a dimensionless quantity,


 The emission index is useful in that it unambiguously expresses the
amount of pollutant formed per mass of fuel, independent of any
dilution of the product stream or efficiency of the combustion
process. Thus, the emission index can be thought of as a measure
of the efficiency of a combustion process in producing a particular
pollutant, uncoupled from the specific application.

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SPECIFIC EMISSION

 In the dynamometer testing of spark-ignition and diesel engines,


emissions are frequently expressed as

 where the units are typically g/kW-hr. or the mixed units of g/hp-hr.
Mass specific emissions (MSE) are conveniently related to the
emission index as

 where mF is the fuel mass flow rate and is the power delivered.

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EQUIVALENCE RATIO DETERMINATION
FROM EXHAUST GAS CONSTITUENTS

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EQUIVALENCE RATIO FROM EMISSIONS
 An accurate determination of fuel/air equivalence ratio can
be derived from measurements of exhaust gas constituents
(CO , CO2, O2 , HC, and NOx ). This method is ideal for laboratory
engine testing and development, but is not practical for field
engines and control due to the expensive and high
maintenance analyzers required.
 Chemical equation for incomplete combustion utilizing
equivalence ratio and exhaust constituents is :

Where

nP = Total Moles of Exhaust


xi = Mole Faction of ith Constituent

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EQUIVALENCE RATIO FROM EMISSIONS

 The HC measurement is typically from a fully wet sample with a


flame ionization detector (FID). Given these types of wet/dry
measurements, the calculation for equivalence ratio is as follows:

where

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COMBUSTION INEFFICIENCY

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POTENTIAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HD DIESEL
ENGINES IN 2010

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The End

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