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MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH Ship Systems Technology Commercial D-88040 Friedrichshafen Germany Phone +49 7541 90 - 0 www.mtu-friedrichshafen.com Assistance: MTG Marinetechnik GmbH D-22041 Hamburg Germany MTG Ref.: 679/335/2100 - 001 Phone +49 40 65 803 - 0 www.mtg-marinetechnik.de
Technical Project Guide Marine Application Part 1 - General
June 2003 Revision 1.0
The illustrations herein are presented with kind permission of the companies listed below. Rolls-Royce AB www.rolls-royce.com S-681 29 Kristinehamn Sweden Schottel GmbH & Co. KG www.schottel.de D-56322 Spay/Rhein Germany Voith Schiffstechnik GmbH & Co. KG www.voith-schiffstechnik.de D-89522 Heidenheim Germany ZF Marine GmbH www.zf-marine.com D-88039 Friedrichshafen Germany
This –Technical Project Guide- is supposed to give the user general references for the planning, design and the arrangement of propulsion plants and on-board power generation plants. Precise information on the different diesel engine series are to be taken from the specific engine parts. Following engine parts are planned/available:
Technical Projekt Guide Marine Application Part 1 - General
Technical Project Guide Marine Application Part 2 - Engine Series 2000
Technical Project Guide Marine Application Part 3 - Engine Series 4000
Technical Project Guide Marine Application Part 4 - Engine Series 8000 (later on)
3.3.doc Rev.1 188.8.131.52.2 6.4 184.108.40.206.3 6.2 3.1 6. INTERACTION ENGINE WITH APPLICATION Propulsor Abbreviations Propulsive Devices (Overview) Shaft Line and Gearbox Losses Propeller Propeller Geometry Propeller Type Selection (FPP or CPP) Direction of Propeller Rotation Selection of Propeller Blade Number Propeller Curve Basics Theoretical Propeller Curve Estimating the Required Diesel Engine Power Page 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-2 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-3 3-4 4-1 4-1 4-1 5-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-3 6-9 6-10 6-10 6-12 6-14 6-17 6-18 6-18 6-23 6-25 TPG-General.3 6.1.1 6.4 4 4.1 3.3 2 2.0 Page II 06.1 6.1.3 Title GENERAL Introduction Designations Special Documents Presented DEFINITION OF APPLICATION GROUPS General Marine Main Propulsion and Auxiliary Propulsion Plants On-Board Electric Power Generation/Auxiliary Power SPECIFICATION OF POWER AND REFERENCE CONDITION Definition of Terms ISO Standard Fuel-Stop Power (ICFN) ISO Standard Power Exceedable by 10 % (ICXN) Reference Conditions Load Profile Time Between Major Overhauls (TBO) FLUIDS AND LUBRICANTS SPECIFICATION General MTU Approved Fuels ENGINE PERFORMANCE DIAGRAM PROPULSION.2 2.3 3.2 5 6 6.3 3 3. 1.1 6.2 6.2 6.2 1.1 2.Contents CONTENTS Chapter 1 1.1 220.127.116.11 6.2 6.2003 .2 3.1 3.
2 7.2.1 18.104.22.168.4.2 7.7 7 7.2003 .4.3 Title Propeller and Performance Diagram Driving Mode Fixed Pitch Propeller (FPP) Controllable Pitch Propeller (CPP) Waterjet and Performance Diagram Geometry and Design Point Estimation of Size and Shaft Speed Fuel Consumption General Assumptions Operating Profile Fuel Consumption at Design Condition Cruising Range Endurance at Sea Calculating Examples Example Data (Series 2000) Fuel consumption at design condition Fuel tank volume for a range of 500sm at 18kn Theoretical cruising range at 12kn and fuel tank volume of 5m3 Annual fuel consumption for an operating profile Correcting the lower heating value Generator Drive APPLICATION AND INSTALLATION GUIDELINES Foundation Engine/Gearbox Arrangements Engine with Flange-Mounted Gearbox (F-Drive) Engine with Free-Standing Gearbox.22.214.171.124.2.1 7.5 126.96.36.199 6.6 6. V Drive Inclusive Generator Set Arrangement Engine with Free-Standing Generator Engine with Flange-Mounted Generator System Interfaces and System Integration Flexible Connections Combustion Air and Cooling/Ventilation Air Supply Combustion-air intake from engine room Combustion-air intake directly from outside Cooling/ventilation air system Exhaust System Arrangements.4.6.doc Rev.4.2 7. support and connection for pipe and silencer Underwater discharge (with exhaust flap) Water-cooled exhaust system Page 6-26 6-26 6-29 6-31 6-36 6-36 6-41 6-42 6-42 6-44 6-49 6-50 6-51 6-52 6-52 6-54 6-55 6-56 6-57 6-58 6-59 7-1 7-1 7-2 7-2 7-3 7-6 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-8 7-11 7-11 7-11 7-11 7-12 7-12 7-13 7-14 TPG-General.5.1 7.4.4. 1.3 7.6.5 6.6.6 6.6.3 7.3 7.3.1 7.6.2 7.3.2 6.3.1 6.2 6.1 6.3 6.4 6.6 6.2 6.6.0 Page III 06.Contents CONTENTS Chapter 6.4.1 7.2 188.8.131.52 7.1 7.3 184.108.40.206 7.6.5 220.127.116.11.2 18.104.22.168.6.4 22.214.171.124 6.3 6.4 7.
1 9.4.2 7.3 7.4.3 126.96.36.199 9. air-in-cylinder Electric Power Supply Safety System Emission Exhaust Gas Emission.5 7.10 7.4. General Information Airborne noise level Exhaust gas noise level Structure-borne noise level Mounting and Foundation Acoustic Enclosure/Acoustic Case Mechanical Power Transmission Auxiliary Power Take-Off Example Documents STANDARD ACCEPTANCE TEST Factory Acceptance Test Acceptance Test According to a Classification Society Main Engines for Direct Propeller Drive: Main Engines for Indirect Propeller Drive Auxiliary Driving Engines and Engines Driving Electric Generators Example Documents CONTROL.2.5.3 9.5.7 7.6.8 7.6 7.6 7.4.5 188.8.131.52 9.4. MONITORING AND DATA ACQUISITION (LOP) Standard Monitoring and Control Engine Series 2000/4000 Engine Governing and Control Unit ECU-MDEC Engine Monitoring Unit EMU-MDEC Separate Safety System Local Operating Panel LOP-MDEC Propulsion Plant Management System Version Manufacturer Specification Classification Society Regulation Page IV Page 7-15 7-15 7-16 7-17 7-18 7-19 7-19 7-22 7-23 7-23 7-24 7-25 7-28 7-29 7-30 7-30 7-32 7-32 7-34 7-35 7-42 7-43 7-44 7-47 7-48 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-2 9-1 9-1 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-3 9-3 9-4 06.1 8.1 7. compressed-air starter motor Compressed-air starting.4 7.1 7.4.2003 TPG-General.1 184.108.40.206.6.7 7.3 7.4.3 9 9.1 8.9 7.2 7.doc .220.127.116.11 7.3 18.104.22.168 7.4.11 8 22.214.171.124.2 7.4.1 7.0 Title Cooling Water System Cooling water system with engine-mounted heat exchanger Cooling water system with separately-mounted heat exchanger Central cooling water system Fuel System General notes Design data Lube Oil System Starting System Electric starter motor Compressed-air starting.8 7.2 8. General Information Acoustical Emission.126.96.36.199 Rev.Contents CONTENTS Chapter 7.2 8.4 9. 1.2 7.2 9.5.4.
2003 .3 10. STORAGE.doc Rev.2 10.Contents CONTENTS Chapter 10 10.0 Page V 06.3.3.2 10.1 10.3.1 10. 1. STARTING PILOT INSTALLATION DESCRIPTION (PID) Page 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-2 10-3 11-1 12-1 13-1 TPG-General.3 11 12 13 Title MAINTENANCE CONCEPT / MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE Reason for Information Advantages of the New Maintenance Concept: New Maintenance Schedule: Cover Sheet Maintenance Schedule Matrix Task List ASSEMBLING INSTRUCTIONS (LIFTING. TRANSPORTATION) TRANSPORTATION.
6: Figure 6. direction of rotation) Structure of the MTU EXTRANET Typical Standard Load Profiles TBO definition of MTU Fuel specification Structure of the performance diagram Engine performance diagram Monohull Semi-planing boat hull = high speed monohull with medium displacement Multihulls = catamarans.1: Figure 188.8.131.52.5.3: Figure 184.108.40.206.2: Figure 220.127.116.11.2.6: Title Engine designations (sides.6: Figure 6.2: Figure 6.3.3: Figure 6.4: Figure 6.0 .5.3. 1.3. cylinders.1: Figure 1.1: Figure 18.104.22.168: Figure 6.2.2: Figure 6.3: Figure 6.2.1: Figure 6.1: Figure 4.1: Figure 4.5: Figure 4. draught and fouling Diesel engine failure in a two shaft arrangement Choosing a design point for a fixed pitch propeller CPP characteristic in a typical diesel engine performance diagram Controllable pitch propeller design point Example: Single shaft operation with CPP Example: Constant speed generator in operation with CPP Waterjet Waterjet design point (Diagram has limited use for waterjet design) Platform with pump Waterjet performance diagram Estimating the size of a waterjet (inlet duct diameter) Estimating the design impeller speed of a waterjet Page VI Page 1-2 1-3 3-3 3-4 4-1 5-1 5-3 5-4 5-4 5-5 5-5 6-1 6-10 6-12 6-19 6-20 6-21 6-22 6-26 6-27 6-29 6-31 6-32 6-34 6-35 6-36 6-37 6-38 6-39 6-41 6-41 06.4.doc Rev.4.3: Figure 6.2: Figure 6. Semi-planing boat hull = high speed monohull with low displacement Scheme of a propulsive unit (side view) Scheme of propeller geometry (skew and rake) Propeller clearance Influence of change in resistance on effective power curve (example) From effective to delivered power curve (example) Effect of change in resistance on delivered power curve (example) Effect of different propeller pitches on delivered power (example) Change in delivered power due to weather. trimarans.2003 TPG-General.4.5.1: Figure 6.4.1: Figure 3.5: Figure 22.214.171.124: Figure 4.1: Figure 6.1: Figure 4.7: Figure 6.2.4.List of Figures List of Figures Figure Figure 1.5: Figure 6.2.1: Figure 6.4: Figure 126.96.36.199: Figure 6.
188.8.131.52. fuel inlet temperature Lube oil system Starting system with pneumatic starter motor Starting system with air-in-cylinder starting Limitation of NOx-emission (IMO) 7-17 7-18 7-20 7-22 7-25 7-26 7-28 7-30 Figure 7.4: Figure 184.108.40.206.4: Figure 7. 1.2: Figure 7.6.2: Figure 7.3: Figure 220.127.116.11: Figure 7.6. fast ferry.3: Figure 7.2.1: Figure 6.7: Figure 7.2: Figure 6.5: Figure 7.2: Figure 18.104.22.168: Figure 7.List of Figures List of Figures Figure Figure 6.1: Figure 22.214.171.124: Figure 7.4.7: Figure 7.6: Figure 7.9: Figure 7.3: Figure 7. fast ferry.doc Rev.6.4.1: Figure 7.1: Figure 7.4. keel cooling) 7-16 Central cooling water system Fuel System Evaluation value for max.g.2003 TPG-General.9: Title Examples of operating profiles (freighter.6: Figure 126.96.36.199: Figure 7.2: Figure 7.10: Electric power supply Test cycle for “Constant Speed Main Propulsion” application (including diesel electric drive and variable pitch propeller installation) 7-31 Test cycle for “Propeller Law operated Main and Propeller Law operated Auxiliary Engines” application 7-31 Test cycle for “Constant Speed Auxiliary Engine” application Test cycle for “Variable Speed.4.4. OPV) Power definition Engine room arrangement. OPV) Examples of operating profiles (freighter. V drive arrangement Engine with free-standing generator Engine with flange-mounted generator Connection of rubber bellows Page 6-45 6-46 6-60 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-10 Cooling water system with engine-mounted heat exchanger (Split-circuit cooling system) 7-15 Cooling water system with separately-mounted heat exchanger (e.7.0 . minimum distance Engine with flange-mounted gearbox Engine with free-standing gearbox Engine with free-standing gearbox and universal shaft. Variable Load Auxiliary Engine” application Engine surface noise analysis (example) Undamped exhaust gas noise analysis (example) Single resilient mounting system with shock Double resilient mounting system for extreme acoustic requirements Page VII 7-31 7-31 7-33 7-34 7-37 7-39 06.6.5: Figure 7.8: Figure 7.4.4.
3. above rubber mounts (example) 7-41 Figure 7.1: Example of a maintenance schedule matrix Figure 10.11: Structure borne noise analysis at engine feet.9.1: Power take-off (PTO).5.10.0 Page VIII 06.9.3: Figure 7.doc Rev. 1.List of Figures List of Figures Figure Title Page Figure 7.2003 .2: Figure 7.5.g.1: Figure 9.2: Combined diesel engine and diesel engine Combined diesel engine and diesel engine with separate gear compartment Combined diesel engine or gas turbine Combined diesel engine and gas turbine 7-44 7-44 7-45 7-45 7-47 Figure 7. structure-borne noise levels below the resilient mountings (e. gear driven Propulsion Plant Management System version in accordance with manufacturer specification 9-3 Propulsion Plant Management System version in compliance with classification society regulations 9-4 10-2 10-4 Figure 10.9.10: Examples for different “Quiet Systems”. diesel engine 20V 1163) 7-40 Figure 7.4: Figure 188.8.131.52: Example task list TPG-General.6.1: Figure 7.6.
doc Rev. two DaimlerChrysler Group companies. have combined their off-highway operations.1 General 1 1. Especially within the shipping sector the company has established a long and successful partnership with hundred thousands of engines in operation around the globe on all seas. Based on its innovative capabilities. With product ranges of MTU and DDC plus Mercedes-Benz engines under one roof. MTU disposes of unique drive system know how and offers a large range of products of excellent quality. because the project-specific or contract-specific data are of course applicable to the particular application and the overall propulsion concept.e. This publication has been compiled as a source of information only. rail. its reliability and system competence.1 GENERAL Introduction MTU Friedrichshafen in Germany and Detroit Diesel Corporation in the USA.0 Page 1-1 06. Non-standard design requirements (i.2003 . heavy-duty military and commercial-vehicle as well as agricultural and construction-industry machinery sectors has been created. Such requirements necessitate clarification on case-to-case basis. 1. MTU develops. power generation. Project-related or contract-related specifications take precedence over the general information appearing in this publication. manufactures and sells diesel engines in the 200 to 9000 kW power range (for more information refer to publication “SALES PROGRAM MARINE”). TPG-General. a worldleading supplier of engines and systems for the marine. applicable to the design of individual components or entire systems) such as may be specified by the operator or by classification societies are not taken into consideration in the scope of this publication. It contains generally applicable notes for planning and installation of marine propulsion plants and electric power plants. All marine engines are under the brand “MTU”.
Details are explained in Figure 1. A8 = B1.1: Engine designations (sides. A7. .1. A3. cylinders..0 Page 1-2 06.2 Designations The DIN 6265 respectively ISO 1204 designations are used to identify the sides and cylinders of MTU engines. direction of rotation) Driving end Free end Left-bank cylinders Right-bank cylinders = KS (Kupplungsseite) = KGS (Kupplungsgegenseite) = A1...2..doc Rev.2003 . B3.1 General 1.. B7.2. B2. B8 TPG-General. 1. A2. Figure 1. ..
1: Structure of the MTU EXTRANET Back to Contents Back to Start of Chapter TPG-General.1 General 1.0 Page 1-3 06.2003 .3. Figure 1.3 Special Documents Presented Specific information and documents are found in the MTU EXTRANET. The structure of the EXTRANET with its essential components is represented in the following diagram. 1.doc Rev.
Load varies during operation.0 Page 2-1 06.1 DEFINITION OF APPLICATION GROUPS General In addition to general application by usage. For an optimum selection of the engine taking into account the maximum power available the following information should be obtained from the operator: • • • • Application. TPG-General.2003 . The MTU Sales Program distinguishes for the marine application propulsion engines and marine auxiliary engines and engines for the on-board supply of electricity. for special cases only) The terms “load profile” and “TBO” and the relationship between them are explained in detail in chapter –3 – 10 Specification of Power and Reference Condition.g. yacht. patrol boat. freighter etc. e. If no specific load profile information is available from the operator. the selection of the engine is performed on the basis of the standard load profile determined by MTU by means of typical application. with the result that the TBO is dependent on the actual load profile and varies from different applications. marine vessel. e.3 Specification of Power and Reference Condition 2 2.doc Rev. the particular application must be taken into account for selecting the correct engine.g. ferry. Load profile (engine power versus operating time) Anticipated operating hours per year Preferred time between overhauls (TBO. 1. The choice of the application group determines the maximum possible engine power and the anticipated time between major overhauls (TBO). The following application groups are subdivided into in detail.and Maintenance Concept / Maintenance Schedule-. fishing vessel.
2003 . including Fast Ferries. FireFighting Vessels. Tug Boats.0 Page 2-2 06.g. Frigates 1B Vessels for medium-duty service with high load factors Average load Annual usage Examples 1DS Vessels for light-duty service with low load factors Average load Annual usage Examples (Series 2000 & lower power engines approx. Coastal Freighters. fan drive for Surface Effect Ships : Less than 60 % of rated power : Up to 3000 hours (as a guideline) : High speed Yachts. Fast Patrol Boats. Fishing Trawlers. 1000 hours) Significant deviations from the above application groups should be discussed with the responsible application engineering group. e.2 Marine Main Propulsion and Auxiliary Propulsion Plants 1A Vessels for heavy-duty service with unlimited operating range and/or unrestricted continuous operation Average load Annual usage Examples : 70 – 90 % of rated power : unlimited : Freighters. 1. Sailing Yachts. Corvettes. Offshore Supply & Service Vessels. continuous duty (no time restriction). dieselelectric drive. 2.doc Rev. Displacement Yachts with high load profile and/or annual usage : 60 to 80 % of rated power : up to 5000 hours (as a guideline) : Commercial Vessels. Patrol Boats.3 On-Board Electric Power Generation/Auxiliary Power 3A 3C Electric power generation. Ferries. emergency power supply or drive for emergency fire fighting pumps Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General.g. Fishing Vessels. Displacement Yachts. Crew Boats.3 Specification of Power and Reference Condition 2. diesel-hydraulic drive or drive for fire fighting pumps Electric power generation for onboard standby power generation. Multipurpose Vessels. e.
1 ISO Standard Fuel-Stop Power (ICFN) The rated power of marine main propulsion engines of application group 1A. assuming performance of the maintenance as specified in the manufacturer’s maintenance schedule. all engines will be factory tested on the dynamometer at standard ISO reference conditions (intake air and raw water temperature 25°C). The engines of application group 1A and 1B can demonstrate 10 % overload in excess of rated fuel-stop power for the purposes of performance approval by classification societies.doc Rev. Before delivery. i. power required for on-engine auxiliaries such as engine oil pump. marine main propulsion engines are supplied with power limited to fuel-stop power as specified in the Sales Program.1 SPECIFICATION OF POWER AND REFERENCE CONDITION Definition of Terms The available power for a specific engine type and application group is listed in the Sales Program. in accordance with DIN ISO 3046.e. Power specifications always express net brake power. Some classification societies accept the certification of engines of application group 1DS for special service vessels with specific load profiles. while operating at an associated speed and under defined ambient conditions (reference conditions). The figure therefore expresses the power available at the engine output flange. In case of such a request. 3. coolant pump and raw water pump is already deducted. Fuel stop power of the engines in application group 1DS cannot generally be classified. ICFN.1.3 Specification of Power and Reference Condition 3 3. Measurement unit is kW. TPG-General. 1. 1B and 1DS is stated as ISO standard fuel-stop power.2003 . the respective application engineering group should be contacted.0 Page 3-1 06. I = ISO power C = Continuous power F = Fuel stop power N = Net brake power The fuel-stop power rating represents the power that an engine can produce unlimited during a period of time appropriate to the application. Acceptance test procedures at MTU: • MTU works acceptance test • Acceptance test in accordance with classification society regulations under supervision of the customer As a rule.
Measurement unit is kW.2 Reference Conditions The reference conditions define all ambient factors of relevance for determining engine power. in accordance with DIN ISO 3046. I = ISO power C = Continuous power X = Service standard power.3 Specification of Power and Reference Condition 3.2003 . 1. ICXN.2 ISO Standard Power Exceedable by 10 % (ICXN) The rated power of marine onboard power generation of application group 3A and 3C is stated as ISO standard power exceedable by 10 %.1.0 Page 3-2 06.doc Rev. ISO 3046-1 standard reference conditions: Total barometric pressure Air temperature Relative humidity Charge air coolant temperature : 1000 mbar or (hPa) : 25 : 30 : 25 °C (298 K) % °C (298 K) TPG-General. exceedable by 10 % N = Net brake power 3. The reference conditions are specified in the Sales Program and on the applicable engine performance diagram.
The following standard load profiles have been established in the past. MTU calculates the TBO on the basis of the load profile submitted by the customer. based on accumulated field experience with specific vessels and a huge number of recorded load profiles.doc Rev.3 Specification of Power and Reference Condition 3. All MTU engines can be operated at fuel-stop power as long as required by the customer.0 Page 3-3 06.3. Standard Load Profile Application Group applied power in % of rated power 100 1A (all engines except 4000 M60R) 80 60 < 15 1A for V4000M60R only 1B up to and incl. Of course. TPG-General.2003 .1: Typical Standard Load Profiles If there is a significant difference between the actual and standard load profiles.3 Load Profile The load profile is a projection of the engine operating routine. Series 4000 1B above Series 4000 100 90 < 15 100 < 15 100 85 < 15 100 1DS 70 < 10 operating time in % 10 50 20 20 20 70 10 75 25 3 82 15 10 70 20 Figure 3. 1. extensive operation at fuel stop power (higher load profile) will shorten the time between maintenance intervals.
3 Specification of Power and Reference Condition 3. if a probability of wear-out failures exceeds 1% (socalled B1 definition).e. the TBO is defined to be the time span in which operation without major failure is ensured. This time span is theoretically reached. This means that an MTU engine can still provide full and unlimited service until the last operating hour before the scheduled overhaul. Based on this.2003 . Therefore each engine manufacturer uses his own definition for TBO.4. some other manufacturers define a scheduled TBO at a wear-out failure rate of 10% or up to 50% (B10 or B50 definition).1: TBO definition of MTU According to MTU. that statistically up to 50% of all engines do not reach the pre-defined TBO without major failure. The major criterion for a ship is availability and thus the reliability of the propulsion. TBO definition from other engine manufacturers In contrast to MTU’s TBO definition.0 Page 3-4 06. i. This means.doc Rev. the TBO for diesel engines is not specified in any international standard. 1. TPG-General. it precludes wear-related damage requiring a major overhaul or engine replacement.4 Time Between Major Overhauls (TBO) Up to now. Failure rate TBO MTU Maintenance Echelon W6 Early failures 1 1 Random failures W earout failures Probable start-up failures Operating tim e Figure 3. MTU decided to limit the statistical wear-out failure rate to 1 % only.
together with several other important engine parameters. The finally applicable TBO will also take into account the actual engine condition as a result of installation conditions. 1. In case of significant deviations between the recorded load profile and the assumed load profile.3 Specification of Power and Reference Condition Load Profile Recorder Most engines in the MTU Sales Program do include a load profile recorder as an integral part of the Electronic Engine Management System. This device continuously records the operating time spent at certain power levels and speeds. Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General.0 Page 3-5 06.2003 . The load profile could be downloaded from the Electronic Engine Management System and analysed. the TBO could be revised. quality of fluids and lubricants and service.doc Rev.
1.4 Fluids and Lubricants Specification 4 4. anti-freeze agents) fuels preserving agents (corrosion-inhibiting oils for use in and on the engine) The MTU approved fluids and lubricants as well as the requirements which they must satisfy are listed in the currently applicable MTU Fluids and Lubricants Specification.0 Page 4-1 06. greases and special-purpose lubricant substances) coolants (corrosion-inhibiting agents.2. An operator wishing to use a fluid or lubricant that is not included in the Fluids and Lubricants Specification must consult MTU.1: kg/m3 kJ/kg MGO/MDO according ISO 8217 DM DMA 880-890 DMB 900 DMC 920 Fuel specification ( under preparation ) Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General. for engine operation and engine preservation i..2003 . reliability and general operability of the propulsion plant.e.2 MTU Approved Fuels EN 590 Density at 15°C Lower calorific value Figure 4. • • • • lubricants (oils. Only fluids and lubricants approved by MTU may be used with MTU products. MTU Fluids and Lubricants Specification (A001061/.) is available.doc Rev. MTU issues a list of approved fluids and lubricants. 4.1 FLUIDS AND LUBRICANTS SPECIFICATION General The fluids and lubricants used in an engine are among the factors influencing serviceability.
doc Rev.5 Engine Performance Diagram 5 ENGINE PERFORMANCE DIAGRAM The engine performance diagram serves as the basis for a number of calculations. engine Speed (lowidle) Power surplus (acceleration reserve) I II Nominal speed = 100% Propeller curve = power demand (P ~n³) Engine speed [rpm] Figure 4. but one of its most important functions is to indicate the speed and power limits that must be observed for propeller and waterjet design. air charge is blown over to the exhaust line controlled by the engine electronics in order to increase the mass flow rate through the turbine. Engine power [kW] Speed band of constant power Nominal power = 100% Limit of MCR II UMBL ATL switching border line Min.2. In combination with the improved situation of the working line with reference to the compressor efficiency a higher loadingpressure and consequently an improvement of the engine operating values is obtained.2003 . After connection of the second ATL. 1.1: I –II II UMBL Structure of the performance diagram : Status.0 Page 5-1 06. sequential turbocharging : The engine operating values can be further optimized by employment of some blowing over facilities within the ATL-connection (ATL = tubocharger). TPG-General.
0 Page 5-2 06. TPG-General.doc Rev. 1B.2 shows a representative engine power diagram.2003 . 1. along with all other boundary conditions.2. Figure 4.5 Engine Performance Diagram Base for the layout of the performance diagram: • Application group (1A. 1DS) • Reference conditions • Definition of power rating and fuel consumption • Time between overhauls/operating load profile The engine performance diagram shows engine power plotted against engine speed. It also includes the specific fuel consumption curves and operating-speed range limits.
5 Engine Performance Diagram Figure 4.2003 .doc Rev. 1.2.0 Page 5-3 06.2: Engine performance diagram TPG-General.
2.3: Monohull Figure 4.2003 . 1.2.4: Semi-planing boat hull = high speed monohull with medium displacement TPG-General.5 Engine Performance Diagram There are different power/speed demand curves depending on difference hull shapes: Figure 4.0 Page 5-4 06.doc Rev.
6: Semi-planing boat hull = high speed monohull with low displacement Back to Contents Back to Start of Chapter TPG-General.0 Page 5-5 06.2.2003 . 1.2.5 Engine Performance Diagram Figure 4. Figure 4.doc Rev.5: Multihulls = catamarans. trimarans.
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
6 PROPULSION, INTERACTION ENGINE WITH APPLICATION 6.1 Propulsor 6.1.1 Abbreviations
The following abbreviations will be used in section 6. In the majority (marked with an asterisk) they are according to recommendations of the ITTC Symbols and Terminology List, Draft Version1999 (International Towing Tank Conference).
Scheme of a propulsive unit (side view)
ITTC B D *
Definition or Explanation
Fuel consumption Propeller diameter Lower heating value or lower caloric value * * * * Brake power Delivered power or propeller power, propeller load Effective power or resistance power Shaft power Lower heating value of fuel (preferred value 42800 kJ/kg) Power at output flange of the diesel engine, power delivered by primer mover. Power at propeller flange. Power for towing a ship. Power measured on the shaft. Power available at the output flange of a gearbox. If no gearbox fitted: PS = PB
m3/h M kJ/kg W W W W
PB PD PE PS
PS Pp RT T * *
Generator apparent power Generator active power Total resistance Propeller thrust or waterjet thrust Total resistance of a towed ship.
W W N N
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
be f n p v
Specific fuel consumption Electrical power supply frequency Shaft speed, rate of revolution Number of generator pole pairs Ship speed
Definition or Explanation
within MTU often used as SFC ( alternative dimension g/kWh)
kg/kWh (g/kWh) Hz
(diesel engine, gearbox, propulsor) alias rpm in several propulsor applications (see remark 1)
1/s (rpm) --m/s (knot) -------
ηD ηGen ηH ηm η0 ηR ρfuel
Propulsive efficiency Generator efficiency
PE / PD
Hull efficiency Mechanical efficiency PD / PB ,represents the losses between diesel engine and propeller flange.
Propeller open water efficiency Relative rotative efficiency Specific density of fuel (preferred value 830 kg/m3)
Remark 1: While the SI-Unit of velocity is meter/second the traditional unit knots is widely used and this situation will not change in the near future. kn sm knot (1sm/h or 1852m/3600s = 0.5144 m/s) sea mile ( = 1852 m) (alias nm = nautical mile)
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
6.1.2 Propulsive Devices (Overview)
The duty of a propulsive unit is to convert the power of the diesel engine into propulsive thrust. A propulsive device can be a:
Type Fixed Pitch Propeller (FPP)
General Characteristics Ease of manufacture Small hub size Blade root dictates boss length Design for single condition (design point) Absorbed power varies with propeller speed No restriction on blade area or shape Gearbox: reversing gear needed
Controllable Pitch Propeller (CPP)
Constant or variable speed operation Blade root is restricted by palm dimensions Mechanical complexity Restriction on blade area to maintain reversibility Can accommodate multiple operating conditions Increased manoeuvrability Gearbox: if fully reversible no reversing gear needed
Good directional control of thrust Increased mechanical complexity Avoids need for separate rudder Increased manoeuvrability Diesel engine load independent of wind and sea state High speed range (approx.>20 kn) Gearbox: no reversing gear needed, but usually used to allow back flushing of water (reverse mode)
1.6 Propulsion.<24 kn) Gearbox: not required for standard arrangements Podded Propulsion Good directional control of thrust Avoids need for rudder Increased manoeuvrability Electric motor drives propeller Gearbox: not required TPG-General. Interaction Engine with Application Type Rudderpropeller General Characteristics Good directional control of thrust Increased mechanical complexity Avoids need for rudder Increased manoeuvrability Can employ ducted or non ducted FPP or CPP types Low speed range (approx.<20 kn) Gearbox: not required for standard arrangements Cycloidal Propeller Good directional control of thrust Increased mechanical complexity Avoids need for rudder Increased manoeuvrability Low speed range (approx.0 Page 6-4 06.<20 kn) Gearbox: not required for standard arrangements Twin-Propeller Good directional control of thrust Increased mechanical complexity Avoids need for rudder Increased manoeuvrability Propeller coupled mechanically Same direction of rotation Low speed range (approx.2003 .doc Rev.
doc Rev.2003 . 1. Interaction Engine with Application Type Fixed Pitch Propeller (FPP) Typical Arrangements Controllable Pitch Propeller (CPP) Waterjet Rudderpropeller Cycloidal Propeller TPG-General.0 Page 6-5 06.6 Propulsion.
doc Rev.0 Page 6-6 06. 1. Interaction Engine with Application Type Twin-Propeller Typical Arrangements Podded Propulsion TPG-General.6 Propulsion.2003 .
Astern: reversing bucket (optional).0 Page 6-7 06. Gearbox: free standing. flange mounted. Gearbox: free standing. Rudder: needed. Ship speed: adjusting diesel engine speed or propeller pitch. Astern: reversible gearbox.2003 . Ship speed: adjusting diesel engine speed. Power demand: fixed relation between shaft speed and diesel engine power. Controllable Pitch Propeller (CPP) Waterjet TPG-General. Astern: reversible gearbox or fully reversible propeller. Clear dependence on hull resistance. Clear dependence on hull resistance. Interaction Engine with Application Type Fixed Pitch Propeller (FPP) Manoeuvring Characteristics Power demand: fixed relation between ship speed and diesel engine power. Control: hydraulic power pack for steering and reversing bucket. flange mounted. Rudder: needed. Ship speed: adjusting diesel engine speed. Gearbox: free standing. Control: not applicable. Control: hydraulic power pack arranged in shaft line or at the gearbox.doc Rev. Power demand: every possible pitch has its own fixed relation to the effective power curve. Rudder: if no steering equipment at waterjet. flange mounted. V-drive arrangement.6 Propulsion. Small dependence on hull resistance. 1.
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
Manoeuvring Characteristics Power demand: fixed relation between ship speed and diesel engine power. Clear dependence on hull resistance. Ship speed: adjusting diesel engine speed. Astern: turning the propeller pod. Control: hydraulic power pack for steering. Gearbox: standard. Rudder: no need. Power demand: every possible blade pitch has its own fixed relation to the effective power curve. Clear dependence on hull resistance. Ship speed: adjusting diesel engine speed or blade pitch. Astern: control of thrust direction via blade pitch. Control: hydraulic power pack. Gearbox: standard. Rudder: no need. Power demand: fixed relation between ship speed and diesel engine power. Clear dependence on hull resistance. Ship speed: adjusting diesel engine speed. Astern: turning the propeller pod. Control: hydraulic power pack for steering. Gearbox: standard. Rudder: no need.
Power demand: full electric propulsion, fixed relation between ship speed and electric motor. Clear dependence on hull resistance. Ship speed: adjusting motor speed (electrical). Astern: turning the pod or reversing the motor. Control: hydraulic power pack for steering. Gearbox: no need. Rudder: no need.
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
Shaft Line and Gearbox Losses
The brake power (PB) of the diesel engine will be transferred via a shaft line to the propeller flange. All power consumers in the shaft line will be counted as mechanical losses (ηm). The main loss will occur in the gearbox depending on how many gears and clutches are used and how many pumps are attached, where at the pumps will generate the main part of the losses.
PD in (---) PB
PB = diesel engine brake Power PD = delivered Power ηm = mechanical efficiency
At the design point the following approximations can be used: ηm = 0.98 ηm = 0.97 non reversible gearbox reversible gearbox
Information about the losses in the gearbox must be provided by the manufacturer. The diesel engine has to deal with two different kinds of mechanical losses: 1. Static friction loss (no oil film yet) 2. Dynamic friction loss (built up oil film) The dynamic friction losses in the shaft line bearings (<1%) can be neglected. If no gearbox is used, take an approximation of ηm = 0.99%. If the propeller shaft starts turning, the static friction has to be overcome (initial break-away torque) until lubrication has been established and dynamic friction only is in effect.
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
6.2 Propeller 6.2.1 Propeller Geometry
To understand the hydrodynamic action of a propeller it is essential to have a thorough understanding of basic propeller geometry and the corresponding definitions. Figure 6.2.1 shows what is meant by rake and skew of a propeller. The use of skew has been shown to be effective in reducing vibratory forces, hull pressure induced vibration and retarding cavitation development. With rake the stress in the blade can be controlled and slightly thinner blade sections can be used, which can be advantageous from blade hydrodynamic considerations.
Scheme of propeller geometry (skew and rake)
Every propeller needs a hub to fix the blades and to place the control mechanism (CPP) for the blades. This results in different hub sizes for a FPP and a CPP (propeller) and is a characteristic difference between these two types. The hub size of a CPP is 10 to 15% larger (related to the diameter). See the figures in the overview section (6.1.2) also. Another difference is the blade area ratio (A/A0). Blade area ratio is simply the blade area, a defined form of the blade outline projection, divided by the propeller disc area (A0). As a controllable pitch propeller is usually fully reversible in the sense that its blades can pass through zero pitch condition care has to be taken that the blades do not interfere with each other. With equal number of blades a CPP can only realize a somewhat smaller area ratio than a FPP.
Unfortunately there are several pitch definitions and the distinction between them is of considerable importance to avoid analytical mistakes: 1. P D Θ = arc tan −1 x π TPG-General.2003 . 1. With D = 2R and x = r (dimensionless radius) R the characteristic pitch angle is defined at a propeller ratio of x=0. Interaction Engine with Application The expression (P/D) is the commonly used pitch ratio.0 Page 6-11 06. the Wageningen B Series). The face pitch line is basically a tangent to the section of the pressure side surface and used in older model test series (e. face pitch The nose–tail pitch line is today the most commonly used and referenced line.7. The following equation can be used to convert the pitch from P/D to θ or vice versa.6 Propulsion.g.doc Rev. nose tail pitch 2. Although the difference is not big it can be the reason for using different values for the same propeller. Alternatively the pitch angle θ can be given.
ferry and tug markets with vessels of over 1500 kW propulsion power with an operational profile that can be satisfied by a CPP better than by a two speed gearbox. if this is a demand in the operational profile of the ship. The CPP has the advantage of permitting constant speed operation of the propeller.doc Rev.2. Although this leads to a loss in efficiency. it does readily allow the use of shaft driven generators.2 Propeller Type Selection (FPP or CPP) The selection of a propeller for a particular application usually is a result of the consideration of different factors.0 Page 6-12 06. 1.6 Propulsion. Controllable pitch propellers have gained complete dominance in Ro-Ro vessels.2. But it must not be forgotten to compare the economical aspects of an extended motor control with the cost of a CPP.25D b ≥ 0. For all other purposes the simpler fixed pitch propeller appears to be a satisfactory solution. The choice between a fixed pitch (FPP) and a controllable pitch propeller (CPP) has been a long contested debate between the proponents of the various systems. Each vessel has to be considered with regard to its own special application. Without the need of a gearbox and controllability of the electric motor a fixed pitch propeller seems to be the best choice. Rudder a Propeller Clearance a ≥ 0. that the CPP has achieved the status of being a reliable component. During the last years the electric drive with podded propeller has been arising on the market.20D D b Figure 6. Comparing the reliability between the mechanical complex CPP and the FPP shows. These factors can be determined in pursuit of maximum efficiency with respect to: • noise limitation • ease of manoeuvrability • cost of installation and so on. Interaction Engine with Application 6.2: Propeller clearance TPG-General.2003 .
1. A few words to the effect of thrust breakdown. The values shown in Figure 6. For the Wageningen B-Series propellers there are some calculation procedures available. The size of a propeller cannot only be calculated theoretically.6 Propulsion. e.2). It is a matter of definition when these effects are called “thrust breakdown”.doc Rev. Interaction Engine with Application To determine the propeller diameter (D) for a certain delivered power (PD) at a propeller speed (n) and a ship speed (v) is a complex routine. Obviously the cavitation occurs first at the tip section of a blade and extends downward with higher power consumption. For more detailed information see the recommendations of a classification society.2. which can cause heavy vibrations at the stern or the rudder with the possibility of mechanical failures.2003 . The ship must provide the necessary space for the propeller including a sufficient clearance between propeller and hull (Figure 6. Due to hydrodynamic effects and/or cavitation the ship hull and the rudder can be mechanically excited.g. if the cavitation exceeds below the 0. which can be found in the literature with all necessary assumptions that have to be made.2. which depends on the propeller parameters and especially on the blade area ratio. TPG-General. The power density of a propeller can only be increased to a certain limit. but must also be adapted to the ship.0 Page 6-13 06.2 are only a design proposal.5 radius.
0 Page 6-14 06.doc Rev.6 Propulsion.2.2003 . Although the given explanations in literature are not really convincing the following recommendations can be given: Single shaft: (looking from aft at propeller) FPP (fixed pitch propeller) Direction of rotation: clockwise CPP (controllable pitch propeller) Direction of rotation: counter clockwise TPG-General. 1. Interaction Engine with Application 6.3 Direction of Propeller Rotation The direction of rotation can have consequences for manoeuvring and efficiency considerations.
When the ship is stationary and the propeller is started. Propeller efficiency: It has been found that the rotation present in the wake field. due to the flow around the ship. Thus with a TPG-General. Interaction Engine with Application Twin shaft: (looking from aft at propeller) FPP (fixed pitch propeller) Port side: counter clockwise Starboard: clockwise CPP (controllable pitch propeller) Port side: clockwise Starboard: counter clockwise For those who are still eager to hear a few words about the reasons for doing so. the propeller will move the afterbody of the ship in the direction of rotation.2003 . Manoeuvring (single screw): For a single screw ship the influence on manoeuvring is entirely determined by the “paddle wheel effect”. at the propeller disc can lead to a gain in propeller efficiency when the direction of rotation of the propeller is opposite to the direction of rotation in the wake field.0 Page 6-15 06.6 Propulsion. 1. here are some explanations from literature.doc Rev.
Interaction Engine with Application fixed pitch propeller. Manoeuvring (twin screw): In addition to the paddle wheel effect other forces due to the pressure differential on the hull and shaft eccentricity come into effect. In the astern thrust position FPP and CPP will have the same direction of rotation and assuming that starboard is the main docking side there is an advantage to push off from the quay with astern thrust. this direction of initial motion will change with the direction of rotation. From the manoeuvrability point of view it can be deduced from test results that the fixed pitch propellers are best when outward turning. TPG-General.doc Rev.2003 . 1. i.6 Propulsion. the design should follow the given recommendations but if the rules are not kept no great disadvantage arises. For the controllable pitch propeller no such clear-cut conclusion exists. is ahead or astern thrust. due to reverse thrusts of the propellers on either side of the hull gives a lateral force and turning moment. Although these effects are small. In the case of a controllable pitch propeller the motion will tend to be unidirectional because only the pitch changes from the ahead to the astern position. The pressure differential.0 Page 6-16 06.e. The direction of rotation will not change.
2. As blade number increases cavitation problems at the blade root can be enhanced. The number of blades shall be primarily determined by the need to avoid harmful resonant frequencies of the ship structure and torsional machinery vibration frequencies. 1.doc Rev. It is also found that propeller efficiency and optimum diameter increase as the number of blades decreases and to some extent. five or six blades are favoured. For merchant ships four. although many tugs and fishing vessels frequently use three bladed designs. since the blade clearance becomes less.4 Selection of Propeller Blade Number Blade numbers generally range from two to seven. Interaction Engine with Application 6. TPG-General. the propeller speed (n) will dependent on the blade number.6 Propulsion. In naval applications where the generated noise become important blade numbers of five and above predominate.2003 .0 Page 6-17 06.
6. i.e.6 Propulsion. 1. clean hull • sea state 0-1 (calm water). full load) • no current The load of the propulsive device to match the effective power is called delivered power (PD) and the relation between the effective and delivered power is called the propulsive efficiency (ηD).1) Basis for the design of a propulsive device is the effective power (PE) curve for a ship.g.2003 .3 Propeller Curve 6.doc Rev. showing the relation between effective power and ship speed (v). The effective power curve will be evaluated by a test facility or estimated with respect to a defined condition. e.6.2) TPG-General. the required force is called resistance (R) and the necessary power to tow the ship at a certain speed (v) is: PE = R T ⋅ v in (kW) PE = effective Power RT = total resistance v = ship speed (E. usually the trial condition: • new ship.3.1 Basics When a ship is being towed and is not fitted with a propeller.3. wind Beaufort 2-3 • load condition (defined.3. Interaction Engine with Application 6. PE PD ηD = in (---) ηD = propulsive efficiency PE = effective Power PD = delivered Power (E.0 Page 6-18 06.
2003 . Relative rotational efficiency (ηR) depending on the propeller efficiency behind the ship and the propeller open water efficiency (at design point approx.6.95 – 1.90 – 1. Pow er (PE) effective pow er curve (clean hull) Ship Speed (v) Figure 6. • • ηD = η O ⋅ ηH ⋅ ηR in (---) (E.3.60 – 0. 1. size.doc Rev.1). η0 = 0. effective pow er curve (in service) Effective Power P E pow er difference at const. 0. e. sea state). fouling) and actual load condition of the ship have to be taken into consideration (Figure 6.10).g.3) The effective power varies not only with ship speed (v). speed. Environmental conditions (wind. 0.75).6 Propulsion.3.0 Page 6-19 06.3. (at design point approx. hull roughness (clean. Speed (v) ship speed difference at const. Interaction Engine with Application The propulsive efficiency is the product of: • Propulsive unit efficiency in open water (η0) depending on type.1: Influence of change in resistance on effective power curve (example) TPG-General. Hull efficiency (ηH) depending on wake fraction and thrust deduction fraction (at design point approx.02).
3.6 Propulsion. Figure 6. shows some examples.3. Delivered Power (P D ) Delivered Power (P D ) As Required user defined Ship Speed (v) Propeller Speed (n) As Required Figure 6. Interaction Engine with Application Effective Power Curve Effective Power (PE) Ship Speed (v) Propeller Design The result of the propeller design can be presented in a bunch of diagrams.doc Rev.2: From effective to delivered power curve (example) On the basis of a defined effective power curve a propeller will be designed. The diagram with the propeller speed (n) as abscissa has the advantage that the performance diagram of the diesel engine can be plotted in also.0 Page 6-20 06. The relation between delivered power (PD) and ship speed (v) or propeller speed (n) can be shown in single diagrams or a diagram using both ordinates.2. TPG-General. 1.2003 .
Propeller Speed (n) propeller speed difference at const. i. area ratio.1 and Figure 6.g.3 shows that due to the cubic characteristic of the propeller curve small changes can have great effects. from clean hull and fair weather to fouled hull and heavy weather the propeller curve will also change.e.3. 1. If the effective power curve changes. diameter. That leads to the conclusion: A change in the propeller curve can be initiated by the ship (effective power) or by a modification of the propeller.3.3: Effect of change in resistance on delivered power curve (example) Although the curves in Figure 6. pitch or the number of blades) leads to a new power-speed relation. Interaction Engine with Application Every change in the effective power curve will be seen in the propeller curve also.3 are similar in shape they are different.3. TPG-General.3. Changing the geometry of the propeller (e.0 Page 6-21 06. This means that the propeller curve is only valid for the designed propeller.6 Propulsion. a new propeller curve. The effective and the delivered power will be related by the propulsive efficiency (ηD). The example in Figure 6.doc Rev. Pow er (PD) propeller curve (clean hull) Propeller Speed (n) Figure 6. e.g. propeller curve (in service) Delivered Power PD pow er difference at const.2003 .
3.0 Page 6-22 06.2003 . CPP: Every possible pitch has its own fixed relation to the effective power curve.doc Rev.4). CPP (Controllable Pitch Propeller) design pitch Delivered Power PD constant ship speed pitch increases propeller curves = lines of constant pitch Propeller Speed (n) Figure 6.6 Propulsion. The propeller curve will be influenced by the ship (effective power) and the propeller pitch. This leads to a bunch of propeller curves (Figure 6.4: Effect of different propeller pitches on delivered power (example) This different behaviour will have distinct consequences on the design of the chosen propeller type.3. 1. Interaction Engine with Application FPP: The propeller curve has a fixed relation to the effective power curve and will be influenced by the ship (effective power) only. TPG-General.
2003 .doc Rev. delivered power (PD) and shaft speed (n) of the propeller can be calculated by the propeller manufacturer when the effective power curve is given and the design speed (v) and the installed brake power (PB) have been chosen. depending on the hull form (see chapter 5 also) as the decisive factor. There is another restriction for the lower speed range. Interaction Engine with Application 6. 1. Below a certain speed (v) the wind forces can become dominant and the delivered power does not decrease any more. That means the approximation of a controllable pitch propeller is only valid for the design pitch.0 Page 6-23 06. a simple approximation can be done by a theoretical propeller curve.2 Theoretical Propeller Curve Diameter (D). PD design PD = 3 n design P ⋅ n prop 3 PD = delivered power nprop = propeller speed fixed propeller geometry PB design PB = n3 design 3 ⋅n PB = diesel engine brake power n = diesel engine speed fixed propeller geometry Diesel engine and propeller have a fixed relation via the propeller shaft and therefore the equation can be used for PB and PD as well.3. Power and propeller speed (n) have to match the installed power of the diesel engine. TPG-General. If only the design point of the propeller or the diesel engine is known.6 Propulsion. and taking into account that the propeller geometry is fixed. There will be differences to the real curve.
Interaction Engine with Application Something to remember: Cubical propeller curve.2003 .6 Propulsion. 1.0 Page 6-24 06. why n3 ? V = c ⋅ A = c ⋅ π ⋅ D2 4 c = π ⋅ n ⋅D This leads to : V ~ n ⋅ D3 ∆p = ρ ⋅ c 2 2 P = ∆p ⋅ V The result : P ~ n3 ⋅ D 5 or P ~ c3 ⋅ D2 theoretical propeller curve power is proportional to n3 (propeller speed) power is proportional to v3 (ship speed) • • • V = volume flow A =propeller disc area c = flow speed D = propeller diameter (constant for a given design) Bernoulli equation (c1=0) p = pressure P = power TPG-General.doc Rev.
5) PB = total diesel engine brake power in kW PE = effective Power in kW RT = total resistance at ship speed (v) in kN v = ship speed in knot (0.5144 ηD ⋅ η m PE ηD ⋅ η m PB = in (kW) (E. Interaction Engine with Application 184.108.40.206. R T ⋅ v ⋅ 0.6.3.2) a rough estimation for the required total diesel engine brake power (PB) at ship speed (v) can be done. (E. This value must be distributed onto the desired number of diesel engines. TPG-General.3.6 Propulsion.60 The result is the total diesel engine break power (PB) for the ship.3.1).1) and (E.1.0 Page 6-25 06.6.6.doc Rev. With Equation (E. 1.3 Estimating the Required Diesel Engine Power In some cases the required total diesel engine brake power (PB) for a ship has to be estimated in a very early stage of a project and only estimations of the effective power (PE) or the total Resistance (RT) are available.2003 .97 ηD = 0.4) or PB = in (kW) (E.5144 used to convert knot to m/s) ηD = propulsive efficiency ηm = mechanical efficiency At the design point the following approximation can be used for the efficiencies: ηm = 0.3.
0 Page 6-26 06. At this stage of evaluation a diesel engine has been selected and a design point inside the performance diagram of the diesel engine has to be chosen.doc Rev. Propeller Curve). As a consequence. Only the sea trials show whether estimations are correct or not. Certain models of diesel engines are more sensitive to this shifting than others. surface and profile influence the power absorption of the propeller. In addition to the hydrodynamic aspects (see Figure 220.127.116.11. the ship may not be able to operate at full speed when the hull has fouled. TPG-General. Hull resistance can vary due to inevitable differences in load and shape.3.2003 . manufacturing tolerances have to be taken into account. 1.4.4 Propeller and Performance Diagram 6. Interaction Engine with Application 6.1: Change in delivered power due to weather. draught and fouling Hydrodynamical and geometrical aspects (Figure 6. Manufacturing tolerance in pitch. Brake Power PB in ( % ) Rated Power 120 110 100 100% = rated pow er 100% = rated speed 3 4 MCR curve 1 5 2 C B A 1 propeller curve 90 80 MCR curve 2 70 60 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 Propeller rpm in ( % ) Rated Speed Figure 6.6 Propulsion.1 Driving Mode Power (PD) and propeller speed (n) have to match the installed power for the propulsion (PB). the weather deteriorates or the draught has increased.1) can shift the propeller curve (A) to the left side of the performance diagram (C).
The diesel engine can run with full speed (n) and reach its full power. In this case the diesel engines reduce their speed (n) in order to find a new operation point within the performance limits. Each diesel engine takes half the load of the required brake power (PB).1 two diesel engines (MCR curves 1 and 2) from various manufacturers with different performance limits are shown. If one diesel engine is shut down.4. 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Propeller rpm in ( % ) Rated Speed 2 MCR curve 2 (single shaft) 1 diesel engine Brake Power PB in (%) Total Rated Power fixedpitch pitchpropeller fixed propeller 100% = rated pow er 100% rated 100%== ratedspeed pow er 100% t d d MCR curve 1 (2 diesel engines. one per shaft) 1 tw o shaft propeller curve single shaft propeller curve Figure 6. TPG-General.2 shows the arrangement with diesel engines of the same type one per shaft. The output power has been added over the speed range (MCR curve 1) and the propeller curve running through point 1. A similar behaviour is experienced in a two-shaft arrangement which has been switched over in a single shaft mode.6 Propulsion.2: Diesel engine failure in a two shaft arrangement MCR curve 2 shows the available brake power (PB) of one diesel engine. Interaction Engine with Application In Figure 6.2003 . No limitation arises (point 2).doc Rev. The differences between the two operating points (4) and (5) are the magnitude of reduction in ship speed (v) which can be considerably high.0 Page 6-27 06. the effective power of the ship relates to one propeller instead of two with the consequence of a new propeller curve (single shaft propeller curve). Due to the load limits (MTU: fuel stop power) both diesel engines are not able to provide the required power for full speed (n) at point (3). A change in the propeller curve from (A) to (C) leads to the following behaviour: A B C The diesel engine can run with full speed (n).4.4. For the diesel engine with MCR curve 1 this is point (4) and for the other diesel engine point (5). But the propeller does not absorb the maximum available power. No limitation arises (point 1). 1. Figure 6.
These are some reasons why the design point of the diesel engine should be carefully specified with respect to the load limits and the kind of propeller (FPP. The point marks also the maximum available brake power (PB) (and speed (n)) in the single shaft mode for this ship.doc Rev. This will also point out that with the chosen diesel engines the ship cannot be run in single shaft mode. point (2) is the new operating point for the diesel engine. 1. In this example.2003 . TPG-General. CPP) that is to be used. In this case a CPP has to be selected.6 Propulsion. In case that the diesel engine finds no operating point it will stall. Interaction Engine with Application The running diesel engine has to find a new operating point on the single shaft propeller curve within its performance limits.0 Page 6-28 06.
0 Page 6-29 06.2 Fixed Pitch Propeller (FPP) The design of a propulsion system with a fixed pitch propeller is absolutely critical to the performance of the ship. But due to geometrical tolerances and deteriorated hydrodynamics.2003 . trial effective power curve = propeller curve B). point 3. With growing lifetime the propeller curve will move to the left (e.g.4. the design point for the propeller. Dependent on the type of diesel engine two different approaches are possible. This situation will be overcome by designing the propeller a few revolutions faster for the new ship. The characteristic of a MTU diesel engine is the wide lug-down range above a certain speed (n) (fuel stop power). The brake power (PB) curve should pass through the maximum continuous rating of the diesel engine. TPG-General.4. the propeller curve can be higher than predicted.e. i. This means.6 Propulsion. 1. In poor weather conditions or at increased hull resistance the propeller curve will move to the left.doc Rev. propeller curve C).3: Choosing a design point for a fixed pitch propeller MTU Procedure (wide lug-down range diesel characteristic): Point 2: Preferred/recommended design point for the propeller. Interaction Engine with Application 6. This range can be used as a design margin. at trial condition the diesel engine should work at the rightmost point of the MCR curve (point 2. 120 Brake Power PB in ( % ) Rated Power fixed pitch propeller 100% = rated pow er 100% = rated speed 4 3 design margin 2 C propeller curve B A design margin 110 100 MCR curve 1 90 80 70 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 Propeller rpm in ( % ) Rated Speed Figure 6.
propeller curve B). The rated power will be met by propeller curve A at 102 to 103. 1.6 Propulsion. The maximum ship speed (v) will decrease slowly with the left shifting of the propeller curve towards point 3. The difference between 100% rated power and design power is called "sea margin" (= design margin). TPG-General. the MTU recommendation shall be used (point 2 = primary design point for the propeller). If the application demands no specific propeller design point. In poorer weather or with growing lifetime the propeller curve will move to the left and the maximum power will be used (point 2. The design allows the propeller to run at 100% rpm (rated speed) as long as the propeller curve does not pass point 2. Interaction Engine with Application The design allows the propeller to run at 100% rated power (PB) as long as the propeller curve does not pass point 4 (lugging point).2003 . The ship speed (v) will increase with the shifting of the propeller curve and reaches its maximum at point 2. trial effective power curve = propeller curve A). If there are no specific demands. 6 to 10% shall be used. no change will be possible afterwards. So.0 Page 6-30 06.doc Rev. a few additional aspects shall not be forgotten: If the delivered power curve through the design point does not pass through the region of minimum fuel consumption. Summary: Both procedures or a mixture can be used for choosing the design point of a fixed pitch propeller and a flat rated diesel engine. a design margin of approx. If the power curve comes too close to the diesel engine surge limits. In the design point the propeller runs at 100% rated speed (n) and small amount (design margin) below 100% rated power. No matter what design point is chosen the propeller curve runs on a fixed curve through the performance range of the diesel engine. Standard procedure (usable for all type of diesel engines): Point 1: Preferred/recommended design point for the propeller. In this case at trial condition the diesel engine is effectively working at a derated condition (point 1. the curve cannot be moved away from this region with the result of a blocked operation range. because the speed (n) of the diesel engine is limited to 100% rated speed.5% rated speed but this is only theoretical. Using this procedure the designer has to consider that it may be not possible to demonstrate the full speed (v) capability of the ship at trial conditions.
2003 .0 Page 6-31 06.4. except in special applications. Interaction Engine with Application 6. The point at 100% brake power (PB) and speed (n) should be chosen (Figure 6.4. design pitch Brake Power PB in ( % ) Rated Power 100 80 60 controllable pitch propeller 100% = rated pow er 100% = rated speed constant ship speed MCR curve 40 20 0 20 pitch increases propeller curves = lines of constant pitch 40 60 80 100 Propeller rpm in ( % ) Rated Speed Figure 6. Each pitch results in a new propeller curve. The available pitch range is not fixed.4. The range above the design pitch is very small because there is no general need. Generally the available pitch range will be related to the design pitch and be given in degrees.5). Due to possible later adjustment of the propeller pitch there are no restrictions for the design point within the diesel engines performance diagram. A typical example is shown in Figure 6. TPG-General.3 Controllable Pitch Propeller (CPP) The controllable pitch propeller can be seen as an extension to the fixed pitch propeller. 1.4 where the controllable pitch propeller characteristic is superimposed on a diesel engine characteristic.doc Rev. On the manufacturer’s side it is limited by the size of the hub and the maximum blade forces.6 Propulsion. It is a part of the customer’s specification for the propeller.4.4: CPP characteristic in a typical diesel engine performance diagram Every change in the pitch of the propeller changes the relation between propeller speed (n) and brake power (PB) for the ship.
The stopping distance will be significantly lower than with a FPP. 1.4. if a single shaft mode is part of the operational profile.doc Rev. A CPP can be chosen with a fully reversible position and the ship can move astern without the need of a reversing gearbox. the design brake power (PB) and speed (n) will stay available. The controllable pitch gives a lot of options: If the delivered power curve through the design point (design pitch) does not pass through the minimum fuel consumption region. If the power curve comes too close to the diesel engine MCR limit. TPG-General. Generally the manoeuvring characteristics are better. Interaction Engine with Application Brake Power PB in ( % ) Rated Power 110 100 90 80 70 60 controllable pitch propeller 100% = rated pow er 100% = rated speed MCR curve propeller curve (design pitch) design point 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 Propeller rpm in ( % ) Rated Speed Figure 6. A CPP can be chosen with a feathering position (minimum resistance).2003 .0 Page 6-32 06.6 Propulsion. When off design performance is needed use should not be made of fixed pitch characteristics beyond 5° from design pitch because the effect of section distortion affects the calculation considerably. the operating curve can be moved away from this region. If the ship during trials is not able to achieve the design brake power (PB) the design pitch can be corrected or when the ship resistance increases with service life. it is possible to adjust the pitch at partial load conditions.5: Controllable pitch propeller design point The performance of a CPP at design pitch can be calculated like a FPP.
50%). With an MTU diesel engine the propeller can run in “combinator mode”. A programmed “combinator diagram” could give the best overall performance as well. The upper blade area ratio will be limited. If the diesel engine has a very slender performance diagram.6 Propulsion. Due to its internal mechanism the propeller has a bigger hub than a FPP (approx. There is an additional aspect that should be mentioned. The diesel engine runs at constant speed (n) feeding the generator and the ship speed (v) will be controlled by the propeller pitch. Only in the last third of the power range the propeller can run at design pitch. If the propeller will be set out of the design pitch the efficiency decreases. Additional space inside the ship has to be provided for the propeller control unit. Interaction Engine with Application But you have to pay for the advantages: The controllable pitch propeller is more expensive than a FPP. care has to be taken that the blades will not interfere with each other when passing zero pitch. This is a standard design for merchant ships running most of their service time at high power rates. this can lead to a somewhat higher diameter.2003 . however. This type of diesel engine can be used only with a propeller controlled by a pitch – RPM relationship.doc Rev. In doing so the propeller can come very close to the diesel engine surge limits. TPG-General. this is not necessary due to the wide performance range of the diesel engine. Another application is a constant speed generator attached to the gearbox.0 Page 6-33 06. frequently called “combinator diagram “. If the propeller is fully reversible. 1. Another reason is the access to the region of minimum fuel consumption. the design propeller curve will not lie inside the diagram for the lower power range.
This point marks also the maximum available brake power (PB) and speed (n) in single shaft mode at design pitch for this ship. On this propeller curve.doc Rev. MCR curve 2 shows the available brake power (PB) of one diesel engine.0 Page 6-34 06. Figure 6.4. point (2) is the new operating point for the diesel engine.6 is similar to Figure 6. one per shaft) tw o shaft propeller curve design pitch 1 single shaft propeller curve design pitch MCR curve 2 (single shaft) 1 diesel engine 3 2 single shaft propeller curve reduced pitch 80 90 100 110 Propeller rpm in ( % ) Rated Speed Figure 6.4. In order to use the installed break power of the running diesel engine the propeller pitch has to be reduced (point 3). full power of the diesel engine and maximum ship speed (v) in single shaft mode are attainable.2 and shows what happens when in a two-shaft arrangement the diesel engines are switched over in single shaft mode.2003 . 1.6 Propulsion.4.6: Example: Single shaft operation with CPP TPG-General. Interaction Engine with Application An example is supposed to clarify this behaviour. 120 Brake Power PB in (%) Total Rated Power CPP 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 100% = rated pow er 100% = rated speed MCR curve 1 (2 diesel engines. In this example. The running diesel engine has to find a new operating point on the single shaft propeller curve within its performance limits.
7: Example: Constant speed generator in operation with CPP TPG-General. Between point 2 and point 1 the diesel engine runs at constant speed (n) feeding the propeller and the generator.6 Propulsion. Interaction Engine with Application In the next example (Figure 6. 1. The ship speed (v) will be controlled by the propeller pitch.0 Page 6-35 06. In the lower power range the propeller shall run on design pitch. The thick line in the performance diagram shows the power-speed-pitch relation of the propeller.doc Rev. In the lower power range until point 3 the CPP runs at design pitch.2003 .4.4. A constant speed generator is attached to the gearbox and shall run above 50% diesel engine load. The ship speed will not change significantly. At point 2 the operating speed (n) for the attached generator has been reached. Between point 3 and point 2 the diesel engine speed will be raised with decreasing propeller pitch. Brake Power PB in ( % ) Rated Power 100 80 60 CPP 100% = rated pow er 100% = rated speed constant ship speed 1 design pitch MCR curve Generator operating range pitch increases 2 3 40 20 0 40 propeller curves = lines of constant pitch 60 80 100 120 Propeller rpm in ( % ) Rated Speed Figure 6.7) the pitch of a CPP will be controlled by combinator.
let’s say above 20 kn. 6. Inlet duct Impeller Stator bowl Nozzle Shaft Sealing box 7. A waterjet is like a propeller a hydrodynamical propulsive device but is arranged inside the ship and behaves more like a pump than as a propeller. Hydraulic steering cylinder 10. 2.0 Page 6-36 06.doc Rev. 1. Hydraulic bucket cylinder 11. Inspection opening Figure 6.5. The propulsive efficiency of a waterjet decreases considerably with speed (v) reduction. 3. Thrust bearing 8.6 Propulsion.1: Waterjet TPG-General.5 Waterjet and Performance Diagram 6. 5. 4. Nozzle Pump Inlet Shaft Height above water line Stator Cross section Inlet duct Effective inlet velocity Impeller Ship hull V = Ship speed 8 10 9 7 11 5 6 1 4 3 2 1.1 Geometry and Design Point The main application for a waterjet is in the higher speed range.5. Steering deflector 9. Interaction Engine with Application 6.2003 . Below 20 to 24 kn a propeller should be preferred.
2: Waterjet design point (Diagram has limited use for waterjet design) Due to the insensibility to the ship resistance (effective power curve) there are no restrictions for a design point within the diesel engine performance diagram. The waterjet works more like a pump as long as there is any water in the intake duct and turns the brake power (PB) into thrust. TPG-General. Interaction Engine with Application The main differences between a waterjet and a propeller are: The propeller is very sensitive to the velocity and direction of the local incoming flow.). But the waterjet is like the propeller a mechanical device and manufacturing tolerances have also to be taken into account. wind.5.2003 . For this reasons the diesel engine has minor load cycles when it is connected to a waterjet. 1. 120 Waterjet 100% = rated pow er 100% = rated speed propeller curve design points 2 1 100 Brake Power PB in ( % ) Rated Power 80 60 MCR curve 40 20 constant fuel consumption 0 30 50 70 90 110 Impeller Speed in ( % ) Rated Speed Figure 6. It senses the ship in its hydrodynamical situation (sea state. so does the diesel engine.doc Rev.0 Page 6-37 06.6 Propulsion. draught. etc. There is only a minor feed back from ship.
5. If the propeller curve shifts to the left the ship speed (v) will decrease but no change will be seen in Figure 6. The water will be ejected horizontally in the air opposite to the direction of motion. That is the reason why this diagram has a limited use for choosing a waterjet design point.5. It will only give an impression about the relation between the propeller curve.5.6 Propulsion.2. they will not interfere which each other. The platform will start to move on the ground and no matter how fast the platform will move. 1. This relations will remain independent of the ship load as before. Interaction Engine with Application This relation can lead to the fact that at 100% shaft speed (n) the waterjet cannot absorb the diesel engines brake power (PB). The advantage is a less fuel consumption but the margin to the MCR curve (acceleration reserve) decreases. the pump will always eject the same amount of water using the same power.0 Page 6-38 06.2) can be chosen also. Even if there are two separated pumps on the loading area.2 because the waterjet is still running with its demanded speed (n) and brake power (PB). The pump will not be affected by the behaviour of the platform.5% above the speed (n) of the lugging point. In other words the generated thrust depends only on the amount of ejected water. design point 1).doc Rev. 1 .5.3: Platform with pump Imagine a platform on wheels with a water tank and a pump on its loading area (Figure 6. This is true also if an obstacle stops the platform. Therefore a design point at brake power and approx. independent whether they are or not of equal size or running at different power pumping different amounts of water. Figure 6. With this behaviour in mind design point 2 (Figure 6.2% below 100% diesel engine shaft speed (n) (design margin) shall be chosen (Figure 6.5. The leftmost design shaft speed (n) should be 1. Because this behaviour is very fundamental a further example shall be given. Let us take a step ahead. it shows the fundamental difference between a propeller and a waterjet. TPG-General. the lines of constant fuel consumption. Although this is simplified.3 ). the design margin and the margin to the diesel engine MCR limit curve.2003 .
1. If there is limited space for installation or the operation time of the waterjet is short the designer will probably choose a small waterjet with a lesser distance to the cavitation area.0 Page 6-39 06. For instance. Because the ship speed (v) and the engine speed (n) of the diesel are not related to each other the performance diagram of the diesel engine can not be represented in the figure. 140 120 Thrust in ( % ) Rated Thrust Waterjet fuel stop pow er design point 100 80 60 cavitation inception limit constant brake pow er 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ship Speed in ( % ) Rated Speed propeller curve Figure 6. the distance between the design point and the cavitation inception line is smaller also. That means that a certain thrust can be generated by a smaller or a bigger waterjet.2003 . The thrust of a waterjet is the product of water mass flow and the speed of the ejected water.5. TPG-General. The reason for this behaviour is that the stagnation pressure in the inlet duct goes down and the waterjet starts to suck the water through the duct.e. In the smaller one the speed of water is higher i. Generally these lines shall no be taken as absolute limits but as design guidelines. Interaction Engine with Application For this reasons another diagram has to be used which shows more consideration to the behaviour of a waterjet (Figure 6.6 Propulsion. showing different stages of cavitation.5. A few words to the shown cavitation inception line: These lines are specific to the chosen waterjet and should not be compared between different manufacturers.4: Waterjet performance diagram The figure shows the design propeller curve together with the waterjet performance diagram and instead of effective power the thrust is used. KaMeWa divides its diagrams by two lines into three zones.4).doc Rev. If the propeller curve shifts to the left the ship speed (v) will decrease and the distance to the cavitation inception limit will be reduced.
Interaction Engine with Application The risk of getting air into the inlet duct of the waterjet depends on the specific arrangement in the ship and on the sea state.6 Propulsion. 1.2003 . The matching MTU control system has been adapted for this task.0 Page 6-40 06.doc Rev. TPG-General. In this case the control system has to protect the diesel engine from any overspeed and due to the low inertial mass of the shaft line it is more demanding than for a propeller.
5 2.4 20 10 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 Brake Power in (kW) Figure 6.5 and Figure 6.0 Brake Pow er 500 kW 1000 kW 2000 kW 5000 kW 10000 kW 20000 kW 20000 kW 500 kW 2.5 1. Interaction Engine with Application 6. If the installed brake power (PB) and the ship design speed (n) are known Figure 6.0 Page 6-41 06.5.5.5.5: Estimating the size of a waterjet (inlet duct diameter) 1000 Water Jet Speed in (min-1) 800 600 400 200 0 0.6 can be used for a quick look.5 1.2 Estimation of Size and Shaft Speed The design shaft speed (n) of the waterjet depends on type.0 1.doc Rev.6: Estimating the design impeller speed of a waterjet TPG-General. 1.2003 .5. 50 0.0 1. size and application and will be provided by the manufacturer.6 Propulsion.5 Inlet Duct in (m) Figure 6.0 30 2.4 m (size inlet duct) Ship Speed in (kn) 40 2.5.2 1.
Nevertheless the size of the fuel storage tanks is an important impact on the ship design.1 General Assumptions The calculation of the fuel consumption for the diesel engines depends on a lot of assumptions.6 Fuel Consumption 6. ship speed (v).g. otherwise the values have to be corrected. number of diesel engines per shaft). Fuel density (e.g. wind Beaufort 2. total installed brake power (PB) for propulsion.6 for more detailed information) 1 2 3 4 5 Status and displacement of the ship (e. 1.6.g.g.6 Propulsion.0 Page 6-42 06. all sets at 33%).g.g. The following values are required for calculation of the fuel consumption: (ref to chapter 6. if you do not have a good specification. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 It is obvious that an incomplete specification of these values can lead to calculation differences.doc Rev. ρfuel=830 kg/m3). Ambient condition Speed-power (ship speed (v) . 95%). Gear ratio if a gearbox is used (for the relation between propeller shaft speed and diesel engine speed). Usable volume of the fuel storage tank (e. Hu = 42800 kJ/kg for diesel oil). If the fuel calculation for a designed ship will be done by different people you will get different results.g. Operating profile (e. clean hull.g.brake power (PB)) diagram for assumed displacement. propeller shaft speed (n).6. Propulsion plant and design condition (e. Interaction Engine with Application 6. Lower heating value of fuel (e.2003 . Performance diagram of the diesel engine including the lines of specific fuel consumption for the required lower heating value (Hu). cruising speed (v) or speed profile). full load) Weather condition and sea state (e. new ship. sea state 2-3). weather condition and sea state. Fuel consumption of the diesel generator set running with a defined percentage of the installed mechanical power (e. TPG-General.
The required fuel volume can be a design value for the necessary fuel storage volume.2003 . Fuel consumption at design condition.0 Page 6-43 06. 1. How long can the ship stay at sea for a given operating profile or the ship shall stay ZZ days at sea with a given mission profile. TPG-General. The ship should run XXX sm on YY kn e. 2.6 Propulsion.g. 1000sm on 12kn. Interaction Engine with Application The standard questions that arise in connection with fuel consumption are: 1. 3. The required fuel volume can be a design value for the necessary fuel storage volume.doc Rev.
Nevertheless an operating profile can change throughout the life of a ship.6. The result is a wide difference between the operating profiles of various ship types. Such list of time periods and speed ranges is called operating profile.6 Propulsion. and one of the reasons why the design basis for a particular vessel must be chosen with care. Both operating profiles are equal.6. They are shown in different style for those who are not familiar with one of the presentations. a fast ferry and a OPV. TPG-General. depending on a variety of circumstances. 1.2 Operating Profile The time between leaving and entering a port can be divided into several portions of time at constant speed ranges.0 Page 6-44 06.g.1 and Figure 6. Interaction Engine with Application 6.2 are very raw and shall only give an impression how such profiles can look like. The operating profiles shown in Figure 6. a freighter. Each ship has a characteristic operating profile which is determined by the owner to meet the commercial needs of the particular service.doc Rev.6.2003 . e.
fast ferry. Time in (%) Operating Time Example: Speed in (%) Rated Speed 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Offshore Patrol Vessel OPV: The shown tasks are at loitering speed (maybe embargo control).2003 . Time in (%) Operating Time Example: Speed in (%) Rated Speed 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Fast Ferry Ferry: Nearly the same as a freighter but when operating between islands there are often speed restrictions. cruising speed (cruising in formation) and fast manoeuvring. Interaction Engine with Application Example: Speed in (%) Rated Speed 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Freighter Freighter: Leaving the port and then running continuously at design speed.6.6 Propulsion. Time in (%) Operating Time Figure 6.1: Examples of operating profiles (freighter.0 Page 6-45 06. OPV) TPG-General.doc Rev. 1.
6.25 25 .70 70 . cruising speed (cruising in formation) and fast manoeuvring.100 Speed Range in (%) Rated Speed Example: Time in (%) Operating Time 60 Offshore Patrol Vessel 40 OPV: The shown tasks are at loitering speed (maybe embargo control). 1. 20 0 0 .25 25 .2003 . Time in (%) Operating Time Example: Time in (%) Operating Time 60 Ferry: Nearly the same as a freighter but when operating between islands there are often speed restrictions. fast ferry.6 Propulsion. Interaction Engine with Application Example: Speed in (%) Rated Speed 100 80 60 40 20 0 10 5 10 75 Freighter Freighter: Leaving the port and then running continuously at design speed.50 50 .doc Rev.40 40 .2: Examples of operating profiles (freighter.95 >95 Speed Range in (%) Rated Speed Figure 6. OPV) TPG-General.0 Page 6-46 06.85 85 .70 70 .85 85 . Fast Ferry 40 20 0 0 .
at the upper bound of the given speed ranges. otherwise the results are not comparable. speed ranges will be shown in a operating profile.doc Rev. 1. but for the calculation of the fuel consumption precise speed values have to be given.g. Example: Owner defined operating profile for a diesel engine: Operating Profile (Diesel Engine) Brake Power (%) 3 18 74 100 Time Period (%) 15 35 40 10 100 Brake Power in (%) 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time in (%) Operating Time On the basis of such a operating profile the available TBO for the chosen diesel engine rating can be calculated.0 Page 6-47 06.21 21 – max. In the design phase this specification can be used to calculate the fuel consumption for different propulsion alternatives. From that follows the brake power of the diesel engine e. Example of a user defined operating profile for a ship in tabulated form: Operating Profile (Ship) Ship Speed (kn) Time Period (%) 0–9 9 .6 Propulsion. Interaction Engine with Application The owner should specify the operating profile. the TBO and as a first guess for the life cycle cost. A mission is the time period needed to run one operating profile.15 15 .2003 . TPG-General. the operating hours per year and the number of missions per year. 15 35 40 10 Generally.
6 Propulsion. the fuel consumption can be calculated on the basis of the standard load profile of the chosen diesel engine rating (e. if the owner has not the experience to prepare a operating profile.1B or 1DS).2003 . Interaction Engine with Application Alternatively. More information about “load profile” and TBO see chapter 2 and 3. 1A .g. 1. Example: 1DS diesel engine rating (TBO 9000h) Operating Profile (Diesel Engine) Brake Power (%) 10 70 100 Time Period (%) 20 70 10 100 Brake Power in (%) 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time in (%) Operating Time TPG-General.doc Rev.0 Page 6-48 06.
3 Fuel Consumption at Design Condition With the provided information (see section 6.6..2) The equation can be used for any other brake power (PB) and speed (n) in the performance diagram.g. PB ⋅ be ρfuel B= in (m3/h) (E.. B= (P B1 ⋅ b e 1 ⋅ t 1 + . a margin of 5% has to be added to the calculated value.1) be = specific fuel consumption (kg/kWh) B = fuel consumption (m3/h) PB = diesel engine brake power (kW) ρfuel = fuel density (kg/m3) Additional consumers. If the consumption has to be calculated for the time periods of a operating profile the following equation can be used.2003 . Interaction Engine with Application 6. 95%).3) be = specific fuel consumption (kg/kWh) t1 = first period of time in a operating profile (%) tn = last period of time in a operating profile (%) B = fuel consumption (m3/h) PB = diesel engine brake power (kW) ρfuel = fuel density (kg/m3) TPG-General.0 Page 6-49 06..6.6 Propulsion..6.g. If no tolerances are given in the fuel consumption diagram.doc Rev.. gensets have to be added to calculate the entire fuel consumption. + PB n ⋅ b e n ⋅ t n 100 ⋅ ρ fuel ) in (m3/h) (E.1) the fuel consumption at a given brake power (PB) and diesel engine speed (n) can be calculated. e.. 1.6.6. If only the electrical power in kW is known for the genset use an estimation for the generator efficiency (e.6. B = B propulsion + B gensets + B auxiliary in (m3/h) B = fuel consumption (m3/h) (E.6.6.
5) B = B propulsion + B gensets + B auxiliary in (m3/h) (E.6.6) B = entire fuel consumption at vcr (m3/h) Vfuel = B ⋅ t cr in (m3) (E. Interaction Engine with Application 6.6. Vfuel ⋅ v cr B scr = in (sm) scr = theoretical cruising range (sm) vcr = constant cruising speed (kn) B = entire fuel consumption (m3/h) Vfuel= available fuel volume (m3) (E.0 Page 6-50 06.6.6. t cr = s cr v cr in (h) scr = theoretical cruising range (sm) tcr = theoretical cruising time (h) vcr = constant cruising speed (kn) (E.6.doc Rev. 95%.4) If the fuel consumption for a given theoretical cruising range shall be used as a design value for the necessary fuel storage volume.6. 1. because the usable volume of a tank will be only approx.6 Propulsion.4 Cruising Range To calculate the theoretical cruising range for a given fuel volume the following equation can be used.7) tcr = theoretical cruising time (h) B = entire fuel consumption (m3/h) Vfuel= necessary fuel volume for cruising range (m3) The fuel tank capacity has to be assumed 5% larger. use the following equations.6.2003 .6.6. TPG-General.
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
6.6.5 Endurance at Sea
This question is the same as under section 6.6.4 extended by an operating profile. To calculate the endurance time at sea for a given fuel volume and operating profile the following equation can be used.
100 ⋅ Vfuel ⋅ ρ fuel in (h) ⋅ b e 1 ⋅ t 1 + ....... + PB n ⋅ b e n ⋅ t n
t end =
be = specific fuel consumption (kg/kWh) tend = theoretical endurance for an operating profile (h) t1 = first period of time in an operating profile (%) tn = last period of time in an operating profile (%) PB = diesel engine brake power (kW) Vfuel= available fuel volume (m3) ρfuel = fuel density (kg/m3)
The background is to calculate how long the ship can stay in duty without replenishing or going back to the harbour and with enough fuel left in the storage tanks for reserve.
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
6.6.6 Calculating Examples
18.104.22.168 Example Data (Series 2000) Basing on some exemplary data the fuel consumption shall be calculated. The available data are: S t e p 1 Status of the ship 2 Weather condition and sea state 3 Ambient condition 4 Speed (v) – brake power (PB) data of the
ship for the chosen displacement, weather condition and sea state as diagram or in tabulated form
Brake Power PB per Ship in (kW)
new ship, clean hull, full load wind Beaufort 2-3, sea state 0-1, no current (trial condition) Intake air = 45°C, Raw water = 32°C
Design Point: PB...: 990 (kW) v.....: 27.5 (kn)
800 Shaft Speed 600 350 450
Annotation: The ship speed (v) – brake power (PB) data can be represented in a lot of different diagrams. The one shown is only one representation of that bunch.
200 Brake Pow er 0 50 150
Ship Speed in (kn)
In tabulated form: Ship Speed (v) (kn) 10 24 >27.5 Propeller Speed (nprop) (rpm) 270 590 670 Ship Brake Power (PB) (kW) 85 690 990
5 Propulsion plant and design condition
Ship design condition: PB = 990 kW per ship, v = 27.5 kn, propeller shaft speed n = 670 rpm The ship is powered by a single diesel engine (design point: PB=1007 kW, n=2300 rpm, 1.5% power reduction due to ambient condition).
Propeller Shaft Speed in (rpm)
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
S t e p
6 Performance diagram of the diesel engine
including the lines of specific fuel consumption
kW 1100 218 1000
Annotation: The diagram must be referenced to the chosen design conditions. Application group: e.g. 1DS Reference condition: ambient condition and typical intake/exhaust losses. Specific fuel consumption: Lower heating value Hu = 42800 kJ/kg
206 202 210
210 198 220
200 202 206 210
240 280 I II 1800 2000 2200 2400
0 500 800 1000 1200 1400
Power reduction: subtract 1.5% for ambient condition Specific fuel consumption: add 1.5% for ambient condition and 5% for tolerance
7 Lower heating value of fuel 8 Fuel density 9 Gearbox ratio 10 Fuel consumption of the diesel generator
sets (one genset running at 50% power)
Hu = 42800 kJ/kg ρfuel= 830 kg/m3 i = 3.473 = ndiesel / npropeller (e.g. ZF 1960) 2 gensets (diesel engine e.g. 6R183T52), generated electric power P = 245kW, n = 1800rpm, be = 0.225 kg/kWh at 50% power, ηGen= 0.942 (includes 2% increased fuel consumption due to ambient condition and 5% tolerance) 95% Fuel Tank capacity: 5 m3 No user defined service time. =>Estimated annual usage: 500h =>MTU load profile (1DS) will be used. Ship Speed (v) (kn) 10 24 27.5 Time Period (t) (%) 20 70 10
11 Usable volume of the fuel storage tank 12 Operating profile
6.0 Page 6-54 06.1) PB = 990 kW be = 0.225 = 0.6.1) Pmechnical = Pelectrical /ηGen = 125 kW/0.942 Pmechnical = 133kW be = 0. 1.0361 = 0.2 22.214.171.1243 .5% for ambient condition and 5% for tolerance be = 0.6 Fuel consumption at design condition Fuel tank volume for a range of 500sm at 18kn Theoretical cruising range at 12kn and a fuel tank volume of 5m3 Annual fuel consumption for an operating profile Correcting the lower heating value 6.224 = 0.6.218 kg/kWh add 1.6 Propulsion.232 kg/kWh ρfuel = 830 kg/m3 990 ⋅ 0.277 + 1 ⋅ 0.6.5 6.6.277 830 (table row step 5) (table row step 6) (table row step 8) Bpropulsion = (m3/h) per main diesel engine Genset diesel engine: Use equation (E.6.6.4 6.2) B = 1 ⋅ 0.6.0361 830 (table row step 10) (table row step 10) (table row step 8) B genset = (m3/h) per genset diesel engine The overall fuel consumption (main diesel engine and 1 genset): Use equation (E.6.3 6.doc Rev.218 kg/kWh + 1.225 kg/kWh (value includes tolerance and ambient condition) ρfuel = 830 kg/m3 133 ⋅ 0.6.313 (m3/h) TPG-General.5% + 5% = 0.6.6.2 Fuel consumption at design condition Main diesel engine: Use equation (E. Interaction Engine with Application The following examples show some applications on fuel consumption calculation: 126.96.36.199.6.
8 = 4 .3 Fuel tank volume for a range of 500sm at 18kn scr = 500 sm vcr = 18 kn PB = 390 kW per ship and diesel engine npropeller = 470 rpm (propeller shaft speed) ndiesel = 1632 rpm (main diesel engine speed) be = 0.6.6.2003 .6.202 kg/kWh + 1.8 = 3.215 kg/kWh (table row step 4) (table row step 4) (table row step 9) (table row step 6) The fuel consumption can be calculated as in example (1).6 Propulsion.0 Page 6-55 06.95 Vtan k = (m3) (table row step 11) TPG-General.8 18 t cr = (h) Fuel volume for the cruising range: Use equation (E. Bpropulsion = 390 ⋅ 0.0361 (m3/h) per genset diesel engine The overall fuel consumption (main diesel engine and 1 genset): Use equation (E.0 0.6.2) B = 1 ⋅ 0.215 = 0. Interaction Engine with Application 6.0361 = 0.6.doc Rev.101 + 1 ⋅ 0.137 ⋅ 27.6.101 830 (m3/h) per main diesel engine B genset = 0.7) Vfuel = 0.6.5% + 5% = 0.137 (m3/h) Theoretical cruising time: Use equation (E.6.8 (m3) Required fuel tank volume: 3 . 1.5) 500 = 27 .
75 ⋅ 12 = 760 0.6.0 Page 6-56 06.075 (m3/h) Theoretical cruising range: Use equation (E.222 = 0. 1.5% + 5% = 0.2) B = 1 ⋅ 0. Bpropulsion = 145 ⋅ 0. Interaction Engine with Application 6.039 + 1 ⋅ 0.95 = 4.075 scr = (sm) TPG-General.0361 = 0.4) 188.8.131.52.75 m3 vcr = 12 kn PB = 145 kW per ship and diesel engine npropeller = 330 rpm (propeller shaft speed) ndiesel = 1146 rpm (main diesel engine speed) be = 0.0361 (m3/h) per genset diesel engine The overall fuel consumption (main diesel engine and 1 genset): Use equation (E.4 Theoretical cruising range at 12kn and fuel tank volume of 5m3 Vtank = 5 m3 Vfuel = Vtank ⋅ 0.6 Propulsion.6.6.039 830 (m3/h) per main diesel engine B genset = 0.2003 .222 kg/kWh (table row step 4) (table row step 4) (table row step 9) (table row step 6) (table row step11) The fuel consumption can be calculated as in example (1).doc Rev.208 kg/kWh + 1.
216 0.5 Time Period (t) (%) 20 70 10 Data per ship: (table row step 4 and 9) Ship Speed (v) Propeller Speed (kn) (rpm) 10 24 27.5 Annual fuel consumption for an operating profile Operating profile: (table row step 12) Ship Speed (v) (kn) 10 24 27.2003 .234 0.doc Rev.0 Page 6-57 06.232 TPG-General.5 Diesel Speed (n) (rpm) 938 2049 2300 Diesel Power (PB) (kW) 85 690 990 be (raw) (kg/kWh) 220 203 218 be (corrected) (kg/kWh) 0. Interaction Engine with Application 6.5 270 590 670 Ship Brake Power (kW) 85 690 990 Diesel Speed (rpm) 938 2049 2300 Data per diesel engine: (table row step 4) Ship Speed (v) (kn) 10 24 27.6 Propulsion.6. 1.6.
6.1582 + 1 ⋅ 0. Interaction Engine with Application Fuel consumption: Use equation (E.7) Vfuel = 0. required Hu.6.6 Propulsion.6 Correcting the lower heating value If the lower heating value of the given specific fuel does not match the required value the data have to be corrected.232 Time Period (t) (%) 20 70 10 Sum B (m3/h) 0. 1. given be. given in (kg/kWh) TPG-General.1943 ⋅ 500 = 97.0361 = 0..6.doc Rev.234 0.2003 .1257 0.1943 (m3/h) The annual fuel consumption based on an estimated usage of 500 h: Use equation (E.6. required = be.3) B= (P B1 ⋅ b e 1 ⋅ t 1 + ..216 0..0277 0.2) B = 1 ⋅ 0.1582 The overall fuel consumption (main diesel engine and 1 genset): Use equation (E. Use the following procedure: Hu..184.108.40.206..5 Ship Brake Power PB (kW) 85 690 990 be (kg/kWh) 0. + PB n ⋅ b e n ⋅ t n 100 ⋅ ρ fuel ) in (m3/h) Ship Speed (v) (kn) 10 24 27..2 (m3) (table row step 12) 6.0048 0.0 Page 6-58 06.
g.6.6 Propulsion. 0. Interaction Engine with Application 6.6. above 1800 kW 0.doc Rev.95) TPG-General.94. 0.7.7.2003 .g.6.8) ηGen = generator efficiency (0. above 1800 kW 0.7 Generator Drive Electrical power supplies on ships is a question of three-phase mains. 1.3) Pp = generator active power in kW PS = generator apparent power in kVA cos ϕ = generator power factor (e.8) Pp P = B η Gen in (kW) (E.7.4) Pp = generator active power in kW PB = engine brake power in kW ηGen = generator efficiency (0.0 Page 6-59 06.1) f = shipboard power supply frequency in Hz n = diesel engine speed in rpm p = number of pole pair Example: Shipboard power supply frequency Generator 60 ⋅ 60 = 1800 4 f = 60 Hz p = 4 pole = 2 pole pair n= (rpm) Diesel Engine Brake Power (PB): P = B Pp ⋅ cos ϕ η Gen in (kW) (E.2) PB = engine brake power in kW PS = generator apparent power in kVA cos ϕ = generator power factor (e.6. Following rules are to be considered at the design/dimensioning of the diesel engines for the generator drive: Diesel Engine Speed (n): n= f ⋅ 60 p in (rpm) (E.94.7.95) Pp = Ps ⋅ cos ϕ in (kW) (E.
Interaction Engine with Application Figure 6.2003 .0 Back to Contents Page 6-60 06.7.94 = = 1176 cos ϕ 0 .8 (kVA) Back to Start of Chapter TPG-General.85 (kW) Necessary diesel engine power per genset: Use Equation (E.2) PS = PB ⋅ η 1001 ⋅ 0.6 Propulsion.94 PB = Pp η = 941 = 1001 0. 1.7.doc Rev.6.4) η= 0.7.85 : z=2 : x = 0.1: Power definition Example: Necessary electrical shipboard power is PSBP = 1600 kW For instance: Power partition onto two genset Load of the genset each 85% Max.94 (kW) Generator apparent power: Use Equation (E.6. electrical power per genset: Pp = PSBP 1600 = = 941 z ⋅ x 2 ⋅ 0.
doc Rev.1 Foundation ( under preparation ) TPG-General.1: Engine room arrangement.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7 APPLICATION AND INSTALLATION GUIDELINES During the arrangement of the engines in the engine room specific distance between the engines or to the bulkhead/shell must be kept for the service of the engines and for maintenance operations. 1.2003 . Figure 6.7. minimum distance 7.0 Page 7-1 06.
0 Page 7-2 06. 7.e. Figure 7. i.2 Engine/Gearbox Arrangements A general distinction is made between certain basic drive arrangements. the way in which engine and drive line disposed in the vessel. TPG-General.1. Engine with torsionally resilient coupling and gearbox form a single unit.220.127.116.113 . Another advantage in addition to compactness is the comparatively low overall weight of the propulsion plant.1 Engine with Flange-Mounted Gearbox (F-Drive) This arrangement is shown in Figure 7.1: Engine with flange-mounted gearbox 1 Engine 2 Torsionally resilient coupling 3 Gearbox This drive arrangement with flange-mounted gearbox is possible only with some specific engines.doc Rev. The gearbox is connected to the engine by means of a bell housing.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. The advantages inherent to this arrangement are as follows: • The flange-mounted configuration is the most compact of all drive arrangements. 1. which also accommodates the coupling.
the engine combined with torsionally resilient coupling forms one unit.2.2003 . 7.doc Rev. a foundation with a total of only four supports suffices for this plant. namely aligning the propulsion plant with the propeller shaft. the free-standing gearbox being another.2: 1 2 3 4 Engine with free-standing gearbox Engine Torsionally resilient coupling Coupling to compensate relative displacement (offset compensating coupling) Gearbox TPG-General.2. The engine and gearbox are already aligned and do not have to be realigned unless they have been separated for repair or servicing and the gearbox has to be re-mated to the engine. Figure 7. because only one operation is necessary.7 Application and Installation Guidelines • Time-saving alignment of the propulsion unit in the vessel. 1. V Drive Inclusive Engine with free-standing gearbox (D-Drive): For this arrangement. with free-standing gearbox.2.0 Page 7-3 06. shown in Figure 7.2 .2 Engine with Free-Standing Gearbox. Of these supports two are required for the engine mounts and two for the gearbox mounts. As a rule.
installation and removal can be less complex than in the case of the engine with flange-mounted gearbox. TPG-General.D. • An engine with free-standing gearbox is heavier and requires slightly more space than the configuration with flange-mounted gearbox.doc Rev. the O. • One advantage of the arrangement with separate engine and gearbox is the leeway it affords for enhanced requirements regarding structure-borne noise and/or resistance to shock loading.0 Page 7-4 06. due to the engine size.engine and gearbox being subassemblies in this case . is not possible for technical reasons. • Given the dimensions and weights of the subassemblies . • If the specification calls for a controllable-pitch propeller (CPP).2003 .7 Application and Installation Guidelines The points of relevance as regards this arrangement are as follows: • An arrangement with engine and free-standing gearbox is preferable when a flangemounted gearbox is either not desirable or. box for pitch control can be mounted on the gearbox output shaft in immediate proximity to the gearbox. because the subassemblies are handled separately. 1.
1..0 Page 7-5 06. V drive arrangement: This arrangement is shown in Figure 7. if this arrangement is preferable with respect to hull design.2.2003 .3.doc Rev.3: 1 2 3 4 Engine with free-standing gearbox and universal shaft.V drive“. V drive arrangement Engine Torsionally resilient coupling with engine-mounted bearing housing Universal shaft Gearbox This engine and gearbox configuration permits the propulsion plant to be installed either at the stern or near the stern of the vessel. The bearing housing accommodates the torsionally resilient coupling. TPG-General. consists of the engine and engine-mounted bearing housing and a separate gearbox. The . as it is sometimes named. Engine power is transmitted from the coupling to the gearbox by a universal shaft.7 Application and Installation Guidelines Engine with free-standing gearbox and universal shaft.2. Figure 7.
doc Rev.1 Engine with Free-Standing Generator Figure 7.0 Page 7-6 06.1: 1 2 3 4 Engine with free-standing generator Engine Generator Base frame Resilient elements TPG-General.3.3. 1.2003 .7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.3 Generator Set Arrangement 7.
2 Engine with Flange-Mounted Generator Figure 7. 1.3.0 Page 7-7 06.doc Rev.2003 . upper Resilient elements TPG-General.3.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.2: 1 2 3 4 5 Engine with flange-mounted generator Engine Generator Intermediate mass Resilient elements.
customers should consult MTU to ascertain the displacements occurring at the interfaces due to movements of the resilient mounts and thermally induced expansion. If the hoses. • Suitable fittings (e.g. If welding is performed on the on-board piping system. these elements must be removed for the duration of the welding operations and stored where they are safe from damage such as could be caused by weld spatter.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. they must satisfy the minimum requirements for plant operation. The part numbers are stated in the system schematics. These flexible connecting elements are usually included in the MTU scope of supply and their purpose is to compensate for relative motions between the propulsion plant and the on-board piping systems. it is important to ensure that no hoses.g. 1. If already installed. TPG-General.4.doc Rev.4 System Interfaces and System Integration 7. as they could be damaged by the welding operations. Notes on installation The installation characteristics such as • • • • dimensions.1 Flexible Connections All pipes from and to the propulsion unit must be fitted with flexible connecting elements. rubber bellows or rubber sleeves are installed in the line. The invariable rule is that all flexible connecting elements must be connected directly with the on-engine or on-gearbox interfaces. bellows or rubber sleeves are not supplied by MTU.0 Page 7-8 06.2003 . for example for the fuel and coolant systems. e. • Multiple hoses should always be routed together and kept parallel. minimum bending radius and resistance to medium for the hoses. bellows and rubber sleeves are stated in the corresponding installation drawing. General notes on system routing • Hoses must be installed such that they are not subjected to tensile or compressive loads in operation. • Hoses should follow the contour of the foundation as closely as allowed by the specified minimum bending radii. If doubt arises. pipe elbows) can be used to avoid additional stresses and strains on the hoses. permissible operating-pressure range.
care must be taken to ensure that the hoses are not twisted. for example rubbing.7 Application and Installation Guidelines • When installing hoses. MTU propulsion plants are designed normally such that all small-diameter interfaces (< DN 50) connect by means of hoses. while rubber bellows are used for all large-diameter interfaces (DN 50 or larger). gearbox or accessory is of a design such that the rubber bellows can be secured directly by means of screw fasteners. however.g. which employs hose connectors (sleeve-type connection). To avoid excessive strain on the rubber bellows.doc Rev. The requisite dimensions are stated in the applicable installation drawing. raw water) and steel bellows (e. Connection to the on-board piping system is performed by means of a welding neck to DIN 86037 and the corresponding securing flange to DIN 2642. Always ensure adequate clearance from components that radiate heat. so only this application is discussed here. Hose connections The hoses are fitted with sealing cones (60°) and union nuts and can therefore be secured directly to the corresponding interfaces on the engine. of course. These notes on routing hoses. apply by analogy to all other flexible connecting elements. • The attachments use to secure hoses must be of correct size for the hose diameters. TPG-General. • For a curved run. and for the air intake system. the length of the hose must be such that the curve does not commence less than approx.5*d from the fitting.2003 . Bellows connections Both rubber (e.0 Page 7-9 06. for which steel bellows are required. e. The interface on the engine. 1. that preload may be specified for a rubber bellows for a special application in which non-standard displacements are anticipated. 1. care must be taken to ensure that the installation length is as specified in the installation drawing. exhaust) are used for the plant interfaces. The rubber bellows are usually installed without axial preload. This of course does not apply to the exhaust system. • Flexible connecting elements should be arranged and/or secured in such a way as to prevent exposure to external mechanical influences.g. • High ambient temperatures significantly reduce the durability of flexible connecting elements and may even lead to the failure of the component. gearbox or accessory. at the gearbox with rigid mount. • Hose attachments should not be used at points where they would impede the natural freedom of motion of the hose. Note. The use of rubber bellows on engines is usually restricted to the lines of diameter in excess of DN 40 of the raw water system. both of which are included in the standard scope of supply. Rubber sleeves are used for connections < DN 50 only in exceptional circumstances and at locations where displacement is slight. or provide suitable heat shielding. but only the rubber bellows are discussed here.g.
gearbox or accessory Pipe outside diameter Installation dimension TPG-General.0 Page 7-10 06.1 shows the connection in diagram form. Note that the pipe material used as standard is copper-nickel alloy. 1.2003 . Figure 7.doc Rev.1: 1 2 3 A D L Connection of rubber bellows Rubber bellows Welding neck Pipe (not MTU scope of supply) Interface to engine.4.4.7 Application and Installation Guidelines The binding connection and installation dimensions for the rubber bellows are stated in the project.or contract-specific installation drawings. Figure 7.
2.4.4.doc Rev.2 Combustion-air intake directly from outside 7.2.3 Cooling/ventilation air system TPG-General.2 Combustion Air and Cooling/Ventilation Air Supply 7.1 Combustion-air intake from engine room 7.4. 1.4.2003 .0 Page 7-11 06.2.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.
4.0 Page 7-12 06. 1. support and connection for pipe and silencer TPG-General.2003 .4.3.3 Exhaust System 7.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.1 Arrangements.doc Rev.
2003 .4.doc Rev.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.0 Page 7-13 06.3.2 Underwater discharge (with exhaust flap) TPG-General. 1.
2003 . 1.0 Page 7-14 06.3.3 Water-cooled exhaust system TPG-General.4.doc Rev.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.
4 Cooling Water System 7.2003 .4.2: Cooling water system with engine-mounted heat exchanger (Split-circuit cooling system) 1 Engine coolant pump 2 Lube oil heat exchanger 3 Intercooler 4 Coolant heat exchanger 5 Preheating unit. shipyard supply 14 Fuel oil heat exchanger Split-circuit cooling system using heat exchanger with titanium plates.doc Rev. Benefits: • Keeps engine coolant. TPG-General.0 Page 7-15 06. not standard scope of supply 6 Expansion tank.4. flexible connecting element 11 Flow restrictor 12 Sea water pump 13 Sea water filter.4. • Higher temperature during idle or low-load operation. oil and intake air at optimum temperature under all operating conditions.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.1 Cooling water system with engine-mounted heat exchanger Figure 7. complete. shipyard supply 7 Gearbox 8 Gearbox oil heat exchanger 9 Ship heating. 1. engine coolant. • No seawater in the engine. shipyard supply 10 Connecting point.4.
Low-cost materials for above-mentioned components. shipyard supply 5 Preheating unit. shipyard supply 10 Connecting point. valves. not standard scope of supply 6 Expansion tank. pumps and heat exchanger in the ship.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. engine coolant.2003 .4.0 Page 7-16 06. Advantages: No sea water in pipelines.g.3: Cooling water system with separately-mounted heat exchanger (e. shipyard supply 7 Gearbox 8 Gearbox oil heat exchanger 9 Ship heating.2 Cooling water system with separately-mounted heat exchanger (including keel cooling) Figure 7. complete. keel cooling) 1 Engine coolant pump 2 Lube oil heat exchanger 3 Intercooler 4 Coolant heat exchanger (Shell cooler/Case cooler).doc Rev. 1.4. TPG-General.4. flexible connecting element 11 Flow restrictor Cooling system for low power and ships operating in the flat water. Less prone to interference through corrosion.
3 Central cooling water system Figure 7. engine coolant. shipyard supply 7 Gearbox 8 Gearbox oil heat exchanger TPG-General.4.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. shipyard supply 16 Harbour sea water pump. shipyard supply 06.doc Rev. shipyard supply 13 Sea water filter.0 Page 7-17 .4. 1.4.2003 1 Engine coolant pump 2 Lube oil heat exchanger 3 Intercooler 4 Coolant heat exchanger 5 Preheating unit. complete. not standard scope of supply 6 Expansion tank.4: Central cooling water system 9 Ship heating. shipyard supply 10 Flexible connecting element 11 Flow restrictor ② 12 Sea water pump. shipyard supply 15 Sea water stand-by pump.
not standard scope of supply An engine with a safety-enhanced fuel system (comprising jacketed high-pressure fuel lines and an on-engine tank for leak-off fuel) requires an additional line to carry off an overflow.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.doc Rev. Only fuels listed in the Fluids and Lubricants Specification are approved for use in MTU diesel engines.4.2003 . it must return to the on-board collecting tank or the fuel tank via a line routed on a declining plane and venting to atmosphere.e. bear in mind that the leak-off fuel is not under pressure. When routing this overflow. shipyard supply Flexible connecting element Fuel heat exchanger.5 Fuel System The standard scope of supply requires the shipyard to connect the fuel feed and return lines for the engine. 1. TPG-General.4. shipyard supply Fuel coarse filter or (water) separator. i. The standard scope of supply includes flexible connectors and a fuel prefilter for connecting the fuel supply line to the engine.0 Page 7-18 06. Figure 7. shipyard supply Fuel transfer pump.5: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fuel System Fuel prefilter with water separator Service tank.
this design feature must be taken into account when calculating the cross-section of the lines. Data such as required for design/dimensioning of the fuel system • Fuel volume flows.0 Page 7-19 06. the flexible connector (hose) is not supplied by MTU. Flexible connections. • If an auxiliary diesel engine receives its fuel supply via a bypass incorporated in the fuel supply system of the main diesel engine. 7.1. • Fuel temperature increase before/after engine • Heat to be removed from return fuel is specified in the data sheet for the project or contract. • We recommend the use of steel piping (e. it is important to observe the following points: • The service tank must be of a size such that the temperature in the tank caused by return fuel mixing with residual fuel in the tank always remains below a permissible maximum. • Pipe runs should be kept as short as possible and a measuring connection must be provided immediately in front of the on-engine interface to permit system checking.1 General notes • The supply pipe must be connected to the on-engine interface by means of a flexible connector. plus a service tank for the engine or the engines. The engineering guidelines apply with regard to wall thickness of piping. feed an return • Pressure limitations at on-engine interface. with the danger of engine malfunction as a result. See Chapter 8. In order to avoid malfunctions. for commencement.g.4.4.2 Design data Compliance with the limits defined for the system interface is essential in order to ensure compliance with the limits for engine operation. Failure to take this factor into account may result in the auxiliary diesel receiving insufficient fuel when the main diesel engine is in operation.5. St 35)./max. min.1. The location of the service tank has an effect on the efficiency of heat exchange and the routing of the fuel lines from and to the engine.2003 .g. as maybe the case in exceptional circumstances. • If.4. it must satisfy the requirements laid down in Chapter 8. 1. The needs of the engine must be taken into account with regard to the arrangement of the fuel tanks in the vessel and the dimensioning of the tanks. the fuel supply system should incorporate at least one supply tank. • Temperature limitations for supply. TPG-General.5. As general rule.doc Rev.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7./max.4. e. min.
4.0 Page 7-20 06. TPG-General.7 Application and Installation Guidelines The equations below can be used to calculate the requisite volume of the service tank (size of service tank). • The fuel supply from the service tank to the engine must be • such that no sludge seasoned on the bottom of the service tank or water precipitated from the fuel is drawn into the supply line to the engine.doc Rev. 1. the temperature of the fuel in the service tank exceeds the permissible limit for the fuel supply to the engine and a fuel heat exchanger must be installed in the return fuel line from the engine.6: Evaluation value for max. fuel inlet temperature T in °C Figure 7. This is achieved by locating the supply pipe at an adequate height above the bottom of the service tank (at least 100 mm clearance from the bottom of the tank).6) 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Max. 50 40 30 20 10 0 25 30 ) t ⋅ (0.4.2003 . • If the available service tank volume is less than the calculated volume and the engine has return fuel.04 ⋅ be ⋅ P B + V return ⋅ 2 . fuel inlet temperature The calculation of the total volume of the service tank is taken with regard to a maximal permissible level of 85 % and of a remaining level of 10 %.1 w m3 Total volume of service tank in m3 Time to replenish of the service tank in h Specific fuel consumption at fuel stop power in kg/kWh Fuel stop power in kW Fuel return flow from engine at fuel stop power in litre/min Evaluation value for max. Vtank = Vtank = t = = be PB = Vreturn = W = 70 60 Evaluation value W. fuel inlet temperature (Figure 7.
7 Application and Installation Guidelines • If the service tank is on a level higher than that of the fuel delivery pump (overhead tank. pressures at the on-engine interfaces must be as specified in the data sheet.0 Page 7-21 06. a booster pump must be installed in order to prevent an impermissibly high intake depression before the engine. which in turn must afford adequate protection against the ingress of water./max. If the plant incorporates a bottom tank and/or a relatively long fuel supply line. This precaution is adopted in order to prevent fuel flooding the engine while it is at a standstill. bottom tank). because it is not possible to guarantee that the non-return valves in the delivery line always remain absolutely leak tight. This precaution is adopted in order to prevent air entering the fuel system and the fuel delivery pump when the engine is at a standstill. 1. • A water drain valve and sludge drain valve must be provided at the lowest point of the service tank.doc Rev. • If the service tank is on a level lower than that of the fuel delivery pump (low level tank. The tank must be provided with adequate breather facilities. header tank) the return line carrying excess fuel from the engine must be routed above the maximum level of fuel in the service tank. the return line carrying excess fuel from the engine must be routed below the minimum level of the fuel in the service tank.2003 . • The min. ( under preparation ) TPG-General.
7: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Lube oil system Lube oil pump Lube oil heat exchanger Drain plug on oil pan Oil dipstick Lube oil hand pump 3-way cock.doc Rev. lube oil.4.2003 . shipyard supply Gearbox Automatic lube oil level monitoring and replenishment system. not standard scope of supply (according to classification societies for watch-free operation) 9 Lube oil tank.0 Page 7-22 06. shipyard supply 10 Flexible connecting element TPG-General. 1.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.4.6 Lube Oil System Figure 7.
operating pressure range from 1 x 106 to 3 x 106 Pa (10 to 30 bar) • air-in-cylinder. i.doc Rev.1 Electric starter motor The starter motor (some engine models have two starter) mounted on the engine requires a 24 VDC supply. The starting procedure is controlled and monitored by a control system included in the standard scope of supply.4. The control unit incorporates both the controller logic circuits and all requisite control elements.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. because the electric system is more straightforward and involves fewer system components. there is a difference between the systems . The starter batteries are usually recharged by means of an alternator which is usually included in the engine scope of supply.0 Page 7-23 06. operating pressure range from 2 x 106 to 4 x 106 Pa (20 to 40 bar) The regulations to which the plant is subject govern the choice of the starting system. Compressed air starting is preferable on vessels with a central compressed air supply system. the engines are supplied with electric starting Systems by default (series 2000 and 4000). Unless otherwise specified by the customer. 7. Starter motors with other voltage ratings are available on request for special applications.e. There are principally two types of starting systems which differ by the way in which the energy.4.7.7 Starting System The engines may employ one of three different methods of starting.2003 . In terms of reliability. required to start the engine is stored: - Electric starting with battery-powered starter motor Compressed air starting. because under these circumstances there is no need to provide an additional supply system and so there is a weight advantage when compared with the electric starter.all three are thoroughly satisfactory. electric or pneumatic. TPG-General. by means of • pneumatic starter motor. Design data such as • nominal power • current consumption and • requisite storage-battery capacity required for the design of the starting system are part of the data sheet of the project or contract. 1.
however. so that the electric cables are as short as possible. TPG-General. Note. The incorporation of a pressure reducing valve makes it feasible to dimension the compressed air storage tanks for a pressure considerably higher than the operating pressure of the starter motor. with the result that the size of the tanks can be minimized (by a factor of between 6 and 8). 7. compressed-air starter motor If the engine is equipped with a pneumatic starter motor.g.doc Rev.4. The engine documentation and the special documentation for the electronic accessories contain information that must be taken into account with regard to the electric wiring of the starting system and the calculation of the cross-section of the conductors to suit the cable lengths and currents carried. The starting air supply valve mounted on the starter motor is electrically actuated with provision for emergency manual actuation. mechanical damage and extreme temperature. • In order to avoid corrosion in the vicinity of the battery.4. air filter and pressure reducing valve from 4 x 106 to 1 x 106 Pa) are usually part of the MTU scope of supply. There are no design-related restrictions on the choice of battery type. e.2 Compressed-air starting. that the ambient conditions must be taken into account in this respect. ventilated because it is not always possible to prevent acid vapor escaping from the battery cells. more precisely. 1.7. Figure 7. lead-acid or nickel-cadmium battery. The following points require consideration: • The position of the battery in the engine room must be such as to permit easy access for maintenance.2003 . the compressed air supply connects to the starter motor mounted on the diesel engine.8 is a schematic view of the compressed air starting system with pneumatic starter motor as of the on-engine interface.0 Page 7-24 06. The system components required for the starting system (flexible connecting element.7 Application and Installation Guidelines The battery does not usually form part of the MTU scope of supply. • The battery must be protected against moisture. • The battery must be as close as possible to the engine or. to the starter motor. it must be well.
the tanks must be dimensioned by the shipyard as to contain an air supply adequate for the number of engine starts specified by the applicable regulations.3 Compressed-air starting.4.4. air-in-cylinder 6 Safety valve ② 7 Pressure gauge ② 8 Flexible connecting element 9 Pneumatic starter motor ② Shipyard If the engine is equipped for air-in-cylinder starting.2003 . it features an interface at which compressed air from the starting valve must be made available.doc Rev. If they are not supplied by MTU.8: Starting system with pneumatic starter motor 1 Compressed air starter 2 Lubricator (optional) ② 3 Air filter ② 4 Pressure reducing globe valve ② 5 Starting air receiver ② 7. It usually forms part of the MTU scope of supply and is supplied with. but not mounted on. The compressed air tanks used to store the starting air can be supplied by MTU or by the shipyard. TPG-General.9 is a schematic view of the air-in-cylinder starting system as of the on-engine interface.0 Page 7-25 06. 1. Figure 7. the engine.7 Application and Installation Guidelines Figure 7. The starting valve is electrically actuated but is also designed for emergency manual operation.4.7.
the engines housed in a single engine room can be supplied from a common compressed air storage system. In twin-engine or multiple-engine configurations. we recommend dimensioning the compressed air tanks such that at least six starts are possible without recharging the tanks. starting air pressures for engine • average air consumption per start • regulation number of engine starts are specified in the data sheet for the project or contract.doc Rev. Unless the number of engine starts is specified elsewhere.0 Page 7-26 06.9: Starting system with air-in-cylinder starting 1 Starting air distributor 2 Starting valve 3 Starting air receiver ② 4 Flexible connecting element 5 Safety valve ② 6 Pressure gauge ② ② Shipyard Design data Data such as • min. 1.2003 ./max.4. TPG-General.7 Application and Installation Guidelines Figure 7.
We recommend the use of steel piping (e.013 x 105 Pa The starting air supply valve should be located in the engine room and as close as possible to the engine.pmin Pressure in air tank before engine start in Pa Pressure in air tank after engine start in Pa Max. permissible starting air pressure in Pa Min. St 35 according to DIN 2391).0 Page 7-27 06. V = s × Vn1 × p n ∆ p m3 V s Vn1 ∆p p1 p2 pmax pmin pn = = = = = = = = = = Volume of compressed air tank in m3 Number of engine starts Air consumption per start (at normal pressure pn) in m3 Pressure differential in compressed air tank in Pa p1 . The supply pipe must be connected to the on-engine interface by means of a flexible connector.g.5) must be provided immediately in front of the on-engine interface to permit system checking.g. e. for commencement.2003 . and in such a way that it is protected against damage and moisture. permissible starting air pressure in Pa Normal pressure = 1.doc Rev. TPG-General. Pipe runs should be kept as short as possible and a measuring adapter (Ml8xl.7 Application and Installation Guidelines The equations below can be used to calculate the requisite volume of the compressed air storage system (size of compressed air tank or tanks).p2 or pmax . 1.
2003 .7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.8 Electric Power Supply Figure 7.0 Page 7-28 06.4. 1.4.10: Electric power supply ( under preparation ) TPG-General.doc Rev.
2003 .0 Page 7-29 06.doc Rev.5 Safety System ( under preparation ) TPG-General. 1.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.
6 Emission 7.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.2003 .1: Limitation of NOx-emission (IMO) The IMO NOx emission limit depends on the rated engine speed: n < 130 min-1 n = 130 to < 2000 min-1 n ≥ 2000 min-1 NOx = 17 g/kWh NOx = 45 x n-0.0 Page 7-30 06.2 g/kWh NOx = 9. General Information The MTU standard reduction of exhaust gas emissions for navy applications are in accordance with International Maritime Organization (IMO) Limitation of NOx-Emission 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 -1 NOx in g/kWh Engine rates speed in min Figure 7.doc Rev.6.8 g/kWh TPG-General. 1.1 Exhaust Gas Emission.6.
1 0.1 75 0. Variable Load Auxiliary Engine” application ( under preparation ) TPG-General.15 Test cycle for “Variable Speed.15 Test cycle for “Constant Speed Main Propulsion” application (including diesel electric drive and variable pitch propeller installation) Speed (%) Test cycle type E3 Power (%) Weighting Factor Figure 7.1 Test cycle for “Constant Speed Auxiliary Engine” application Speed Test cycle type C1 Torque (%) Figure 7.6.5 100 50 0. taking into consideration the Test Cycles and Weighting Factors: Speed (%) Test cycle type E2 Power (%) Weighting Factor Figure 7. 1.15 63 25 0.15 0.1 50 Idle 0 Weighting Factor 0.2 100 75 0.7 Application and Installation Guidelines The test procedure and measurement methods shall be in accordance with the NOx Technical Code.3 100 25 0.6.15 100 25 0.1 0.5: 100 Rated 75 50 10 Intermediate 100 0.15 Test cycle for “Propeller Law operated Main and Propeller Law operated Auxiliary Engines” application Speed (%) Test cycle type D2 Power (%) Weighting Factor Figure 7.15 0.6.15 0.2003 .0 Page 7-31 06.25 100 50 0.doc Rev.2: 100 100 0.05 100 75 0.3: 100 100 0.5 80 50 0.6.3 100 10 0.2 91 75 0.4: 100 100 0.
2003 .2 Acoustical Emission. The results of these analyses are available on request for projects and contracts. Noise spectra. unless otherwise stated in the diagram. In the noise spectra the information relating to noise pressure level and level of oscillation velocity is valid only for to the rated engine power and engine speed as stated.doc Rev.e. Note that these analyses do not take into account the air intake noise.6.undamped air intake noise • structure-borne noise have been performed for all engines listed in the current Sales Program.engine free-field noise .6. General Information Low noise on board of yachts. TPG-General.1 Airborne noise level A noise spectrum of the engine operating noise emitted to the environment (free-field) is available for each engine in the Sales Program.0 Page 7-32 06. The figures in the noise spectrum are in dB(A) and comply with ISO standards.2. The datum level is 2*10-5 Pa and the noise pressures are measured at a distance of 1 m. passenger vessels and on naval ships is an important demand. 1. i. 7. These spectra are available on request for projector contract-specific purposes.undamped exhaust noise . and thus merely informative for other power/speed combinations.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. frequency analyses for operating noises distinguishing between • air-borne noise as .
6.2003 .6: Engine surface noise analysis (example) TPG-General.doc Rev.7 Application and Installation Guidelines Figure 7. 1.0 Page 7-33 06.
6.2.doc Rev.6.2 Exhaust gas noise level Figure 7.0 Page 7-34 06.7: Undamped exhaust gas noise analysis (example) TPG-General. 1.2003 .7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.
Standard single resilient mounting system: (Standard) Standard single resilient mounting system for ships without any special shock or acoustic requirements. All options are based on proven design. no shock requirements Single resilient mounting system Standard coupling system for torsional vibration and misalignment Single resilient mounting system with shock: (Option 1) Single resilient mounting system for applications with shock requirements for ships. STANAG 4142 combined with moderate acoustic requirements Special single resilient mounting system Resilient coupling system for increased shock and structure-borne noise attenuation - TPG-General.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.3 Structure-borne noise level (e.6. we offer additionally to our standard design four different “Quiet Systems”. double-resilient mounting) Depending on different requirements. such as OPV´s and Corvettes.: single-(standard). e.2003 .2. single-(shock resistance).g.doc Rev.g. working ships and fast ferries.0 Page 7-35 06. Technical Features: - Shock requirements according to BV 043/85. Technical Features: - Standard acoustic. 1.
2003 .doc Rev. with or without shock requirements 3 4 Engine with flange-mounted gearbox 1 Engine 2 5 1 6 2 Gearbox 3 Ship foundation 4 Resilient elements.7 Application and Installation Guidelines Typical Arrangement 2 1 1 Engine 2 Gearbox 3 Ship foundation 4 Resilient elements. standard or special single resilient mounting system. 1. with or without shock requirements 3 4 Engine with flange-mounted generator TPG-General. optional with resilient coupling system for increased shock and structure-borne noise attenuation 6 Noise case (optional) 3 4 Engine with free-standing gearbox 2 1 1 Engine 2 Generator 3 Ship foundation 4 Resilient elements.0 Page 7-36 06. standard or special single resilient mounting system. standard or special single resilient mounting system. with or without shock requirements 5 Standard coupling system for torsional vibration and misalignment.
doc Rev.7 Application and Installation Guidelines Typical Arrangement 1 Engine 2 5 1 6 2 Generator 3 Ship foundation 4 Resilient elements.2003 .8: Single resilient mounting system with shock Standard double resilient mounting system: (Option 2) Double resilient mounting system improves the acoustic behaviour for ASW ships. 1. shock requirements according to BV 043/85. weight critical application Double resilient mounting system consist of: Rubber elements shock proved. STANAG 4142.0 Page 7-37 06. with or without shock requirements 5 Standard coupling system for torsional vibration and misalignment. optional with resilient coupling system for increased shock and structure-borne noise attenuation 6 Noise case (optional) 3 4 Engine with free-standing generator Figure 7. Technical Features: - Higher acoustic demands. comfortable pleasure crafts and casino ships.6. standard or special single resilient mounting system. with shock buffers Light/stiff base frame with 30% of engine weight as intermediate mass - - Resilient coupling system for torsional vibration and increased shock and structure-borne noise attenuation TPG-General.
STANAG 4142 Double resilient mounting system consist of: Rubber elements shock proved. Technical Features: - High acoustic demands.7 Application and Installation Guidelines Double resilient mounting system for low noise: (Option 3) Double resilient mounting system to achieve low noise levels onboard of yachts. shock requirements according to BV 043/85. with shock buffers Polymeric concrete/steel base frame with 50% of engine weight as intermediate mass - - Resilient coupling system for torsional vibration and increased shock and structure-borne noise attenuation Noise enclosure - Double resilient mounting system for extreme acoustic requirements: (Option 4) Double resilient mounting system for extreme acoustic requirements for ASW ships and research vessels. with shock buffers Polymeric concrete/steel combination base frame with 70% of engine weight as intermediate mass Double stage steel springs with silicon damping filling - - Resilient coupling system for torsional vibration and increased shock and structure-borne noise attenuation Noise enclosure - TPG-General. STANAG 4142 Double resilient mounting system consisting of: Rubber elements shock proved.2003 . shock requirements according to BV 043/85. 1.doc Rev.0 Page 7-38 06. Technical Features: - Extreme acoustic demands. passenger vessels and most naval applications.
1.7 Application and Installation Guidelines Typical Arrangement 2 5 1 6 1 Engine 2 Gearbox 3 Ship foundation 4 Resilient elements. with shock requirements 5 Resilient coupling system for torsional vibration and increased shock and structure-borne noise attenuation 6 Noise enclosure 7 Intermediate mass 1 Engine 2 Generator 3 Ship foundation 4 Resilient elements.doc Rev.9: Double resilient mounting system for extreme acoustic requirements TPG-General. double resilient mounting system.6.2003 .0 Page 7-39 06. double resilient mounting system. misalignment and increased shock attenuation 6 Noise enclosure 7 Intermediate mass 3 7 4 Engine with free-standing gearbox 2 5 1 6 3 4 7 Engine with free-standing generator Figure 7. with shock requirements 5 Coupling system for torsional vibration.
2003 .6.doc Rev. diesel engine 20V 1163) TPG-General.g. 1. structure-borne noise levels below the resilient mountings (e.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 90 80 m/s 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 31.10: Examples for different “Quiet Systems”.5 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 Frequency in Hz Standard Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4 Figure 7.0 Lv in dB re 5x10 -8 Page 7-40 06.
7 Application and Installation Guidelines Figure 7.11: Structure borne noise analysis at engine feet.0 Page 7-41 06. above rubber mounts (example) TPG-General.2003 .6.doc Rev. 1.
7 Mounting and Foundation TPG-General.2003 .0 Page 7-42 06.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. 1.doc Rev.
1.2003 .8 Acoustic Enclosure/Acoustic Case TPG-General.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.0 Page 7-43 06.doc Rev.
0 Page 7-44 06.g.9.2003 .9 Mechanical Power Transmission There are different possibilities and combinations for the mechanical power transmission with internationally system-specific terms established.1: Combined diesel engine and diesel engine 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 Figure 7.doc Rev. the possibilities to transmit the power to on one shaft optionally from one or several diesel engines. In the following one the most customary denotation is used: CODAD = COMBINED DIESEL ENGINE AND DIESEL ENGINE This kind of power plants offers e. 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 Figure 7.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.2: Combined diesel engine and diesel engine with separate gear compartment 1 Controllable pitch propeller (CPP) 2 Diesel engine 3 Gearbox TPG-General.9. 1.
7 Application and Installation Guidelines CODOG = COMBINED DIESEL ENGINE OR GAS TURBINE This kind of power plant offers the possibilities to transmit the power to a shaft optionally only with a diesel engine or only from a gas turbine. 3 1 2 3 4 2 3 1 Figure 7.doc Rev.9.4: 1 2 3 4 Combined diesel engine and gas turbine Controllable pitch propeller (CPP) Diesel engine Gearbox (distribution gear/multi-staged gear) Gas turbine Page 7-45 06.3: Combined diesel engine or gas turbine CODAG = COMBINED DIESEL ENGINE AND GAS TURBINE This kind of power plants offers the possibilities to transmit the power to both shafts optionally only from one diesel engine. or to transmit the power onto both shafts together from all driving engines . or to transmit the power to one or two shafts only from the gas turbine. 3 4 1 2 2 3 1 4 Figure 7.2003 TPG-General. or to transmit the power to one shaft separately from one diesel engine.9. 1.0 .
doc Rev.7 Application and Installation Guidelines Further denotation for combinations of mechanical power transmission is used as follows: COGAG COGOG CODLAG = COMBINED GAS TURBINE AND GAS TURBINE = COMBINED GAS TURBINE OR GAS TURBINE = COMBINED DIESEL-ELECTRIC AND GAS TURBINE CODLAGL = COMBINED DIESEL-ELECTRIC AND GAS TURBINE-ELECTRIC TPG-General.0 Page 7-46 06. 1.2003 .
2003 .1: Power take-off (PTO).0 Page 7-47 06. 1. gear driven TPG-General.10.doc Rev.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.10 Auxiliary Power Take-Off Figure 7.
1.0 Page 7-48 06.2003 .7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.doc Rev.11 Example Documents Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General.
2 Acceptance Test According to a Classification Society (e.2. engines are to be subject to a test bed trial under the supervision of the scope stated below. In each case the measurements shall not be carried out until the steady operating condition has been achieved. 8.032 · n0: 45 minutes • 90 %. 50 % and 25 % power in accordance with the nominal propeller curve.8 Standard Acceptance Test 8 8. 50 % and 25 % power and idle run.2.g. 1.2. • Starting and reversing manoeuvres • Test of governor and independent overspeed protection device • Test of engine shutdown devices 8.3 Auxiliary Driving Engines and Engines Driving Electric Generators Tests to be performed in accordance with 9. 75 %. In each case the measurements shall not be carried out until the steady operating condition has been achieved.doc Rev.2003 . • Start-up tests 8. TPG-General.2.2 Main Engines for Indirect Propeller Drive The test is to be performed at rated speed with a constant governor setting under conditions of: • 100 % power (rated power): 60 minutes • 110 % power: 45 minutes • 75 %. The manufacturer's test bed reports are acceptable for auxiliary driving engines rated at ≤ 100 kW.2.1 Main Engines for Direct Propeller Drive: • 100 % power (rated power) at rated speed n0: 60 minutes • 100 % power at n = 1. Germanischer Lloyd). 8.0 Page 8-1 06.1 STANDARD ACCEPTANCE TEST Factory Acceptance Test In general.
0 Page 8-2 06. 1.8 Standard Acceptance Test 8.doc Rev.3 Example Documents Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General.2003 .
• Remote Control System RCS-5 for the propulsion plant (FPP) within the Control Stands. • Monitoring and Control System MCS-5 Type 1 for the shipboard equipment (auxiliary systems in engine room and general ship area). Important Information ! All descriptions herein have reference to the following Standard Diesel Engine Series: • 2000 M60 / M70 / M80 / M90 / M91 • 4000 M60 / M70 / M80 / M90 The project guide describes the Propulsion Remote Control System RCS-5 for Fixed Pitch Propeller FPP. Waterjet WJ or Voith Schneider VS please ask TZPV for assistance.0 Page 9-1 06. For applications with Controllable Pitch Propeller CPP. ready for installation and operation. Monitoring and Data Acquisition (LOP) 9 CONTROL. CODOG etc.g. CODAD. WJ or CPP). The high functional efficiency and simple system design with plug connectors and pre-fabricated system cables for engine installation make incorporation into ships an easy operation. Economical engine operation with low fuel consumption and minimum exhaust emission over the complete load range is guaranteed by the MDEC system.to four-engine plant with or without gearbox consisting of: • Monitoring and Control System for the propulsion plant within the Engine Room (FPP. MONITORING AND DATA ACQUISITION (LOP) MTU engines for marine applications are provided with an Electronic Control System matched to special marine requirements. Furthermore MTU Electronic offers on request.doc Rev. in combination with current propeller systems. 1.2003 . RCS-5 versions for combined propulsion plants e. The meaning of MDEC: MTU Diesel Engine Control. The MDEC System satisfies the following units: • ECU = Engine Control Unit Mounted on engine • EMU = Engine Monitoring Unit Mounted on engine if classification is required • LOP = Local Operating Panel Loose supplied for Engine Room installation TPG-General. after technical clarification. for Non-Classified and Classified automation and single.1 Standard Monitoring and Control Engine Series 2000/4000 Complete monitoring and control. 9. This systems are also available as standard applications. CODAG.. • Monitoring and Control System MCS-5 Type 1 for the propulsion plant within the Control Stands. This system ensures optimised engine functioning under all operating conditions.9 Control.
which protects the engine from states assumed to be a risk to continued operation. Automatic start/stop and emergency stop sequencing control. LCD display (standard language English. Engine Start/Stop/Emergency Stop. Flashing light and horn for alarm in engine room. Gearbox clutch control. TPG-General. comprising the following components and functions: - - Interface for ECU-MDEC.9 Control. Local control.3 Engine Monitoring Unit EMU-MDEC Separate Safety System Engine Monitoring Unit EMU-MDEC is used to cover the additional requirements and scope of redundant measuring points specified for classified marine plants. for engine speed control in response to rated value setting with fuel injection and speed limitation as a function of engine status and operating conditions as well as MTU sequential turbo charging. load profile recorder and data modules (for engine and plant specific parameter). 9.doc Rev. switch-over to other language on request) with selector keyboard for monitoring data of engine and gearbox sensors and status display of turbochargers. Engine speed increase/decrease. Shipside Monitoring System and Remote Control. In such cases.0 Page 9-2 06. 9. - Set of connecting cables (10 m each with plug connectors at both ends) for connecting the individual electronic components. gearbox GCU. Set of sensors including on-engine cabling. EMUMDEC also represents the second.4 Local Operating Panel LOP-MDEC Local operating panel LOP-MDEC in sheet-metal housing. Combined control and display elements for engine and gearbox: Ready for operation. Alarm acknowledgement and illumination dim control. independent safety system. Lamp test. Monitoring and Data Acquisition (LOP) 9. 1. System-integrated alarm unit with visual individual alarm and output for visual and audio alarm.2003 .2 Engine Governing and Control Unit ECU-MDEC Engine governing and control unit ECU-MDEC with integrated safety system. for ship-side installation in the engine room.
1.5 Propulsion Plant Management System Version 9. Monitoring and Data Acquisition (LOP) 9.2003 .0 Page 9-3 06.1 Manufacturer Specification In accordance with manufacturer specification.1: Propulsion Plant Management System version in accordance with manufacturer specification TPG-General.5.doc Rev.9 Control.5. (Not classifiable) Figure 9.
Monitoring and Data Acquisition (LOP) 9. LRS.doc Rev. NK.2 Classification Society Regulation Version in compliance with Classification society regulations (GL. RINA type test approval). CCS. 1.9 Control.5.2003 . ABS.5. DNV. KR. Figure 9.0 Page 9-4 06.2: Propulsion Plant Management System version in compliance with classification society regulations Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General. BV.
Common designation of identical maintenance tasks irrespective of engine series. load profile.1 Cover Sheet The cover sheet provides the following information: - Engine series/production model. 10.2003 . battery). - Data Processing: - 10. however. The former combination of several maintenance tasks in maintenance echelons (W1 to W6) is now obsolete. 1. Maintenance schedule and version numbers. be subjected to any up-dating or amendment procedures. Utilisation of the maximum service life of the single components.0 Page 10-1 06.2 Advantages of the New Maintenance Concept: Technical: - Individual maintenance tasks per operating period interval resulting in reduced down time per maintenance operation. (only with order-specific maintenance schedules). Order No. Cross-reference to other applicable documentation (Fluids and Lubricants Specification).3. Maintenance tasks that are not included in the maintenance schedule matrix as their maintenance intervals are strictly related to the individual operating conditions (fuel prefilter. General information with respect to the maintenance concept. Reduced life cycle costs.11 Assembling Instructions (Lifting. The preventive maintenance principle remains effective with the new maintenance concept. - TPG-General. 10. with effect from Sales Program 2003.1 MAINTENANCE CONCEPT / MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE Reason for Information MTU has revised the engine maintenance concept. It is replaced by a concept of maximum service time periods for single components (items) until their next scheduled maintenance is due.3 New Maintenance Schedule: The new maintenance schedule is divided into three sections. Transportation) 10 10. application group. Efficient translation and availability in 5 languages. The Maintenance Schedules for all MTU engine series and applications. Central administration of the individual tasks in a data bank. they will not. will be converted to the new concept this year. The current maintenance schedules may continue to be used for engines already in service.doc Rev.
the “Maintenance Levels” listed in the 2nd line have a new meaning.2003 .3. 1. - TPG-General. The item content is described in the task list (see below).11 Assembling Instructions (Lifting. Level Time limit.1: Example of a maintenance schedule matrix - The matrix headings contain the individual maintenance items. Operating ho rs Daily 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 W1 - W1 - W2 2 W2 - W3 2 W3 - W4 3 W4 - W4 - W4 - W4 2 W5 18 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Figure 10.2 Maintenance Schedule Matrix The maintenance schedule matrix provides an overview of the minimum scope of maintenance tasks.3. Transportation) 10.doc Rev. In comparison to the previous maintenance concept. Extended component maintenance W6 18 X Maint. They indicate the qualifications (scope of training) required for the maintenance personnel and the scope of tools required. these are combined in tool kits.0 Page 10-2 Component maintenance Combustion chambers Fuel injection pumps Centrifugal oil filter Engine operation Fuel duplex filter Engine oil filter Fuel injectors Valve gear Engine oil Belt drive Air filter 06.
TPG-General. Check drain lines of intercooler. Drain off water and contamination at drain cock of fuel prefilter (if fitted). The associated tasks are indicated by an “x” in the appropriate line. Engine oil Check level. Or replace when changing engine oil. Check belt condition and tension. Fuel injectors Fit new fuel injectors. Air filter Fit new air filter(s). 1. Valve gear Check valve clearance. Fuel duplex filter Replace filters. Check relief bores of water pump(s).3. “Time limit in years”. clean and Centrifugal oil filter change sleeve. Maint.3 Task List The task list describes the maintenance tasks listed as positions in the matrix.2003 . Check service indicator of air filter.e.11 Assembling Instructions (Lifting. The 1st column of the matrix indicates the “Operating hours” at which a maintenance operation is to be executed. Fuel injection pumps Fit new fuel injector pumps. the maintenance tasks are to continue in accordance with the related intervals (see task list). Thereafter. - - 10. replace if Belt drive necessary. maintenance is to be carried out at the intervals indicated and not recommenced at the beginning of the matrix. as a matter of principle. exhaust gas colour. Engine operation Check for abnormal running noises. Interval Item Level (hours/years) Maintenance tasks W1 -/- W1 W2 W2 W3 W3 W4 W4 W4 W4 W4 -/-/2 500/500/500/2 2000/3 2000/2 3000/3000/4000/- Check general conditions of engine and verify that there are no leaks. If required (on request) a maintenance schedule with an extended matrix can be provided. i. Transportation) In addition to the operating hours limits. Engine oil filter Replace. The maintenance schedule matrix normally ends with the “Extended component maintenance”.doc Rev. Check thickness of oil residue layer. vibration.0 Page 10-3 06. This is indicated in the 3rd line. Combustion chambers Inspect cylinder chambers using endoscope. some maintenance tasks are subject to a time restriction. Check service indicator of fuel prefilter (if fitted). As a matter of principle the limit value (operating hours or years) that first becomes effective is to be used.
valve bridges. oil service life may be optimized by regular laboratory analyses. this can have a negative effect on overall maintenance costs. The time intervals are based on the average results of operational experience and.doc Rev. The “Interval” defines the maximum permissible operational period between the individual maintenance tasks for each component/item in operating hours/years referenced to the specified load profile (see cover sheet). therefore. Reason: - The oil service life is influenced by the quality of the oil. oil filtration. mandatory to ensure that the maximum permissible maintenance intervals for each position are not exceeded. The “Item” matches the data given in the headings of the maintenance schedule matrix. Interval Item Level (hours/years) Maintenance tasks Before starting maintenance work. In the case of arduous operating conditions. Check vibration damper. are guideline values only.0 Back to Contents Page 10-4 06. W5 4000/18 Component maintenance Figure 10. operational conditions and the fuel used. drain coolant and flush cooling systems. pushrods and ball joints for wear. The coolant service life depends on the type of coolant additive(s) used. Check rocker arms. Back to Start of Chapter TPG-General. Clean intercooler and check it for leaks. However. as a matter of principle. - With the new maintenance schedule concept it is still possible for tasks to be combined in individual blocks in accordance with the customer's wishes. however. The “Maintenance tasks” column lists the individual maintenance tasks per item.2: Example task list - The “Maintenance level” serves only as an orientation for the qualifications required for the maintenance personnel and the tool kits required.2003 . Transportation) Maint. Check wear pattern of cylinder-liner running surfaces. These are defined in the MTU Fluids and Lubricants Specification A001061. modifications may be necessary. 1. Clean air ducting. Replace turbocharger.11 Assembling Instructions (Lifting.3. Detailed task descriptions are contained in the engine-related Operation Manual. possible. Reduction of the intervals is. It is. - - - Note: Change intervals for fluids and lubricants are no longer included in the maintenance schedule. In individual applications.
doc Rev. 1. Transportation) 11 ASSEMBLING INSTRUCTIONS (LIFTING.11 Assembling Instructions (Lifting.2003 . TRANSPORTATION) Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General.0 Page 11-1 06.
12 Transportation.2003 .doc Rev. STORAGE. STARTING Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General. 1. Starting 12 TRANSPORTATION. Storage.0 Page 12-1 06.
2003 .13 Pilot Installation Description (PID) 13 PILOT INSTALLATION DESCRIPTION (PID) Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General. 1.doc Rev.0 Page 13-1 06.
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