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MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH Ship Systems Technology Commercial D-88040 Friedrichshafen Germany Phone +49 7541 90 - 0 www.mtu-friedrichshafen.com Assistance: MTG Marinetechnik GmbH D-22041 Hamburg Germany MTG Ref.: 679/335/2100 - 001 Phone +49 40 65 803 - 0 www.mtg-marinetechnik.de
Technical Project Guide Marine Application Part 1 - General
June 2003 Revision 1.0
The illustrations herein are presented with kind permission of the companies listed below. Rolls-Royce AB www.rolls-royce.com S-681 29 Kristinehamn Sweden Schottel GmbH & Co. KG www.schottel.de D-56322 Spay/Rhein Germany Voith Schiffstechnik GmbH & Co. KG www.voith-schiffstechnik.de D-89522 Heidenheim Germany ZF Marine GmbH www.zf-marine.com D-88039 Friedrichshafen Germany
This –Technical Project Guide- is supposed to give the user general references for the planning, design and the arrangement of propulsion plants and on-board power generation plants. Precise information on the different diesel engine series are to be taken from the specific engine parts. Following engine parts are planned/available:
Technical Projekt Guide Marine Application Part 1 - General
Technical Project Guide Marine Application Part 2 - Engine Series 2000
Technical Project Guide Marine Application Part 3 - Engine Series 4000
Technical Project Guide Marine Application Part 4 - Engine Series 8000 (later on)
3 6.3.doc Rev.3 2 2.2 3.1.2 5 6 6.1 6.3 6.3 3 3.2.2 6.0 Page II 06.1 3.2.1 1.Contents CONTENTS Chapter 1 1.1 2.1.2 6. 1.3 3.3 6.3.4 4 4.1 4. INTERACTION ENGINE WITH APPLICATION Propulsor Abbreviations Propulsive Devices (Overview) Shaft Line and Gearbox Losses Propeller Propeller Geometry Propeller Type Selection (FPP or CPP) Direction of Propeller Rotation Selection of Propeller Blade Number Propeller Curve Basics Theoretical Propeller Curve Estimating the Required Diesel Engine Power Page 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-2 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-3 3-4 4-1 4-1 4-1 5-1 6-1 6-1 6-1 6-3 6-9 6-10 6-10 6-12 6-14 6-17 6-18 6-18 6-23 6-25 TPG-General.1.2 1.1.1 6.2.2 3.2003 .2 22.214.171.124 6.2 2.1.1 6.3 Title GENERAL Introduction Designations Special Documents Presented DEFINITION OF APPLICATION GROUPS General Marine Main Propulsion and Auxiliary Propulsion Plants On-Board Electric Power Generation/Auxiliary Power SPECIFICATION OF POWER AND REFERENCE CONDITION Definition of Terms ISO Standard Fuel-Stop Power (ICFN) ISO Standard Power Exceedable by 10 % (ICXN) Reference Conditions Load Profile Time Between Major Overhauls (TBO) FLUIDS AND LUBRICANTS SPECIFICATION General MTU Approved Fuels ENGINE PERFORMANCE DIAGRAM PROPULSION.4 6.1 6.1 3.
3.1 6.3 7.2.1 126.96.36.199 6.1 188.8.131.52 7 7.6.4 6.6. support and connection for pipe and silencer Underwater discharge (with exhaust flap) Water-cooled exhaust system Page 6-26 6-26 6-29 6-31 6-36 6-36 6-41 6-42 6-42 6-44 6-49 6-50 6-51 6-52 6-52 6-54 6-55 6-56 6-57 6-58 6-59 7-1 7-1 7-2 7-2 7-3 7-6 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-8 7-11 7-11 7-11 7-11 7-12 7-12 7-13 7-14 TPG-General.6.6 6.5 6.3 184.108.40.206.1 7.6.4 220.127.116.11 7.2.1 7.Contents CONTENTS Chapter 6.6.1 7. 18.104.22.168.3 6.6.4 6.6 6.2003 .1 6.2 6.5.5 22.214.171.124 7.4.3 6.4.6.doc Rev.6.3.3 7.0 Page III 06.5 6.3 6.2 6.2 126.96.36.199.2.2 7.2 7.2 7.3 Title Propeller and Performance Diagram Driving Mode Fixed Pitch Propeller (FPP) Controllable Pitch Propeller (CPP) Waterjet and Performance Diagram Geometry and Design Point Estimation of Size and Shaft Speed Fuel Consumption General Assumptions Operating Profile Fuel Consumption at Design Condition Cruising Range Endurance at Sea Calculating Examples Example Data (Series 2000) Fuel consumption at design condition Fuel tank volume for a range of 500sm at 18kn Theoretical cruising range at 12kn and fuel tank volume of 5m3 Annual fuel consumption for an operating profile Correcting the lower heating value Generator Drive APPLICATION AND INSTALLATION GUIDELINES Foundation Engine/Gearbox Arrangements Engine with Flange-Mounted Gearbox (F-Drive) Engine with Free-Standing Gearbox.1 188.8.131.52 7.4.6 6.4 184.108.40.206.3.2 6.6. V Drive Inclusive Generator Set Arrangement Engine with Free-Standing Generator Engine with Flange-Mounted Generator System Interfaces and System Integration Flexible Connections Combustion Air and Cooling/Ventilation Air Supply Combustion-air intake from engine room Combustion-air intake directly from outside Cooling/ventilation air system Exhaust System Arrangements.6.2 7.
1 9.7.5 9.7 7.6.3 7.6.3 7. General Information Acoustical Emission.220.127.116.11.2 7.3 9.1 8.7.10 7.4.2 7.4.2003 TPG-General.2.4.11 8 8.4 7. MONITORING AND DATA ACQUISITION (LOP) Standard Monitoring and Control Engine Series 2000/4000 Engine Governing and Control Unit ECU-MDEC Engine Monitoring Unit EMU-MDEC Separate Safety System Local Operating Panel LOP-MDEC Propulsion Plant Management System Version Manufacturer Specification Classification Society Regulation Page IV Page 7-15 7-15 7-16 7-17 7-18 7-19 7-19 7-22 7-23 7-23 7-24 7-25 7-28 7-29 7-30 7-30 7-32 7-32 7-34 7-35 7-42 7-43 7-44 7-47 7-48 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-1 8-2 9-1 9-1 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-3 9-3 9-4 06.7.8 7. air-in-cylinder Electric Power Supply Safety System Emission Exhaust Gas Emission.4 9.2 8.1 9.6.3 8.4.3 7.2.1 7.4.2 Rev.5.1 7.0 Title Cooling Water System Cooling water system with engine-mounted heat exchanger Cooling water system with separately-mounted heat exchanger Central cooling water system Fuel System General notes Design data Lube Oil System Starting System Electric starter motor Compressed-air starting.5 7.9 7.Contents CONTENTS Chapter 18.104.22.168.5 7.doc .4.4. compressed-air starter motor Compressed-air starting.5.2 9.2 7.3 9 9.6 7. General Information Airborne noise level Exhaust gas noise level Structure-borne noise level Mounting and Foundation Acoustic Enclosure/Acoustic Case Mechanical Power Transmission Auxiliary Power Take-Off Example Documents STANDARD ACCEPTANCE TEST Factory Acceptance Test Acceptance Test According to a Classification Society Main Engines for Direct Propeller Drive: Main Engines for Indirect Propeller Drive Auxiliary Driving Engines and Engines Driving Electric Generators Example Documents CONTROL.2. 1.1 7.1 22.214.171.124.6 7.8 7.2 7.1 7.2.2 8.2.7 7.1 8.2 126.96.36.199.4.
0 Page V 06.1 10.3.Contents CONTENTS Chapter 10 10. STARTING PILOT INSTALLATION DESCRIPTION (PID) Page 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-1 10-2 10-3 11-1 12-1 13-1 TPG-General. TRANSPORTATION) TRANSPORTATION.2 10.doc Rev. 1.3 11 12 13 Title MAINTENANCE CONCEPT / MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE Reason for Information Advantages of the New Maintenance Concept: New Maintenance Schedule: Cover Sheet Maintenance Schedule Matrix Task List ASSEMBLING INSTRUCTIONS (LIFTING.2003 .1 10.3.3.3 10.2 10. STORAGE.
3.5: Figure 6.1: Figure 6.4.List of Figures List of Figures Figure Figure 1.doc Rev.2: Figure 188.8.131.52: Figure 6.4: Figure 184.108.40.206: Figure 6.5: Figure 6.1: Figure 6.2: Figure 6.2003 TPG-General.4: Figure 6.5.6: Figure 6. draught and fouling Diesel engine failure in a two shaft arrangement Choosing a design point for a fixed pitch propeller CPP characteristic in a typical diesel engine performance diagram Controllable pitch propeller design point Example: Single shaft operation with CPP Example: Constant speed generator in operation with CPP Waterjet Waterjet design point (Diagram has limited use for waterjet design) Platform with pump Waterjet performance diagram Estimating the size of a waterjet (inlet duct diameter) Estimating the design impeller speed of a waterjet Page VI Page 1-2 1-3 3-3 3-4 4-1 5-1 5-3 5-4 5-4 5-5 5-5 6-1 6-10 6-12 6-19 6-20 6-21 6-22 6-26 6-27 6-29 6-31 6-32 6-34 6-35 6-36 6-37 6-38 6-39 6-41 6-41 06.5.4: Figure 4.3: Figure 6.1: Figure 6. 1.3.7: Figure 220.127.116.11: Figure 3.1: Figure 4.3: Figure 4.6: Figure 6.1: Figure 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.2.2: Figure 6.2: Figure 6. cylinders.2. Semi-planing boat hull = high speed monohull with low displacement Scheme of a propulsive unit (side view) Scheme of propeller geometry (skew and rake) Propeller clearance Influence of change in resistance on effective power curve (example) From effective to delivered power curve (example) Effect of change in resistance on delivered power curve (example) Effect of different propeller pitches on delivered power (example) Change in delivered power due to weather.126.96.36.199 . direction of rotation) Structure of the MTU EXTRANET Typical Standard Load Profiles TBO definition of MTU Fuel specification Structure of the performance diagram Engine performance diagram Monohull Semi-planing boat hull = high speed monohull with medium displacement Multihulls = catamarans.1: Figure 188.8.131.52.1: Figure 3. trimarans.4.1: Figure 4.2: Figure 6.3: Figure 184.108.40.206: Figure 4.2.5: Figure 4.6: Title Engine designations (sides.2.3: Figure 6.
1: Figure 7.2.2: Figure 7. Variable Load Auxiliary Engine” application Engine surface noise analysis (example) Undamped exhaust gas noise analysis (example) Single resilient mounting system with shock Double resilient mounting system for extreme acoustic requirements Page VII 7-31 7-31 7-33 7-34 7-37 7-39 06.4.3: Figure 7.4: Figure 7.0 .6.3: Figure 7. 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168: Figure 22.214.171.124: Figure 7.7.1: Figure 7.2003 TPG-General.10: Electric power supply Test cycle for “Constant Speed Main Propulsion” application (including diesel electric drive and variable pitch propeller installation) 7-31 Test cycle for “Propeller Law operated Main and Propeller Law operated Auxiliary Engines” application 7-31 Test cycle for “Constant Speed Auxiliary Engine” application Test cycle for “Variable Speed.3: Figure 126.96.36.199: Figure 6.5: Figure 7.2: Figure 7.4.9: Figure 7.7: Figure 7.6. fast ferry.4.4.1: Figure 7.2: Figure 7.6.6. OPV) Power definition Engine room arrangement.7: Figure 7.8: Figure 7.g.6.1: Figure 6.5: Figure 7. fuel inlet temperature Lube oil system Starting system with pneumatic starter motor Starting system with air-in-cylinder starting Limitation of NOx-emission (IMO) 7-17 7-18 7-20 7-22 7-25 7-26 7-28 7-30 Figure 7.doc Rev.1: Figure 7. keel cooling) 7-16 Central cooling water system Fuel System Evaluation value for max.4.6: Figure 7.2: Figure 7. OPV) Examples of operating profiles (freighter.8: Figure 7.6. minimum distance Engine with flange-mounted gearbox Engine with free-standing gearbox Engine with free-standing gearbox and universal shaft.7.4.9: Title Examples of operating profiles (freighter.1: Figure 7.2: Figure 188.8.131.52. V drive arrangement Engine with free-standing generator Engine with flange-mounted generator Connection of rubber bellows Page 6-45 6-46 6-60 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-10 Cooling water system with engine-mounted heat exchanger (Split-circuit cooling system) 7-15 Cooling water system with separately-mounted heat exchanger (e. fast ferry.List of Figures List of Figures Figure Figure 6.
g.1: Figure 9.3: Figure 7.3.5.doc Rev.List of Figures List of Figures Figure Title Page Figure 184.108.40.206 Page VIII 06. 1.3.1: Power take-off (PTO). above rubber mounts (example) 7-41 Figure 220.127.116.11: Combined diesel engine and diesel engine Combined diesel engine and diesel engine with separate gear compartment Combined diesel engine or gas turbine Combined diesel engine and gas turbine 7-44 7-44 7-45 7-45 7-47 Figure 7.1: Figure 7.5.2: Example task list TPG-General.11: Structure borne noise analysis at engine feet.4: Figure 9.1: Example of a maintenance schedule matrix Figure 10.10: Examples for different “Quiet Systems”. gear driven Propulsion Plant Management System version in accordance with manufacturer specification 9-3 Propulsion Plant Management System version in compliance with classification society regulations 9-4 10-2 10-4 Figure 10.9.9. diesel engine 20V 1163) 7-40 Figure 7.2003 . structure-borne noise levels below the resilient mountings (e.9.2: Figure 7.
MTU develops.1 General 1 1. It contains generally applicable notes for planning and installation of marine propulsion plants and electric power plants. With product ranges of MTU and DDC plus Mercedes-Benz engines under one roof. Especially within the shipping sector the company has established a long and successful partnership with hundred thousands of engines in operation around the globe on all seas. manufactures and sells diesel engines in the 200 to 9000 kW power range (for more information refer to publication “SALES PROGRAM MARINE”).0 Page 1-1 06.doc Rev.e. This publication has been compiled as a source of information only. Such requirements necessitate clarification on case-to-case basis.2003 . a worldleading supplier of engines and systems for the marine. MTU disposes of unique drive system know how and offers a large range of products of excellent quality. All marine engines are under the brand “MTU”. TPG-General. heavy-duty military and commercial-vehicle as well as agricultural and construction-industry machinery sectors has been created. because the project-specific or contract-specific data are of course applicable to the particular application and the overall propulsion concept. two DaimlerChrysler Group companies. applicable to the design of individual components or entire systems) such as may be specified by the operator or by classification societies are not taken into consideration in the scope of this publication.1 GENERAL Introduction MTU Friedrichshafen in Germany and Detroit Diesel Corporation in the USA. Project-related or contract-related specifications take precedence over the general information appearing in this publication. 1. its reliability and system competence. Based on its innovative capabilities. Non-standard design requirements (i. have combined their off-highway operations. rail. power generation.
2.1.. .. A2. B7. cylinders.0 Page 1-2 06.2. B3. 1.2003 .. B2. A3.2 Designations The DIN 6265 respectively ISO 1204 designations are used to identify the sides and cylinders of MTU engines..1 General 1.. Figure 1. direction of rotation) Driving end Free end Left-bank cylinders Right-bank cylinders = KS (Kupplungsseite) = KGS (Kupplungsgegenseite) = A1. . A7..1: Engine designations (sides.doc Rev. B8 TPG-General. A8 = B1. Details are explained in Figure 1.
The structure of the EXTRANET with its essential components is represented in the following diagram. 1.2003 .3.3 Special Documents Presented Specific information and documents are found in the MTU EXTRANET. Figure 1.1 General 1.0 Page 1-3 06.1: Structure of the MTU EXTRANET Back to Contents Back to Start of Chapter TPG-General.doc Rev.
patrol boat. The choice of the application group determines the maximum possible engine power and the anticipated time between major overhauls (TBO). For an optimum selection of the engine taking into account the maximum power available the following information should be obtained from the operator: • • • • Application. Load varies during operation. marine vessel. The MTU Sales Program distinguishes for the marine application propulsion engines and marine auxiliary engines and engines for the on-board supply of electricity.1 DEFINITION OF APPLICATION GROUPS General In addition to general application by usage.0 Page 2-1 06. the selection of the engine is performed on the basis of the standard load profile determined by MTU by means of typical application. yacht.doc Rev. TPG-General. freighter etc.2003 . fishing vessel. ferry. e.g.g.and Maintenance Concept / Maintenance Schedule-. If no specific load profile information is available from the operator. The following application groups are subdivided into in detail. for special cases only) The terms “load profile” and “TBO” and the relationship between them are explained in detail in chapter –3 – 10 Specification of Power and Reference Condition.3 Specification of Power and Reference Condition 2 2. Load profile (engine power versus operating time) Anticipated operating hours per year Preferred time between overhauls (TBO. with the result that the TBO is dependent on the actual load profile and varies from different applications. 1. the particular application must be taken into account for selecting the correct engine. e.
Coastal Freighters. 1. e. Tug Boats. including Fast Ferries. diesel-hydraulic drive or drive for fire fighting pumps Electric power generation for onboard standby power generation. Fishing Vessels.0 Page 2-2 06. dieselelectric drive. Displacement Yachts with high load profile and/or annual usage : 60 to 80 % of rated power : up to 5000 hours (as a guideline) : Commercial Vessels. Crew Boats.2003 .g. Fast Patrol Boats. emergency power supply or drive for emergency fire fighting pumps Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General. 2. 1000 hours) Significant deviations from the above application groups should be discussed with the responsible application engineering group. e. Corvettes.3 On-Board Electric Power Generation/Auxiliary Power 3A 3C Electric power generation.2 Marine Main Propulsion and Auxiliary Propulsion Plants 1A Vessels for heavy-duty service with unlimited operating range and/or unrestricted continuous operation Average load Annual usage Examples : 70 – 90 % of rated power : unlimited : Freighters. Frigates 1B Vessels for medium-duty service with high load factors Average load Annual usage Examples 1DS Vessels for light-duty service with low load factors Average load Annual usage Examples (Series 2000 & lower power engines approx.doc Rev.3 Specification of Power and Reference Condition 2. Ferries.g. Fishing Trawlers. Offshore Supply & Service Vessels. continuous duty (no time restriction). Multipurpose Vessels. FireFighting Vessels. Sailing Yachts. Displacement Yachts. Patrol Boats. fan drive for Surface Effect Ships : Less than 60 % of rated power : Up to 3000 hours (as a guideline) : High speed Yachts.
3 Specification of Power and Reference Condition 3 3.1. I = ISO power C = Continuous power F = Fuel stop power N = Net brake power The fuel-stop power rating represents the power that an engine can produce unlimited during a period of time appropriate to the application. marine main propulsion engines are supplied with power limited to fuel-stop power as specified in the Sales Program. Before delivery. TPG-General. all engines will be factory tested on the dynamometer at standard ISO reference conditions (intake air and raw water temperature 25°C). power required for on-engine auxiliaries such as engine oil pump. in accordance with DIN ISO 3046.e. 1.2003 . Power specifications always express net brake power. Some classification societies accept the certification of engines of application group 1DS for special service vessels with specific load profiles. In case of such a request. Measurement unit is kW. Acceptance test procedures at MTU: • MTU works acceptance test • Acceptance test in accordance with classification society regulations under supervision of the customer As a rule. assuming performance of the maintenance as specified in the manufacturer’s maintenance schedule. i. 1B and 1DS is stated as ISO standard fuel-stop power.doc Rev.1 ISO Standard Fuel-Stop Power (ICFN) The rated power of marine main propulsion engines of application group 1A. coolant pump and raw water pump is already deducted. ICFN. the respective application engineering group should be contacted. The figure therefore expresses the power available at the engine output flange.0 Page 3-1 06. The engines of application group 1A and 1B can demonstrate 10 % overload in excess of rated fuel-stop power for the purposes of performance approval by classification societies.1 SPECIFICATION OF POWER AND REFERENCE CONDITION Definition of Terms The available power for a specific engine type and application group is listed in the Sales Program. while operating at an associated speed and under defined ambient conditions (reference conditions). 3. Fuel stop power of the engines in application group 1DS cannot generally be classified.
ISO 3046-1 standard reference conditions: Total barometric pressure Air temperature Relative humidity Charge air coolant temperature : 1000 mbar or (hPa) : 25 : 30 : 25 °C (298 K) % °C (298 K) TPG-General.2 Reference Conditions The reference conditions define all ambient factors of relevance for determining engine power.0 Page 3-2 06.2 ISO Standard Power Exceedable by 10 % (ICXN) The rated power of marine onboard power generation of application group 3A and 3C is stated as ISO standard power exceedable by 10 %. exceedable by 10 % N = Net brake power 3. ICXN.3 Specification of Power and Reference Condition 3. I = ISO power C = Continuous power X = Service standard power.doc Rev.1. The reference conditions are specified in the Sales Program and on the applicable engine performance diagram. in accordance with DIN ISO 3046.2003 . 1. Measurement unit is kW.
1: Typical Standard Load Profiles If there is a significant difference between the actual and standard load profiles. 1. All MTU engines can be operated at fuel-stop power as long as required by the customer. based on accumulated field experience with specific vessels and a huge number of recorded load profiles.3 Specification of Power and Reference Condition 3. Series 4000 1B above Series 4000 100 90 < 15 100 < 15 100 85 < 15 100 1DS 70 < 10 operating time in % 10 50 20 20 20 70 10 75 25 3 82 15 10 70 20 Figure 3. Of course.3 Load Profile The load profile is a projection of the engine operating routine.doc Rev. MTU calculates the TBO on the basis of the load profile submitted by the customer. TPG-General. extensive operation at fuel stop power (higher load profile) will shorten the time between maintenance intervals.2003 .3.0 Page 3-3 06. Standard Load Profile Application Group applied power in % of rated power 100 1A (all engines except 4000 M60R) 80 60 < 15 1A for V4000M60R only 1B up to and incl. The following standard load profiles have been established in the past.
4. This time span is theoretically reached.3 Specification of Power and Reference Condition 3. TBO definition from other engine manufacturers In contrast to MTU’s TBO definition. TPG-General. Based on this.e.doc Rev. i.2003 . the TBO for diesel engines is not specified in any international standard. that statistically up to 50% of all engines do not reach the pre-defined TBO without major failure. 1. MTU decided to limit the statistical wear-out failure rate to 1 % only. some other manufacturers define a scheduled TBO at a wear-out failure rate of 10% or up to 50% (B10 or B50 definition).4 Time Between Major Overhauls (TBO) Up to now. Failure rate TBO MTU Maintenance Echelon W6 Early failures 1 1 Random failures W earout failures Probable start-up failures Operating tim e Figure 3. This means that an MTU engine can still provide full and unlimited service until the last operating hour before the scheduled overhaul. This means.0 Page 3-4 06.1: TBO definition of MTU According to MTU. if a probability of wear-out failures exceeds 1% (socalled B1 definition). The major criterion for a ship is availability and thus the reliability of the propulsion. it precludes wear-related damage requiring a major overhaul or engine replacement. the TBO is defined to be the time span in which operation without major failure is ensured. Therefore each engine manufacturer uses his own definition for TBO.
3 Specification of Power and Reference Condition Load Profile Recorder Most engines in the MTU Sales Program do include a load profile recorder as an integral part of the Electronic Engine Management System. 1.doc Rev. quality of fluids and lubricants and service. The finally applicable TBO will also take into account the actual engine condition as a result of installation conditions. Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General. The load profile could be downloaded from the Electronic Engine Management System and analysed.0 Page 3-5 06. This device continuously records the operating time spent at certain power levels and speeds. the TBO could be revised. together with several other important engine parameters.2003 . In case of significant deviations between the recorded load profile and the assumed load profile.
An operator wishing to use a fluid or lubricant that is not included in the Fluids and Lubricants Specification must consult MTU. MTU Fluids and Lubricants Specification (A001061/. 1.1: kg/m3 kJ/kg MGO/MDO according ISO 8217 DM DMA 880-890 DMB 900 DMC 920 Fuel specification ( under preparation ) Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General.1 FLUIDS AND LUBRICANTS SPECIFICATION General The fluids and lubricants used in an engine are among the factors influencing serviceability.doc Rev. MTU issues a list of approved fluids and lubricants.2 MTU Approved Fuels EN 590 Density at 15°C Lower calorific value Figure 4.. anti-freeze agents) fuels preserving agents (corrosion-inhibiting oils for use in and on the engine) The MTU approved fluids and lubricants as well as the requirements which they must satisfy are listed in the currently applicable MTU Fluids and Lubricants Specification.4 Fluids and Lubricants Specification 4 4.e.0 Page 4-1 06. 4. for engine operation and engine preservation i. • • • • lubricants (oils.2. reliability and general operability of the propulsion plant. greases and special-purpose lubricant substances) coolants (corrosion-inhibiting agents. Only fluids and lubricants approved by MTU may be used with MTU products.2003 .) is available.
5 Engine Performance Diagram 5 ENGINE PERFORMANCE DIAGRAM The engine performance diagram serves as the basis for a number of calculations. In combination with the improved situation of the working line with reference to the compressor efficiency a higher loadingpressure and consequently an improvement of the engine operating values is obtained. Engine power [kW] Speed band of constant power Nominal power = 100% Limit of MCR II UMBL ATL switching border line Min. sequential turbocharging : The engine operating values can be further optimized by employment of some blowing over facilities within the ATL-connection (ATL = tubocharger).2. After connection of the second ATL.2003 . 1. but one of its most important functions is to indicate the speed and power limits that must be observed for propeller and waterjet design. TPG-General.1: I –II II UMBL Structure of the performance diagram : Status.0 Page 5-1 06. engine Speed (lowidle) Power surplus (acceleration reserve) I II Nominal speed = 100% Propeller curve = power demand (P ~n³) Engine speed [rpm] Figure 4.doc Rev. air charge is blown over to the exhaust line controlled by the engine electronics in order to increase the mass flow rate through the turbine.
2 shows a representative engine power diagram. It also includes the specific fuel consumption curves and operating-speed range limits.doc Rev.2. 1B. along with all other boundary conditions. Figure 4.0 Page 5-2 06. 1.5 Engine Performance Diagram Base for the layout of the performance diagram: • Application group (1A.2003 . 1DS) • Reference conditions • Definition of power rating and fuel consumption • Time between overhauls/operating load profile The engine performance diagram shows engine power plotted against engine speed. TPG-General.
0 Page 5-3 06.2.2: Engine performance diagram TPG-General.2003 .5 Engine Performance Diagram Figure 4.doc Rev. 1.
4: Semi-planing boat hull = high speed monohull with medium displacement TPG-General.2.2. 1.0 Page 5-4 06.5 Engine Performance Diagram There are different power/speed demand curves depending on difference hull shapes: Figure 4.2003 .3: Monohull Figure 4.doc Rev.
5 Engine Performance Diagram Figure 4.0 Page 5-5 06.2. Figure 4.5: Multihulls = catamarans. trimarans.doc Rev.2003 .2. 1.6: Semi-planing boat hull = high speed monohull with low displacement Back to Contents Back to Start of Chapter TPG-General.
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
6 PROPULSION, INTERACTION ENGINE WITH APPLICATION 6.1 Propulsor 6.1.1 Abbreviations
The following abbreviations will be used in section 6. In the majority (marked with an asterisk) they are according to recommendations of the ITTC Symbols and Terminology List, Draft Version1999 (International Towing Tank Conference).
Scheme of a propulsive unit (side view)
ITTC B D *
Definition or Explanation
Fuel consumption Propeller diameter Lower heating value or lower caloric value * * * * Brake power Delivered power or propeller power, propeller load Effective power or resistance power Shaft power Lower heating value of fuel (preferred value 42800 kJ/kg) Power at output flange of the diesel engine, power delivered by primer mover. Power at propeller flange. Power for towing a ship. Power measured on the shaft. Power available at the output flange of a gearbox. If no gearbox fitted: PS = PB
m3/h M kJ/kg W W W W
PB PD PE PS
PS Pp RT T * *
Generator apparent power Generator active power Total resistance Propeller thrust or waterjet thrust Total resistance of a towed ship.
W W N N
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
be f n p v
Specific fuel consumption Electrical power supply frequency Shaft speed, rate of revolution Number of generator pole pairs Ship speed
Definition or Explanation
within MTU often used as SFC ( alternative dimension g/kWh)
kg/kWh (g/kWh) Hz
(diesel engine, gearbox, propulsor) alias rpm in several propulsor applications (see remark 1)
1/s (rpm) --m/s (knot) -------
ηD ηGen ηH ηm η0 ηR ρfuel
Propulsive efficiency Generator efficiency
PE / PD
Hull efficiency Mechanical efficiency PD / PB ,represents the losses between diesel engine and propeller flange.
Propeller open water efficiency Relative rotative efficiency Specific density of fuel (preferred value 830 kg/m3)
Remark 1: While the SI-Unit of velocity is meter/second the traditional unit knots is widely used and this situation will not change in the near future. kn sm knot (1sm/h or 1852m/3600s = 0.5144 m/s) sea mile ( = 1852 m) (alias nm = nautical mile)
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
6.1.2 Propulsive Devices (Overview)
The duty of a propulsive unit is to convert the power of the diesel engine into propulsive thrust. A propulsive device can be a:
Type Fixed Pitch Propeller (FPP)
General Characteristics Ease of manufacture Small hub size Blade root dictates boss length Design for single condition (design point) Absorbed power varies with propeller speed No restriction on blade area or shape Gearbox: reversing gear needed
Controllable Pitch Propeller (CPP)
Constant or variable speed operation Blade root is restricted by palm dimensions Mechanical complexity Restriction on blade area to maintain reversibility Can accommodate multiple operating conditions Increased manoeuvrability Gearbox: if fully reversible no reversing gear needed
Good directional control of thrust Increased mechanical complexity Avoids need for separate rudder Increased manoeuvrability Diesel engine load independent of wind and sea state High speed range (approx.>20 kn) Gearbox: no reversing gear needed, but usually used to allow back flushing of water (reverse mode)
doc Rev.<20 kn) Gearbox: not required for standard arrangements Cycloidal Propeller Good directional control of thrust Increased mechanical complexity Avoids need for rudder Increased manoeuvrability Low speed range (approx.<20 kn) Gearbox: not required for standard arrangements Twin-Propeller Good directional control of thrust Increased mechanical complexity Avoids need for rudder Increased manoeuvrability Propeller coupled mechanically Same direction of rotation Low speed range (approx.2003 .0 Page 6-4 06. 1.6 Propulsion.<24 kn) Gearbox: not required for standard arrangements Podded Propulsion Good directional control of thrust Avoids need for rudder Increased manoeuvrability Electric motor drives propeller Gearbox: not required TPG-General. Interaction Engine with Application Type Rudderpropeller General Characteristics Good directional control of thrust Increased mechanical complexity Avoids need for rudder Increased manoeuvrability Can employ ducted or non ducted FPP or CPP types Low speed range (approx.
6 Propulsion.doc Rev. Interaction Engine with Application Type Fixed Pitch Propeller (FPP) Typical Arrangements Controllable Pitch Propeller (CPP) Waterjet Rudderpropeller Cycloidal Propeller TPG-General. 1.0 Page 6-5 06.2003 .
2003 . 1.doc Rev. Interaction Engine with Application Type Twin-Propeller Typical Arrangements Podded Propulsion TPG-General.6 Propulsion.0 Page 6-6 06.
0 Page 6-7 06. 1. Gearbox: free standing. Clear dependence on hull resistance. Rudder: needed. Gearbox: free standing. Rudder: needed. V-drive arrangement. Rudder: if no steering equipment at waterjet. Ship speed: adjusting diesel engine speed. Astern: reversible gearbox. Control: hydraulic power pack for steering and reversing bucket.6 Propulsion. Ship speed: adjusting diesel engine speed or propeller pitch. Astern: reversible gearbox or fully reversible propeller. Controllable Pitch Propeller (CPP) Waterjet TPG-General. Power demand: every possible pitch has its own fixed relation to the effective power curve.doc Rev. Interaction Engine with Application Type Fixed Pitch Propeller (FPP) Manoeuvring Characteristics Power demand: fixed relation between ship speed and diesel engine power. flange mounted. Control: not applicable. Astern: reversing bucket (optional).2003 . Control: hydraulic power pack arranged in shaft line or at the gearbox. flange mounted. Ship speed: adjusting diesel engine speed. Power demand: fixed relation between shaft speed and diesel engine power. Small dependence on hull resistance. Clear dependence on hull resistance. flange mounted. Gearbox: free standing.
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
Manoeuvring Characteristics Power demand: fixed relation between ship speed and diesel engine power. Clear dependence on hull resistance. Ship speed: adjusting diesel engine speed. Astern: turning the propeller pod. Control: hydraulic power pack for steering. Gearbox: standard. Rudder: no need. Power demand: every possible blade pitch has its own fixed relation to the effective power curve. Clear dependence on hull resistance. Ship speed: adjusting diesel engine speed or blade pitch. Astern: control of thrust direction via blade pitch. Control: hydraulic power pack. Gearbox: standard. Rudder: no need. Power demand: fixed relation between ship speed and diesel engine power. Clear dependence on hull resistance. Ship speed: adjusting diesel engine speed. Astern: turning the propeller pod. Control: hydraulic power pack for steering. Gearbox: standard. Rudder: no need.
Power demand: full electric propulsion, fixed relation between ship speed and electric motor. Clear dependence on hull resistance. Ship speed: adjusting motor speed (electrical). Astern: turning the pod or reversing the motor. Control: hydraulic power pack for steering. Gearbox: no need. Rudder: no need.
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
Shaft Line and Gearbox Losses
The brake power (PB) of the diesel engine will be transferred via a shaft line to the propeller flange. All power consumers in the shaft line will be counted as mechanical losses (ηm). The main loss will occur in the gearbox depending on how many gears and clutches are used and how many pumps are attached, where at the pumps will generate the main part of the losses.
PD in (---) PB
PB = diesel engine brake Power PD = delivered Power ηm = mechanical efficiency
At the design point the following approximations can be used: ηm = 0.98 ηm = 0.97 non reversible gearbox reversible gearbox
Information about the losses in the gearbox must be provided by the manufacturer. The diesel engine has to deal with two different kinds of mechanical losses: 1. Static friction loss (no oil film yet) 2. Dynamic friction loss (built up oil film) The dynamic friction losses in the shaft line bearings (<1%) can be neglected. If no gearbox is used, take an approximation of ηm = 0.99%. If the propeller shaft starts turning, the static friction has to be overcome (initial break-away torque) until lubrication has been established and dynamic friction only is in effect.
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
6.2 Propeller 6.2.1 Propeller Geometry
To understand the hydrodynamic action of a propeller it is essential to have a thorough understanding of basic propeller geometry and the corresponding definitions. Figure 6.2.1 shows what is meant by rake and skew of a propeller. The use of skew has been shown to be effective in reducing vibratory forces, hull pressure induced vibration and retarding cavitation development. With rake the stress in the blade can be controlled and slightly thinner blade sections can be used, which can be advantageous from blade hydrodynamic considerations.
Scheme of propeller geometry (skew and rake)
Every propeller needs a hub to fix the blades and to place the control mechanism (CPP) for the blades. This results in different hub sizes for a FPP and a CPP (propeller) and is a characteristic difference between these two types. The hub size of a CPP is 10 to 15% larger (related to the diameter). See the figures in the overview section (6.1.2) also. Another difference is the blade area ratio (A/A0). Blade area ratio is simply the blade area, a defined form of the blade outline projection, divided by the propeller disc area (A0). As a controllable pitch propeller is usually fully reversible in the sense that its blades can pass through zero pitch condition care has to be taken that the blades do not interfere with each other. With equal number of blades a CPP can only realize a somewhat smaller area ratio than a FPP.
With D = 2R and x = r (dimensionless radius) R the characteristic pitch angle is defined at a propeller ratio of x=0.doc Rev. P D Θ = arc tan −1 x π TPG-General. The face pitch line is basically a tangent to the section of the pressure side surface and used in older model test series (e. The following equation can be used to convert the pitch from P/D to θ or vice versa. nose tail pitch 2.2003 . Although the difference is not big it can be the reason for using different values for the same propeller.7.0 Page 6-11 06. Alternatively the pitch angle θ can be given. Interaction Engine with Application The expression (P/D) is the commonly used pitch ratio.6 Propulsion. 1.g. face pitch The nose–tail pitch line is today the most commonly used and referenced line. Unfortunately there are several pitch definitions and the distinction between them is of considerable importance to avoid analytical mistakes: 1. the Wageningen B Series).
2.2.20D D b Figure 6.0 Page 6-12 06. Although this leads to a loss in efficiency. The CPP has the advantage of permitting constant speed operation of the propeller. Rudder a Propeller Clearance a ≥ 0. Without the need of a gearbox and controllability of the electric motor a fixed pitch propeller seems to be the best choice. Controllable pitch propellers have gained complete dominance in Ro-Ro vessels. Comparing the reliability between the mechanical complex CPP and the FPP shows.6 Propulsion. During the last years the electric drive with podded propeller has been arising on the market. it does readily allow the use of shaft driven generators.2 Propeller Type Selection (FPP or CPP) The selection of a propeller for a particular application usually is a result of the consideration of different factors. Interaction Engine with Application 6. These factors can be determined in pursuit of maximum efficiency with respect to: • noise limitation • ease of manoeuvrability • cost of installation and so on.doc Rev.25D b ≥ 0. Each vessel has to be considered with regard to its own special application. if this is a demand in the operational profile of the ship. The choice between a fixed pitch (FPP) and a controllable pitch propeller (CPP) has been a long contested debate between the proponents of the various systems. that the CPP has achieved the status of being a reliable component. ferry and tug markets with vessels of over 1500 kW propulsion power with an operational profile that can be satisfied by a CPP better than by a two speed gearbox.2: Propeller clearance TPG-General.2003 . For all other purposes the simpler fixed pitch propeller appears to be a satisfactory solution. 1. But it must not be forgotten to compare the economical aspects of an extended motor control with the cost of a CPP.
which can cause heavy vibrations at the stern or the rudder with the possibility of mechanical failures. The ship must provide the necessary space for the propeller including a sufficient clearance between propeller and hull (Figure 6. For the Wageningen B-Series propellers there are some calculation procedures available.2003 . if the cavitation exceeds below the 0. For more detailed information see the recommendations of a classification society.2.2 are only a design proposal. The power density of a propeller can only be increased to a certain limit. The values shown in Figure 6. TPG-General. Interaction Engine with Application To determine the propeller diameter (D) for a certain delivered power (PD) at a propeller speed (n) and a ship speed (v) is a complex routine. which can be found in the literature with all necessary assumptions that have to be made. A few words to the effect of thrust breakdown. Obviously the cavitation occurs first at the tip section of a blade and extends downward with higher power consumption.g. Due to hydrodynamic effects and/or cavitation the ship hull and the rudder can be mechanically excited.doc Rev. but must also be adapted to the ship.5 radius. e.2. 1.0 Page 6-13 06. It is a matter of definition when these effects are called “thrust breakdown”.2). which depends on the propeller parameters and especially on the blade area ratio.6 Propulsion. The size of a propeller cannot only be calculated theoretically.
6 Propulsion. 1. Although the given explanations in literature are not really convincing the following recommendations can be given: Single shaft: (looking from aft at propeller) FPP (fixed pitch propeller) Direction of rotation: clockwise CPP (controllable pitch propeller) Direction of rotation: counter clockwise TPG-General.0 Page 6-14 06.2. Interaction Engine with Application 6.2003 .doc Rev.3 Direction of Propeller Rotation The direction of rotation can have consequences for manoeuvring and efficiency considerations.
at the propeller disc can lead to a gain in propeller efficiency when the direction of rotation of the propeller is opposite to the direction of rotation in the wake field. Thus with a TPG-General. Interaction Engine with Application Twin shaft: (looking from aft at propeller) FPP (fixed pitch propeller) Port side: counter clockwise Starboard: clockwise CPP (controllable pitch propeller) Port side: clockwise Starboard: counter clockwise For those who are still eager to hear a few words about the reasons for doing so. Manoeuvring (single screw): For a single screw ship the influence on manoeuvring is entirely determined by the “paddle wheel effect”.doc Rev.0 Page 6-15 06. here are some explanations from literature. 1. Propeller efficiency: It has been found that the rotation present in the wake field.2003 . due to the flow around the ship. the propeller will move the afterbody of the ship in the direction of rotation.6 Propulsion. When the ship is stationary and the propeller is started.
For the controllable pitch propeller no such clear-cut conclusion exists. Manoeuvring (twin screw): In addition to the paddle wheel effect other forces due to the pressure differential on the hull and shaft eccentricity come into effect. i. From the manoeuvrability point of view it can be deduced from test results that the fixed pitch propellers are best when outward turning. In the case of a controllable pitch propeller the motion will tend to be unidirectional because only the pitch changes from the ahead to the astern position. Interaction Engine with Application fixed pitch propeller. this direction of initial motion will change with the direction of rotation.e. the design should follow the given recommendations but if the rules are not kept no great disadvantage arises.2003 . The pressure differential. due to reverse thrusts of the propellers on either side of the hull gives a lateral force and turning moment.6 Propulsion. Although these effects are small. The direction of rotation will not change. is ahead or astern thrust.0 Page 6-16 06. 1. In the astern thrust position FPP and CPP will have the same direction of rotation and assuming that starboard is the main docking side there is an advantage to push off from the quay with astern thrust. TPG-General.doc Rev.
6 Propulsion. five or six blades are favoured.doc Rev. The number of blades shall be primarily determined by the need to avoid harmful resonant frequencies of the ship structure and torsional machinery vibration frequencies.0 Page 6-17 06.2. It is also found that propeller efficiency and optimum diameter increase as the number of blades decreases and to some extent.2003 . since the blade clearance becomes less. In naval applications where the generated noise become important blade numbers of five and above predominate.4 Selection of Propeller Blade Number Blade numbers generally range from two to seven. 1. the propeller speed (n) will dependent on the blade number. although many tugs and fishing vessels frequently use three bladed designs. As blade number increases cavitation problems at the blade root can be enhanced. TPG-General. For merchant ships four. Interaction Engine with Application 6.
0 Page 6-18 06.3.2003 . clean hull • sea state 0-1 (calm water).doc Rev.6 Propulsion. e. wind Beaufort 2-3 • load condition (defined. usually the trial condition: • new ship. i.1) Basis for the design of a propulsive device is the effective power (PE) curve for a ship. 1. Interaction Engine with Application 6.3.6. PE PD ηD = in (---) ηD = propulsive efficiency PE = effective Power PD = delivered Power (E.e. full load) • no current The load of the propulsive device to match the effective power is called delivered power (PD) and the relation between the effective and delivered power is called the propulsive efficiency (ηD).2) TPG-General.3. The effective power curve will be evaluated by a test facility or estimated with respect to a defined condition.g. showing the relation between effective power and ship speed (v).1 Basics When a ship is being towed and is not fitted with a propeller.6.3 Propeller Curve 6. the required force is called resistance (R) and the necessary power to tow the ship at a certain speed (v) is: PE = R T ⋅ v in (kW) PE = effective Power RT = total resistance v = ship speed (E.
1. 0. (at design point approx.75).6.1).02).6 Propulsion.60 – 0.95 – 1. Environmental conditions (wind.3) The effective power varies not only with ship speed (v).2003 . size. Interaction Engine with Application The propulsive efficiency is the product of: • Propulsive unit efficiency in open water (η0) depending on type.doc Rev.90 – 1. hull roughness (clean. e.3.10). η0 = 0.3. Pow er (PE) effective pow er curve (clean hull) Ship Speed (v) Figure 6. Speed (v) ship speed difference at const. fouling) and actual load condition of the ship have to be taken into consideration (Figure 6. Relative rotational efficiency (ηR) depending on the propeller efficiency behind the ship and the propeller open water efficiency (at design point approx. effective pow er curve (in service) Effective Power P E pow er difference at const. 0.1: Influence of change in resistance on effective power curve (example) TPG-General.g. speed. Hull efficiency (ηH) depending on wake fraction and thrust deduction fraction (at design point approx.3. • • ηD = η O ⋅ ηH ⋅ ηR in (---) (E. sea state).0 Page 6-19 06.
The relation between delivered power (PD) and ship speed (v) or propeller speed (n) can be shown in single diagrams or a diagram using both ordinates. Interaction Engine with Application Effective Power Curve Effective Power (PE) Ship Speed (v) Propeller Design The result of the propeller design can be presented in a bunch of diagrams.6 Propulsion.0 Page 6-20 06. The diagram with the propeller speed (n) as abscissa has the advantage that the performance diagram of the diesel engine can be plotted in also.2. shows some examples. 1.doc Rev.2003 . TPG-General.3. Delivered Power (P D ) Delivered Power (P D ) As Required user defined Ship Speed (v) Propeller Speed (n) As Required Figure 6.2: From effective to delivered power curve (example) On the basis of a defined effective power curve a propeller will be designed. Figure 6.3.
diameter.0 Page 6-21 06. Pow er (PD) propeller curve (clean hull) Propeller Speed (n) Figure 6. Propeller Speed (n) propeller speed difference at const. pitch or the number of blades) leads to a new power-speed relation.3 are similar in shape they are different.doc Rev.3.6 Propulsion. i. from clean hull and fair weather to fouled hull and heavy weather the propeller curve will also change. This means that the propeller curve is only valid for the designed propeller.3.3. Changing the geometry of the propeller (e.1 and Figure 6.e. The example in Figure 6. e.3 shows that due to the cubic characteristic of the propeller curve small changes can have great effects.3: Effect of change in resistance on delivered power curve (example) Although the curves in Figure 6. The effective and the delivered power will be related by the propulsive efficiency (ηD).2003 . propeller curve (in service) Delivered Power PD pow er difference at const. That leads to the conclusion: A change in the propeller curve can be initiated by the ship (effective power) or by a modification of the propeller. a new propeller curve.g. If the effective power curve changes. area ratio. TPG-General.3. Interaction Engine with Application Every change in the effective power curve will be seen in the propeller curve also. 1.g.
4: Effect of different propeller pitches on delivered power (example) This different behaviour will have distinct consequences on the design of the chosen propeller type.3.doc Rev. Interaction Engine with Application FPP: The propeller curve has a fixed relation to the effective power curve and will be influenced by the ship (effective power) only.3.6 Propulsion. This leads to a bunch of propeller curves (Figure 6. TPG-General. The propeller curve will be influenced by the ship (effective power) and the propeller pitch.0 Page 6-22 06. CPP: Every possible pitch has its own fixed relation to the effective power curve. 1.4). CPP (Controllable Pitch Propeller) design pitch Delivered Power PD constant ship speed pitch increases propeller curves = lines of constant pitch Propeller Speed (n) Figure 6.2003 .
Interaction Engine with Application 6.3.2003 . depending on the hull form (see chapter 5 also) as the decisive factor. If only the design point of the propeller or the diesel engine is known. delivered power (PD) and shaft speed (n) of the propeller can be calculated by the propeller manufacturer when the effective power curve is given and the design speed (v) and the installed brake power (PB) have been chosen.0 Page 6-23 06. 1.doc Rev.6 Propulsion. That means the approximation of a controllable pitch propeller is only valid for the design pitch. TPG-General.2 Theoretical Propeller Curve Diameter (D). and taking into account that the propeller geometry is fixed. Power and propeller speed (n) have to match the installed power of the diesel engine. There will be differences to the real curve. Below a certain speed (v) the wind forces can become dominant and the delivered power does not decrease any more. There is another restriction for the lower speed range. a simple approximation can be done by a theoretical propeller curve. PD design PD = 3 n design P ⋅ n prop 3 PD = delivered power nprop = propeller speed fixed propeller geometry PB design PB = n3 design 3 ⋅n PB = diesel engine brake power n = diesel engine speed fixed propeller geometry Diesel engine and propeller have a fixed relation via the propeller shaft and therefore the equation can be used for PB and PD as well.
6 Propulsion.0 Page 6-24 06.doc Rev. Interaction Engine with Application Something to remember: Cubical propeller curve. 1.2003 . why n3 ? V = c ⋅ A = c ⋅ π ⋅ D2 4 c = π ⋅ n ⋅D This leads to : V ~ n ⋅ D3 ∆p = ρ ⋅ c 2 2 P = ∆p ⋅ V The result : P ~ n3 ⋅ D 5 or P ~ c3 ⋅ D2 theoretical propeller curve power is proportional to n3 (propeller speed) power is proportional to v3 (ship speed) • • • V = volume flow A =propeller disc area c = flow speed D = propeller diameter (constant for a given design) Bernoulli equation (c1=0) p = pressure P = power TPG-General.
1.0 Page 6-25 06.3.2003 .18.104.22.168.6 Propulsion. This value must be distributed onto the desired number of diesel engines. With Equation (E.6.6.2) a rough estimation for the required total diesel engine brake power (PB) at ship speed (v) can be done.60 The result is the total diesel engine break power (PB) for the ship.4) or PB = in (kW) (E.1. Interaction Engine with Application 6.97 ηD = 0. TPG-General.5) PB = total diesel engine brake power in kW PE = effective Power in kW RT = total resistance at ship speed (v) in kN v = ship speed in knot (0.1) and (E.doc Rev.3 Estimating the Required Diesel Engine Power In some cases the required total diesel engine brake power (PB) for a ship has to be estimated in a very early stage of a project and only estimations of the effective power (PE) or the total Resistance (RT) are available.3. (E.1).3.5144 used to convert knot to m/s) ηD = propulsive efficiency ηm = mechanical efficiency At the design point the following approximation can be used for the efficiencies: ηm = 0.3. R T ⋅ v ⋅ 0.5144 ηD ⋅ η m PE ηD ⋅ η m PB = in (kW) (E.
4. In addition to the hydrodynamic aspects (see Figure 6.2. the ship may not be able to operate at full speed when the hull has fouled.3. Brake Power PB in ( % ) Rated Power 120 110 100 100% = rated pow er 100% = rated speed 3 4 MCR curve 1 5 2 C B A 1 propeller curve 90 80 MCR curve 2 70 60 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 Propeller rpm in ( % ) Rated Speed Figure 6.4 Propeller and Performance Diagram 6. Interaction Engine with Application 6. Manufacturing tolerance in pitch. surface and profile influence the power absorption of the propeller.1 Driving Mode Power (PD) and propeller speed (n) have to match the installed power for the propulsion (PB). Only the sea trials show whether estimations are correct or not. Propeller Curve).2003 .1: Change in delivered power due to weather. Hull resistance can vary due to inevitable differences in load and shape. TPG-General. the weather deteriorates or the draught has increased. As a consequence. manufacturing tolerances have to be taken into account. Certain models of diesel engines are more sensitive to this shifting than others. 1.4.1) can shift the propeller curve (A) to the left side of the performance diagram (C).doc Rev.0 Page 6-26 06.4. draught and fouling Hydrodynamical and geometrical aspects (Figure 6. At this stage of evaluation a diesel engine has been selected and a design point inside the performance diagram of the diesel engine has to be chosen.6 Propulsion.
The differences between the two operating points (4) and (5) are the magnitude of reduction in ship speed (v) which can be considerably high. A similar behaviour is experienced in a two-shaft arrangement which has been switched over in a single shaft mode. 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Propeller rpm in ( % ) Rated Speed 2 MCR curve 2 (single shaft) 1 diesel engine Brake Power PB in (%) Total Rated Power fixedpitch pitchpropeller fixed propeller 100% = rated pow er 100% rated 100%== ratedspeed pow er 100% t d d MCR curve 1 (2 diesel engines. A change in the propeller curve from (A) to (C) leads to the following behaviour: A B C The diesel engine can run with full speed (n). If one diesel engine is shut down.2: Diesel engine failure in a two shaft arrangement MCR curve 2 shows the available brake power (PB) of one diesel engine. TPG-General. Figure 6. But the propeller does not absorb the maximum available power.6 Propulsion.1 two diesel engines (MCR curves 1 and 2) from various manufacturers with different performance limits are shown.2003 . 1.4. No limitation arises (point 1). The diesel engine can run with full speed (n) and reach its full power. Each diesel engine takes half the load of the required brake power (PB).4.4. For the diesel engine with MCR curve 1 this is point (4) and for the other diesel engine point (5). Due to the load limits (MTU: fuel stop power) both diesel engines are not able to provide the required power for full speed (n) at point (3). the effective power of the ship relates to one propeller instead of two with the consequence of a new propeller curve (single shaft propeller curve). In this case the diesel engines reduce their speed (n) in order to find a new operation point within the performance limits. one per shaft) 1 tw o shaft propeller curve single shaft propeller curve Figure 6. The output power has been added over the speed range (MCR curve 1) and the propeller curve running through point 1. No limitation arises (point 2).2 shows the arrangement with diesel engines of the same type one per shaft.doc Rev.0 Page 6-27 06. Interaction Engine with Application In Figure 6.
TPG-General. Interaction Engine with Application The running diesel engine has to find a new operating point on the single shaft propeller curve within its performance limits. In this case a CPP has to be selected. The point marks also the maximum available brake power (PB) (and speed (n)) in the single shaft mode for this ship.2003 . In case that the diesel engine finds no operating point it will stall. point (2) is the new operating point for the diesel engine.doc Rev.6 Propulsion.0 Page 6-28 06. In this example. These are some reasons why the design point of the diesel engine should be carefully specified with respect to the load limits and the kind of propeller (FPP. 1. This will also point out that with the chosen diesel engines the ship cannot be run in single shaft mode. CPP) that is to be used.
propeller curve C). With growing lifetime the propeller curve will move to the left (e.e. at trial condition the diesel engine should work at the rightmost point of the MCR curve (point 2. the design point for the propeller. This range can be used as a design margin. But due to geometrical tolerances and deteriorated hydrodynamics. Dependent on the type of diesel engine two different approaches are possible.2 Fixed Pitch Propeller (FPP) The design of a propulsion system with a fixed pitch propeller is absolutely critical to the performance of the ship.0 Page 6-29 06. In poor weather conditions or at increased hull resistance the propeller curve will move to the left.g. The characteristic of a MTU diesel engine is the wide lug-down range above a certain speed (n) (fuel stop power).4. 1. trial effective power curve = propeller curve B). 120 Brake Power PB in ( % ) Rated Power fixed pitch propeller 100% = rated pow er 100% = rated speed 4 3 design margin 2 C propeller curve B A design margin 110 100 MCR curve 1 90 80 70 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 Propeller rpm in ( % ) Rated Speed Figure 6.3: Choosing a design point for a fixed pitch propeller MTU Procedure (wide lug-down range diesel characteristic): Point 2: Preferred/recommended design point for the propeller.4.2003 . i. Interaction Engine with Application 6. This situation will be overcome by designing the propeller a few revolutions faster for the new ship. point 3. This means.doc Rev. TPG-General. the propeller curve can be higher than predicted.6 Propulsion. The brake power (PB) curve should pass through the maximum continuous rating of the diesel engine.
the curve cannot be moved away from this region with the result of a blocked operation range. The rated power will be met by propeller curve A at 102 to 103. Using this procedure the designer has to consider that it may be not possible to demonstrate the full speed (v) capability of the ship at trial conditions. a few additional aspects shall not be forgotten: If the delivered power curve through the design point does not pass through the region of minimum fuel consumption.6 Propulsion. If there are no specific demands. because the speed (n) of the diesel engine is limited to 100% rated speed. 6 to 10% shall be used. trial effective power curve = propeller curve A).0 Page 6-30 06. In the design point the propeller runs at 100% rated speed (n) and small amount (design margin) below 100% rated power. 1. Interaction Engine with Application The design allows the propeller to run at 100% rated power (PB) as long as the propeller curve does not pass point 4 (lugging point). no change will be possible afterwards. The maximum ship speed (v) will decrease slowly with the left shifting of the propeller curve towards point 3. The difference between 100% rated power and design power is called "sea margin" (= design margin). If the power curve comes too close to the diesel engine surge limits. Standard procedure (usable for all type of diesel engines): Point 1: Preferred/recommended design point for the propeller. In poorer weather or with growing lifetime the propeller curve will move to the left and the maximum power will be used (point 2. TPG-General. propeller curve B). Summary: Both procedures or a mixture can be used for choosing the design point of a fixed pitch propeller and a flat rated diesel engine.5% rated speed but this is only theoretical. a design margin of approx. The ship speed (v) will increase with the shifting of the propeller curve and reaches its maximum at point 2. If the application demands no specific propeller design point. No matter what design point is chosen the propeller curve runs on a fixed curve through the performance range of the diesel engine. The design allows the propeller to run at 100% rpm (rated speed) as long as the propeller curve does not pass point 2. So. In this case at trial condition the diesel engine is effectively working at a derated condition (point 1. the MTU recommendation shall be used (point 2 = primary design point for the propeller).2003 .doc Rev.
On the manufacturer’s side it is limited by the size of the hub and the maximum blade forces.4 where the controllable pitch propeller characteristic is superimposed on a diesel engine characteristic.2003 . 1. Generally the available pitch range will be related to the design pitch and be given in degrees.4. It is a part of the customer’s specification for the propeller.4. except in special applications.4: CPP characteristic in a typical diesel engine performance diagram Every change in the pitch of the propeller changes the relation between propeller speed (n) and brake power (PB) for the ship.6 Propulsion. Each pitch results in a new propeller curve. The point at 100% brake power (PB) and speed (n) should be chosen (Figure 6.0 Page 6-31 06.4. The available pitch range is not fixed.4.5).3 Controllable Pitch Propeller (CPP) The controllable pitch propeller can be seen as an extension to the fixed pitch propeller. Interaction Engine with Application 6. design pitch Brake Power PB in ( % ) Rated Power 100 80 60 controllable pitch propeller 100% = rated pow er 100% = rated speed constant ship speed MCR curve 40 20 0 20 pitch increases propeller curves = lines of constant pitch 40 60 80 100 Propeller rpm in ( % ) Rated Speed Figure 6. Due to possible later adjustment of the propeller pitch there are no restrictions for the design point within the diesel engines performance diagram. The range above the design pitch is very small because there is no general need. A typical example is shown in Figure 6.doc Rev. TPG-General.
When off design performance is needed use should not be made of fixed pitch characteristics beyond 5° from design pitch because the effect of section distortion affects the calculation considerably.2003 . the design brake power (PB) and speed (n) will stay available. The stopping distance will be significantly lower than with a FPP.4. Interaction Engine with Application Brake Power PB in ( % ) Rated Power 110 100 90 80 70 60 controllable pitch propeller 100% = rated pow er 100% = rated speed MCR curve propeller curve (design pitch) design point 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 Propeller rpm in ( % ) Rated Speed Figure 6. If the power curve comes too close to the diesel engine MCR limit.5: Controllable pitch propeller design point The performance of a CPP at design pitch can be calculated like a FPP. it is possible to adjust the pitch at partial load conditions. A CPP can be chosen with a fully reversible position and the ship can move astern without the need of a reversing gearbox. TPG-General.6 Propulsion. the operating curve can be moved away from this region. if a single shaft mode is part of the operational profile. A CPP can be chosen with a feathering position (minimum resistance). The controllable pitch gives a lot of options: If the delivered power curve through the design point (design pitch) does not pass through the minimum fuel consumption region.0 Page 6-32 06. If the ship during trials is not able to achieve the design brake power (PB) the design pitch can be corrected or when the ship resistance increases with service life. Generally the manoeuvring characteristics are better. 1.doc Rev.
If the propeller is fully reversible. In doing so the propeller can come very close to the diesel engine surge limits.2003 . 1. however.doc Rev. A programmed “combinator diagram” could give the best overall performance as well. 50%). this is not necessary due to the wide performance range of the diesel engine. With an MTU diesel engine the propeller can run in “combinator mode”. The upper blade area ratio will be limited. Additional space inside the ship has to be provided for the propeller control unit. frequently called “combinator diagram “. Another application is a constant speed generator attached to the gearbox. TPG-General.6 Propulsion. Interaction Engine with Application But you have to pay for the advantages: The controllable pitch propeller is more expensive than a FPP. care has to be taken that the blades will not interfere with each other when passing zero pitch. This type of diesel engine can be used only with a propeller controlled by a pitch – RPM relationship. the design propeller curve will not lie inside the diagram for the lower power range. If the propeller will be set out of the design pitch the efficiency decreases. this can lead to a somewhat higher diameter. Only in the last third of the power range the propeller can run at design pitch. Another reason is the access to the region of minimum fuel consumption. The diesel engine runs at constant speed (n) feeding the generator and the ship speed (v) will be controlled by the propeller pitch.0 Page 6-33 06. If the diesel engine has a very slender performance diagram. There is an additional aspect that should be mentioned. Due to its internal mechanism the propeller has a bigger hub than a FPP (approx. This is a standard design for merchant ships running most of their service time at high power rates.
6 Propulsion. MCR curve 2 shows the available brake power (PB) of one diesel engine. On this propeller curve.doc Rev.2 and shows what happens when in a two-shaft arrangement the diesel engines are switched over in single shaft mode.2003 . Figure 6. In this example. The running diesel engine has to find a new operating point on the single shaft propeller curve within its performance limits.6 is similar to Figure 6.4. Interaction Engine with Application An example is supposed to clarify this behaviour.4. full power of the diesel engine and maximum ship speed (v) in single shaft mode are attainable. 1.0 Page 6-34 06. one per shaft) tw o shaft propeller curve design pitch 1 single shaft propeller curve design pitch MCR curve 2 (single shaft) 1 diesel engine 3 2 single shaft propeller curve reduced pitch 80 90 100 110 Propeller rpm in ( % ) Rated Speed Figure 6.6: Example: Single shaft operation with CPP TPG-General. point (2) is the new operating point for the diesel engine.4. In order to use the installed break power of the running diesel engine the propeller pitch has to be reduced (point 3). 120 Brake Power PB in (%) Total Rated Power CPP 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 100% = rated pow er 100% = rated speed MCR curve 1 (2 diesel engines. This point marks also the maximum available brake power (PB) and speed (n) in single shaft mode at design pitch for this ship.
doc Rev.7) the pitch of a CPP will be controlled by combinator.2003 . 1. A constant speed generator is attached to the gearbox and shall run above 50% diesel engine load. Between point 2 and point 1 the diesel engine runs at constant speed (n) feeding the propeller and the generator. Between point 3 and point 2 the diesel engine speed will be raised with decreasing propeller pitch. Interaction Engine with Application In the next example (Figure 6. The ship speed will not change significantly. In the lower power range until point 3 the CPP runs at design pitch. In the lower power range the propeller shall run on design pitch. At point 2 the operating speed (n) for the attached generator has been reached. Brake Power PB in ( % ) Rated Power 100 80 60 CPP 100% = rated pow er 100% = rated speed constant ship speed 1 design pitch MCR curve Generator operating range pitch increases 2 3 40 20 0 40 propeller curves = lines of constant pitch 60 80 100 120 Propeller rpm in ( % ) Rated Speed Figure 6. The thick line in the performance diagram shows the power-speed-pitch relation of the propeller.7: Example: Constant speed generator in operation with CPP TPG-General.6 Propulsion. The ship speed (v) will be controlled by the propeller pitch.4.0 Page 6-35 06.4.
1 Geometry and Design Point The main application for a waterjet is in the higher speed range.5. Inspection opening Figure 6.5 Waterjet and Performance Diagram 6.5. Thrust bearing 8. The propulsive efficiency of a waterjet decreases considerably with speed (v) reduction. Hydraulic bucket cylinder 11.doc Rev. Nozzle Pump Inlet Shaft Height above water line Stator Cross section Inlet duct Effective inlet velocity Impeller Ship hull V = Ship speed 8 10 9 7 11 5 6 1 4 3 2 1. 3. A waterjet is like a propeller a hydrodynamical propulsive device but is arranged inside the ship and behaves more like a pump than as a propeller. 4. 5. 6. Steering deflector 9.0 Page 6-36 06.6 Propulsion. 2. 1. Hydraulic steering cylinder 10. let’s say above 20 kn. Interaction Engine with Application 6.1: Waterjet TPG-General.2003 . Inlet duct Impeller Stator bowl Nozzle Shaft Sealing box 7. Below 20 to 24 kn a propeller should be preferred.
2003 .0 Page 6-37 06. draught. But the waterjet is like the propeller a mechanical device and manufacturing tolerances have also to be taken into account.2: Waterjet design point (Diagram has limited use for waterjet design) Due to the insensibility to the ship resistance (effective power curve) there are no restrictions for a design point within the diesel engine performance diagram. so does the diesel engine. TPG-General. The waterjet works more like a pump as long as there is any water in the intake duct and turns the brake power (PB) into thrust. For this reasons the diesel engine has minor load cycles when it is connected to a waterjet. Interaction Engine with Application The main differences between a waterjet and a propeller are: The propeller is very sensitive to the velocity and direction of the local incoming flow. 120 Waterjet 100% = rated pow er 100% = rated speed propeller curve design points 2 1 100 Brake Power PB in ( % ) Rated Power 80 60 MCR curve 40 20 constant fuel consumption 0 30 50 70 90 110 Impeller Speed in ( % ) Rated Speed Figure 6.). 1. There is only a minor feed back from ship. etc. wind. It senses the ship in its hydrodynamical situation (sea state.5.doc Rev.6 Propulsion.
5.3: Platform with pump Imagine a platform on wheels with a water tank and a pump on its loading area (Figure 6. Let us take a step ahead. Interaction Engine with Application This relation can lead to the fact that at 100% shaft speed (n) the waterjet cannot absorb the diesel engines brake power (PB). The pump will not be affected by the behaviour of the platform.3 ). With this behaviour in mind design point 2 (Figure 6. The platform will start to move on the ground and no matter how fast the platform will move. The leftmost design shaft speed (n) should be 1.2003 .6 Propulsion. Although this is simplified. design point 1).2% below 100% diesel engine shaft speed (n) (design margin) shall be chosen (Figure 6. the pump will always eject the same amount of water using the same power. Figure 6. they will not interfere which each other. This is true also if an obstacle stops the platform. the lines of constant fuel consumption. the design margin and the margin to the diesel engine MCR limit curve. Because this behaviour is very fundamental a further example shall be given.5. This relations will remain independent of the ship load as before. It will only give an impression about the relation between the propeller curve. If the propeller curve shifts to the left the ship speed (v) will decrease but no change will be seen in Figure 6.5. 1 . Therefore a design point at brake power and approx.2 because the waterjet is still running with its demanded speed (n) and brake power (PB). TPG-General.doc Rev. 1.5.0 Page 6-38 06. The water will be ejected horizontally in the air opposite to the direction of motion.2) can be chosen also.5% above the speed (n) of the lugging point. In other words the generated thrust depends only on the amount of ejected water. it shows the fundamental difference between a propeller and a waterjet. independent whether they are or not of equal size or running at different power pumping different amounts of water. The advantage is a less fuel consumption but the margin to the MCR curve (acceleration reserve) decreases. Even if there are two separated pumps on the loading area.2. That is the reason why this diagram has a limited use for choosing a waterjet design point.5.
the distance between the design point and the cavitation inception line is smaller also. That means that a certain thrust can be generated by a smaller or a bigger waterjet. Because the ship speed (v) and the engine speed (n) of the diesel are not related to each other the performance diagram of the diesel engine can not be represented in the figure. 140 120 Thrust in ( % ) Rated Thrust Waterjet fuel stop pow er design point 100 80 60 cavitation inception limit constant brake pow er 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ship Speed in ( % ) Rated Speed propeller curve Figure 6. If the propeller curve shifts to the left the ship speed (v) will decrease and the distance to the cavitation inception limit will be reduced. A few words to the shown cavitation inception line: These lines are specific to the chosen waterjet and should not be compared between different manufacturers.0 Page 6-39 06. In the smaller one the speed of water is higher i.4). The reason for this behaviour is that the stagnation pressure in the inlet duct goes down and the waterjet starts to suck the water through the duct.e. The thrust of a waterjet is the product of water mass flow and the speed of the ejected water.4: Waterjet performance diagram The figure shows the design propeller curve together with the waterjet performance diagram and instead of effective power the thrust is used. If there is limited space for installation or the operation time of the waterjet is short the designer will probably choose a small waterjet with a lesser distance to the cavitation area. 1. For instance.5.2003 . Interaction Engine with Application For this reasons another diagram has to be used which shows more consideration to the behaviour of a waterjet (Figure 6.5. TPG-General. Generally these lines shall no be taken as absolute limits but as design guidelines.doc Rev. showing different stages of cavitation. KaMeWa divides its diagrams by two lines into three zones.6 Propulsion.
1. In this case the control system has to protect the diesel engine from any overspeed and due to the low inertial mass of the shaft line it is more demanding than for a propeller. TPG-General.0 Page 6-40 06. Interaction Engine with Application The risk of getting air into the inlet duct of the waterjet depends on the specific arrangement in the ship and on the sea state. The matching MTU control system has been adapted for this task.6 Propulsion.doc Rev.2003 .
2003 .2 1.4 m (size inlet duct) Ship Speed in (kn) 40 2.6 can be used for a quick look.5. 50 0.5 1.5 and Figure 6.4 20 10 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 Brake Power in (kW) Figure 6.2 Estimation of Size and Shaft Speed The design shaft speed (n) of the waterjet depends on type.5 1.0 Page 6-41 06.5 2.5: Estimating the size of a waterjet (inlet duct diameter) 1000 Water Jet Speed in (min-1) 800 600 400 200 0 0.5.5. size and application and will be provided by the manufacturer.doc Rev.0 1.5. 1.6 Propulsion. If the installed brake power (PB) and the ship design speed (n) are known Figure 6.0 30 2.6: Estimating the design impeller speed of a waterjet TPG-General.5 Inlet Duct in (m) Figure 6.5. Interaction Engine with Application 6.0 Brake Pow er 500 kW 1000 kW 2000 kW 5000 kW 10000 kW 20000 kW 20000 kW 500 kW 2.0 1.
sea state 2-3). Lower heating value of fuel (e. ship speed (v). 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 It is obvious that an incomplete specification of these values can lead to calculation differences. 1. full load) Weather condition and sea state (e.6 for more detailed information) 1 2 3 4 5 Status and displacement of the ship (e.g.g.0 Page 6-42 06.doc Rev.6. Propulsion plant and design condition (e.6 Fuel Consumption 6. otherwise the values have to be corrected.brake power (PB)) diagram for assumed displacement. new ship.g. if you do not have a good specification. propeller shaft speed (n). all sets at 33%).g. Hu = 42800 kJ/kg for diesel oil). Ambient condition Speed-power (ship speed (v) . wind Beaufort 2.g. number of diesel engines per shaft). total installed brake power (PB) for propulsion. 95%).6 Propulsion. ρfuel=830 kg/m3). The following values are required for calculation of the fuel consumption: (ref to chapter 6. Nevertheless the size of the fuel storage tanks is an important impact on the ship design. Performance diagram of the diesel engine including the lines of specific fuel consumption for the required lower heating value (Hu).2003 . weather condition and sea state. clean hull. Fuel density (e. If the fuel calculation for a designed ship will be done by different people you will get different results.g. Interaction Engine with Application 6.6. TPG-General.g. Operating profile (e.g.1 General Assumptions The calculation of the fuel consumption for the diesel engines depends on a lot of assumptions. Gear ratio if a gearbox is used (for the relation between propeller shaft speed and diesel engine speed). Fuel consumption of the diesel generator set running with a defined percentage of the installed mechanical power (e. cruising speed (v) or speed profile). Usable volume of the fuel storage tank (e.
0 Page 6-43 06.6 Propulsion. The required fuel volume can be a design value for the necessary fuel storage volume. 1.doc Rev. Fuel consumption at design condition.2003 . 1000sm on 12kn. The required fuel volume can be a design value for the necessary fuel storage volume. The ship should run XXX sm on YY kn e.g. 2. Interaction Engine with Application The standard questions that arise in connection with fuel consumption are: 1. 3. TPG-General. How long can the ship stay at sea for a given operating profile or the ship shall stay ZZ days at sea with a given mission profile.
0 Page 6-44 06. depending on a variety of circumstances. a freighter. Each ship has a characteristic operating profile which is determined by the owner to meet the commercial needs of the particular service.6.2 Operating Profile The time between leaving and entering a port can be divided into several portions of time at constant speed ranges.6.2 are very raw and shall only give an impression how such profiles can look like. TPG-General. and one of the reasons why the design basis for a particular vessel must be chosen with care. e. Interaction Engine with Application 6.doc Rev.6. Such list of time periods and speed ranges is called operating profile. 1.6 Propulsion. They are shown in different style for those who are not familiar with one of the presentations. Both operating profiles are equal.1 and Figure 6.g. The result is a wide difference between the operating profiles of various ship types. Nevertheless an operating profile can change throughout the life of a ship. The operating profiles shown in Figure 6.2003 . a fast ferry and a OPV.
1: Examples of operating profiles (freighter.6. fast ferry.0 Page 6-45 06. 1.doc Rev.6 Propulsion. Time in (%) Operating Time Example: Speed in (%) Rated Speed 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Offshore Patrol Vessel OPV: The shown tasks are at loitering speed (maybe embargo control).2003 . Time in (%) Operating Time Figure 6. OPV) TPG-General. Interaction Engine with Application Example: Speed in (%) Rated Speed 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Freighter Freighter: Leaving the port and then running continuously at design speed. cruising speed (cruising in formation) and fast manoeuvring. Time in (%) Operating Time Example: Speed in (%) Rated Speed 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Fast Ferry Ferry: Nearly the same as a freighter but when operating between islands there are often speed restrictions.
70 70 .100 Speed Range in (%) Rated Speed Example: Time in (%) Operating Time 60 Offshore Patrol Vessel 40 OPV: The shown tasks are at loitering speed (maybe embargo control). Fast Ferry 40 20 0 0 . fast ferry. 20 0 0 .40 40 .95 >95 Speed Range in (%) Rated Speed Figure 6.2003 .0 Page 6-46 06. 1.70 70 . OPV) TPG-General.25 25 . cruising speed (cruising in formation) and fast manoeuvring.50 50 .doc Rev.2: Examples of operating profiles (freighter.6.6 Propulsion. Interaction Engine with Application Example: Speed in (%) Rated Speed 100 80 60 40 20 0 10 5 10 75 Freighter Freighter: Leaving the port and then running continuously at design speed.25 25 .85 85 . Time in (%) Operating Time Example: Time in (%) Operating Time 60 Ferry: Nearly the same as a freighter but when operating between islands there are often speed restrictions.85 85 .
the TBO and as a first guess for the life cycle cost. Interaction Engine with Application The owner should specify the operating profile. speed ranges will be shown in a operating profile. 15 35 40 10 Generally.0 Page 6-47 06. but for the calculation of the fuel consumption precise speed values have to be given. otherwise the results are not comparable. TPG-General. From that follows the brake power of the diesel engine e.6 Propulsion. 1. In the design phase this specification can be used to calculate the fuel consumption for different propulsion alternatives.2003 . Example: Owner defined operating profile for a diesel engine: Operating Profile (Diesel Engine) Brake Power (%) 3 18 74 100 Time Period (%) 15 35 40 10 100 Brake Power in (%) 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time in (%) Operating Time On the basis of such a operating profile the available TBO for the chosen diesel engine rating can be calculated. Example of a user defined operating profile for a ship in tabulated form: Operating Profile (Ship) Ship Speed (kn) Time Period (%) 0–9 9 . at the upper bound of the given speed ranges.21 21 – max.15 15 . the operating hours per year and the number of missions per year.g.doc Rev. A mission is the time period needed to run one operating profile.
1B or 1DS). 1A .g.2003 .doc Rev. More information about “load profile” and TBO see chapter 2 and 3. the fuel consumption can be calculated on the basis of the standard load profile of the chosen diesel engine rating (e. 1.0 Page 6-48 06. Example: 1DS diesel engine rating (TBO 9000h) Operating Profile (Diesel Engine) Brake Power (%) 10 70 100 Time Period (%) 20 70 10 100 Brake Power in (%) 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time in (%) Operating Time TPG-General.6 Propulsion. Interaction Engine with Application Alternatively. if the owner has not the experience to prepare a operating profile.
3 Fuel Consumption at Design Condition With the provided information (see section 6..6.doc Rev. If only the electrical power in kW is known for the genset use an estimation for the generator efficiency (e.6. 95%).6.6.g. 1.2003 . e. Interaction Engine with Application 6.6.0 Page 6-49 06.3) be = specific fuel consumption (kg/kWh) t1 = first period of time in a operating profile (%) tn = last period of time in a operating profile (%) B = fuel consumption (m3/h) PB = diesel engine brake power (kW) ρfuel = fuel density (kg/m3) TPG-General.1) be = specific fuel consumption (kg/kWh) B = fuel consumption (m3/h) PB = diesel engine brake power (kW) ρfuel = fuel density (kg/m3) Additional consumers.. PB ⋅ be ρfuel B= in (m3/h) (E.6.g. gensets have to be added to calculate the entire fuel consumption.2) The equation can be used for any other brake power (PB) and speed (n) in the performance diagram..1) the fuel consumption at a given brake power (PB) and diesel engine speed (n) can be calculated.6 Propulsion. If the consumption has to be calculated for the time periods of a operating profile the following equation can be used.. + PB n ⋅ b e n ⋅ t n 100 ⋅ ρ fuel ) in (m3/h) (E. a margin of 5% has to be added to the calculated value. B = B propulsion + B gensets + B auxiliary in (m3/h) B = fuel consumption (m3/h) (E.6.. B= (P B1 ⋅ b e 1 ⋅ t 1 + . If no tolerances are given in the fuel consumption diagram.6..
Interaction Engine with Application 6. 95%.doc Rev.2003 .6.6. t cr = s cr v cr in (h) scr = theoretical cruising range (sm) tcr = theoretical cruising time (h) vcr = constant cruising speed (kn) (E.0 Page 6-50 06. TPG-General. because the usable volume of a tank will be only approx.6.6.4 Cruising Range To calculate the theoretical cruising range for a given fuel volume the following equation can be used.6.7) tcr = theoretical cruising time (h) B = entire fuel consumption (m3/h) Vfuel= necessary fuel volume for cruising range (m3) The fuel tank capacity has to be assumed 5% larger.5) B = B propulsion + B gensets + B auxiliary in (m3/h) (E.6 Propulsion.4) If the fuel consumption for a given theoretical cruising range shall be used as a design value for the necessary fuel storage volume.6.6.6) B = entire fuel consumption at vcr (m3/h) Vfuel = B ⋅ t cr in (m3) (E. 1. Vfuel ⋅ v cr B scr = in (sm) scr = theoretical cruising range (sm) vcr = constant cruising speed (kn) B = entire fuel consumption (m3/h) Vfuel= available fuel volume (m3) (E. use the following equations.6.6.
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
6.6.5 Endurance at Sea
This question is the same as under section 6.6.4 extended by an operating profile. To calculate the endurance time at sea for a given fuel volume and operating profile the following equation can be used.
100 ⋅ Vfuel ⋅ ρ fuel in (h) ⋅ b e 1 ⋅ t 1 + ....... + PB n ⋅ b e n ⋅ t n
t end =
be = specific fuel consumption (kg/kWh) tend = theoretical endurance for an operating profile (h) t1 = first period of time in an operating profile (%) tn = last period of time in an operating profile (%) PB = diesel engine brake power (kW) Vfuel= available fuel volume (m3) ρfuel = fuel density (kg/m3)
The background is to calculate how long the ship can stay in duty without replenishing or going back to the harbour and with enough fuel left in the storage tanks for reserve.
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
6.6.6 Calculating Examples
22.214.171.124 Example Data (Series 2000) Basing on some exemplary data the fuel consumption shall be calculated. The available data are: S t e p 1 Status of the ship 2 Weather condition and sea state 3 Ambient condition 4 Speed (v) – brake power (PB) data of the
ship for the chosen displacement, weather condition and sea state as diagram or in tabulated form
Brake Power PB per Ship in (kW)
new ship, clean hull, full load wind Beaufort 2-3, sea state 0-1, no current (trial condition) Intake air = 45°C, Raw water = 32°C
Design Point: PB...: 990 (kW) v.....: 27.5 (kn)
800 Shaft Speed 600 350 450
Annotation: The ship speed (v) – brake power (PB) data can be represented in a lot of different diagrams. The one shown is only one representation of that bunch.
200 Brake Pow er 0 50 150
Ship Speed in (kn)
In tabulated form: Ship Speed (v) (kn) 10 24 >27.5 Propeller Speed (nprop) (rpm) 270 590 670 Ship Brake Power (PB) (kW) 85 690 990
5 Propulsion plant and design condition
Ship design condition: PB = 990 kW per ship, v = 27.5 kn, propeller shaft speed n = 670 rpm The ship is powered by a single diesel engine (design point: PB=1007 kW, n=2300 rpm, 1.5% power reduction due to ambient condition).
Propeller Shaft Speed in (rpm)
Propulsion, Interaction Engine with Application
S t e p
6 Performance diagram of the diesel engine
including the lines of specific fuel consumption
kW 1100 218 1000
Annotation: The diagram must be referenced to the chosen design conditions. Application group: e.g. 1DS Reference condition: ambient condition and typical intake/exhaust losses. Specific fuel consumption: Lower heating value Hu = 42800 kJ/kg
206 202 210
210 198 220
200 202 206 210
240 280 I II 1800 2000 2200 2400
0 500 800 1000 1200 1400
Power reduction: subtract 1.5% for ambient condition Specific fuel consumption: add 1.5% for ambient condition and 5% for tolerance
7 Lower heating value of fuel 8 Fuel density 9 Gearbox ratio 10 Fuel consumption of the diesel generator
sets (one genset running at 50% power)
Hu = 42800 kJ/kg ρfuel= 830 kg/m3 i = 3.473 = ndiesel / npropeller (e.g. ZF 1960) 2 gensets (diesel engine e.g. 6R183T52), generated electric power P = 245kW, n = 1800rpm, be = 0.225 kg/kWh at 50% power, ηGen= 0.942 (includes 2% increased fuel consumption due to ambient condition and 5% tolerance) 95% Fuel Tank capacity: 5 m3 No user defined service time. =>Estimated annual usage: 500h =>MTU load profile (1DS) will be used. Ship Speed (v) (kn) 10 24 27.5 Time Period (t) (%) 20 70 10
11 Usable volume of the fuel storage tank 12 Operating profile
6. Interaction Engine with Application The following examples show some applications on fuel consumption calculation: 126.96.36.1997 + 1 ⋅ 0.6.6.6.2 6.2 Fuel consumption at design condition Main diesel engine: Use equation (E.6.5 6.313 (m3/h) TPG-General.5% + 5% = 0.2) B = 1 ⋅ 0.3 6.6 Propulsion.277 830 (table row step 5) (table row step 6) (table row step 8) Bpropulsion = (m3/h) per main diesel engine Genset diesel engine: Use equation (E.0361 830 (table row step 10) (table row step 10) (table row step 8) B genset = (m3/h) per genset diesel engine The overall fuel consumption (main diesel engine and 1 genset): Use equation (E.218 kg/kWh + 1.6 Fuel consumption at design condition Fuel tank volume for a range of 500sm at 18kn Theoretical cruising range at 12kn and a fuel tank volume of 5m3 Annual fuel consumption for an operating profile Correcting the lower heating value 6.doc Rev.6.0 Page 6-54 06.224 = 0.6.6. 1.6.942 Pmechnical = 133kW be = 0.6.218 kg/kWh add 1.2003 .6.5% for ambient condition and 5% for tolerance be = 0.6.4 188.8.131.52 kg/kWh (value includes tolerance and ambient condition) ρfuel = 830 kg/m3 133 ⋅ 0.6.1) PB = 990 kW be = 0.0361 = 0.6.232 kg/kWh ρfuel = 830 kg/m3 990 ⋅ 0.225 = 0.1) Pmechnical = Pelectrical /ηGen = 125 kW/0.
6 Propulsion.8 = 3.101 830 (m3/h) per main diesel engine B genset = 0.215 = 0.6.8 = 4 .137 (m3/h) Theoretical cruising time: Use equation (E.0361 (m3/h) per genset diesel engine The overall fuel consumption (main diesel engine and 1 genset): Use equation (E.6. Interaction Engine with Application 6.0361 = 0.7) Vfuel = 0. Bpropulsion = 390 ⋅ 0.6.doc Rev.6.0 0.202 kg/kWh + 1.5) 500 = 27 .101 + 1 ⋅ 0.6.2) B = 1 ⋅ 0.215 kg/kWh (table row step 4) (table row step 4) (table row step 9) (table row step 6) The fuel consumption can be calculated as in example (1).8 (m3) Required fuel tank volume: 3 .95 Vtan k = (m3) (table row step 11) TPG-General.6.137 ⋅ 27.6.3 Fuel tank volume for a range of 500sm at 18kn scr = 500 sm vcr = 18 kn PB = 390 kW per ship and diesel engine npropeller = 470 rpm (propeller shaft speed) ndiesel = 1632 rpm (main diesel engine speed) be = 0.5% + 5% = 0.2003 .8 18 t cr = (h) Fuel volume for the cruising range: Use equation (E.0 Page 6-55 06.6. 1.
208 kg/kWh + 1.222 = 0.75 ⋅ 12 = 760 0.4) 4.0 Page 6-56 06.075 scr = (sm) TPG-General.6.2) B = 1 ⋅ 0.222 kg/kWh (table row step 4) (table row step 4) (table row step 9) (table row step 6) (table row step11) The fuel consumption can be calculated as in example (1).6 Propulsion.6.doc Rev.6.75 m3 vcr = 12 kn PB = 145 kW per ship and diesel engine npropeller = 330 rpm (propeller shaft speed) ndiesel = 1146 rpm (main diesel engine speed) be = 0.075 (m3/h) Theoretical cruising range: Use equation (E.2003 .95 = 4.0361 = 0. Bpropulsion = 145 ⋅ 0.039 + 1 ⋅ 0.6. Interaction Engine with Application 6.6.039 830 (m3/h) per main diesel engine B genset = 0.6.5% + 5% = 0. 1.4 Theoretical cruising range at 12kn and fuel tank volume of 5m3 Vtank = 5 m3 Vfuel = Vtank ⋅ 0.0361 (m3/h) per genset diesel engine The overall fuel consumption (main diesel engine and 1 genset): Use equation (E.
5 Time Period (t) (%) 20 70 10 Data per ship: (table row step 4 and 9) Ship Speed (v) Propeller Speed (kn) (rpm) 10 24 27. Interaction Engine with Application 6.2003 .6.232 TPG-General.234 0.6. 1.5 270 590 670 Ship Brake Power (kW) 85 690 990 Diesel Speed (rpm) 938 2049 2300 Data per diesel engine: (table row step 4) Ship Speed (v) (kn) 10 24 27.5 Annual fuel consumption for an operating profile Operating profile: (table row step 12) Ship Speed (v) (kn) 10 24 27.216 0.doc Rev.5 Diesel Speed (n) (rpm) 938 2049 2300 Diesel Power (PB) (kW) 85 690 990 be (raw) (kg/kWh) 220 203 218 be (corrected) (kg/kWh) 0.0 Page 6-57 06.6 Propulsion.
6 Correcting the lower heating value If the lower heating value of the given specific fuel does not match the required value the data have to be corrected. Use the following procedure: Hu..1943 (m3/h) The annual fuel consumption based on an estimated usage of 500 h: Use equation (E.0048 0.2) B = 1 ⋅ 0. required = be. + PB n ⋅ b e n ⋅ t n 100 ⋅ ρ fuel ) in (m3/h) Ship Speed (v) (kn) 10 24 27. given be...232 Time Period (t) (%) 20 70 10 Sum B (m3/h) 0.7) Vfuel = 0.0361 = 0.6.1582 The overall fuel consumption (main diesel engine and 1 genset): Use equation (E. 1.6.1943 ⋅ 500 = 97.216 0..234 0.6..6.6 Propulsion.6.2003 .doc Rev.5 Ship Brake Power PB (kW) 85 690 990 be (kg/kWh) 0.1582 + 1 ⋅ 0.2 (m3) (table row step 12) 6. given in (kg/kWh) TPG-General.6..3) B= (P B1 ⋅ b e 1 ⋅ t 1 + . Interaction Engine with Application Fuel consumption: Use equation (E. required Hu.1257 0.0 Page 6-58 06.0277 0.6.6.
95) TPG-General. 0.94.8) ηGen = generator efficiency (0.7 Generator Drive Electrical power supplies on ships is a question of three-phase mains.95) Pp = Ps ⋅ cos ϕ in (kW) (E.6. Interaction Engine with Application 6.7.8) Pp P = B η Gen in (kW) (E.g. 1.3) Pp = generator active power in kW PS = generator apparent power in kVA cos ϕ = generator power factor (e.7. above 1800 kW 0.7.6 Propulsion.7. above 1800 kW 0.2003 .4) Pp = generator active power in kW PB = engine brake power in kW ηGen = generator efficiency (0.doc Rev.0 Page 6-59 06.6. 0.6.1) f = shipboard power supply frequency in Hz n = diesel engine speed in rpm p = number of pole pair Example: Shipboard power supply frequency Generator 60 ⋅ 60 = 1800 4 f = 60 Hz p = 4 pole = 2 pole pair n= (rpm) Diesel Engine Brake Power (PB): P = B Pp ⋅ cos ϕ η Gen in (kW) (E.2) PB = engine brake power in kW PS = generator apparent power in kVA cos ϕ = generator power factor (e.6.g. Following rules are to be considered at the design/dimensioning of the diesel engines for the generator drive: Diesel Engine Speed (n): n= f ⋅ 60 p in (rpm) (E.94.
6.94 (kW) Generator apparent power: Use Equation (E. electrical power per genset: Pp = PSBP 1600 = = 941 z ⋅ x 2 ⋅ 0.doc Rev.1: Power definition Example: Necessary electrical shipboard power is PSBP = 1600 kW For instance: Power partition onto two genset Load of the genset each 85% Max. Interaction Engine with Application Figure 6.7.94 PB = Pp η = 941 = 1001 0. 1.7.2003 .94 = = 1176 cos ϕ 0 .0 Back to Contents Page 6-60 06.6 Propulsion.85 : z=2 : x = 0.4) η= 0.85 (kW) Necessary diesel engine power per genset: Use Equation (E.2) PS = PB ⋅ η 1001 ⋅ 0.6.8 (kVA) Back to Start of Chapter TPG-General.7.
doc Rev.1: Engine room arrangement. minimum distance 7.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7 APPLICATION AND INSTALLATION GUIDELINES During the arrangement of the engines in the engine room specific distance between the engines or to the bulkhead/shell must be kept for the service of the engines and for maintenance operations.0 Page 7-1 06. Figure 6. 1.7.1 Foundation ( under preparation ) TPG-General.2003 .
1 Engine with Flange-Mounted Gearbox (F-Drive) This arrangement is shown in Figure 7.2 Engine/Gearbox Arrangements A general distinction is made between certain basic drive arrangements. Engine with torsionally resilient coupling and gearbox form a single unit.2.2. Another advantage in addition to compactness is the comparatively low overall weight of the propulsion plant. Figure 7. 7. which also accommodates the coupling.0 Page 7-2 06.2003 .7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. i. The advantages inherent to this arrangement are as follows: • The flange-mounted configuration is the most compact of all drive arrangements. the way in which engine and drive line disposed in the vessel. 1. The gearbox is connected to the engine by means of a bell housing.1: Engine with flange-mounted gearbox 1 Engine 2 Torsionally resilient coupling 3 Gearbox This drive arrangement with flange-mounted gearbox is possible only with some specific engines.2.1.e. TPG-General.doc Rev.
As a rule. V Drive Inclusive Engine with free-standing gearbox (D-Drive): For this arrangement. the free-standing gearbox being another. 1. namely aligning the propulsion plant with the propeller shaft.2 Engine with Free-Standing Gearbox.2: 1 2 3 4 Engine with free-standing gearbox Engine Torsionally resilient coupling Coupling to compensate relative displacement (offset compensating coupling) Gearbox TPG-General.2.2003 . with free-standing gearbox. Figure 7.2. Of these supports two are required for the engine mounts and two for the gearbox mounts. The engine and gearbox are already aligned and do not have to be realigned unless they have been separated for repair or servicing and the gearbox has to be re-mated to the engine.doc Rev. 7.2 . shown in Figure 7. the engine combined with torsionally resilient coupling forms one unit. because only one operation is necessary.0 Page 7-3 06.7 Application and Installation Guidelines • Time-saving alignment of the propulsion unit in the vessel.2. a foundation with a total of only four supports suffices for this plant.
doc Rev.installation and removal can be less complex than in the case of the engine with flange-mounted gearbox. • If the specification calls for a controllable-pitch propeller (CPP).D. • An engine with free-standing gearbox is heavier and requires slightly more space than the configuration with flange-mounted gearbox.7 Application and Installation Guidelines The points of relevance as regards this arrangement are as follows: • An arrangement with engine and free-standing gearbox is preferable when a flangemounted gearbox is either not desirable or.engine and gearbox being subassemblies in this case . TPG-General.2003 . the O. • One advantage of the arrangement with separate engine and gearbox is the leeway it affords for enhanced requirements regarding structure-borne noise and/or resistance to shock loading. box for pitch control can be mounted on the gearbox output shaft in immediate proximity to the gearbox. • Given the dimensions and weights of the subassemblies . is not possible for technical reasons.0 Page 7-4 06. because the subassemblies are handled separately. due to the engine size. 1.
doc Rev. if this arrangement is preferable with respect to hull design.V drive“. as it is sometimes named.3.7 Application and Installation Guidelines Engine with free-standing gearbox and universal shaft. V drive arrangement: This arrangement is shown in Figure 7. V drive arrangement Engine Torsionally resilient coupling with engine-mounted bearing housing Universal shaft Gearbox This engine and gearbox configuration permits the propulsion plant to be installed either at the stern or near the stern of the vessel. The bearing housing accommodates the torsionally resilient coupling. Engine power is transmitted from the coupling to the gearbox by a universal shaft..0 Page 7-5 06.2.2003 .2.3: 1 2 3 4 Engine with free-standing gearbox and universal shaft. Figure 7. The . consists of the engine and engine-mounted bearing housing and a separate gearbox. TPG-General. 1.
1.0 Page 7-6 06.3 Generator Set Arrangement 7.3.2003 .7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.3.doc Rev.1 Engine with Free-Standing Generator Figure 7.1: 1 2 3 4 Engine with free-standing generator Engine Generator Base frame Resilient elements TPG-General.
3.2003 .7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.doc Rev.0 Page 7-7 06. 1.2 Engine with Flange-Mounted Generator Figure 7.3. upper Resilient elements TPG-General.2: 1 2 3 4 5 Engine with flange-mounted generator Engine Generator Intermediate mass Resilient elements.
Notes on installation The installation characteristics such as • • • • dimensions. If doubt arises.4 System Interfaces and System Integration 7. These flexible connecting elements are usually included in the MTU scope of supply and their purpose is to compensate for relative motions between the propulsion plant and the on-board piping systems.1 Flexible Connections All pipes from and to the propulsion unit must be fitted with flexible connecting elements.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. e. bellows or rubber sleeves are not supplied by MTU. pipe elbows) can be used to avoid additional stresses and strains on the hoses.0 Page 7-8 06.doc Rev. • Suitable fittings (e.g.4. The invariable rule is that all flexible connecting elements must be connected directly with the on-engine or on-gearbox interfaces.g. If already installed. bellows and rubber sleeves are stated in the corresponding installation drawing. minimum bending radius and resistance to medium for the hoses. for example for the fuel and coolant systems. rubber bellows or rubber sleeves are installed in the line. 1. The part numbers are stated in the system schematics.2003 . • Hoses should follow the contour of the foundation as closely as allowed by the specified minimum bending radii. General notes on system routing • Hoses must be installed such that they are not subjected to tensile or compressive loads in operation. If welding is performed on the on-board piping system. these elements must be removed for the duration of the welding operations and stored where they are safe from damage such as could be caused by weld spatter. it is important to ensure that no hoses. customers should consult MTU to ascertain the displacements occurring at the interfaces due to movements of the resilient mounts and thermally induced expansion. as they could be damaged by the welding operations. If the hoses. TPG-General. • Multiple hoses should always be routed together and kept parallel. they must satisfy the minimum requirements for plant operation. permissible operating-pressure range.
both of which are included in the standard scope of supply. for example rubbing.5*d from the fitting. Connection to the on-board piping system is performed by means of a welding neck to DIN 86037 and the corresponding securing flange to DIN 2642. which employs hose connectors (sleeve-type connection).g. The requisite dimensions are stated in the applicable installation drawing. • Flexible connecting elements should be arranged and/or secured in such a way as to prevent exposure to external mechanical influences. Hose connections The hoses are fitted with sealing cones (60°) and union nuts and can therefore be secured directly to the corresponding interfaces on the engine. while rubber bellows are used for all large-diameter interfaces (DN 50 or larger). TPG-General. • High ambient temperatures significantly reduce the durability of flexible connecting elements and may even lead to the failure of the component. The use of rubber bellows on engines is usually restricted to the lines of diameter in excess of DN 40 of the raw water system. Bellows connections Both rubber (e. Rubber sleeves are used for connections < DN 50 only in exceptional circumstances and at locations where displacement is slight. gearbox or accessory is of a design such that the rubber bellows can be secured directly by means of screw fasteners.g. care must be taken to ensure that the installation length is as specified in the installation drawing. so only this application is discussed here. apply by analogy to all other flexible connecting elements. but only the rubber bellows are discussed here. These notes on routing hoses. or provide suitable heat shielding. e.doc Rev. care must be taken to ensure that the hoses are not twisted. for which steel bellows are required. that preload may be specified for a rubber bellows for a special application in which non-standard displacements are anticipated. • The attachments use to secure hoses must be of correct size for the hose diameters. Always ensure adequate clearance from components that radiate heat. MTU propulsion plants are designed normally such that all small-diameter interfaces (< DN 50) connect by means of hoses. at the gearbox with rigid mount. The interface on the engine.0 Page 7-9 06. • For a curved run.2003 .7 Application and Installation Guidelines • When installing hoses. 1. the length of the hose must be such that the curve does not commence less than approx. raw water) and steel bellows (e. gearbox or accessory. 1. of course. Note. however. To avoid excessive strain on the rubber bellows. exhaust) are used for the plant interfaces. and for the air intake system. This of course does not apply to the exhaust system.g. • Hose attachments should not be used at points where they would impede the natural freedom of motion of the hose. The rubber bellows are usually installed without axial preload.
4.doc Rev.2003 .7 Application and Installation Guidelines The binding connection and installation dimensions for the rubber bellows are stated in the project. gearbox or accessory Pipe outside diameter Installation dimension TPG-General.4.or contract-specific installation drawings.1 shows the connection in diagram form. 1.1: 1 2 3 A D L Connection of rubber bellows Rubber bellows Welding neck Pipe (not MTU scope of supply) Interface to engine. Figure 7. Figure 7. Note that the pipe material used as standard is copper-nickel alloy.0 Page 7-10 06.
2 Combustion Air and Cooling/Ventilation Air Supply 7.3 Cooling/ventilation air system TPG-General.2. 1.doc Rev.0 Page 7-11 06.2 Combustion-air intake directly from outside 7.4.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 184.108.40.206.4.1 Combustion-air intake from engine room 7.2.2003 .
1.1 Arrangements.0 Page 7-12 06.4.3 Exhaust System 7. support and connection for pipe and silencer TPG-General.4.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.3.doc Rev.2003 .
0 Page 7-13 06.3.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.doc Rev. 1.2 Underwater discharge (with exhaust flap) TPG-General.2003 .4.
0 Page 7-14 06.4.2003 .doc Rev.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. 1.3.3 Water-cooled exhaust system TPG-General.
shipyard supply 14 Fuel oil heat exchanger Split-circuit cooling system using heat exchanger with titanium plates.1 Cooling water system with engine-mounted heat exchanger Figure 7.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.4.0 Page 7-15 06. 1.doc Rev. oil and intake air at optimum temperature under all operating conditions.2003 . TPG-General. flexible connecting element 11 Flow restrictor 12 Sea water pump 13 Sea water filter. shipyard supply 7 Gearbox 8 Gearbox oil heat exchanger 9 Ship heating.4.4 Cooling Water System 7. • Higher temperature during idle or low-load operation. not standard scope of supply 6 Expansion tank. engine coolant.4. complete. Benefits: • Keeps engine coolant. • No seawater in the engine. shipyard supply 10 Connecting point.2: Cooling water system with engine-mounted heat exchanger (Split-circuit cooling system) 1 Engine coolant pump 2 Lube oil heat exchanger 3 Intercooler 4 Coolant heat exchanger 5 Preheating unit.4.
g.3: Cooling water system with separately-mounted heat exchanger (e. shipyard supply 7 Gearbox 8 Gearbox oil heat exchanger 9 Ship heating.0 Page 7-16 06. not standard scope of supply 6 Expansion tank.4.4. Less prone to interference through corrosion.doc Rev.2 Cooling water system with separately-mounted heat exchanger (including keel cooling) Figure 7. shipyard supply 5 Preheating unit. keel cooling) 1 Engine coolant pump 2 Lube oil heat exchanger 3 Intercooler 4 Coolant heat exchanger (Shell cooler/Case cooler). complete. Advantages: No sea water in pipelines. valves. 1.4. pumps and heat exchanger in the ship. engine coolant. Low-cost materials for above-mentioned components.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. TPG-General. flexible connecting element 11 Flow restrictor Cooling system for low power and ships operating in the flat water.2003 . shipyard supply 10 Connecting point.
complete. shipyard supply 13 Sea water filter. shipyard supply 10 Flexible connecting element 11 Flow restrictor ② 12 Sea water pump. shipyard supply 7 Gearbox 8 Gearbox oil heat exchanger TPG-General. engine coolant. shipyard supply 15 Sea water stand-by pump.4. shipyard supply 06.4.doc Rev.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. shipyard supply 16 Harbour sea water pump. not standard scope of supply 6 Expansion tank.0 Page 7-17 . 1.4.2003 1 Engine coolant pump 2 Lube oil heat exchanger 3 Intercooler 4 Coolant heat exchanger 5 Preheating unit.4: Central cooling water system 9 Ship heating.3 Central cooling water system Figure 7.
not standard scope of supply An engine with a safety-enhanced fuel system (comprising jacketed high-pressure fuel lines and an on-engine tank for leak-off fuel) requires an additional line to carry off an overflow. shipyard supply Fuel coarse filter or (water) separator. shipyard supply Fuel transfer pump. shipyard supply Flexible connecting element Fuel heat exchanger.5: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fuel System Fuel prefilter with water separator Service tank.e.2003 . it must return to the on-board collecting tank or the fuel tank via a line routed on a declining plane and venting to atmosphere. When routing this overflow.doc Rev. Figure 7. The standard scope of supply includes flexible connectors and a fuel prefilter for connecting the fuel supply line to the engine.4. TPG-General. i. Only fuels listed in the Fluids and Lubricants Specification are approved for use in MTU diesel engines.4.5 Fuel System The standard scope of supply requires the shipyard to connect the fuel feed and return lines for the engine. bear in mind that the leak-off fuel is not under pressure. 1.0 Page 7-18 06.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.
feed an return • Pressure limitations at on-engine interface. In order to avoid malfunctions. Flexible connections. • If.1. min. St 35). with the danger of engine malfunction as a result.5. The needs of the engine must be taken into account with regard to the arrangement of the fuel tanks in the vessel and the dimensioning of the tanks. TPG-General.5.4. 1.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. As general rule. The location of the service tank has an effect on the efficiency of heat exchange and the routing of the fuel lines from and to the engine. • We recommend the use of steel piping (e. the flexible connector (hose) is not supplied by MTU. e. 7. Failure to take this factor into account may result in the auxiliary diesel receiving insufficient fuel when the main diesel engine is in operation.4. min. as maybe the case in exceptional circumstances. it is important to observe the following points: • The service tank must be of a size such that the temperature in the tank caused by return fuel mixing with residual fuel in the tank always remains below a permissible maximum./max. for commencement.0 Page 7-19 06.2 Design data Compliance with the limits defined for the system interface is essential in order to ensure compliance with the limits for engine operation. • Fuel temperature increase before/after engine • Heat to be removed from return fuel is specified in the data sheet for the project or contract. The engineering guidelines apply with regard to wall thickness of piping. this design feature must be taken into account when calculating the cross-section of the lines.2003 . plus a service tank for the engine or the engines. • Temperature limitations for supply.g.doc Rev. • Pipe runs should be kept as short as possible and a measuring connection must be provided immediately in front of the on-engine interface to permit system checking. See Chapter 8.4.4.g./max.1. the fuel supply system should incorporate at least one supply tank.1 General notes • The supply pipe must be connected to the on-engine interface by means of a flexible connector. Data such as required for design/dimensioning of the fuel system • Fuel volume flows. it must satisfy the requirements laid down in Chapter 8. • If an auxiliary diesel engine receives its fuel supply via a bypass incorporated in the fuel supply system of the main diesel engine.
4. • The fuel supply from the service tank to the engine must be • such that no sludge seasoned on the bottom of the service tank or water precipitated from the fuel is drawn into the supply line to the engine. TPG-General. fuel inlet temperature The calculation of the total volume of the service tank is taken with regard to a maximal permissible level of 85 % and of a remaining level of 10 %.1 w m3 Total volume of service tank in m3 Time to replenish of the service tank in h Specific fuel consumption at fuel stop power in kg/kWh Fuel stop power in kW Fuel return flow from engine at fuel stop power in litre/min Evaluation value for max.2003 . • If the available service tank volume is less than the calculated volume and the engine has return fuel.6: Evaluation value for max.6) 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Max.04 ⋅ be ⋅ P B + V return ⋅ 2 . fuel inlet temperature T in °C Figure 7. fuel inlet temperature (Figure 7. This is achieved by locating the supply pipe at an adequate height above the bottom of the service tank (at least 100 mm clearance from the bottom of the tank). the temperature of the fuel in the service tank exceeds the permissible limit for the fuel supply to the engine and a fuel heat exchanger must be installed in the return fuel line from the engine.4.doc Rev. Vtank = Vtank = t = = be PB = Vreturn = W = 70 60 Evaluation value W.0 Page 7-20 06. 50 40 30 20 10 0 25 30 ) t ⋅ (0.7 Application and Installation Guidelines The equations below can be used to calculate the requisite volume of the service tank (size of service tank). 1.
/max. ( under preparation ) TPG-General. If the plant incorporates a bottom tank and/or a relatively long fuel supply line. because it is not possible to guarantee that the non-return valves in the delivery line always remain absolutely leak tight. • A water drain valve and sludge drain valve must be provided at the lowest point of the service tank.2003 . bottom tank).7 Application and Installation Guidelines • If the service tank is on a level higher than that of the fuel delivery pump (overhead tank. the return line carrying excess fuel from the engine must be routed below the minimum level of the fuel in the service tank. which in turn must afford adequate protection against the ingress of water. a booster pump must be installed in order to prevent an impermissibly high intake depression before the engine. • The min. header tank) the return line carrying excess fuel from the engine must be routed above the maximum level of fuel in the service tank. pressures at the on-engine interfaces must be as specified in the data sheet. 1. This precaution is adopted in order to prevent fuel flooding the engine while it is at a standstill.doc Rev. This precaution is adopted in order to prevent air entering the fuel system and the fuel delivery pump when the engine is at a standstill.0 Page 7-21 06. • If the service tank is on a level lower than that of the fuel delivery pump (low level tank. The tank must be provided with adequate breather facilities.
not standard scope of supply (according to classification societies for watch-free operation) 9 Lube oil tank.4.0 Page 7-22 06. lube oil. shipyard supply 10 Flexible connecting element TPG-General. shipyard supply Gearbox Automatic lube oil level monitoring and replenishment system.7: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Lube oil system Lube oil pump Lube oil heat exchanger Drain plug on oil pan Oil dipstick Lube oil hand pump 3-way cock.doc Rev. 1.6 Lube Oil System Figure 7.2003 .4.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.
required to start the engine is stored: - Electric starting with battery-powered starter motor Compressed air starting. Compressed air starting is preferable on vessels with a central compressed air supply system. Unless otherwise specified by the customer. 1.2003 .e. TPG-General.4. the engines are supplied with electric starting Systems by default (series 2000 and 4000). operating pressure range from 1 x 106 to 3 x 106 Pa (10 to 30 bar) • air-in-cylinder.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. Starter motors with other voltage ratings are available on request for special applications.7 Starting System The engines may employ one of three different methods of starting.doc Rev. The starting procedure is controlled and monitored by a control system included in the standard scope of supply.0 Page 7-23 06. i. Design data such as • nominal power • current consumption and • requisite storage-battery capacity required for the design of the starting system are part of the data sheet of the project or contract. In terms of reliability. The starter batteries are usually recharged by means of an alternator which is usually included in the engine scope of supply. there is a difference between the systems .1 Electric starter motor The starter motor (some engine models have two starter) mounted on the engine requires a 24 VDC supply.7. The control unit incorporates both the controller logic circuits and all requisite control elements. 7. by means of • pneumatic starter motor. electric or pneumatic. because the electric system is more straightforward and involves fewer system components. because under these circumstances there is no need to provide an additional supply system and so there is a weight advantage when compared with the electric starter. There are principally two types of starting systems which differ by the way in which the energy.4.all three are thoroughly satisfactory. operating pressure range from 2 x 106 to 4 x 106 Pa (20 to 40 bar) The regulations to which the plant is subject govern the choice of the starting system.
• In order to avoid corrosion in the vicinity of the battery. The starting air supply valve mounted on the starter motor is electrically actuated with provision for emergency manual actuation. The following points require consideration: • The position of the battery in the engine room must be such as to permit easy access for maintenance. The system components required for the starting system (flexible connecting element. Figure 7.2 Compressed-air starting.4. There are no design-related restrictions on the choice of battery type. 7.doc Rev.8 is a schematic view of the compressed air starting system with pneumatic starter motor as of the on-engine interface. compressed-air starter motor If the engine is equipped with a pneumatic starter motor. 1. more precisely. • The battery must be protected against moisture.7 Application and Installation Guidelines The battery does not usually form part of the MTU scope of supply.4. ventilated because it is not always possible to prevent acid vapor escaping from the battery cells.7. it must be well. air filter and pressure reducing valve from 4 x 106 to 1 x 106 Pa) are usually part of the MTU scope of supply.0 Page 7-24 06.2003 . that the ambient conditions must be taken into account in this respect. the compressed air supply connects to the starter motor mounted on the diesel engine. TPG-General. e. with the result that the size of the tanks can be minimized (by a factor of between 6 and 8).g. to the starter motor. The incorporation of a pressure reducing valve makes it feasible to dimension the compressed air storage tanks for a pressure considerably higher than the operating pressure of the starter motor. The engine documentation and the special documentation for the electronic accessories contain information that must be taken into account with regard to the electric wiring of the starting system and the calculation of the cross-section of the conductors to suit the cable lengths and currents carried. however. • The battery must be as close as possible to the engine or. so that the electric cables are as short as possible. lead-acid or nickel-cadmium battery. mechanical damage and extreme temperature. Note.
the tanks must be dimensioned by the shipyard as to contain an air supply adequate for the number of engine starts specified by the applicable regulations. It usually forms part of the MTU scope of supply and is supplied with.3 Compressed-air starting.doc Rev. Figure 7. it features an interface at which compressed air from the starting valve must be made available.7. TPG-General. The starting valve is electrically actuated but is also designed for emergency manual operation.4.4. the engine. If they are not supplied by MTU. but not mounted on.9 is a schematic view of the air-in-cylinder starting system as of the on-engine interface.8: Starting system with pneumatic starter motor 1 Compressed air starter 2 Lubricator (optional) ② 3 Air filter ② 4 Pressure reducing globe valve ② 5 Starting air receiver ② 7.2003 . air-in-cylinder 6 Safety valve ② 7 Pressure gauge ② 8 Flexible connecting element 9 Pneumatic starter motor ② Shipyard If the engine is equipped for air-in-cylinder starting.4. 1. The compressed air tanks used to store the starting air can be supplied by MTU or by the shipyard.7 Application and Installation Guidelines Figure 7.0 Page 7-25 06.
7 Application and Installation Guidelines Figure 7.2003 . starting air pressures for engine • average air consumption per start • regulation number of engine starts are specified in the data sheet for the project or contract.doc Rev.0 Page 7-26 06.9: Starting system with air-in-cylinder starting 1 Starting air distributor 2 Starting valve 3 Starting air receiver ② 4 Flexible connecting element 5 Safety valve ② 6 Pressure gauge ② ② Shipyard Design data Data such as • min. Unless the number of engine starts is specified elsewhere. the engines housed in a single engine room can be supplied from a common compressed air storage system.4./max. In twin-engine or multiple-engine configurations. we recommend dimensioning the compressed air tanks such that at least six starts are possible without recharging the tanks. 1. TPG-General.
pmin Pressure in air tank before engine start in Pa Pressure in air tank after engine start in Pa Max. TPG-General.doc Rev. Pipe runs should be kept as short as possible and a measuring adapter (Ml8xl. The supply pipe must be connected to the on-engine interface by means of a flexible connector.5) must be provided immediately in front of the on-engine interface to permit system checking.7 Application and Installation Guidelines The equations below can be used to calculate the requisite volume of the compressed air storage system (size of compressed air tank or tanks). We recommend the use of steel piping (e. V = s × Vn1 × p n ∆ p m3 V s Vn1 ∆p p1 p2 pmax pmin pn = = = = = = = = = = Volume of compressed air tank in m3 Number of engine starts Air consumption per start (at normal pressure pn) in m3 Pressure differential in compressed air tank in Pa p1 . permissible starting air pressure in Pa Min. permissible starting air pressure in Pa Normal pressure = 1.g.013 x 105 Pa The starting air supply valve should be located in the engine room and as close as possible to the engine.p2 or pmax .g. St 35 according to DIN 2391). e.0 Page 7-27 06. and in such a way that it is protected against damage and moisture.2003 . for commencement. 1.
4.doc Rev. 1.10: Electric power supply ( under preparation ) TPG-General.4.0 Page 7-28 06.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.8 Electric Power Supply Figure 7.2003 .
5 Safety System ( under preparation ) TPG-General.2003 . 1.doc Rev.0 Page 7-29 06.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.
7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.6 Emission 7.2 g/kWh NOx = 9.8 g/kWh TPG-General.1: Limitation of NOx-emission (IMO) The IMO NOx emission limit depends on the rated engine speed: n < 130 min-1 n = 130 to < 2000 min-1 n ≥ 2000 min-1 NOx = 17 g/kWh NOx = 45 x n-0.2003 .6.0 Page 7-30 06. 1.doc Rev. General Information The MTU standard reduction of exhaust gas emissions for navy applications are in accordance with International Maritime Organization (IMO) Limitation of NOx-Emission 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 -1 NOx in g/kWh Engine rates speed in min Figure 7.1 Exhaust Gas Emission.6.
3 100 10 0.2 91 75 0.1 75 0. Variable Load Auxiliary Engine” application ( under preparation ) TPG-General.1 Test cycle for “Constant Speed Auxiliary Engine” application Speed Test cycle type C1 Torque (%) Figure 7.1 0.doc Rev.5: 100 Rated 75 50 10 Intermediate 100 0.6.2003 .4: 100 100 0.05 100 75 0.6.1 0.5 100 50 0.7 Application and Installation Guidelines The test procedure and measurement methods shall be in accordance with the NOx Technical Code.25 100 50 0.6.15 0.2: 100 100 0.15 Test cycle for “Variable Speed.15 Test cycle for “Propeller Law operated Main and Propeller Law operated Auxiliary Engines” application Speed (%) Test cycle type D2 Power (%) Weighting Factor Figure 7.15 0.15 63 25 0.2 100 75 0.1 50 Idle 0 Weighting Factor 0. 1.6.15 100 25 0.15 0.3 100 25 0. taking into consideration the Test Cycles and Weighting Factors: Speed (%) Test cycle type E2 Power (%) Weighting Factor Figure 7.15 Test cycle for “Constant Speed Main Propulsion” application (including diesel electric drive and variable pitch propeller installation) Speed (%) Test cycle type E3 Power (%) Weighting Factor Figure 7.5 80 50 0.3: 100 100 0.0 Page 7-31 06.
passenger vessels and on naval ships is an important demand. These spectra are available on request for projector contract-specific purposes. i.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. The datum level is 2*10-5 Pa and the noise pressures are measured at a distance of 1 m.6.undamped air intake noise • structure-borne noise have been performed for all engines listed in the current Sales Program. TPG-General. and thus merely informative for other power/speed combinations. 7.6. Note that these analyses do not take into account the air intake noise. frequency analyses for operating noises distinguishing between • air-borne noise as . In the noise spectra the information relating to noise pressure level and level of oscillation velocity is valid only for to the rated engine power and engine speed as stated.undamped exhaust noise .e.1 Airborne noise level A noise spectrum of the engine operating noise emitted to the environment (free-field) is available for each engine in the Sales Program.0 Page 7-32 06. Noise spectra.doc Rev. General Information Low noise on board of yachts.2. The figures in the noise spectrum are in dB(A) and comply with ISO standards. 1.2 Acoustical Emission.2003 . unless otherwise stated in the diagram.engine free-field noise . The results of these analyses are available on request for projects and contracts.
7 Application and Installation Guidelines Figure 7.doc Rev. 1.2003 .0 Page 7-33 06.6.6: Engine surface noise analysis (example) TPG-General.
2.2 Exhaust gas noise level Figure 7. 1.7: Undamped exhaust gas noise analysis (example) TPG-General.2003 .0 Page 7-34 06.doc Rev.6.6.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.
Standard single resilient mounting system: (Standard) Standard single resilient mounting system for ships without any special shock or acoustic requirements.2.: single-(standard). 1.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.doc Rev.6.g. double-resilient mounting) Depending on different requirements.0 Page 7-35 06. e. All options are based on proven design. no shock requirements Single resilient mounting system Standard coupling system for torsional vibration and misalignment Single resilient mounting system with shock: (Option 1) Single resilient mounting system for applications with shock requirements for ships. such as OPV´s and Corvettes. working ships and fast ferries.2003 . Technical Features: - Standard acoustic. we offer additionally to our standard design four different “Quiet Systems”. single-(shock resistance). Technical Features: - Shock requirements according to BV 043/85. STANAG 4142 combined with moderate acoustic requirements Special single resilient mounting system Resilient coupling system for increased shock and structure-borne noise attenuation - TPG-General.3 Structure-borne noise level (e.g.
standard or special single resilient mounting system.0 Page 7-36 06. with or without shock requirements 3 4 Engine with flange-mounted generator TPG-General.doc Rev. with or without shock requirements 3 4 Engine with flange-mounted gearbox 1 Engine 2 5 1 6 2 Gearbox 3 Ship foundation 4 Resilient elements. standard or special single resilient mounting system.2003 .7 Application and Installation Guidelines Typical Arrangement 2 1 1 Engine 2 Gearbox 3 Ship foundation 4 Resilient elements. with or without shock requirements 5 Standard coupling system for torsional vibration and misalignment. 1. standard or special single resilient mounting system. optional with resilient coupling system for increased shock and structure-borne noise attenuation 6 Noise case (optional) 3 4 Engine with free-standing gearbox 2 1 1 Engine 2 Generator 3 Ship foundation 4 Resilient elements.
6. optional with resilient coupling system for increased shock and structure-borne noise attenuation 6 Noise case (optional) 3 4 Engine with free-standing generator Figure 7. 1. shock requirements according to BV 043/85. weight critical application Double resilient mounting system consist of: Rubber elements shock proved.2003 . Technical Features: - Higher acoustic demands.8: Single resilient mounting system with shock Standard double resilient mounting system: (Option 2) Double resilient mounting system improves the acoustic behaviour for ASW ships. with shock buffers Light/stiff base frame with 30% of engine weight as intermediate mass - - Resilient coupling system for torsional vibration and increased shock and structure-borne noise attenuation TPG-General. STANAG 4142. comfortable pleasure crafts and casino ships. standard or special single resilient mounting system.doc Rev. with or without shock requirements 5 Standard coupling system for torsional vibration and misalignment.7 Application and Installation Guidelines Typical Arrangement 1 Engine 2 5 1 6 2 Generator 3 Ship foundation 4 Resilient elements.0 Page 7-37 06.
passenger vessels and most naval applications.2003 .doc Rev.0 Page 7-38 06. with shock buffers Polymeric concrete/steel combination base frame with 70% of engine weight as intermediate mass Double stage steel springs with silicon damping filling - - Resilient coupling system for torsional vibration and increased shock and structure-borne noise attenuation Noise enclosure - TPG-General. Technical Features: - High acoustic demands. STANAG 4142 Double resilient mounting system consisting of: Rubber elements shock proved. shock requirements according to BV 043/85. STANAG 4142 Double resilient mounting system consist of: Rubber elements shock proved. shock requirements according to BV 043/85. 1. with shock buffers Polymeric concrete/steel base frame with 50% of engine weight as intermediate mass - - Resilient coupling system for torsional vibration and increased shock and structure-borne noise attenuation Noise enclosure - Double resilient mounting system for extreme acoustic requirements: (Option 4) Double resilient mounting system for extreme acoustic requirements for ASW ships and research vessels. Technical Features: - Extreme acoustic demands.7 Application and Installation Guidelines Double resilient mounting system for low noise: (Option 3) Double resilient mounting system to achieve low noise levels onboard of yachts.
2003 . with shock requirements 5 Resilient coupling system for torsional vibration and increased shock and structure-borne noise attenuation 6 Noise enclosure 7 Intermediate mass 1 Engine 2 Generator 3 Ship foundation 4 Resilient elements. with shock requirements 5 Coupling system for torsional vibration. 1.6. double resilient mounting system.0 Page 7-39 06. double resilient mounting system.doc Rev.9: Double resilient mounting system for extreme acoustic requirements TPG-General. misalignment and increased shock attenuation 6 Noise enclosure 7 Intermediate mass 3 7 4 Engine with free-standing gearbox 2 5 1 6 3 4 7 Engine with free-standing generator Figure 7.7 Application and Installation Guidelines Typical Arrangement 2 5 1 6 1 Engine 2 Gearbox 3 Ship foundation 4 Resilient elements.
structure-borne noise levels below the resilient mountings (e. diesel engine 20V 1163) TPG-General.0 Lv in dB re 5x10 -8 Page 7-40 06.g.5 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 Frequency in Hz Standard Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4 Figure 7.2003 .10: Examples for different “Quiet Systems”.doc Rev.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 90 80 m/s 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 31.6. 1.
above rubber mounts (example) TPG-General.7 Application and Installation Guidelines Figure 7.11: Structure borne noise analysis at engine feet.6. 1.0 Page 7-41 06.2003 .doc Rev.
7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.doc Rev.2003 .0 Page 7-42 06. 1.7 Mounting and Foundation TPG-General.
0 Page 7-43 06. 1.8 Acoustic Enclosure/Acoustic Case TPG-General.doc Rev.2003 .7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.
1.9 Mechanical Power Transmission There are different possibilities and combinations for the mechanical power transmission with internationally system-specific terms established. In the following one the most customary denotation is used: CODAD = COMBINED DIESEL ENGINE AND DIESEL ENGINE This kind of power plants offers e.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.2003 . the possibilities to transmit the power to on one shaft optionally from one or several diesel engines.2: Combined diesel engine and diesel engine with separate gear compartment 1 Controllable pitch propeller (CPP) 2 Diesel engine 3 Gearbox TPG-General.0 Page 7-44 06.9.9. 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 Figure 7.doc Rev.1: Combined diesel engine and diesel engine 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 Figure 7.g.
3 4 1 2 2 3 1 4 Figure 7. or to transmit the power onto both shafts together from all driving engines .3: Combined diesel engine or gas turbine CODAG = COMBINED DIESEL ENGINE AND GAS TURBINE This kind of power plants offers the possibilities to transmit the power to both shafts optionally only from one diesel engine. or to transmit the power to one shaft separately from one diesel engine.2003 TPG-General. or to transmit the power to one or two shafts only from the gas turbine.4: 1 2 3 4 Combined diesel engine and gas turbine Controllable pitch propeller (CPP) Diesel engine Gearbox (distribution gear/multi-staged gear) Gas turbine Page 7-45 06. 1. 3 1 2 3 4 2 3 1 Figure 7.doc Rev.0 .9.9.7 Application and Installation Guidelines CODOG = COMBINED DIESEL ENGINE OR GAS TURBINE This kind of power plant offers the possibilities to transmit the power to a shaft optionally only with a diesel engine or only from a gas turbine.
1.0 Page 7-46 06.2003 .7 Application and Installation Guidelines Further denotation for combinations of mechanical power transmission is used as follows: COGAG COGOG CODLAG = COMBINED GAS TURBINE AND GAS TURBINE = COMBINED GAS TURBINE OR GAS TURBINE = COMBINED DIESEL-ELECTRIC AND GAS TURBINE CODLAGL = COMBINED DIESEL-ELECTRIC AND GAS TURBINE-ELECTRIC TPG-General.doc Rev.
10 Auxiliary Power Take-Off Figure 7.doc Rev.1: Power take-off (PTO). gear driven TPG-General.10.2003 .0 Page 7-47 06.7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7. 1.
7 Application and Installation Guidelines 7.0 Page 7-48 06.11 Example Documents Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General.doc Rev.2003 . 1.
2 Main Engines for Indirect Propeller Drive The test is to be performed at rated speed with a constant governor setting under conditions of: • 100 % power (rated power): 60 minutes • 110 % power: 45 minutes • 75 %. 1.2 Acceptance Test According to a Classification Society (e.0 Page 8-1 06. 8. • Starting and reversing manoeuvres • Test of governor and independent overspeed protection device • Test of engine shutdown devices 8. 50 % and 25 % power and idle run. • Start-up tests 8.2.2. In each case the measurements shall not be carried out until the steady operating condition has been achieved.8 Standard Acceptance Test 8 8.2003 .g. Germanischer Lloyd). engines are to be subject to a test bed trial under the supervision of the scope stated below. 50 % and 25 % power in accordance with the nominal propeller curve. 75 %. The manufacturer's test bed reports are acceptable for auxiliary driving engines rated at ≤ 100 kW. In each case the measurements shall not be carried out until the steady operating condition has been achieved. 220.127.116.11 Auxiliary Driving Engines and Engines Driving Electric Generators Tests to be performed in accordance with 9.1 Main Engines for Direct Propeller Drive: • 100 % power (rated power) at rated speed n0: 60 minutes • 100 % power at n = 1.doc Rev.1 STANDARD ACCEPTANCE TEST Factory Acceptance Test In general.2.032 · n0: 45 minutes • 90 %. TPG-General.
0 Page 8-2 06.8 Standard Acceptance Test 8.3 Example Documents Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General.doc Rev. 1.2003 .
• Remote Control System RCS-5 for the propulsion plant (FPP) within the Control Stands. For applications with Controllable Pitch Propeller CPP. Important Information ! All descriptions herein have reference to the following Standard Diesel Engine Series: • 2000 M60 / M70 / M80 / M90 / M91 • 4000 M60 / M70 / M80 / M90 The project guide describes the Propulsion Remote Control System RCS-5 for Fixed Pitch Propeller FPP.to four-engine plant with or without gearbox consisting of: • Monitoring and Control System for the propulsion plant within the Engine Room (FPP. ready for installation and operation. • Monitoring and Control System MCS-5 Type 1 for the shipboard equipment (auxiliary systems in engine room and general ship area). after technical clarification. 9.0 Page 9-1 06. CODAD. Furthermore MTU Electronic offers on request.doc Rev. • Monitoring and Control System MCS-5 Type 1 for the propulsion plant within the Control Stands. Waterjet WJ or Voith Schneider VS please ask TZPV for assistance. in combination with current propeller systems.g. for Non-Classified and Classified automation and single.9 Control. This systems are also available as standard applications. 1. RCS-5 versions for combined propulsion plants e. The MDEC System satisfies the following units: • ECU = Engine Control Unit Mounted on engine • EMU = Engine Monitoring Unit Mounted on engine if classification is required • LOP = Local Operating Panel Loose supplied for Engine Room installation TPG-General. The meaning of MDEC: MTU Diesel Engine Control. Monitoring and Data Acquisition (LOP) 9 CONTROL.2003 . CODAG. Economical engine operation with low fuel consumption and minimum exhaust emission over the complete load range is guaranteed by the MDEC system.1 Standard Monitoring and Control Engine Series 2000/4000 Complete monitoring and control. CODOG etc. WJ or CPP).. MONITORING AND DATA ACQUISITION (LOP) MTU engines for marine applications are provided with an Electronic Control System matched to special marine requirements. This system ensures optimised engine functioning under all operating conditions. The high functional efficiency and simple system design with plug connectors and pre-fabricated system cables for engine installation make incorporation into ships an easy operation.
which protects the engine from states assumed to be a risk to continued operation.9 Control.2003 . Lamp test. switch-over to other language on request) with selector keyboard for monitoring data of engine and gearbox sensors and status display of turbochargers. load profile recorder and data modules (for engine and plant specific parameter). Alarm acknowledgement and illumination dim control. Flashing light and horn for alarm in engine room. Shipside Monitoring System and Remote Control. Local control.0 Page 9-2 06. 9. - Set of connecting cables (10 m each with plug connectors at both ends) for connecting the individual electronic components.doc Rev. gearbox GCU. 9. independent safety system. for engine speed control in response to rated value setting with fuel injection and speed limitation as a function of engine status and operating conditions as well as MTU sequential turbo charging. Monitoring and Data Acquisition (LOP) 9.2 Engine Governing and Control Unit ECU-MDEC Engine governing and control unit ECU-MDEC with integrated safety system.3 Engine Monitoring Unit EMU-MDEC Separate Safety System Engine Monitoring Unit EMU-MDEC is used to cover the additional requirements and scope of redundant measuring points specified for classified marine plants. Automatic start/stop and emergency stop sequencing control. Set of sensors including on-engine cabling. 1. comprising the following components and functions: - - Interface for ECU-MDEC. Gearbox clutch control. Combined control and display elements for engine and gearbox: Ready for operation. Engine speed increase/decrease. LCD display (standard language English. TPG-General. EMUMDEC also represents the second. Engine Start/Stop/Emergency Stop. System-integrated alarm unit with visual individual alarm and output for visual and audio alarm. In such cases. for ship-side installation in the engine room.4 Local Operating Panel LOP-MDEC Local operating panel LOP-MDEC in sheet-metal housing.
Monitoring and Data Acquisition (LOP) 9.5. 1.2003 .0 Page 9-3 06.1 Manufacturer Specification In accordance with manufacturer specification. (Not classifiable) Figure 9.9 Control.5.5 Propulsion Plant Management System Version 9.doc Rev.1: Propulsion Plant Management System version in accordance with manufacturer specification TPG-General.
doc Rev. DNV. BV. RINA type test approval).2 Classification Society Regulation Version in compliance with Classification society regulations (GL. Monitoring and Data Acquisition (LOP) 9.2: Propulsion Plant Management System version in compliance with classification society regulations Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General. NK. ABS.2003 . LRS. Figure 9. CCS.0 Page 9-4 06.5. 1.9 Control.5. KR.
It is replaced by a concept of maximum service time periods for single components (items) until their next scheduled maintenance is due. (only with order-specific maintenance schedules). battery). The Maintenance Schedules for all MTU engine series and applications.1 MAINTENANCE CONCEPT / MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE Reason for Information MTU has revised the engine maintenance concept. Efficient translation and availability in 5 languages. - TPG-General. they will not. Maintenance tasks that are not included in the maintenance schedule matrix as their maintenance intervals are strictly related to the individual operating conditions (fuel prefilter. - Data Processing: - 10. Cross-reference to other applicable documentation (Fluids and Lubricants Specification). General information with respect to the maintenance concept. The preventive maintenance principle remains effective with the new maintenance concept.1 Cover Sheet The cover sheet provides the following information: - Engine series/production model.doc Rev. Central administration of the individual tasks in a data bank.2003 . 10. however. 1.2 Advantages of the New Maintenance Concept: Technical: - Individual maintenance tasks per operating period interval resulting in reduced down time per maintenance operation. Order No. Transportation) 10 10. Reduced life cycle costs. will be converted to the new concept this year.3 New Maintenance Schedule: The new maintenance schedule is divided into three sections. load profile. The current maintenance schedules may continue to be used for engines already in service. The former combination of several maintenance tasks in maintenance echelons (W1 to W6) is now obsolete.3. 10. application group. be subjected to any up-dating or amendment procedures. with effect from Sales Program 2003.11 Assembling Instructions (Lifting.0 Page 10-1 06. Common designation of identical maintenance tasks irrespective of engine series. Maintenance schedule and version numbers. Utilisation of the maximum service life of the single components.
2 Maintenance Schedule Matrix The maintenance schedule matrix provides an overview of the minimum scope of maintenance tasks. the “Maintenance Levels” listed in the 2nd line have a new meaning.3. They indicate the qualifications (scope of training) required for the maintenance personnel and the scope of tools required.11 Assembling Instructions (Lifting. Operating ho rs Daily 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 W1 - W1 - W2 2 W2 - W3 2 W3 - W4 3 W4 - W4 - W4 - W4 2 W5 18 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Figure 10. Extended component maintenance W6 18 X Maint. In comparison to the previous maintenance concept. these are combined in tool kits.0 Page 10-2 Component maintenance Combustion chambers Fuel injection pumps Centrifugal oil filter Engine operation Fuel duplex filter Engine oil filter Fuel injectors Valve gear Engine oil Belt drive Air filter 06.3.2003 .doc Rev. - TPG-General. Level Time limit. The item content is described in the task list (see below). 1.1: Example of a maintenance schedule matrix - The matrix headings contain the individual maintenance items. Transportation) 10.
Check thickness of oil residue layer. If required (on request) a maintenance schedule with an extended matrix can be provided. Fuel injectors Fit new fuel injectors. Fuel duplex filter Replace filters. Check relief bores of water pump(s). - - 10. the maintenance tasks are to continue in accordance with the related intervals (see task list). TPG-General. Interval Item Level (hours/years) Maintenance tasks W1 -/- W1 W2 W2 W3 W3 W4 W4 W4 W4 W4 -/-/2 500/500/500/2 2000/3 2000/2 3000/3000/4000/- Check general conditions of engine and verify that there are no leaks. Check service indicator of fuel prefilter (if fitted). Combustion chambers Inspect cylinder chambers using endoscope. As a matter of principle the limit value (operating hours or years) that first becomes effective is to be used.e.11 Assembling Instructions (Lifting. This is indicated in the 3rd line.3 Task List The task list describes the maintenance tasks listed as positions in the matrix. Maint.2003 . Engine operation Check for abnormal running noises. Valve gear Check valve clearance. Air filter Fit new air filter(s). vibration. Thereafter. as a matter of principle. Fuel injection pumps Fit new fuel injector pumps. Check belt condition and tension. The 1st column of the matrix indicates the “Operating hours” at which a maintenance operation is to be executed. some maintenance tasks are subject to a time restriction. Check service indicator of air filter.doc Rev. The associated tasks are indicated by an “x” in the appropriate line.3. Engine oil Check level. The maintenance schedule matrix normally ends with the “Extended component maintenance”. Or replace when changing engine oil. 1. replace if Belt drive necessary. i. maintenance is to be carried out at the intervals indicated and not recommenced at the beginning of the matrix. “Time limit in years”. clean and Centrifugal oil filter change sleeve. exhaust gas colour. Drain off water and contamination at drain cock of fuel prefilter (if fitted). Transportation) In addition to the operating hours limits. Engine oil filter Replace.0 Page 10-3 06. Check drain lines of intercooler.
as a matter of principle. - With the new maintenance schedule concept it is still possible for tasks to be combined in individual blocks in accordance with the customer's wishes.2: Example task list - The “Maintenance level” serves only as an orientation for the qualifications required for the maintenance personnel and the tool kits required. Back to Start of Chapter TPG-General. Replace turbocharger. oil service life may be optimized by regular laboratory analyses. Check vibration damper. The time intervals are based on the average results of operational experience and. drain coolant and flush cooling systems. are guideline values only. Clean air ducting. Check rocker arms. however. Reason: - The oil service life is influenced by the quality of the oil. - - - Note: Change intervals for fluids and lubricants are no longer included in the maintenance schedule. The “Interval” defines the maximum permissible operational period between the individual maintenance tasks for each component/item in operating hours/years referenced to the specified load profile (see cover sheet). However.3.0 Back to Contents Page 10-4 06. operational conditions and the fuel used. Reduction of the intervals is. It is. mandatory to ensure that the maximum permissible maintenance intervals for each position are not exceeded. W5 4000/18 Component maintenance Figure 10. oil filtration. 1. In individual applications. Transportation) Maint. pushrods and ball joints for wear.doc Rev. therefore. Clean intercooler and check it for leaks. The coolant service life depends on the type of coolant additive(s) used. Detailed task descriptions are contained in the engine-related Operation Manual. Check wear pattern of cylinder-liner running surfaces. possible. modifications may be necessary. In the case of arduous operating conditions. These are defined in the MTU Fluids and Lubricants Specification A001061.11 Assembling Instructions (Lifting. The “Item” matches the data given in the headings of the maintenance schedule matrix.2003 . this can have a negative effect on overall maintenance costs. Interval Item Level (hours/years) Maintenance tasks Before starting maintenance work. The “Maintenance tasks” column lists the individual maintenance tasks per item. valve bridges.
0 Page 11-1 06. Transportation) 11 ASSEMBLING INSTRUCTIONS (LIFTING. 1.2003 .11 Assembling Instructions (Lifting.doc Rev. TRANSPORTATION) Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General.
doc Rev. Storage. 1.2003 . Starting 12 TRANSPORTATION.12 Transportation. STORAGE.0 Page 12-1 06. STARTING Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General.
0 Page 13-1 06.13 Pilot Installation Description (PID) 13 PILOT INSTALLATION DESCRIPTION (PID) Back to Start of Chapter Back to Contents TPG-General.2003 .doc Rev. 1.
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