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to Eurocode 2
Other titles of interest to civil engineers:
Civil Engineering Materials, fifth edition EDITED BY N. JACKSON & R. K. DHIR
Civil Engineering Quantities, sixth edition 1. H. SEELEY
Design of Structural Elements w. M. c. McKENZIE
Design of Structural Timber to EC5, second edition w. M. c. McKENZIE
Design of Structural Masonry w. M. c. McKENZIE
Design of Structural Steelwork w. M. c. McKENZIE
Engineering Hydrology, fourth edition E. M. WILSON
Highway Traffic Analysis and Design, third edition R.J . SALTER
& H. B. HOUNSEll
Soil Mechanics, second edition G. E. BARNES
Structural Mechanics, second edition R. HULSE & J. A. CAIN
Surveying for Engineers, fourth edition J. UREN &: w. F. PRI CE
Timber, seventh edition H. E. DESCH AND J. M. DINWOODIE
Understanding Hydraulics, second edition LES HAM ILL
Understanding Structures, third edition DEREK SEWARD
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to Eurocode 2
pal grave
!.. W. H. Mosley and J. H. Bungey 1976, 1982, 1987, 1990
f ' W. H. Mosley, J. H. Bungey and R. Hulse 1999, 2007
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may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages.
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the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and
Patents Act 1988.
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page viii
1 Properties of reinforced concrete
1.1 Composite action
1.2 Stress-strain relations
1. 3 Shrinkage and thermal movement
1.4 Creep
1.5 Durability
1.6 Specification of materials
2 Limit state design
2.1 Limit states 16
2.2 Characteristic material strengths and characteristic loads
2.3 Partial factors of safety
2.4 Combination of actions
2.5 Global factor of safety 27
3 Analysis of the structure at the ultimate limit state
3. 1 Actions
3.2 Load combinations and patterns
3.3 Analysis of beams
3.4 Analysis of frames
3.5 Shear wall structures resisting horizontal loads
3.6 Redistribution of moments
4 Analysis of the section
4.1 Stress- strain relations
4.2 Distribution of strains and stresses across a section in bending
4.3 Bending and the equivalent rectangular stress block
4.4 Singly reinforced rectangular section in bending at the ultimate
limit stale
4.5 Rectangular section wi th compression reinforcement at the
ultimate limit state
4.6 Flanged seclion in bending at the ultimate limit state 72
4.7 Moment redistribution and the design equations
4.8 Bending plus axial load at the ultimate limit state
4.9 Rectangular- parabolic stress block
4.10 Triangular stress block
vi Contents
5 Shear, bond and torsion 99
5.1 Shear 100
5.2 Anchorage bond
5.3 Laps in reinforcement 116
5.4 Analysis of section subject to torsional moments 118
6 Serviceability, durabil ity and stability requirements 124
6.1 Detai li ng requirements 125
6.2 Span-effective depth ratios 133
6.3 Calculation of deflection 136
6.4 Flexural cracking 147
6.5 Thermal and shrinkage cracking
6.6 Other serviceabil ity requirements 156
6.7 Limitation of damage caused by accidental loads 158
6.8 Design and detail ing for seismic effects 163
7 Design of reinforced concrete beams 169
7.1 Preliminary analysis and member sizing 171
7.2 Design for bending of a rectangular section with no moment
redistribution 174
7.3 Design for bendi ng of a rectangular section with moment
redistribution 178
7.4 Flanged beams 182
7.5 One-span beams 186
7.6 Design for shear 187
7.7 Continuous beams 191
7.8 Cantilever beams and corbels 197
7.9 Curtailment and anchorage of reinforcing bars 202
7.10 Design for torsion 204
7.11 Servi ceabil ity and durability requirements 208
8 Design of reinforced concrete slabs 209
8.1 Shear in slabs 210
8.2 Span- effective depth ratios 216
8.3 Reinforcement details 217
8.4 Solid slabs spanni ng in one direction 218
8.5 Solid slabs spanning in two directions 223
8.6 Flal slab floors 228
8.7 Ribbed and holl ow block floors 236
8.8 Stair slabs 241
8.9 Yield line and strip methods 245
9 Column design 252
9.1 Loading and moments 253
9.2 Column classification and failure modes 254
9.3 Reinforcement details 258
Short columns resisting moments and axial forces 260
9.5 Non-rectangular sections 269
9.6 Biaxial bending of short columns 272
9. 7 Design of slender columns
9.8 Walls
10 Foundations and retaining walls
1 0.1 Pad footings
1 0. 2 Combined footings
10.3 Strap footings
1 0.4 Strip footings
10.5 Raft foundations
1 0.6 Piled foundations
10.7 Design of pi le caps
10.8 Retaining wall s
11 Prestressed concrete
11.1 Pri nciples of prestressing
11 .2 Methods of prestressing
11. 3 Analysis of concrete section under working loads
11 .4 Design for the serviceability limi t state
1 1 .5 Analysis and design at the ultimate limit state
12 Composite construction
1 2.1 The design procedure
1 2. 2 Design of lhe steel beam for conditi ons during construction
12.3 The composite section at the ultimate limit state
1 2.4 Design of shear connectors
1 2.5 Transverse reinforcement in the concrete fl ange
12.6 Deflection checks at the serviceability limit state
Appendi x
Furt her reading
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Contents vii
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The purpose of thi s book is to provide a straightforward introduction to the principles
and methods of design for concrete structures. lL is directed primari ly at students and
young engineers who requi re an understandi ng of the basic theory and a guide
to design procedures. Although the detail ed desi gn methods arc generall y according to
European Standards (Curococles), much or the theory and practkc is of a l"undamental
nature and should, therefore. be usel"ul Lo engineers in countries outsi de Europe.
The search for harmonisation of Techni cal Standards across the European
Community (EC) hw; led LO the clevel opmeut or a seri es or these SrrtrC/11./"(i/ Eurocodes
which arc the techni cal documents intended for adopti on throughout all the member
states. The use of these common standards is intended to tower trncle barriers and enable
companies to compete on a more equitable basis throughout the EC. Eurocode 2 (EC2)
deals with the design of concrete structures, whit.:h has most recently been covered in
the UK by Briti sh Standard BS811 0. B$8 11 0 i s schedul ed for withdrawal in 2008.
Eurocode 2. which will consist of 4 parts. also adopts the limit state principles
established in British Standards. This hook refers primarily to part I , dealing with
general rules for buildings. curol"ode 2 must he used in conjunction with other
European Standard:. including Eurocodc 0 (Basis of Oc!;ign) that deals with analysis and
Eurocode I (Actions) that covers loadings on Other relevant Standards
are Eurocode 7 (Geotechnical Design) and Eurocodc 8 (Seismic Design).
.. Several UK bodies have also produced a range or supporting documents gi ving
commentary and hackground explanation for some or the requi rements of the code.
Further supporting documentation includes, for each separate country, the Nati01wl
Annex which includes informat ion specinc to the incli vicluaJ member stotes and i s
l' upported in the UK by Lhe British Standards publicmion PD 66B7:2006 which provides
huckground informnrion. Adcli tionnll y, the Briti sh Cement Association has produced
"111<1 Concise Eurocode .fbr the DesigH of Concrere Buildinf:(S whi ch cont:ains materi <J I
that has been disti ll ed from EC2 but is pregented in a way that. makes it. more user-
fri endly than the main Eurococle and contai ns only t'hal" informati on which is essenti al
ror tht: desi gn of more everyday concrete struct ures. The Inst i tution of Structural
Engi neers has al so produced a new edition of their Design Manual. These l allcr two
documents also contain information not included in EC2 such as design charts and
design metJ10ds drawn from previous British Standards. In thi s text. rercrencc i s made to
both EC2 and the Concise Code.
The presentation of EC2 is oriented towards computer solution of equations.
encompasses higher concrete strengths and is quite different from lhat of BS8110.
However the essential feature of EC2 i s that the principles of design embodied in the
document are almost identical to the principles inherent in the use of BS8110. Hence,
although there arc some differences in details. engineers who are used to designing to
the existing British Standard should have no difficulty in grasping the essential features
of this new code. )lew grades of reinforcing steel have been recently been imroduced
and design is now based on concrete cylinder strength. wi th both of these changes
incorporated in this edition.
Changes in terminol ogy. arising partly from language differences. have resulted i n
the introduction of a few terms that are unfamil i ar to engineers who have worked with
BS8110. The most obvious of these is the use of actions to describe the loading on
strucwrcs and the use of the terms permanent and l'ariable actions to describe dead and
imposed loads. Notwithstanding this, UK intluence in drafting the documcm has heen
very strong and terminology is broadly the same as in existing British Standmds.
Throughout this text. terminology has been kept generall y in l ine with commonly
accepted UK practice and hence. for example. loads and ac1ions are used
interchangeably. Other ' new' terminology is identified at appropriate points in the text.
The subject mlltter in thi s book has been arranged so that chapters I to 5 deal mostly
with theory and analysis whil e the subsequent chapters cover the desi gn and cletniling of
various types of member ancl structure. Tn order to include topics that arc usuall y iJl an
undergraduate course. there i s a section on earth-retai ning st tucLurcs anti also chnpters
on prestressed concrete nncl composite construct ion. A new section on seismi c design
has also been added.
lmporl ant equations thnt have been derived within the text are hi ghli ghted by an
asterisk adjacent to the equation number and in the Appendix a summary of key
equati ons i s given. Where it has been necessary to indutlc materi al tl1a1 i s not directl y
provided by the Eurocodcs, this has been based on cuncntly accepted UK good practice.
Jn preparing this new editi on I which replaces Reil!{orced Crmcrl'le Design to EC2
( 1996) by the some authors]. the principal aim has been to retain the st ructure and
features of the well-established book Reii!(Orced Concrcle De.1ign hy Mosley. Bungey
and Hulse (Pal grave) which based on Briti sh Standards. By comparing the books it
is to see the essential between Eurocode 2 and existing British
Standards and to contrast the different outcomes when st ructures arc to
either code.
It should be emphasised that Codes of Prattice are al ways liable to be revised. and
readers should cnst1rc that they arc usi ng the latest edition of any relevant standard.
Finally, lhe authors woul d like to thank Mrs Mary Davi son ror her hard work.
patience and assistance with the prepnrnti on or the manuscri pl.
Permission to reproduce EC2 Figures 5.2, 5.3, 6.7, 8.2. 8J, 8.7. 8.9. 9.4 nncl 9.9 and
Tables A 1. 1 (EN 1990), 7 .4. 8.2 and 8.3 from BS EN 1992- 1- 1: 2004 i s grnnted by l3S I,
British Standards can he obtained from BS.I Customer Servi ces. Chiswick lligh
Road. London W4 4AL (tel. +44 (0)20 8996 9001, email: cservi ces@hsi-gl
We would al so like to acknowledge and thank ARUP for permission to reproduce the
photographs shown in chapters 2 to 8, and 12.
The photograph of The Tower. East Side Plaza, Portsmouth (cover unci chapter 1) is
reproduced by courtesy of Stephenson RC Frame Contracror. Oakwood House.
Gui ldford Road, Bucks Green, Horsham, West Sussex.
Dedicated to all our families for their encouragement
and patience whilst writing this text
Preface ix
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Notation is generally in accordance with EC2 and the principal symbols are listed
below. Other symbols are defined in the text where necessary. The symbols c for strain
and f for stress have been adopted throughout, with the general system of subscripts
such that the first subscript refers to the material, c - concrete, s - steel. and the second
subscript refers to the type of stress, c - compression, t - tension.
1/ r
moclu lus of elasticity
loacl (action)
permanent load
second moment of area
prestress loss factor
moment or bending moment
:txial load
variabl e load
torsional moment
shear force
breadth or width
effective depth of tension rei nforcement
depth to compression reinforcement
overnl l depth of section in plane of bending
radius of gyration
coefli cient
length or span
ultimate load per unit area
curvature of a beam
spacing of shear reinforcement or depth or ~ t r e s s block
th ickness
punching shear perimeter
neutral axis depth
lever arm
concrete cross-sectional area
cross-sectional area of prestressing tendons
cross-sectional area of tension reinforcement
cross-sectjonal area of compression reinforcement
cross-sectional area of tension reinforcement required al the ultimate limit
As,p,.ov cross-sectional area of tension reinforcement provided at the ultimate limit
A,w cross-sectional area of shear reinforcemem in the form of links or bent-up bars
f ern secant modulus of elasticity of concrete
E, modulus of elasticity of reinforcing or prestressing steel
Gl characteristic permanent load
lc second moment of area of concrete
NhnJ moment on a column corresponding to the balanced condition
ME.r design value of moment
Nlu ultimate moment of resistance
Nb:d axial load on a colunm corresponding to the balanced condition
NEd design va lue of axial force
initial prestress force
characteri stic variable load
Tec1 design value of torsional moment
Vf',d design value of force
wk characteri sti c wind load
hw minimum width of section
characteristi c cylinder strength of concrete
mean cyl indcr strength of concrete
mean tensi le strength of concrete
">k characteristic yield strength of prestressing steel
/ yk characteristic yield strength of reinforcement
gl characterist ic permanent load per unit area
k1 average compressive stress in the concrete for a rectangular parabolic stress
k2 a factor that relates the depth to the cenrroid of the rectangular parabolic stress
block and the depth to the neutral axis
lever-arm factor = z/ d
effective height or column or wall
qk chaructcri stic variable load per unit area
0' coel'licient or thermal expansion
Cl'e modul ar rati o
't/J action combinution factor
'Yc partinl sal'cly factor for concrete strength
'Yr parl'i nl snl'el.y l'aclor for loads (actions), F
')'n parl'ial safety !'actor for permanent loads, G
/ 'Q partial safety l'ador for vari able loads, Q
'' partial safety !'actor for steel strength
o moment redi stribution factor
e strain
0' stress
(j; bar diameter
Notation for composite construction, Chapter 12
Au Area of a structural steel section
A" Shear area of a structural steel section
h Width of the steel flange

Notation xi
xii Notation


f w

Effective width of the concrete fl ange
Clear depth of steel web or diameter of the shank of the shear stud
Modulus of el asticity of steel
Effective modulus of el asti city of concrete
Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete
Mean value of the axial tensile strength of concrete
Nominal value of the yield strength of the structural steel
Specified ultimate tensile strength
Overall depth: thickness
Depth of structural steel secti on
Thickness of the concrete flange
Overal l depth of the profiled steel sheeting excluding embossments
Overall nominal height of a shear stud connector
Second moment of area ol' the structural steel section
Second moment of area of the transfonnetl concrete area and the structural
steel area
Reduction factor for resi stance of headed stud with profi led steel :;heeti ng
parall el with the beam
Reduction factor for resi stance of headed stud with profi led steel sheeting
trnnsverse to the beam
Length. span
Moment of resistance of the composi te secti on
Modul ar ratio or number of shear connectors
umber of shear connectors for full shear connection
Design value of the shear resistance of a si ngl e connector
Resistance of the concrete Aangc
Resistance of the concrete above the neutral axis
of the steel section
Resi stance of the steel flange
Resi stance of the steel flange above the neutral axis
Resistance or the cl ear web depth
Rcsistnnce or the overall web depth = Rs = 2R,r
Resi stnnce of the web above the neutral axis
Thi ckness of the steel fl ange
Thickness of the steel web
Plastic secti on modulus of a steel stn.1ctural secti on
Distance to the centroid of a section
Lever arm
Deflecti on at mid span
Constant equal to )235/.{y where.fy is in N/mm
factor of safety
Longi tudinal shear stress in the concrete flange
Degree of shear connection
Properties of

Reinforced concrete is a strong durable building material that can be formed into
many varied shapes and sizes ranging from a simple rectangular column, to a slender
curved dome or shell. Its utility and versatility are achieved by combining the best
features of concrete and steel. Consider some of the widely differing properties of
these two materials that are listed below.
strength in tension
strength In
strength In shear
fire resistance
Concrete Steel
good, but slender bars wi ll
corrodes if unprotected
poor - suffers rapid loss of
strength at high temperatures
It can be seen from this list that the materials are more or less
complementary. Thus, when they are combined, the steel is able
to provide the tensile strength and probably some of the shear
strength while the concrete, strong in compression, protects the
steel to give durability and fire resistance. This chapter can present
only a brief introduction to the basic properties of concrete and its
steel reinforcement. For a more comprehensive study, it is
recommended that reference should be made to the specialised
texts listed in Further Reading at the end of the book.
2 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 1. 1
Composite action
1.1 Composite action
The tensile strength of concrete is only about 10 per cent of t11e compressive strength.
Because of this, nearly all reinforced concrete structures are designed on the assumption
that tile concrete does not resist any tensile forces. Reinforcement is designed to carry
these tensile forces. which arc transferred by bond between the interface of the two
materi als. If this bond is not adequate. the reinforcing bars will just slip within the
concrete and there will not be a composite action. Thus members should be detailed
so that the concrete can be well compacted around the reinforcement during
construction. In addition, bars are normall y ri bbed so that there is an extra
mechanical grip.
111 the analysis and design of the composite reinforced concrete section, it is assumed
that there is a perfect bond, so that the strai n in the reinforcement is identical to the
strain in the adjacent concrete. This ensures that there is whm is known as 'compatibility
of strains' across the cross-section of the member.
The coefficients of thermal expansion for steel and for concrete are of the order of
I 0 X I o-
per "C and 7-12 X 10-
per "C respecti vely. These values are sufficiently
close that problems with bond seldom ari se f'rom diff'ercnti al expansion between the two
materi als over normal temperature ranges.
Fi gure 1. 1 illustrates the behaviour of' a simpl y supported beam subjected to bending
and shows the position of steel rei nl'orcement to resist the tensil e whi le the
compression forces in the top of the beam arc carried by the concrete.

Distri buti on
Section A-A
Wherever tension occurs it is likely that cracking of the concrete wi ll l:ake place. This
cracking, however, docs not detract from the safety of the structure provided there is
good rei nforcement bonding to ensure that the cracks arc restrained from opening so
that the embedded steel continues to be protected from corrosion.
When the compressive or shearing forces exceed the strength of the concrete, then
steel reinforcement must again be provided, but in cases il is only required to
supplement the load-carrying capacity of the concrete. For example. compression
reinforcement is generally required in a column, where it takes the form of vertical bars
spaced ncar the perimeter. To prevent rhese bars buckli ng, steel binders are used to
assist the restraint provided by the surrounding concrete.
Properties of reinforced concrete 3
1.2 Stress-strain relations
The loads on a structure cause distortion of its members with resulting stresses and
strains in the concrete and the steel reinforcement. To carry out the analysis and design
of a member it is necessary to have a knowledge of the relationship between these
stresses and strains. Tlus knowledge is particularly impottant when dealing with
reinforced concrete which is a composite material; for in this case the analysis of the
suesses on a cross-section of a member musr consider the equilibrium of the forces in
the concrete and steel, and also the compatibility of the strains across the cross-section.
1.2.1 Concrete
Concrete is a very variable material, having a wide range of strengths and stress- wain
curves. A typi cal curve for concrete in compression is shown in figure 1. 2. As the load is
applied, the ratio between the stresses and strains is approximately l.inear Ht rirst and the
concrete behaves almost as an elastic material with virtual ly full recovery of
di splacement if the loud is removed. Eventually, the curve is no longer linear und the
concrete behaves more and more ~ a plastic material. II' the load were removed during
the plasti.c rnnge the recovery would no longer be complete :mel n permanent
deformati on would remain. The ultimate strain for most structural concretes tends to be
a constant value of approximately 0.0035, although thi s is likely to rcdut:c for concretes
wit h t:ubc strengths above nboul 60 N/mm
. BS EN I \>92 ' Design of Concrete
Structures' - commonly known as Eurocodc 2 (or EC2) recommends values for use
in such cases. The precise shape of the stress-strain curve is very dependent on the
length of time the load is applied. a factor which wi ll be further di scussed in section 1.4
on creep. Figure 1.2 is typical for n short-term loading.
Concrete generally increases its strength with age. This characteristic is illustrated by
the graph in figure 1.3 which shows how the increase is rapid at first. becoming more
gradual later. The precise relationship will depend upon the type of cement used. That
shown is for the typical vari ation of nn adequately cured concrete made wit h commonly
used class 42.5 Portland Cement. Some codes of practice allow the concrete st rength

28 3
days months
Age of concrete (log sc.ale)
Figure 1.2
Stress-strain CUIVe for
concrete in compression
Figure 1.3
Increase or concrete strength
with age. Typical curve for a
concrete made with a
class 42.5 Portland cemenl
wllh a 28 d<Jy compressive
strength of 30N/mm
Reinforced concrete design
used in design to be varied according to the age of the concrete when it supports the
design l oad. European Codes, however, do not permit the use of strengths greater than
the 28-day value in calculations, bm the modulus of elasticity may be modified to
account for age as shown later.
ln the United Kingdom, compressive stress has traditionally been measured and
expressed in terms of 150 mm cube crushing strength at an age of 28 days. Most other
countries use 150 mm diameter cylinders which are 300 mm long. ror normal strength
concretes. the cylinder strength is. on average. about 0.8 x the cube strength. All design
calculations to EC2 are based on the characteristic cyl inder strength as defined in
secti on 2.2.1 . Cube strengths may however be used for compliance purposes, with the
ch .. racteristi c strength identified as cube
Concretes wil l normal ly be specified in terms of these 28-day characteri sllc strengths,
!'or example strength class C35/45 concrete has a characteri sti c cylinder strength of
35 N/mm
and a characteri stic cube stJength of 45 N/mm
. It wi ll be noted that there i s
some rounding off' in these values. which are usual l y quoted i n multiples of 5 N/mm
for cube strength. Concretes made wi th l ightweight nggn;gatcs are identified by the
preli x LC.
Modulus of elasticity of concrete
lt i s seen from the stress-strain curve for concrete that al though elast'ic behaviour may
be assumed for stresses below about one-third of the ul timate compressive strength, this
relationship is not truly li near. Consequenlly it i s to define precisely what
value is to be taken as the modulus of elasticity.
A number of alternative definitions exist, lnu the most commonly adopted is E = Ecm
where Ecm is known as the secam or swrir modulus. This i s measured for a particular
concrete by means or a static test in which a cylinder i s l oaded to above one-third of
tl1e correspontling mean control cube stress cube or 0.4 mean cylinder strength. and
then cycled back to zero stress. Thi!> removes the effect or initial 'bedding-in' and minor
stress redistributions in the concrete under load. The load i s reapplied anclthc behaviour
wi ll then be almost linear; the average sl ope of the line up to the specili ed stress is taken
as the value for E<:m The test is describecl in detnil in BS 188 1 and the resul t i s generall y
known as the secan1 modulus elclSi icity.
The dynamit modulus of elasticity, Ed. is sometimes ref erred to this i s much
easier to measure in the laboratory nnd there i s u wel l-cleftned relationshi p
between and E". The standard test is bnscd on determining the resonant frequency
or u pri sm spct:imcn and i s also described in BS l l:l8 l. It i s al so possible to obtain a good
estimate of Ed !'rom ultrasonic measuring techniques, which may sometimes be used on
site to assess the concrete in an actual structure. The stanclarcl test for fu is on an
unstressed specimen. [[ can be seen from figure 1.4 that the value obtained represents
the slope of the tangent at zero stress and Ed is therefore higher than Ecm The
relationship between the two moduli i s often taken as
Secant modulus Ecm = ( 1.25d 19) kN/mm
This equation is sufficiently accurate for normal design purposes.
The actual value of E for a concrete depends on many ractor!> related to the mix, but a
general relationship is considered to exist between the or and the
compressive strength.
Properties of reinforced concrete ~ 5
.; tangent or dynamic modulus
_ --\ secant or static modulus
Typical vulues of Ecr
for various concrete classes using gravel aggregates whi ch are
suitable for design arc ~ o w n in table 1.1. For limestone aggregates these vul ues should
be reduced by a !'actor of 0.9, or for basalt increased by a facLOr of 1. 2. Thu magnitude of
the modulus of el asticity is required when investigating the de!l ecti on and cracking or a
structure. When considering short-tenn effects. member stjffness will be based on the
stati c modulus Ecm defined above. If long-term effects are being considered, it can be
shown that the effect of creep can be represented by modifying the value or Ec
to an
effective value Ec,eff and this is discussed in section 6.3.2.
The elastic modulus at an age other than 28 days may be estimated from thi s table by
using the anticipated strength value at that age. lf a typical value of Poisson' s ratio is
needed, this should be tuken as 0.2 for regions which arc not subject to tension cracking.
1.2.2 Steel
Figure 1.5 shows typical stress-strain curves for (a) hot rolled high yield steel. and
(b) cold-worked high yield steel. Mi ld steel behaves as an clastic material , with the
stmi n proportionul 1o the stress up to the yield, ut whic:h point there is a sudden increase
in strain with no change in stress. After the yield point, !his becomes a plasti c material
and the st rain increases rapidly up to the ultimate value. Iligh yield steel. which is most
Table 1.1 Short-term modulus of elasticity of normal-weight gravel concrete
28 day characterlst:ic strength (N/mm
fck!fck. cube (cylinder/cube)
Static (secant) modulus
Figure 1.4
Moduli of elasticity of concrete
6 :. Reinforced concrete design
figure 1.5
Stress- strain curves for high
yield reinforcing steel
Figure 1.6
Strain hardening
(a) Hot rolled steel
0.2% proof
(b) Cold worked steel
commonly used for reinforcement. may behave in a similar m;mner or may, on the other
hand, not have such a definite yield point but may show a more gradual l:hange from
elasti l: to pla:-:tic behaviour and reduced ductility depending on the manufacturing
prol:css. All mater.ials have a simi l ar slope of the clasti c regi on with el ast ic modul us
Es = 200 kN/mm
The speciricd strength used in design is based on either the yield stress or a speci ried
proof' stress. A 0. 2 per cent proof stress is defined in 1'\gurc 1.5 by the broken line drawn
parallel to the linear part of the stress-strain curve.
Removal of the l oad within the pl astic range would result in I he stress- strain di agram
following a li ne approximately parallel to the loading pori i on - sec line BC in fi gure 1.6.
The steel will be left wi th a permanent strain AC. whi ch i s known as ' t-. li p'. If the steel i s
again loaded. lhe suess-strai n diagram will fol l ow the unl onding curve unti l it almost
reaches the original stress at B and then it will curve i n the direction of the first loading.
Thus, the proportional limit for the second loading i s higher I han for the initial loading.
This action is rel'tm-ed tO as strain hardening' or 'work hardening'.
The load deformntion of the steel is also dependent on the length of' time the load is
applied. Under a constant stress the strains will gradually increase - this phenomenon is
known as creep' or 'rel axation'. The mnount of creep that takes pl ace over a period of
time depends on the grade of steel and the magnitude of the stress. Creep of the steel is
of little significance in normal rei nforced concrete work, hut i1 is an important factor in
prestres:-:ed concrete where the prest ressing steel i s very hi ghl y st ressed.
1.3 Shrinkage and thermal movement
As wncrete hardens there i s a reduction in volu!ll e. Thi s shrinlwge i s liabl e to l:Huse
cracki ng of the concrete, but it also has the beneficial c!Tccl of strengthening the bond
between the concrete and the steel reinforcement. Shrinkage begins to take place as
soon as the concrete is mixed, and i s cause(.] initially by the absorpti on of the water by
lhe l:Oncrcte and the aggregate. Furrher shrinkage is caused by evaporation of the water
whi ch ri ses to the concrete smfnce. During the setting process the hy<.l rati on of the
cement causes a great deal of heat ro be generated, and as the concrete cools, flllther
shrinkage takes place as a result of thermal contraction. Even after the concrete has
hardened, shrinkage continues as drying out persist s over many months, and any
subsequent wetting and drying can also cause swelling and shrinkage. Thermal
shrinkage may be reduced by restricting the temperature rise during hydration, which
may be achieved by the following procedures:
1. Use a mix design with a l ow cement conterll or suitabl e cement replacement
(e.g. Pul verised Fuel Ash or Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Sl ag).

Properties of reinforced concrete .::i 7
2. Avoid rapid hardening and f inely ground cement if possible.
3. Keep aggregates and mixing water cool.
4. Use steel shuttering and cool with a water spray.
5. Strike the shuttering early to allow the heat of hydration to dissipate.
A low water-cement ratio will help to reduce drying shrinkage by keeping to a
minimum the vol ume of moisture that can be lost.
rr the change in volume of the concrete i s allowed to take pl ace freely and without
restrnint, there wi ll be no stress change within the concrete. Restraint of the shrinkage.
on the other hand. wi ll cause tensile strains and stresses. The restraint may be caused
externally by fixity with adjoining members or friction against an earth surface, and
internnlly by the nction of the steel reinforcement. For a long wall or fl oor sl ab, the
restraint from adjoining concrete may be reduced by constructing successive bays
instead of alternate bays. This allows the free end of every bay to contract before the
next bay is cast.
.Day-to-clay thermal expansion of the concrete can be greater than the movements
caused by shrinkage. Thermal stresses and may be controlled by the correct
positioni ng of movement or expansion j oints in a strut:turc. ror example, l'l1e joints
should be pl aced at an abrupt change in cross-set:tion and they should, in generul , pass
completel y through the structure in one plane.
When the tensi le stresses caused by shrinknge or thermal movement ext:cctl the
!-.trength of' the concrete. cracking will occur. To control the crack widt hs. steel
reinf'orcement must be provided close to the concrete surface: the codes of practice
specif'y minimum quantities of reinforcement in a member for this purpose.
Calculation of stresses induced by shrinkage
(a) Shrinkage restrained by the reinforcement
The shrinkage stresses caused by rei nfort:ement in an otherwise unrestrained member
may he calculated quite simpl y. The member shown in figure 1.7 has u free shrinkage
stmin of ec, if made of plain cont: rctc, but thi s overall movement is reduced by the
int:lusion or reinf'ort:ement, giving a compressive strnin in the steel and t:ausi ng an
ef'fectivc tensi le struin the concrete.
! "

_.) '--
Original member -
as cast
Plain concrete-
unresLrai ned
Reinforced concrete -
Reinforced concrete -
fully retrained
Figure 1.7
Shrinkage strains
Reinforced concrete design
( 1.1 )

is the tensile stress in com:retc area/\" is the compressive !;tress in steel
area !Is
Equating forces in the concrete and steel for equilibrium gives
- A,f,c (1.2)
fct - - f -..:
Substituting for

in equation I. I
. ( I)
e cs = .fsc --+ -
AcEcm Es
. Es
lUS I O:c =-

c, = f-c + E$
= h,c (aeAs + I)
L, 1\ c
Thercl'ore steel stress
Calculation of shrinkage stresses in concrete that is restrained by
reinforcement only
( l.3)
A member contains 1.0 per cent n:infun;cmcnt, and the Cree shrinkage strain C:c, of
the concrete is 200 x 1()-
. Por steel, Es = 200 kN/mm
and for concn:lc
= 15 kN/mm
. Hence from equ:nion 1.3:
, . EcsCs
stress 111 =
I '
T ete- A
200 X J0
X 200 X 1 (}
= ---..,2""0""' 0;------
1 ,- lS X 0.01
= 35.3 N/mrn
stress in concrete . .fcr ::::- A
= 0.01 X 35.3
= 0.35 N/nun
tension )

Properties of rei nforced concrete
The stresses produced in members free from external resuaint are generally small as
in example 1.1, and can he withstood both by the 'steel and tl1e concrete.
(b) Shrinkage fully restrained
If the member is fully restrained. then the steel crumot be in compression since tl;A; = 0
and hence J,.c = 0 (figure I. 7). In this case the tensile strain induced in the concrete tc
must he equal to the free shrinkage strain cs. and the corresponding stress will probably
be hi gh enough to cause cracking in immature concrete.
Calculation of fully restrained shrinkage stresses
rr the member in example 1.1 were full y restrained. the stress in the concrete would be
gi ven by
ec1 = ec, = 200 X I o-<i
.f.:1 200 X 10
X 15 X 10'
When cracking occurs. the uncracked lengths of concrete try to contract so thnt the
embedded steel between cracks is in compression while the steel across the cracks is in
tension. This feature is accompanied by localised bond breakdown, adjacent to each
crnck. The equilibrium of the concrete and reinforcement is shown in figure 1.8 and
cal cul ations may be devel oped to relate crack widths and spacings to properties of the
cross-section; this is exami ned in more detail in chapter 6, which deals with
serviceabi lil y requirements.
Thermal movement
As the coefficients of thermal expansion of steel and concrete (ar. s and o:,., c) are
similar. differential movement between the steel and concrete will only be very small
and is unlikely to cause cracking.
The di f ferential thermal strain due to a temperature change T may be calculated as
T(a-r.c- Ct,-.,)
and should be added to the shrinkage strain Ecs if si gnificant.
Figure 1.8
Shrinkage forces adj acent toil
Reinforced concrete design
ShortIM>l tanlc
Figure 1.9
Typical increase of
deformation with time for
The overal l thermal conuaction of concrete is. however, frequently effective in
producing the first crack in a restrained member. since the required temperature changes
could easily occur overnight in a newly cast member. even with good control of the heat
generated during the hydration processes.
Thermal shrinkage
Find the faJJ in temperature required to cause cracking in a restrained member if ultimate
tensile strength of the concrete - 2 N/mrn
= 16 kN/mm
!'l:T, c = OT,, = !0 X 10-
per C.
Ultimate tensile strain of concrete
= 125 X 10
I X 10
Mi ni mum lcmpcrature tlrop to cause cracking
It should be notctlthal full restraint, as assumed in this example, is unlikely to occur
in practice: thus the temperature change required 10 cause cracking is increased. A
maximum 'restraint factor' of 0.5 is nflen used. with lower where external
restrnint is likely to be smal l. The temperature drop required would then be given by the
theoretical minimum divided by the reS!I'aint factor'. i.e. 12.5/0.5 = 25<C in this
1.4 Creep
Creep is the continuous clet'ormntion of a member under sustained loutl . Tt is "
phenomenon associated with many materia ls, but it is parti cularl y evident with concrete.
The precise behaviour of a pnrti cul ar concrete depends on the aggregates and the mi x
design as wel l as the ambient humidiry, member cross-section, nnd nge at (irst loading,
hut the general pattern is illustrated by considering :1 member subjected to axial
compression. For such a me1nber, a typical variation of deformati on with rjme is shown
by the curve in fi gure 1.9.
The characteristics of creep are
1. The fi nal deformation of the member can he three to four times the shorHerm
elastic deformation.
2. The deformation is roughly proportional to the intensity of loading and to the
inverse of the concrete strength.
3. If the load is removed. only the instantaneous elastic deformation will recover- the
plastic deformation will nor.
4. There is a redistribution or load between the concrete and any steel present.

Properties of rei nforced concrete <_:!2
The redi stribution of load is caused by the changes in compressi ve strains being
transferred to the reinforcing steel. Thus the compressive stresses i n the steel are
increased so that the steel takes a larger propo1tion of the load.
The effects of creep are parti cularly important in beams, where the increased
deflections may cause tJ1e opening of cracks, damage to finishes. and the non-alignment
of mechanical equipment. Redistribution of stress between concrete and steel occurs
primaril y in the uncracked compressive areas and has li ttle effect on the tension
reinforcement other than reducing shrinkage stresses in some instances. The provision
of reinforcement in the compressi ve zone of a nexural member. however. often helps to
restrain the due to creep.
1.5 Durability
Concreto Htructuros, properl y desi gned and constructed, 11 re long l asting und should
require little maintcnunt.;o. The durability of the concrete i s inlluenced by
1. the exposure conditi ons;
2. tho cement type;
3. tho concrete quality:
4. the cover to the rei nforcement;
5. the width of any cracks.
Concrete can be exposed to a wide range of conditi ons such as the soil. !.ea water.
de-ici ng salts, stored chemicals or the atmosphere. The severity or the exposure governs
the type of concrete mix required and the minimum cover to the reinforcing steel.
Whatever the exposure, the concrete mix should be made from impervious and
chemi cally inert A dense, well -compacted concrete wit h a low water-
cement ratio is all important and for some soi l condi tions it is advisabl e to usc a sulfate-
resiHti ng cement. Air entrainment is usually specifi ed where i t i s necessary to cater for
repeated f'reezing and thawing.
Adequate cover is essenti al to prevent corrosi ve agents reachi ng the rei nforcement
through cracks and pervious concrete. The thi ckness of cover required depends on the
severity of' the exposure and the quality of the concrete (us shown in t.uhl c 6. 2). The
cover i s al so necessary to protect the reinforcemenL against a rapid ri se in temperature
and subsequent l oss of strength during a fi re. Part 1.2 of EC2 provides gui dance on t.his
and other nspects of ti re desi gn. Durability requirements with rcluted design cul eul alions
to check nnd control crack widt hs and depths arc descr ibed in more dctuil in chapter 6.
1.6 Specification of materials
1.6.1 Concrete
The selection of the type of concrete is frequently governed by the strength required,
which in turn depends on tl 1e intensi ty of loadi ng and the forn1 and size of the struct ural
members. For exampl e, in the l ower columns of a multi-storey buil di ng a higher-
S!rength concrete may be chosen in preference to greatl y increasi ng the size of the
column section with a resultant loss in clear floor space.
12 Reinforced concrete design
As indicated in section 1.2.1, the concrete strength is assessed by measuring the
crushing strength of cubes or cylinders of concrete made from the mix. These are
usually cured, and tested after 28 days according to standard procedures. Concrete of a
given strength is identified by its ' class' - a Class 25/30 concrete has a characteristic
cylinder crushing strength of 25 N/mm
and cube strength of 30 N/mm
. Table 1.2
shows a list of commonly used classes and also the lowest class normally appropriate
for various types of construction.
Exposure conditions and durability can also afTect the choice of the mix design and
the class of concrete. A structure suhject to conosive conditions in a chemical plant, for
example, would require a denser and higher class of concrete than, say, the interior
members of a school or office block. Although Class 42.5 Portland cement would be
used in most structures, other cement types can also be used to advantage. Blast-furnace
or sulfate-resisting cement may be used to resist chemical ullack, low-heat cements in
massive sections to reduce the heat of hydrati on, or rapid-hardeni ng cement when a high
enrly strength is required. ln some circumstances it mny be useful to replace some or the
cement by materials such as Pulverised Fuel Ash or Grouud Granu lated Blast Furnace
Sing which have slowly developing cernentitious propert'i es. These wi ll reduce the heat
of hydration and may also lead to a smnlter pore structure and incn.:ased durability.
Generally, naturul aggregates found locnlly preferred: however, manufactured
lightweight material may be used when self-weight is importnnt. or " special dense
aggregate when radiation shielding is required.
The concrete mix may either be ci<L'$sified as 'designed' or 'designnted' . A "designed
concrete' is one where the strength class, cement type. and limits to composition.
including water-cement ratio and cement content. nrc specified. With a 'designated
concrete' the producer musr provide a material to satisfy the designated strength class
and consistence (workability) using a particular aggregate site. 'Designated concretes
are identified as RC30 (for example) based on cube st rength up to RC50 according to
the application involved. 'Designed concretes are needed in silllations where
' designated concretes' cannot be used on the basis of durability requirements (e.g.
Tabl e 1.2 Strength classes of concrete
fcl (N/mm
) Norma/lowest class for use os specified
(16/20 16 Plain concrete
C20/25 20 Reinforced concrete
C25/30 25
C28/35 28 Prestressed concrele/Reinforced concrete
subject to chlorides
30 Reinforced concrete in foundations
C32/40 32
C35/45 35
C45/55 45
C50/60 50
C55/67 55
(60/ 75 60
C70/85 70
CB0/ 95 80
C90/1 05 90

Properti es of reinforced concrete
chloride-induced conosion). Detailed requirements for mix specification and com-
pliance arc given by BS EN206 concrete - Performance. Production, Placing and
Compliance Cliteria' and BS8500 'Concrete - Complementary British Srandard to
BS E\'206'
1.6.2 Reinforcing steel
Table 1.3 lists the characteri stic design strengths of some of the more common types of
reinforcement currentl y used in the UK. Grade 500 (500N/mm
characteri stic strength)
has replaced Grade 250 and Grade 460 reinforci ng steel throughout Europe. The
nominal si7.e or a bar is the diameter of an equivalent ci rcular area.
Grade 250 bars arc hot-rolled m.ild-steeJ bars which usuall y have a srnooth surrace so
that the bond with the concrete is by adhesion onl y. Thi s type or bar can be more readily
bent, so they have in l he past been used where smal l radius bends arc necessary, such as
l inks in narrow beams or colunUls, but plai n bars arc not now recogni sed in the
Uni on and they nJe no longer avai lable for general use i n the UK.
lligh-yicld bars are manufactured with a ribbed surfnce or in the form of n twisted
square. Square twisted bnrs have inferior bond characteristics and have been used in the
past, although they are now obsolete. Deformed bars have a mechani cal bond wi th the
conl:rctc, thus enlumcing ul timate bond ns described in section 5.2. The bending
or high-yi eld bars through a small radius i s liable to cause tension cracking of the steel,
and to avoid this t11e radius of the bend should not be less than two times the nominal
bar size for small bars 16 mm) or 3\12 times for larger bars (sec figure 5.11 ). The
ductility of reinforcing steel i s also classified for design purposes. Ribbed high yield
bars may be classified as:
Class A - which is normally associated with small diameter ( < 12 mm) cold-worked
bars used in mesh and fabric. This is the lowest ductil ity category and will include
on moment redistribution which can be applied (sec section 4.7) and higher
quantities for fire resistance.
Class B - which is most commonl y used for reinforci ng bars.
Cl ass C- high ducti lity whi ch may be used in eart hquake design or simi l ar si tuations.
Fl oor slabs. wall s, shells and roads may be rei nforced with a welclecl fabri c of
rcinforccmcnL, supplied in rolls and havi ng a square or rectangular mesh. Thi s can give
large economi cs in the detai ling of the reinforcement and also in site l abour costs of
handling and fi xing. Prefabricated reinforcement bnr assembli es are also becoming
increasingly popul ar for si mi lar reasons. Welded fabric mesh made of ribbed wire
greulcr than 6 mm dinmeter may be of any of the i ty cl<lsses li sted ubovc.
Table 1.3 Strength of reinforcement
Hot-rolled high yield
Cold-worked high yield
Normal sizes (mm)
All sizes
Up to and including 12
Note that BS4449 will be replaced by BS EN1 0080 in due course.
Specified characteristic
strength fyk (N/mm
Reinforced concrete design
The cross-sectional areas and perimeters of various sizes of bars. and the cross-
sectional area per unit width of slabs are listed in the Appendix. Reinforci ng bars in a
member should either be straight or bent to standard shapes. These shapes must be fully
dimensioned and listed in a schedule of the reinforcement which is used on site for the
bending and fixing of the bars. Standard bar shapes and a method of scheduling are
specified in BS8666. The bar types as previously described are commonly identified by
the following codes: H for high yield steel, irrespective of ductility class or HA, HB, HC
where a specific ducti lity class is required: this notation is generally used throughout
this book.

Limit state
limit slate design of an engineering structure must ensure that (1) under the worst
loadings the structure is safe, and (2) during normal working conditions the
deformation of the members does not detract from the appearance, durability or
performance of the structure. Despite the difficulty in assessing the precise loading
and variations in the strength of the concrete and steel, these requirements have to be
met. Three basic methods using factors of safety to achieve safe, workable structures
have been developed over many years; they are
1. The permissible stress method in which ultimate strengths of the materials are
divided by a factor of safety to provide design stresses which are usually within the
elastic range.
2. The load factor method in which the working loads are multiplied by a factor
of safety.
3. The limit state method which multipli es the
working loads by partial factors of safety and
also divides the materials' l.l ltimate strengths
by further partial factors of safety.
The permissible stress method has proved to
be a simpl e and useful method but it does have
some serious inconsistencies and is generally no
longer In use. Because it is based on an elastic
stress distribution, it is not really applicable to a
semi-plastic material such as concrete, nor is it
suitable when the deformations are not propor-
tional to the load, as in slender columns. It has
al so been found to be unsafe when dealing with
the stability of structures subject to overturning
forces (see example 2.2).

16 Rei nforced concrete design

In the load factor method the ultimate strength of the materials should be used
in the calculations. As this method does not apply factors of safety to the material
stresses, it cannot directly take account of the variability of the materials, and also
it cannot be used to calculate the deflections or cracking at working loads. Again,
this is a design method that has now been effectively superseded by modern limit
state design methods.
The limit state method of design, now widely adopted across Europe and many
other parts of the world, overcomes many of the disadvantages of the previous
two methods. It does so by applying parlial factors of safety, both to the loads
and to the material strengths, and the magnitude of t he factors may be varied so
t hat they may be used either with the plastic condi tions in the ultimate state or
with the more elastic stress range at working loads. This fl exibility is particularly
important if full benefits are to be obtained from development of improved
concrete and steel properties.
2.1 limit states
The purpose of design is to achieve acceptable probabiliti e1> that a structure will not
become unfit for its imendcd use- that is, that it will not reach a limit' state. Thus, ru1y
way in which a structure may cease to be fit for use will consti tute a l imit stale and the
design aim is to avoid any such condition being reached during the expected life of the
The two principal types of limit stale are the ultimate limit stntc and the serviceabi lity
limit state.
(a) Ultimate limit state
This requi res that the structure must be able to withstnnd, with an adequnre factor of
safety against coll apse. the loads for which it is dc:-; i gncd to ensure the safety of the
building occupants and/or the safety of' the structure itsel f. The possibi li ty of buckling or
overturning must also be taken imo uc<.:ount, as mu:-; t the possibility of'
damage as for exampl e, by an internal expl osion.
(b) Serviceability limit states
General ly the most important serviceabil ity limit arc:
1. Deflection - the appearance or effi ciency of any part of the structure must not be
adversely affected by nor should the comfort of the building users be
adversely affected.
2. Cracking - local damage due to cracki ng and must not affect the
efficiency or durability of the struclUrc.
3. Durability- this must be considered in terms of the proposed life of the structure
and its conditions of exposure.
Other limit stares that may be reached include:
4. Excessive vibration - which may cau:-;e discomfort or alarm as well as damage.
5. Fatigue- must be considered if' cyclic loading is li kely.
6. Fire resistance - this must be considered in terms of resistance to collapse. flame
penetration and heal transfer.
7. Special ci rcumstances - any special requirements of the structure which are nol
covered by any of the more common limit states, such as earthquake resistance,
must be taken into account.
The relative importance of each limit stale will vary according to the nature of the
structure. The usual procedure is to decide which is the ciUcial limit state for a particular
structure and base the design on this, although durabil ity and fire resistance
requirements may well innucnce initial member sizi ng and concrete class selection.
Checks must also be made to ensure that all other relevant limit states arc satisfied by
the results produced. Except in special cases, such as water-retaining structures, the
ul timate limit staLe is generally critical for rei nforced concrete although subsequent
serviceability checks may affect some of the details of the design. Prestressed concrete
design, however, is generally based on serviceabi li ty conditi ons with checks on the
ult.imat:c limit stale.
In assessi ng a particular limi t state for a structure it is necessary to consider all the
possible variable parameters such as the loads, material strengths and all construct"ional
2.2 Characteristic material strengths and characteristic
2.2. 1 Characteristic material strengt hs
The strengths of material:. upon which a design is based are, normally, those st rengths
below which results arc unlikely to fal l. These are called 'characteristic' strengths. ft
assumed that for a given mmerial. the disuibution of sLrcngth wi ll be approximately
normal ', so that a frequency distribution curve of a large number of sample
would be of the form shown in figure 2.1. The characteristi c strength is taken as that
value helow which it is unlikely that more than 5 per cent of lhe results wi ll fa ll.
This is given by
Jk. =};,, - 1.64.1'
= characteri stic st rength,f;, = mean strength and s = standard deviat ion.
The relnrionship between eharHcteristic and mean values aecounts for variations in
results of test specimens and wi ll , therefore, reliect the method and cont.rol of
rnonufncture, qual it y of const ituents, and nature of the material.
Number of
test specimens
Mean strength (f.n)
Limit state design n 1 7
Figure 2. 1
Normal frequency distribution
of strengths
]_!._ Reinforced concrete design
2.2.2 Characteristic actions
In Eurocode tenninology the set of applied forces (or loads) for which a structure is to
be designed are called 'actions although the terms actions and 'loads' tend to be used
interchangeably in some of the Eurocodes. 'Actions can also have a wider meaning
including the effect of imposed deformations caused by. for example. settlement of
foundations. In this text we will standardise on the term 'actions as much as possible.
Ideally it should be possible to assess actions statistically in the same way that material
characteristic strengths can be determined statistically, in wltich case
characteristic action = mean action 1.64 standard deviations
In most cases it is the maximum value or the act ions on a structural member that is
criti cal and the upper, positive value given by thi s expression is used: but the 10\vcr,
minimum value may apply when considering stability or the behaviour or continuous
These characteristic values represent the limits within which at least 90 per cenl of
values will lie in practice. It is to be expected that not more than 5 per cent of cases will
exceed the upper limit and not more than 5 per cent wi ll fa ll below the lower limit. They
arc uesign values that take into account the aecmacy with which the structural loading
can be predicted.
Usuall y. however. there is insufficient stat isti cal data to al low act ions to be treated in
tl1is way. and in this case the standard loadings, such as those given in BS EN 1991,
Eurocode I - Actions on Strut.:tures, should be uscu as representing characteristic
val ues.
2.3 Partial factors of safety
Other possible variations such as constructional tolerances are allowed for by partial
factors of safely applied to the st rength of the materials and to the actions. ll should
theoretically be possible to derive values for these from a mathematical assessment of
the probability of reaching each limit state. Lnck of adequate data. however, makes this
unrealistic and, in practice, the values adopted arc based on experi ence anu simpl ified
calcul ations.
2.3.1 Partial factors of safety for material s ('/'m)
. charact:cri st ic (f')
Destan strenoth = . . . . '
"' "' part tal 'factor oJ sal'ety b.,)
The foll owing factors are considered when selecting n suitable value for
1. The strength of the material in an actual member. This strength wi ll differ from that
measured in a carefull y prcparcu test specimen and it is particul arly true l'or
concrete where placing, compaction anu curing arc so important to the strength.
Steel, on the other hand, is a relatively consistent material requiring a small partial
factor of safety.
2. The severity of the limit state being considered. Thus, hi gher values are taken for
the ultimate limit state than for the serviceability limit state.
Recommended vallLes for l m are given in table 2. 1 The values in the first two
columns should be used when the structure is being designed for persistent design
situations (antici pated normal usage) or transient design siruatiom (temporary
Table 2. 1
Partial factors of safety applied to materials (/'m)
Limit state Persistent and transient
Concrete Reinforcing and
Prestressing Steel
Flexure 1.50 1.1 5
Shear 1.50 1 .15
Bond 1.50 1.15
Serviceability 1.00 1.00
1. 20
-;ituati ons such as may occur during constructi on) . The values in the last two columns
be used when the structure i s being designed for exceptional accidental design
situations such as tl1e effects of tire or explosion.
2.3.2 Partial factors of safety for actions (l't)
Errors anti inaccuracies may be due to a number of causes:
1. design assumpt ions nnd inaccuracy of calculation:
2. possible unuf'ual increases in the magnirude of the actions;
3. unforeseen stress redistributions:
4. constructional inaccuracies.
These cannot he ignore<.!, anti arc taken into account by applying a partial factor of
h f) on the ehaructcristic actions, so that
design value of action = characteristic action x partial factor of safety (')r)
The value or this factor take into account the importuncc of the limi t srate
under considerat ion and reflects to some extent the accuntcy wi th which differclll rypes
of actions cnn be predi cted, and the probabil i ty or particular of actions
occurring. It should be noted that desi gn errors and constructi onal inaccuracies have
simil ar effects and are thus sensibl y grouped together. These factors will account
udequutel y for normal conditions al though gross errors in desi gn or construction
obviously cannot he cat ered for.
Recommen<.lcd values or partial factors of safety are gi ven in tables 2.2 and 2.3
according to the di fferent categori sations of acti ons shown in the tnbl cs. Acti ons arc
cntegori setl us either permanent (Od. such as the self-weight of the structure, or
Pariab/e (Qk), such as the temporary imposed l oadi ng ari si ng from the traffic of people,
wi nd and snow lomli ng, anti the li ke. Variable actions urc al so cutegorised as leading
(the predomi nant variable action on the structure such as an imposed crowd l oad -
and accompanying (secondary vmiable action(s) such as the effect of wind loading.
Qk, ;, where the subscript 'i' indicates the i'th action ).
The rerms favourable and unfavourable refer to the effect or the action(s) on the
design si tuation under consideration. For example, if a beam. continuous over several
spans, is to be designed for the largest sagging bending moment it will have to sustain
any action that has rhe effect of increasing the bending moment will be considered
unfavourable whilst any action that reduces the bending moment will be considcrcu to
be favourable.

Limit state design 19
Reinforcing and
Prestressing Steel
Reinforced concrete design
Table 2.2 Partial safety factors at the ultimate l imit state
Persistent or transient
design situation
(a) For checking the
static equilibrium of a
building structure
(b) For the design of
structural members
geotechnical actions)
(c) As an alternative to
(a) and (b) above to
design for both
situations with one set
of calculalions
Figure 2.2
Cable design
Permanent actions Leading variable action
Accompanying variable
(0... t) actions (Qk.i)
Unfavourable Favourable Unfavourable Favourable Unfavourable Favourable
1.10 0.90 1.50 0 1.50 0
1.35 1.00 1.50 0 1.50 0
1.35 1.15 1.50 0 1.50 0
Table 2.3 Partial safety factors at t he serviceabili ty limit state
Design Situation Permanent actions Variable actions
All 1.0 1.0
Example 2. I shows how the panial safety factors at the ullirnate limit state from
tables 2.1 and 2.2 are used to design the cross-sectional area of a steel cable supporting
permanent and variable actions.
Simple design of a cable at the ultimate limi t state
Determine the cross-sectional area of steel rcquirecl for a cable which suppons a total
charnctcti sti c permanent a<.: tion of 3.0 kN and a characteristic variabl e action of 2.0 kN
as shown in figure 2.2.
Variable load - 2.0 kN
(man ... eqtlipmenl)
Permanent load = 3.0 kN
(platform + cable)
The characteristic yield stress of the steel is 500 N/mm
Carry out the calculation using
li mit state design with the following factors of safety:
IG = 1.35 for the pennanenl action.
1Q = 1.5 for the variable action. and
1m = 1.15 for the steel strength.
Design value = /G x pennanent action + 'YQ x variable action
1. 35 X 3.0 + 1.5 X 2.0
= 7.05kN
. characteristic yield stress
es1gn stress = ---------
= 434 N/mm
. . desi<>n value
Reglllred cross-sect1onal area=-:---:-."';:...._ __
des1gn stress
7.05 X 10
- 16.2
For convenience, the factors of safety in the example arc the same as those
recommended in EC2. Probably. in a practical design. higher factors of safety would he
Limit state design 21
prefcrred for a single supporting cable, in view of the consequences of a failure.
___________________________________________ )
Example 2.2 shows the design of a foundation to resist uplift at the ultimate limit
\late using the partial factors or safety from tabl e 2.2. lt demonstrates the benelits or
using the limit stare approach instead of the potential ly unsafe overal l factor of safety
design used in part (b).
Design of a foundation to resist uplift
Figure 2.3 shows a beam supported on foundations at A and B. The loads supported by
the bC<1m arc it s own uniforml y distributed permanent weight of 20 kN/m and a 170 kN
variable load concentrated at end C.
Determine the weight of foundation required at A in order to resist uplift:
(a) hy applying a factor of safety of 2.0 to the reaction calculated for the working
(b) by using an ultimate limit state approach with partial factors of safety of 'Yr. = 1.10
or 0.9 for the permanent action and I'Q = 1.5 for the variable action.
Investigate the effect on these designs of a 7 per cent increase in the vatiablc action.

22 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 2. 3
Uplift calculation example
permanenlload 20 kN/m
. 1 .. 2m
0.9 x permanent load
(b) Loading arrangement for uplifl at A at the ultimate limit state
(a) Factor of safety on uplift = 2.0
Taking moments about B
( 17() X 2
Uplift R,, =
20 X 8 X 2) = :l :lJ kN
6.0 ....
Weight of foundation required = 3.33 x safety factor
3.33 X 2.0 = 6.7 kN
With a 7 per cent incrc<tse in the vari able
u 1' ,. R _ ( l.07 X l 70 X 2- 20 X 8 X =
7 3
'' "
p lit l A - fi.O .
Thus with a increase in the vnri nbl e action there is u significant increase in the
upl i fl and the structure becomes unsafe .
(b) Limit state method - ultimate load pattern
t\'1> this example includes a cantilever and also involves the requirement for static
equi li brium a1 A, partial factors of safety of 1.10 and 0.9 were chosen for the permanent
actions as gi ven in the lina row of values in table 2.2
The arrangement of tJ1e loads for the maximum uplift at A is shown i n figure 2.3b.
Design permanent action over BC = IG x 20 x 2 = I . I 0 x 20 x 2 = 44 kN
Design permanent action over AR - I<; x 20 x 6 = 0.9 x 20 x 6 = lOR kN
Design v<triable action = x 170 = J .5 x 170 255 kN
Taking moments about B for the ultimate actions
. f R _ (255 X 2 + 44 X l - 108 X 3) _ }o kN
Up l t A- - 0
Therefore weight of foundation required = 38 kN.
A 7 per ccm increase in the variable action will not endanger the structure, since the
acl.u<tl uplift will only be 7.3 kN as cnlculated previousl y. In fact in thi s case it would
require an increase of 61 per ccm in the variable load before the uplift would exceed the
wei ght of a 38 kN foundation.
Parts (a) and (b) of example 2.2 illustrate how the l imit state method or design can
ensure a safer result when the stability or strength of a structure is sensitive lo a smal l
numerical difference between the effects of two opposing actions of a similar
2.4 Combination of actions
Permanent and variabl e actions wi ll occur in different combinations, all of which must
be taken imo account in determi ning the most cri ti cal design situation for any structure.
For exampl e, the seU"-wcight of the structure may be considered in combinat ion with the
weight of furnishings and people, wi th or wi thout the effect of wind acting on the
building (which may al so act in more than one directi on)
In cal'es where actions are to be combined it is recommended that, in determining
sui tubl e desi gn values, each characteri stic action i s not only multiplied by the parti al
factors of safety, as di scussed above, but al so by a further f act.or gi ven the symbol W.
Thi s !"actor i s generall y taken as 1.0 other than where described bel ow:
(i) Combination values of variable actions
Where more than one variable action is to be considered (i.e a combinati on) then
the variable actions should be multiplied by a value of IJ! (denoted as ' l' o) ns given
in table 2.4. This ensures that the probability of a combination or a<.:tions being
exceeded i s approximately the same a<; that for a single netion. As can be seen in
the table thi s is also dependent on the type of structure being designed.
Combination values are used for designing for (i) the ultimate limit state and
(i i) irreversible servicenbi lity limit states such as irreversible crucking due to
temporary hut excessive overloading of the structure.
(ii) Frequent values of variable actions
Frequent combinations of actions arc used in the consideration of ( i) ul timate limit
states involving accidental actions and (i i) reversibl e l imit states as the
serviceabi lity limi t states or cracki ng and deflection where the m:tions causing
these effects ure of a short transitory nature. Tn these cases the vari nhle actions are
multi pli ed by a vulue of 1T1 (denoted as IJ!
) as given in table 2.4. The values of 1T1
give an estimati on of the proporti on of the total var iable acti on that is li k<.:ly to be
associrned with thi s parti cular combination of actions.
(i ii) Quasi-permanent values of variable action
EC2 requires t.hat, in certain situations, the cfTct:ts of quasi -permanent.' a<.:ti ons
shoul d be considered. Quasi-permanent (meaning 'almost.' pennnncnl) acti ons are
those that may be over a l ong period but arc not necessaril y as permanent
as, say. the self-weight of the structure. An exampl e of such a loading would be the
effect of snow on the roofs of bui ldings at high altitudes where the weight of the
snow may have to be sustained over weeks or months.
Quasi -permanent combinations of actions are used in the consideration of (i) ultimate
limil Slates involving accidemal actions and (ii) serviceability limit states attribmable to.
for example, the long-term effects of creep and where the actions causing these effects.
whilst variable, arc of a more long-tem1. sustained nature. In these cases the variable
actions are multiplied by a value of IJ! (denoted as ili
) as given in table 2.4. The values
of 'T'2 give an estimation of the proportion of the total variable action that is l ikely to be
associated with this particular combi nation of actions.
Limit state design : 23
24 m Reinforced concrete design
Table 2.4 Values of \II for different load combinations
Action Combination
Imposed load in buildings, category (see EN 1991-1-1)
Category A: domestic, residential areas 0.7
Category B: office areas 0.7
Category C: congregation areas 0.7
Category D: shopping areas 0.7
Category E: storage areas 1 .0
Category F: traffic area, vehicle weight < 30kN 0.7
Category G: traffic area, 30 kN <vehicle weight< 160 kN 0. 7
Category H: roofs 0.7
Snow loads on buil dings (see EN 1991 -13)
For sites located at altitude /i > 1 000 m above sea level 0. 7
For sites located at altitude H 1 000 m above sea level 0.5
Wind loads on buildings (see EN 199114) 0.5
Figure 2.4
Wind and imposed load acting
on an office building - stability
0.7 X 1. 5Q,
0.5 X 1.5W,
Frequent Quasi-permanent
0.5 0.3
0.5 0.3
0.7 0.6
0.7 0.6
0.9 0.8
0.7 0.6
0.5 0.3
0 0
0.5 0.2
0.2 0
0.2 0
t t
, 1.1 Gk
Figure 2.4 illustrales how the factors in table 2.2 and 2.4 can be applied when
considering the stability of the office building shown for overturning abour point B.
Figure 2.4(n) treats lhe wind load (Wk) as the lending vari abl e action ancl lhe live load
(Qk) on the roof a.o; the accompanyi ng variable act ion. Figure 2.4(b) considers the live
load as the leading variable act ion and the wind as the accompanying variable action.
2.4.1 Design values of actions at the ultimate limit state
In general terms. for p('r.l'istent and transiem design situations the design value can be
taken as:
Design value (Ed) - (factored permanent acti ons) combined with (factored si ngle
leading variable action) combined with (factored remaining
accompanying variable actions)
The 'factors' wi ll , in all cases, be the appropriate partial factor of safety hr) taken
together with the appropriate value of iii as given in table 2.4.
Limit state design 25
The design value can be expressed formalistically as:
d = 1:?:"/G.jGk,jl +!'Q,IQk.t + 12:::: lo. ;Wo,;Qk,;l
J2: 1 > I
(2.1 )
\'ore that the ..1.. sign in this expression is not algebraic: it simply means combined
with'. The L: symbol indicates the combined eiiect of all the similar action effects.
e.g. 1Lj2: l /'G.jGk.j1 indicates the combined effects of all factored permanent actions,
-.ummcd from the first to the 'j'th action. where there are a total of j permanent actions
acting on the structure. Two other similar equati ons are given in EC2, the least
tavourable of which can alternatively be used to give the design value. Jlowever.
equation (2.1) wi ll normall y apply for most standard situations.
For accide111al design silltations the design value of actions can be expressed in a
-,i mi Jar way with the permanent and variable actions being combined with the effect of
the accidental design situation such as fire or impact. As previously indicated. such
accidentnl design situations wi ll be based on the frequent or quasi-permcment values or
actions with the load combinations calculated usiDg the appropriate 111 value(s) from
table 2.4
2.4.2 Typical common design values of actions at the ultimate
li mit state
For the routine design or the members within reinforced concrete structures the sl'nndard
design loading cases will oflcn consist of combinations of tJ1e permanent action wit h a
-,i ngle variable act ion and possibly with wind. If the single variable act ion is considered
to he the leading variable action then wind loading will be the accompanying variable
.lction. The reverse may, however. be true and both scenarios u ~ t be considered. In
' uch cases the factors given in tnble 2.5 can be used to determine the design value of lhe
actions. The value of 1.35 for unfavourable permanent actions is conservati ve, and used
throughout this book for simplicit y. Alternative equations indicated in 2.4. 1 may, in
some cases, give greater economy.
Table 2.5
Combination of actions and load factors at the ultimate limi t state
Persistent or transient design Permanent actions
Variable action
Unfavourable Favourable Unfavourable Favourable
Permanent + Variable 1.35
1.50 0
Permanent + Wind
1.35 1.00
Permanent + Variable + Wind
1.35 1.00 1.50 0
Either of these two cases may be
critical - both should be considered
1.35 1.00 IJ,
t3l x 1.50
x 1.50
= 0.5(
) X 1 .50
(1) For continuous beams with cantilevers, the partial safety factor for the favourable effect of the permanent action should be taken as
1.0 lor the span adjacent to the cantilever (see figure 7.21 ).
(2) Based on the 'combination' figure in table 2.4 for wind
(3) lflo to be selected from table 2.4 depending on category of building (most typical value = 0. 7)
( 4) The partial safety factor for earth pressures may be taken as 1.30 when unfavourable and 0.0 when favourable
26 Reinforced concrete design
2.4.3 Design values of actions at the serviceability limit state
The design values of actions at the serviceabi lity limit state can be expressed in a si mi lar
way to equation 2. L but taking account of the different combinations of actions to be
used in the three different situations discussed above. l n the case of serviceability the
partial factor of safety, ~
r will be taken as equal ro 1.0 in all cases.
(i) Combination values of variable actions
Ed = I?:= Gk,jl + Qk. l +I?:= IJ!o.;
j>l t> l
(ii) Fr equent values of variable actions
E o ~ = IL Gk.jl +
t, l Ql<.l +I?:= \]1 2. 1 Qk, il
, > 1 t> l
(i ii) Quasi-permanent values of variable ac.tions
Note that. as before. the ...1.. signs in these expressions arc not necessnrily algebraic: they
simpl y mean 'combined with' . The terms in the expressions have the following
the combined effect of all the characteristic permanent actions where
the subscript 'j' indicates that there could be between one and 'j'
permanent actions on the structure
the si ngle leading characterist ic variable action mul tiplied by the
factor 1T1. where 111 takes the value of 1, \11
or 'r'
as appropriate from
table 2.4. The subscript 1 inclicmes that thi s rel ates to the si ngl e
leading variable action 0 11 the structure.
the combined cf'fect or nll the 'accompanying' characteristi c variabl e
actions each multipliecl by the J.' act.or ~ ~ where \]'1 takes the value of
or 1T1
as approprime l'rom table 2.4. The .subscript ' i ' indi cates that
there could be up to ' i' variabl e actjons on t.he structure in ncldil'ion to
the singl e leading vari nbl e action
Combination of actions at the serviceability limit state
A simply supported reinforced concrete beam forms part of a building within a shopping
complex. It is to be designed for a characterist ic pcrmanem action of 20 kN/m (its own
self-weight and that of the supported structure) together with a characteristic, single
leading variable action of 10 kN/m and an accompanying variable action of2 kN/m (both
representing the imposed loading on the beam). Calculate each of the serviceability limit
state design values as gi ven by equations (2.2) to (2.4).
From table 2.4 the building is classified as category D. Hence. Yio = 0.7, 11!
= 0.7
and w2 = 0.6.
Combination value
Ed= IL GL,,, + Qu + IL 'Vo.; = 20 + 10 + (0.7 x 2) = 31.4 kN/m
i> l
Frequent value
Ed = Gk.jl +\h I QL. I + IL qi2,i Qk,tl = 20 + (0.7 X 10) + (0.6 X 2)
J? l s> l
= 28.2 kN/m
Quasi -permanent value
Ed = Gk,j l + W2,rQh,il = 20 + (0.6 x 10) + (0.6 x 2) = 27. 2 kN/m
2.5 t Global factor of safety
The use of partial faclors of safety on materials and aclions offers considerable
flexibility. which may he used to allow for special conditions such as very high
\tandards of construction and control or, ar tJ1e other extreme, where structural fai lure
would be particularly disastrous.
T he global factor of safety against a particular type of failure may be obtained by
multiplying the appropriate partial factors of safety. For instance, a beam failure cau$Cd
by yielding of tensile reinforcement would have a factor of

x "fr 1. 15 x 1.35 = L.55 for permanent loads onl y
1.15 x 1.5 = 1.72 for variable loads only
Thus practical cases will have a value between these two figures, depending on the
rclutivc loading proportions, and this can be compared wi th the value or 1.8 which was
the order of magnitude used by the l oad !'actor method prior to the introduction of l i mit
Simil arl y, failure by crushing of the concrete in the compression zone hns u f'w.:lor of
1.5 x 1.5 = 2.25 due t.o variable actions only, which reflects !he fact that such failure is
generally without warning and may be very serious. Thus the basic values of partial
factors chosen arc such !hal under normal circumstances the global factor of sn fety is
simil ar to that used in earlier design methods.
Limit state design 27
Analysis of the
structure at the
ultimate limit state

A reinforced concrete structure is a combination of beams, columns, slabs and walls,
rigidly connected together to form a monolithic frame. Each individual member must
be capable of resisting the forces acting on it, so that the determination of these forces
is an essential part of the design process. The full analysis of a rigid concrete frame is
rarely simple; but simplified calculations of adequate precision can often be made if
the basic action of the structure is understood.
The analysis must begin with an evaluation of all the loads
carried by the structure, including its own weight. Many of
the loads are variable in magnitude and position, and all
possible critical arrangements of loads must be considered.
First the structure itself is rationalised into si mplifi ed forms
that represent the load-carrying action of the prototype. The
forces in each member can then be determined by one of the
foll owing methods:
1. applying moment and shear coefficients
2. manual calculations
3. computer methods
Tabulated coefficients are suitable for use only with simple,
regular structures such as equal-span continuous beams
carrying uniform loads. Manual calculations are possible for
the vast majority of structures, but may be tedious for large or
complicated ones. The computer can be an invaluable help in
the analysis of even quite small frames, and for some
calculations it is almost indispensable. However, the amount
of output from a computer analysis is sometimes almost
overwhelming; and then the results are most readily inter-
preted when they are presented diagrammatically.
Analysis of the structure 29
Si nce t he design of a reinforced concrete member is generally based on the
ultimate li mit state, t he analysis is usually performed for loadings corresponding
to that state. Prestressed concrete members, however, are normally designed for
serviceability loadi ngs, as discussed in chapter 11.
3.1 Actions
The actions (loads) on a structure are divided into two types: permanent acti ons, and
vari abl e (or imposed) actions. Permanent actions are those whi ch are normally constant
during the structure's life. Variable actions, on the other hand. arc transi ent and not
constant in magnitude, as for example those due to wind or to human occupants.
Recommendati ons f'or the loadings on structures arc given in the European Swndarcls.
some of which arc EN I 99 1-1- 1 General actions, EN I 99 I -1-3 Snovv loads, EN 199 I - 1-4
Wi nd actions, EN I 99 I - I -7 Accidental actions from impact and explosions, and
EN 199 I -2 Tral'lic loads on bri dges.
A table of values for some useful permanent loads and variable loads is given in the
appendi x.
3. 1.1 Permanent actions
Permanent actions include the weight of the Stlllcture itself and all architectural
components such as exterior cladding, partitions and ceilings. &Juipmcnt and static
machinery, when permanent fixwres. arc also often considered as part of the permanent
action. Once the sizes of all the structural members, and the details or the architectural
requi remems and permanent lixtures have been established. the permanent actions cnn
be calculated quite accurately; but, first or all , preliminary design calcul ati ons are
generall y rcquireu to estimate the probnble sizes and self-weights or the structural
concrete clements.
For most rcinf'orccd concretes, a typi cal value for the self-weight is 25 kN per cubic
merre. bul a hi gher density should be taken for heavi ly reinforced or dense concretes. In
the case of' a building, l.he weights of any permanent p<lrl itions should be calculat ed
from the nrchitccts' drawings. A minimum parlit.ion loading equivalent to 1.0 kN per
square metre is often specifi ed as a variabl e action. but thi s is only Cl dequntc for
l ightweight partitions.
Permanent actions arc generally calculated on a sli ghtl y conservati ve basis, so that a
member will not need redesigning because of a small change in its dimensions. Over-
esti mation, however, should be done with care, since the permanent action can often
actuall y reduce some of 01e forces i n parts of the structure as will be seen in the case of
the hogging moments in 01e conti nuous beam in figure 3.1.
3.1.2 Variable actions
These actions arc more difficult to determine accurately. For many of 1hem. it is only
possible 10 make conservative estimates based on standard codes of practice or past
experi ence. Examples of variable actions on buildi ngs arc: the weights of its occupants,
30 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 3.1
Three-span beam
furniture, or machinery; the pressures_ of wind, the weight of snow, and of retained earth
or water: and the forces caused by 'thermal expansion or shrinkage of the concrete.
A large building is unlikely to be carrying its full variable action simultaneously on
all its floors. For this reason EN 1991-1-1: 2002 (Actions on Structures) clause 6.2.2(2)
allows a reduction in the total variable floor actions when the columns, walls or
foundations are designed, for a building more than two storeys high. Similarly from the
same code. clause the variable action may be reduced when designing a
beam span which supports a large floor area.
Although the wind load is a variable action. it is kept in a separate category when its
partial factors of safety are specified, and when the load combinations on the structure
are being considered.
3.2 Load combinations and patterns
3.2.1 Load combinations and patterns for the ultimate limit state
Various combinations of the va lues of permanent Gk, variable actions Qk,
wind actions Wk, and thelr partial factors of safety must he considered for the loading of
the structure. The partial factors of safety specified in the code arc discussed in
chapter 2. and for the ultimate limit slate the following loading combinations from
tables 2.2, 2.4 and 2.5 arc commonly used.
1. Permanent and variable nctions
2. Permanent and wind actions
The variable load can usually cover al l or any part or the structure and, therefore,
should be ::IITanged to cause the most :;cvcrc stresses. So. for a three-span continuous
beam, load combination I would huvc the loading arrangement shown in figure 3.1, in
order to cause the maximum sagging moment in the outer spans and the maximum
possible hogging moment in the centre span. A stucly of the deflected shape of the beam
would confirm this to be the case.
Load combination 2. permanent + wind load is used to check the stabi lity of a
structure. A load combination of permanent + vari able + wi nd load uould have the
arrangements shown in figure 2.4 and described in section 2.4 of Chapter 2.
1.35Gk + 1.50Q, 1.35G, + 1.50Q,
(a) Loading arrangement for maximum sagging
moment at A and C
(b) Deflected shape
Analysis of the st ruct ure 31
1.3SC, + l.SOQ, 1.35G, + 1.50Q, 1.35C, + 1.50Q, 1.35Ck + l.SOQ,
=i j"sc, j j'"c'l 1'% F
(i) loading arrangements for maximum moments in the spans
1.3SC, + 1.500\ 1.35C,. + 1.500. 1.3SC, + l.SOQ,
=i I I l'"c l
(ii) loading arrangements for maximum support moment at A
1.35G, + l .SOQ,

1. 35Ck

t t t t t t
(Iii) Loading for design moments at the supports according to EC2
Note that when there Is a cantilever span the minimum load on the span
adjacent to the cantilever should be 'I.OG, for loading pattern (i)
Figure 3.2 shows the patterns of vertical loading on a multi -span conl'inuous beam to
cause (i) maximum design sngging moments in alternate spans and maximum possible
hogging moments in adjacent spans. (ii) maximum clesign hogging moments at
A, and (iii ) the design hogging moment at support A as 11pccificd by the EC2
code for simplicity. Thus there is a similar loading pattern for the design hogging
moment at each internal Mtpport of a continuous beam. It should be nmcd thai the UK
:-.rational Annex permit s a simpler alternative to load c.:ase (iii) where a <;ingle load
may be considered of all spans loadecl with the maximum loading of
( 1.35(ik I 1.50Qd.
3.3 Analysis of beams
To design a Sltl teturc i t i s necessary ro know the bending moments. moments,
'hearing forces and axi al forces i n each member. An el asti c anal ysi s i s generall y used to
determine the di stribut ion of these forces within the strucmre; but to some
c,xtent - reinforced concrete is a pl astic material, a l imited redi stribution of the cl asti c.:
moments sometimes all owed. A pl astic yi eld-line theory may be used tn cal culate the
moment s in concrete slabs. The properti es of the materials, such as Young's modulus.
which arc used i n the structural analysis shoul d be those 11ssociatcd with thei r
characteri stic: strengths. The st iiTncsses of the members can be culculatecl on the basis of
any one or the following:
the elllire concrete cross-section (ignoring the reinforcement);
2. the concrete cross-section plus the transformed area of reinforcement based on the
modular ratio;
3. the compression area only of the concrete cross-section, plus the transformed area of
reinforcement based on the modular ratio.
The concrete cross-section described in ( 1) is the si mpler to calculme and would
normally be chosen.
Figure 3.2
Multi-span beam loading
32 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 3.3
Analysis of one-span beam
A structure should be analysed for each of the critical loadi ng conditions which

produce the maximum stresses at any particul ar section. This procedure will be
illustrated in the examples for a continuous beam and a building frame. For these
structures it is conventional to draw the bending-moment diagram on the tensi on side of
the members.
Sign Conventions
1. For the moment-distri hution analysis anti-clockwise support moments arc positive
as. for example, in tabl e 3. 1 J'or the fi xed end moments (FEM).
2. For subsequently calculating the moments along the span of a member, moments
causing saggi ng nre positi ve, while moments causing hogging are negative, as
illustrated in figure 3.4.
3.3.1 Non-continuous beams
One-span. simply supported beams or slabs are staticall y determinate and the analysis
for bending moments and shearing forces is readily performed manually. For the
ultimate limi t state we need only consider the maximum load of l.35Gk + 1.5Qk on
the spun.
Analysis of a non-continuous beam
The one-span simply SLlpported hcam shown in ri gure 3.3a carri es a distributed
permanent action including of 25 kN/m, a permanent concentrated action of
40 kN at micl-spnn, and a distributed variable action of I 0 kN/m.
(1.35 X 2S + 1.50 X 10)4 = 195 kN
4.0 m
, __
(a) Ultimate l0<1d
124.5 kN
(b) Shearing Force Dlngmm
(c) Bending Moment Diagram
'124.5 kN
Fi gure 3.3 shows the values ol' ultimate loacl requi red in the calculations of the
sheruing forces and bending moments.
54 195
Maximum shear force =
+ T = 124.5 kN
. . 54 x 4 195 x4
Max1mum bend111g moment = -
- -1 - -
- = I :l l.5 kN m
The analysis is compl eLccl by drawing the shearing-force and bcnding-momenL
diagrams which would later be used in the design and detailing of the shear and bending
reinforcement. )

Analysis of the structure 33
3.3.2 Continuous beams
The methods of anal ysis for continuous beams may also be applied to cominuous slabs
which span in one direction. A continuous beam is considered to have no fixity with the
supports so that the beam is free to rotate. This assumplion is not strictly t111e for beams
framing into columns and for that type of continuous beam it is more accurate to analyse
them as part of a frame. as described in section 3.4.
A cominuous beam should be anal ysed for the loading arrangements which give the
maximum stresses at each section. as described in section 3.2. 1 and illustrated in
figures 3. 1 and 3.2. The analysis to calculate the bending moments can be curri ed out
manually by moment distribution or equi valent methods. but tabulated shear and
moment coefficients may be adequate for continuous beams having approximatel y equal
spans anti uniformly distributed l oads.
For a beam or slab set monolithically into i ts supports, the design mornenl at the
support can be taken as the moment at the face of the support.
Continuous beams - the general case
Having tletermincd the moments at the supports hy, say, moment di stribution, it i s
necessary to calcul ate the moments in the spans and also the shear forces on the beam.
For a uniformly distributed load, the equati ons for the shears and the maximum 1-pan
moments can be derived from the rollowing analysis.
Load = w/metre
Using the sign convemion of 11gure 3.4 and taking momems nhout suppon B:
{3.1 )
Figure 3.4
Shears and moments in a
34 Reinforced concrete design
Maximum span moment Mmax occurs at zero shear, and distance to zero shear
a3 = -
MmaJ< = --+ MAB
TI1e points of conlraflexure occur at M = 0. that is
VABX -2+ MAo = 0
where x the distance from support A. Taking the roots of this equation gives
VAs +2wMAo)
.Y = ------'----- --
so that
\lAo - j(VAo
A similar analysis can be applied to beams that do not!>upport a uniformly distributed
loud. In manual calculations it is usually not considered necessary to calculate the
distances a
a2 and a3 which locate the points or eontrallexure and maximum moment -
a sketch of the bending moment is often adequate - hut if a computer is performing the
culculations these di stances muy us well be determined nlso.
/\t the fnce of the support. width .v
MAn - ( VAo -
Analysis of a continuous beam
The continuous beam shown in fi gure 3.5 has fl constant cross-section and supports a
uniformly distributed permanent action including it s self-weight of Gk = 25 kN/m and a
v;uiable action - I 0 k.N/m.
The critical loading pallerns for the ultimate limit state are shown in figure 3.5 where
the stars' indicate the region of maximum moments, sagging or possible hogging.
Table 3. 1 is the moment distribution carried out for the first loading arrangement: similar
calculations would be required for each of the remaining load cases. It should be
noted that the reduced stiffness of has been used for the end spans.
_,,:> ")


G, = 25 kN/m Q, = 1 0 kN/m
6.0m 6.0m
( 1.35 X 25 + 1. 50 X 1 0) X 6 (1.35 X 25 X 4,_) ------,
I = 292.5 kN I 135 kN I
292.5 kN
* * *
( 1.35 X 25 X 6)
( 1.35 X 25 + 1.50 X 10) X 4
(2) I = 2o2 5 kN I
195 kN I
202.5 kN
* * *
292.5kN 195 kN
202.5 kN
202.5 kN
195 kN
292.5 kN
Table 3. 1 Moment distribution for the f irst loading case
3 I
Stiffness (k)
4 'I
3 1
.,.. 4 ' 6 = 0.125
Distr. factors
0.125 + 0.25
- 1/ 3 2/ 3
Load (kN) 292
F.E. M.
- 292 X 6
0 - 219.4 + 45.0
58.1 + 116.3
Carry over 58. 1
Carry over
Carry over
- 6.5
Carry over
'T 0.7
M (kNm) 0 - 132.5 + 132.5
4 = 0.25
0.'125 + 0.25

Analysis of the structure : 35
2/ 3
116. 3
58. 1
1- 19.4
I 6.5
1 2.2
- 1.5
- 132.5
Figure 3.5
Continuous beam loading
c D
3 I
= 0.125
1/ 3
292 X 6
+ ---
+ 219.4 0
58. 1
- 2.2
- 0.7
+ 132.5 0
36 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 3.6
Bending-moment dlagmms
(kN 111)
The sheruing forces. the maximum span bending moments. rutd their positions along
the beam, can be calculated using the formulae previously delived. Thus for the first
loading a1rangemem and span AB, using the sign convention of figure 3.4:
load (MAR - MRA)
Shear VAR = ---..:..._----'--'-
2 '-
-292.5 132.5 - ? 2kN
--6.(}- L4.
vi3A = load - VAl/
= 292.5 - 124.2 = 168.3 kN
Maximum moment, span AB = -
- + M,,R
where w = 292.5/6.0 = 48.75 kN/m. Therefore:
0 ?
Mm:1x =?
+ 0 = I 5o._ kNm
-X 48.7.
. [' A VAI3
!Stance rom , a,=-
= 48.75 - 2.55 m
The bending-moment diagrams for each of the loading arrangements are shown in
fi gure 3.6, and tl1e correspondi ng sheari ng-force diagrams arc shown in figure 3.7. The
individual bending-moment diagrams arc combined in figure 3.8a to give the bendi ng-
moment design envelope. Similarly. figure 3.8b is the l>hearing-forcc desig11 envelope.
Such envelope diagrams arc used in the detailed de!>ign of the beams. as described in
chapter 7.
ln this example, simple supports with no fixity have been assumed for the end
supports at A and 0. Even so. the sections at I\ and I) should be designed for a hogging
momem clue to a partial fixity equal to 25 per ce11l of the maximum moment in the span,
lhtll iN 158/4 = 39.5 kNm.
133 '133
(1) Ld
~ """-7
158 158
108 108
(2) ~
~ ~
103 103
(3) ~
""=/ ~
~ A
(4) ~
~ ~
Analysis of the structure F.::l 37
124 168
( 1) 67.5 r::---...
I -=::::::J67 5 .............. I
"'-J168 . '-..,J 124
83 97.5 119
(2) C>--.
c:::::::::::::J 119 """""J 9 7.5 --=:::::::::::) 8 3

I """"J 85 -==z::::J 8 s
"'-J 171
85 171
(4) ['-:.., SSt->, I
"""J ""'J 11 0 ""'J 1 21
11 8
151 151

\ -. ---- / ,i 11 "\: ;::.- - -- : -:l

158 158

110 124
Continuous beams with approximately equal spans and uniform loading
The ultimate bending moments and sheari ng forces in continuous beams or three or
more approximately equal spans without canLil evers can be obtained using relevant
coefficients provided that the spans c.liff'er by no more than 15 per cent of the longest
span, that the loading is uni form, and that the characteristic variable action does not
exceed the characteri stic permanent action. The values of these coefficients are shown
in diagrammatic form in figure 3.9 f'or beams (equi valent si mplifi ed values for slabs are
given in chapter R).
Bending Moments
Sheari ng Forces
End Span

Interior Spa11
0.10FL 0.10FL
"'-- ./1
F = Total ulti mate load on span = (1.35G
+ kN
L = Effective span
Figure 3.7
Shearing-force diagrams (kN)
Figure 3.8
Bending-moment and
shearing-force envelopes
Figure 3.9
Bending-moment and
shearing-force coefficients
for beams
38 Reinforced concrete design
The possibility of hogging moments in any of the spans should not be ignored, even i f
it i s not i ndicated by these For exampl e. a beam of three equal spans may
have a hogging moment in the centre span if Qk exceeds 0.45Gk.
3.4 Analysis of frames
In situ reinforced concrete structures behave as rigid frames, and should be anal ysed as
such. They can be analysed as a compl ete space frame or be di vided into a series of
plane frames. Bridge deck-type structures can be anal ysed as an equi valent gri llage.
whi lst some form of finite-cl ement anal ysis can be utilised in sol vi ng compli cated shear
W<Ll l bui !dings. All these methods lend themsel ves to solution by computer. but many
frames can be simplifi ed for a satisfactory solution by hand cal cul ati ons.
The general procedure for a building i s ro :mal yse the sl abs as continuoos members
supported by the beams or structural walls. The slabs can be ei ther one-way spanning or
two- way spanning. The columns and main beums are consi dered as a series of rigid
plane f rames whi ch can be divided into two types: ( I ) braced frames supporting vertical
londs onl y, (2) f rames supporting vertical and lateral loads.
Type one frames are in buildings where none of the lateral loads such as wind are
lransmitted to the colunUJs and beams but arc resisted by much more sti ffer el ements
such as shear walls, lift shafts or stairwells. Type two frames an; designed to resist the
lateral loads, which cause bending, sheari ng and axinl loads in the beams and columns.
For both types of frames the axial forces in the columns can generally be calculated as if
the beams and slabs were simply supported.
3.4.1 Braced frames supporting vertical loads only
A bui lding frame can be analysed as a complete frame, or il can be simplified into a
series of substitute frames for the vert ical l oading anal ysi s. The frame shown in
figure 3. 1 0, for example. cw1 be di vided i nto any of the sub frames shown in figure 3.11 .
The substi tute frumc I in figure 3. 11 consi sts of one compl ete lioor beam wit h its
connecting columns (which arc assumed ri gidl y li xcd m thei r remote ends). An analysis
of thi s frame wi ll gi ve the bending moments and shearing forces in the beams and
columns for Lhe ll oor l evel consiclcrccl.
Substitut e frame 2 i s a single span combined with its connecting columns and two
adjacent spans, all li xed at their remote ends. This frame may be Ul'ed to determine the
bending moments and shearing forces in the centrul beam. Provided that the central span
is greater than the two adjacent spans, the bendi ng moments in the columns can also be
found wi th this frame.
Substitute f rame 3 can be used to fi nd the moments in the columns only. It consists of
a si ngle j unction, with the remote ends of the members fixed. This type of subframe
woul d be used when bean'ts have been anal ysed as continuous over simple supports.
I n frames 2 and 3, the assumption of fixed ends to the outer beams over-esti mates
their stiffnesses. These values are, therefore, halved to allow for the flexibility resulting
from continuity.
The various critical loading patterns to produce maxjmum stresses have to be
considered. In general these loading patterns for the ultimate limit state are as shown in
figure 3.2, except when there is also a cantilever span which may have a benefici al
minimum loading condition (I.OGk) -sec figure 7.2 1.
0 if
l a<;
r or
~ i f
., a
I I.
Analysis of the structure ~ 39
1,7,?7;, 1,7,; 1,7, ? '7i
Figure 3.10
Building rrame
Half stiffness
Half stiffness
(2) ~
Half sliffn ess Half sli[fncss
, 11
= Storey Heights
Figure 3.11
Substitute rrames
When considering the critical loading arrangements for a column. it is sometimes
necessary to include the case of maximum moment and minimum possible axial load, in
order to investigate the possibility of tension failure caused by the bending.
( EXAMPL E 3.3
Analysis of a substitute frame
The substitute rrnme shown in figure 3.12 is part of the complete frame in fi gure 3.1 0.
The characteristic actions carri ed by the beams are permanent acti ons (including self-
weight) G ~ = 25 kN/m, and variabl e action, Qk = 10 kN/m, uniformly distributed al ong
the beam. The analysis of the sub frame will be carried out by moment distributiou: thus
the member stiffnesses and their relevant distribution factors are fi rs! required.
t- 6.0m
~ 3
Typical column
B c
60 X 300
~ I
Figure 3.12
Substitute frame
~ ~ ~
40 Reinforced concrete design
Stiffnesses, k
OJ x o.63 54 lo- 3 4
I = = . X m
Spans AS and CD
5.4x iO J -1
kAB = kco =
.0 = 0.<) X ) 0 -
Span BC
5.4 x w-
koc = = 1.35 x 10
I = 0.3 ~ ~
= 1.07 X 10- J m
1.07 X 10-J
ku = 0.31 X 10-J
k1 = ].()7 X I ()
= 0.27 X 10- J
' 4.0
ku + kL = (0.3 1 I- 0.27) I 0 J = 0.58 X I Q-
Distribution foctors
Joints A and D
I:k 0.9+0.58 = 1.4!;
D.F.Ao = D.F.oc = O.t)S = 0.61
D.F.cols = I.4S = 0.39
Joints B and C
2:k = 0.9 + I .35 -l 0.58 = 2.83
D.F.RA = =
= 0.32
D.F'.lJc = D. =
.RJ 0.48
' 0.58 ( 0
D. i'.cols =
= ).2
The critical loading pa!lcrns for the ultimate li mit state are identical to those for lhe
continuous beam in example 3.2, and they arc illustrated in figure 3.5. The moment
distribution for the first loading arrangement is shown in table 3.2. In the table, the
distributi on for each upper and lower column have been combined, since thi s simplifi es
the layout for the ca.lculati ons.
D' ~ ia ~
Table 3.2 Moment distribution tor the first loading case
A 8
Cols. AB BA Cols. BC
(L;M) {LM)
D.F.s 0.39 0.61 0.32 0.20 0.48
Load kN 292 135
+ +
F.E.M. 146 146 45.0
+ +
Bal. 56.9 89.1 32.3 20.2 48.5
c.o. 16.2 44.6 24.2
- -
+ +
Bal. 6.3 9.9 22.0 13.8 33.0
c.o. 11.0 5.0 16.5
- -
+ + -
Bal. 4. 3 6.7 6.9 4.3 10.3
c.o. 3.4 3.4 5.2
- - + - -
Bal. 1.3 2.1 2.8 1.7 4.1
+ i"
M (kN m) 68.8 68.8 135.0 40.0 95.0
CB Cols. CD
0.48 0.20 0.32
45.0 146
- - -
48.5 20.2 32.3
+ +
24.2 44.6
- - -
33.0 13.8 22.0
+ +
16.5 5.0
- - -
10.3 4.3 6.9
+ +
5.2 3.4
- - -
4.1 1.7 2.8
95.0 40.0 135.0
11 .0
"' ;:;;
~ : : ; ; ; ; ; t
I ~
42 . Reinforced concrete design
Figure 3.13
Beam bending-moment
diagrams (kNm)
The shearing forces and the maximum span moments can be calculated from the
f01mulae of section 3.3.2. For the' first loading arrangement and span AB:
load (MAs - MsA)
Shear VAs = -
= 292.5 _ ( -68.8 + 135.0) =
2 6.0
l' nA = load - V AB
= 292.5- 135 = 157 kN
. v"s
MaJ<.unum moment, span AB = ---1 M,,H
= 1352 68.8
2 >< 48.75
= J 18kNm
\1,\B 135
Distance from A, a
=-;;;- =
2.8 m
Figure 3.13 shows the bending moments in the beams for each loading pattern;
figure 3.14 shows the shearing forces. These diagrams have been combined in
figure 3.15 to give design envelopes for bending moments and shearing forces.
A comparison of the design envelopes of figure 3.15 and figure 3.8 wiU emphasise the
advantages of considering the concrete beam as part of a frame, not as a continuous
beam as in example 3.2. Not only is the analysis of a subframe more precise, but many
moments and shears in the beam arc smaller in magnitude.
The moment in each column is given by
~ krol
Mcnl - LMcol X "k
L- col
135 135
J\{955 ~ ~ 9 9551 69
~ 1 ~ 1 \ A
( I) -v \7
118 118
102 80 ~ 67
A & A
~ ---;- \.1
79 "'---./
Analysis of the structure ~ 43
91 9 7 5 ~ 111
[">. I"'- ~
147 147
118 118
Thus. for the first loading arrangement and raking :2 Mcol table 3.2 gives
0.31 N
Column moment MAJ - 68.8 x
= 37 k m
MAt:. = 68.8 X
= 32 kN m
MoK = 40 x - = 21 kN m
0.27 9
MoF = 40 x -- = I kN m
This loading arrangement gives the maximum column moments, as plotted in
figure 3.16.
Figure 3.14
Beam shearing-force
diagrams (kN)
Figure 3.15
Bending-moment and
shearing-force envelopes

44 W Reinforced concrete design
Figure 3.16
Column bending
moments (kN m)
Figure 3.17
Substitute frame
Figure 3.18
Column moments
Analysis of a substitute frame for a column
n1e substitute frame for thi s example, shown in fi gure 3.17, is taken from the building
frame in fi gure 3. 10. The loading to cause maximum column moments is shown in the
fi gure for Gk = 251cN/m and Qk = IOkN/rn.
___ -..-
=292.5 kN =135 kN f
'" E

6.0 Ill 4.0 ll1 1
- ..... ...
The stiffnesses of these members are ident ical to those calculated in example 3.3,
except that for lhis type of l'rame the beam sti llnesses arc halved. Thus
kAu =
X 0.9 X 10 J = 0.45 X )()'"
kBc =
X 1.35 X ) ()- ) = ().675 X J() -
upper column ku = 0.3 1 x 10
lower column kL = 0.27 x 10
I> = (0.45 -1- o.675 -1- 0.3 1 + 0.27) x w-
= 1.705 x 10-
fixed-end moment MsA = 292.5 x
? = .L46 kN m
fixed-end moment MHc = 135 x

= 45 kN m
Column moments are
. ) 0.31 8
upper column Mu = 146 - 45 x -
- = l . kN m
1.7 5
lower column = ( 146 - 45) x -
- = 16 kN m
The column moments are illustrated in fi gure 3.1 !\. They should be compmed with the
corresponding moments for the internal column in fi gure 3.1 6. )

Analysis of the structure f1 45
ln exampl es 3.3 and 3.4 the second moment of area of the beam was calculated as
/ 12 a rectangular section for simplicity, but where ah in situ sl ab forms a flange to
the beam, the second moment of area may be calculated for the T-scction or L-section.
3.4.2 Lateral loads on frames
Lateral loads on a structure may be caused by wind pressures, by retained catth or by
;;eismic forces. A horizontal force should also be appli ed at each level of a structure
resulting from u notional incl inati on oft11e vertical members representing imperfections.
The value of this depends on building height and number of columns (EC2 clause 5.2).
hut will typically be l ess than 1% of the vertical load at that level for a braced structure.
This should be added to any wind l oads at the ultimate limit state
An unbraced frame subjected to wind forcel:i must be anal ysed for all the vertical
loading combinations described in section 3.2. 1. The vertical-l oading analysis cun be
carried out by the methods described previ ously. The anal ysi s for the l ateral loads
,hould be kept separate. The forces may be cal culated by an elastic computer anal ysis or
by a si mplifi ed approximate method. For preliminary design cal culntions. and also only
for medium-size regul ar structures, a simplified analysi s may well be adequate.
A suitable approximate anal ysis is the cantilever method. It assumes that:
1. points of contraf lexure are l ocated at the mid-points of all columns 11 ncl beams; and
2. the direct axial loads in the columns are in proportion to their di stances from the
centre of gravity of the frame. It is al so usual to assume that ull the in a
storey arc of equal cross-sectional area.
It shoul d he emphasised that these approximate methods may give quite inaccurate
results for irregular or high-rise structures. Applicati on of thi s method is probabl y best
Illustrated by an example. as follows.
Simplified analysis for lateral loads - cantil ever method
Figure 3. 19 shows a building frame subj ected to a charucteri st ic wind ncti on of 3.0 kN
per metre height of the f rame. Thi s action i s assumed to be tnmsfcrrecl to the frame as a
concentrated loud at each floor level as indicated in the fi gure.
By inspection, there is tension in the two columns w the left and compression in the
columns to the ri ght; and by assumption 2 the axi al forces jn columns arc proporti onal to
their distances rrom the centre line of the frame.
"0 11




7l.r 'l/:
6.0 4.0 6.0
Figure 3.19
Frame with lateral load

46 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 3.20
Subframes at the roof
and 4th floor
f,= 0.54 F,= 0.675 F
= O.HkN
5.25 t tJ t
- .------.:-----r---+.- . J --,--.....,.... J ---, s' - J!
H;= 0.93
N,= 4.0P
= 0.54
(a) Roor
(b) 4th Floor
H,= 1.70
It;= 0.93
= 1.0P N
= l.OP
= 0.135 =0.135
0.135 0.135 0.54
1.70 1.70 0.93
l '
5.1 5.1 7.78
0.68 0.68 2.70
Axial force in exterior col umn : axial force in i nterior column = 4.0P : L OP
The analysis of the frame continues by considering a section through the top-storey
columns: the removal of the frame below this section gives the remainder shown i n
figure 3.20a. The forces in this subl'rame arc calculated as follows.
(a) Axial forces in the columns
Taking moments about point s, 2: M, - 0. therefore
5.25 X 1.75 + p X 6.0 - P X 10.0 - 4P X 16.0 ()
and therefore
P - 0. 135 kN
= - N
= 4.0P = 0.54 kN
N2 = - N3 =: I .OP =: 0. J 35 kN
(b) Vertical shearing forces F in the beams
For each part of the sub f rame, L F = 0, therefore
= N
= 0.54kN
F2 = Nr + N2 = 0.675 kN
(c) Horizontal shearing forces H in the columns
Taking moments about the poi nts of comraflcxurc of each heam, L: M = 0, therefore
Hr X 1.75 - Nr x 3.0 = 0
= 0.93kN
Analysis of the structure P 47
(HI + H2) 1.75 - N1 X 8.0- N2 X 2.0 = 0
H1 = 1.70kN
The calculations of the equivalent forces for the fourth floor (figure 3.20b) follow a
'1milar procedure. as follows.
d) Axial forces in the columns
For the frame above section tr', I: M, = 0, therefore
5.25(3 X 1.75) + 10.5 X 1.75 + P X 6.0 - P X 10.0- 4P X 16.0 = 0
P = 0.675 kN
N1 = 4.0P = 2.70 kN
N2 = l. OP = 0.68 kN
(e) Beam shears
F, = 2.70 - 0.54
= 2.16kN
F2 2.70 I 0.68 - 0.54 - 0.135
= 2.705 kN
(f) Column shears
H1 X 1.75 t 0.93 X 1.75 (2.70 - 0.54)3.0 = 0
l-11 = 2.78 k.N
H2 = 2 ( 10.5 + 5.25)- 2.7!\
= 5.1 kN
Values calcul ated for sections taken below the remaini ng floors are
third noor N
= 7.03 kN
F1 = 4.33 kN
ll1 - 4.64kN
second floor N
= 14. 14 kN
/1 7. 11 kN
Ht = 6.61 kN
first floor N
= 24.37 kN
F, = l0.23kN
HI = 8.74kN
N2 = 1.76kN
F2 = 5.41 kN
H2 = 8.49kN
Nz = 3.53 kN
F2 = 8.88kN
H2 = 12. 14kN
N2 = 6.09k.N
Fz = l2.79kN
H2 = 16.01 kN
The bending moments in the beams and columns m their connections can be
calculated from these results by the following formulae
beams Mu - F x! beam span
columns Me = H x i storey height
48 Rei nforced concrete design
Figure 3.21
Moments (kN m) and
reactions (kN)
24.4 6. 1
so that the roofs external connect ion
Mu = 0.54 X
X 60 = 1.6kN m
1 -
Me = 0.93 X ;; X 3.:1 = 1.6 kN 111
6. 1
As a check at each joint. L: MR = 2:: Me.
ThL: bL: nding moments due to characteristic wind londs in all the columns ancl beams
of thi s structure are shown in fi gure 3.2 1.
3.5 Shear wall structures resisting horizontal loads
t\ reinforced concrete structure with shear walls is shown in fi gure 3.22. Shear wall s are
very effective in resisting horizontal loads such as P,. in the figure whi ch act in the
direction of the plane of the walls. As the walls arc relatively thin they of!'er litl'le
resistance to loads which arc perpendicular to thei r plane.
The Aoor slabs which arc supported by the walls also act as rigid diaphragms which
transfer and distribute the hori zontal forces into the shear wa ll s. The shear walls act us
vertical cantilevers transferring the hori zontal loads to the structural rouncl ations.
3.5.1 Symmetrical arrangement of walls
With a symmetrical anangemcnt of walls as shown in figure 3.23 the horizontal load is
distributed in proportion to the the relati ve stiffness k
of each wall. The relati ve
Analysis of the structure i ~ ~ 49
-tiffncsscs arc given by the second moment of area of each wall about its major axis
-uch that
k, ~ h X b
here h is the thickness of the wall and b is the length of the wall.
The force P; distributed into each wal l is then given by
f x i,k
Symmetrical arrangement of shear walls
A structure with a symmetrical arrangement of shear walls is shown in figure 3.23.
Calculate the proportion of the JOOkN horizontal load carried by each of the walls.
1- 10m _._
Figure 3.22
Shear wall structure
Figure 3.23
Symmetrical arrangement
of shear walls
50 ~ Reinforced concrete design
Relative stiffnesses:
Walls A
Walls B
kA = 0.3 X 2()3 = 2400
kR = 0.2 X R
= 346
I: k = 2(2400 + 346) = 5492
Force in each wall :
kA 2400
P .... = I;k X F = 5492 X 100 = 43.7kN
ks 346
=-x F = --x 100 = 6 3 kN
l:k 5492 .
Check 2(43.7, 6.3) = 100 kN = F
3.5.2 Unsymmetrical arrangement of walls
With an unsymmetrical arrangement of shear walls as shown in figure 3.24 there will
also be a torsional force on the structure about the centre of rotation in addition to the
direct forces caused by the translatory movement. The calculation procedure for this
case is:
1. Determine the location of the centre of rotation by taking moments of the wal l
stiffnesses k about conveni ent axes. Such that
where k ~ and k,. arc the stiiTncsses or the walls orientat ed in the x andy directions
2. Calculate rJ1e torsional moment M, on the group of shear walls as
M, = F x e
where e is the eccentricity of the horizontal force F ahout the centre of rotation.
3. Calculate the force P, in each wall as the sum of the direct component Pc1 and tl1e
torsional rotation component Pr
P; = c ~ + Pr
kx k;r1
= F X I;k., M
X I;(k;r; 2)
where r; is the perpendicular distance between the axis of each wall and the centre
of rotation.
Unsymmetrical layout of shear walls
Determine the distribution of the I 00 kN horizontal force F into the shear wall s A, B, C.
D and E as shown in figure 3.24. The relative stiffness of each shear wall is shown in the
figure in tenus of multiples of k.
yt l1= 12.0m 1
. . ...

'0 Centre of
A: ZOk 1 rotation
' -

0: 5k
C: 6k
J.'= 6.4m

20m 20m
F = lOOkN
Centre of rotation
L:;k, = 20 + 5 + 5 = 30
Taking moments about YY at wall A
_ L:;(kxx) 2() X 0 + 5 X 32 + 5 X 40
= 12.0 metres
L_k,.=6 H 10
Taking moments for k, about XX at wall C
l:(k,.y) 6 X 0 - 4 X 16
. l:k,. 10
= 6.4 metres
The torsional moment /v/
!VI, = F X (20 - x) 100 X {20 - 12)
= 800 kNm
The remainder of these calculations are conveniently set out in wbular form:
kx ky kr
pd P,.
A 20 0 12 240 2880 66.6 - 20.4
B 0 4 9.6 38.4 369 0 - 3.3
c 0 6 6. 4 38.4 246 0 3.3
D 5 0 20 100 2000 16.7 8.5
E 5 0 28 140 3920 16.7 11.9
30 10 9415 100
As an example for wal l A:
kA kArA
P A - P, + Pr = F X r-M, X L(
k k;r;
20 20 X 12
= 100 x
- soo x
= 66.6 - 20.4 = 46.2 kN
Analysis of the structure [f
- 3.3
Figure 3.24
Unsymmetrical arrangement
of shear walls
52 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 3.25
Shear wall with openings
(a) Shear Wall (b) Idealised Plane Figure
3.5.3 Shear walls with openings
Shear walls with openings can be idealised into equivalent plane frames as shown in
figure 3.25. I n the plane frame the second moment or area lc of the columns is
equivalent to that of the wall on either side of the Clpenings. The second moment of area
lb of the beams i s equi valent to that part of the wall between the openings.
The lengths of beam that extend beyond the openings as shown shaded in flgure 3.25
are given a very large stiffnesses so that their second moment of area would be say
The equi valent plane frame would be analysed by computer with a pl ane f rame
3.5.4 Shear walls combined with structural frames
For simpl icity in the design or low or medium-height structures shear walls or a l i ft
shaft are usually considered to resist all of the horizontal load. With higher rise
for reasons of st i ffness and economy it often becomes necessaty to include
the combined action of' the shear wall s and the structural frames in the desi gn.
A method of a structure wi th shear walls and structural frames as one
equivalent linked-plane frame is illustrated by the example in figure 3.26.
I n the actual structure shown in pl an there arc four frames of type A and two frames
of type B whi ch include shear wall s. ln the linked frame shown in elevation the four
type A frames arc lumped together into one frame whose member stiiTnesses arc
multiplied by four. Similarly the two type B frames are lumped together into one frame
whose member sti ffnesses arc doubled. These two equivalent frames arc then l inked
together by beams pinned <H each end.
The two shear wall s are represented by one column having the secti onal properti es of
the sum of the two shear walls. For purposes of analysis tJ1is column is connected to the
rest of its frame by beams with a very high bending sti ffness, say I 000 rimes that of the
other beams so as to represent the width and rigidi ty of the shear wall.
The link beams transfer the l oads axi ally between the two types of frames A and B sc1
representing the rigid diaphragm action of the concrete floor slabs. These link beams,
pi nned at their ends, woul d be given a cross-sectional area of say LOOO times that of the
other beams in the frame.
As all the beams in the struclnral frames arc pressing against the ri gid shear wal l in
the computer model the effects of axial shortening in beams wi ll be exaggerated.

Analysis of the structure .'.:: 53
a) Plan of Structure
pi ns
l ateral
s 1 - I- s 2 - \..._b_-J j.., s ...
sl ....
'J. 7?/?7-
4 No, frames 2 No, frames B I
- -- -
- L of large cross-sectional :rea
pinned at their ends
(b) Elcvatfon or link-Frame Model
very sti ff
whereas l: hi s would normall y be of a secondary magni!llcl c. To overcome th is the cross-
'>CCti onal areas of nil the beams in the model may be increased say to 1000 m
and thi s
wi ll virtuall y remove !he effects of axial shortenjng in the beams.
In the computer output the member forces for type A frames would need to be
divided by a factor or four and those for type 13 frames by a factor of two .
Redistribution of moments
Some method of elastic analysis is generally used to calculate the forces in u concrete
srmcturc, despite the fact that the strucmre docs not behave elastically near it!> ultimate
load. The assumption of elastic behaviour is reasonably true for low stress level!>; but as
a section approaches its ulti mate moment of resistance, plastic deformation will occur.
Figure 3.26
Idealised link frame lor a
structure with shear walls and
structural frames
54 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 3.27
Typical moment- curvature
This is recognised in EC2, by allowing redistribution of the clastic moments subject to
ccnain limitations.
Reinforced concrete behaves in a manner midway between that or steel and concrete.
The stress- strain curves for the two materials (figures 1.5 and 1. 2) show the elastoplastic
behaviour of steel and the plastic behaviour of' concrete. The latter will fail at a
relatively small compressive strain. The exnct behaviour of a reinforced concrete
section depends on the relative quantities nnd the iJ1diviclunl properties of the two
materials. However, such a section mny be considered vi rtually elastic unti l the steel
yields; and then plastic until the concrete fni ls in Thus the plastic
behaviour is limited by the concrete failure; or more specitically, the C()ncrcte fai lure
limits the rotation that may tnke place at a section in bending. A typical moment-
curvature diagram for a reinforced concrete member is shown in figure 3.27
Thus, in an indeterminate structure, once a beam section develops its ultimate
momelll of resistance, M
, it then behaves as a plaMic hinge resisting a constant moment
of that value. further loading must he taken by other parts of the structure. with the
changes in moment elsewhere being just the same as if a real hinge eJtisred. Provided
rotation of a hinge docs not cause crushing of the concrete. further hinges will be
fonned until a mechanism is pro<.luced. This requirement is considered in more detai l in
chapter 4.
Moment redistribution -singl e span fixed-end beam
The beam shown in fi gure 3.28 is subjected to an increasing uniformly distributed load:
Elaslic support moment = 12
Elastic span moment
In the case where the ultimate bending strengths are equal at the span and at the
supports, and where adequate rotation is possible, then the additional load w
, which the
member can sustain by plastic behaviour, can be found.
At collapse
IWu= -
= - + additional mid-span moment IIIH
where mR = (waL
)/ 8 as for a simply supported beam with hinges at A and C.
:: [0

Analysis of the structure 55
w/unit length
Elastic BMO
MA=Mc= Mu
Additional moments diagram
(Hinges at A and C)
Collapse mechanism
Elastic BMD (Collapse loads}
Final Collapse BMD
'' the l oad to cause IJ1c first pl astic hinge; thus the beam may cnrry a load of
.- ''ith redistribution.
fn,m the design point of view. the elastic bending-moment diagmm can be obtained
r.:qui rcd ultimate loading in the ordinary way. Some of theNe moments may then
e1ruccd; hut thi s will necessitate increasing others to maintain the static equilibrium
'tructurc. Usually it is the maximum support moments which arc reduced. so
-w .. ing in reinforcing steel and also reducing congestion at the columns. The
emcnts for applying moment redistribution arc:
l:qullihrium between internal and external forces must be mnintaincd, hence it is
necessary to n.:calculate the span bendi ng moments and the shear forces for the load
invol ved.
2. The cor11inuous beams or sl abs are predominately to fkxure.
3. The rmio of adjacent sptms be in Lhe range of 0.5 to 2.
The column design moments must not be reduced.
There arc other restrictions on the of moment. redistribution in order to ensure
uucti lit y of the beams or slabs. This entails limjtations on the grade of rei nforcing steel
.. ncl or the areas of tensile reinforcement and hence rhe depth or the axis as
described in Chapter Four -'Annl ysis of the Section'.
Moment redistribution
In exnmplc 3.3. ligurc 3. 13, it is required to reduce the maximum upport moment of
MRI\ = 147 kN m as much as possible. but without increasing Lhe span moment nbove
the present maxi mum value of ll8 kN m.
Figure 3.28
Moment redistribution,
one-span beam
56 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 3.29
Moments and shears after
(a) Original Moments (kN m)
WA 1o8
LG 2

\ / -;=
"'---../ 79
(b) Redistributed Moments (kN m)
(c) Shears (kN)
Figure 3.29a duplicates the origi nal bending-moment diagram (pan 3 of figure 3.13)
of example 3.3 while figure 3.29b shows the redistributed moments, with the span
moment set at l18kN m. The moment at support B can be calculated. using a
rcanangement of equations 3.4 and 3.1.
V,,B - MAu)2wj
Mp,,, (v. ... o-
;L)L I MAo
For span AB, w = 48.75 kN m, therefore
/ [(J 18+67) X 2 X 48.75j = l 34kN
48.75 X 6.())
MBA= 134 -
6.0 - 67 = 140 kN m
lloA = 292.5 - 134
= 158.5 kN
Reduction in MoA = 147 - 140
= 7kNm
7 X 100
= - --= 4.8 per cent
ng a

Analysis of the structure .,.! 57
In order to ensure that the moments in the columns at joint B arc not changed by the
:'!C 'tri bution, moment M
c must also be reduced by 7kN m. Therefore
= 115 - 7 = 108 kN m hogging
Fnr the revised moments in BC:
l BC = ( l 08 - 80) + 195 =: I 05 kN
4 2
1 co = 195 - 105 = 90 kN
F r BC:
- 108 = 5 kN m saggmg
Figure 3.29c shows the revised shearing-force diagram to accord with the
moments. This exampl e illustrates how, with redistribution
the moments al a section of beam can be reduced without exceeding the maximum
c.;,ign moments at other sections;
" values of the column moments are not arrcclcd; and
3 the equilibrium between external loads and internal forces is maimaincd.
Analysis of
the section

A satisfactory and econom1c design of a concrete structure rarely depends on a
complex theoretical analysis It is achieved more by deciding on a practical overall
layout of the structure, careful attention to detail and sound constructional practice.
Nevertheless the total des1gn of a structure does depend on the analys1s and design of
the individual member sections.
Wherever possible the analysis should be kept simple, yet it should be based
on the observed and tested behaviour of
reinforced concrete members. The manipula-
tion and juggling with equations should
never be allowed to obscure the fundamental
principles that unite the analysis. The three
most important principles are
1. The stresses and strains are related by the
material properties, Including the stress-
strain curves for concrete and steel.
2. The distribution of strains must be compa-
tible with the d1storted shape of the cross-
3. The resultant forces developed by the
sect1on must balance the applied loads for
static equilibrium.
These principles are true Irrespective of how the stresses and stra1ns are distributed, or
how the member is loaded, or whatever the shape of the cross-section
This chapter describes and analyses the action of a member section under load.
It derives the basic equations used in design and also those equations required for
the preparation of design charts. Emphasis has been placed mostly on the analysis
a sociated with the ultimate limit state but the behaviour of the section withm the
elastic range and the serviceability limit state has also been cons1dered
Section 4.7 deals with the redistribution of the moments from an elastic
analysis of the structure, and the effect it has on the equat1ons denved and the
tiesign procedure. It should be noted that EC2 does not g1ve any explicit
equations for the analysis or design of sections. The equations given in this
chapter are developed from the principles of EC2 in a form comparable with the
(Quations formerly given in BS 8110 .
. 1 Stress-strain relations
Analysis of the section 59
n-term curvc1-. for concrete and steel are presented in I:C2. These
arc in un idealised form wh1ch can be used in the anCIIysh. of memhcr :-.ecuons .
.. 1. 1 Concrete

bl: ha"iour of '>tructural concrete (figure 4.1) reprel>ented by a paruholic
m up to n strain - from which point the increa-;e, '' hile the
"' con'>tant. The ultimate design :.tress is gl\cn hy
- 0.567
rc the factor ol 0.1!5 for the dillcrence bet\\ecn the bcnd111g \trength and the
1 fer cru1-.h ing stn.:ngth of the concrete. and;'< = 1.5 ;, the w.uul partial \lllety factor
'le strength of concrete. The ultimate strain of = 0.0035 for of
CS0/60. Concrete < C50/60 will, un less otherwise stated. be
Porabolic 0.851,.
0.0020 0.0035
Figure 4.1
stress -strain diagram for
C011crete m compression
60 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 4.2
cono;idcred throughout this book these are the classes commonly used in
reinforced concrete construction. Also for concrete higher than CS0/60 the
delining propertie such a-, the ultimate \train ..,
vary for each of the hjgher classes.
Oel>ign equations for the higher cla\),CS of concrete can in general be obtained using
similar procedures to those shO\\n in the tC\t with the relative properties and coefficients
obtained from the Eurocodes.
4.1.2 Reinforcing steel
The representative !.hort-term design strain curve for reinforcement is given in
tigure 4.2. The behaviour of the steel identical in ten,ion and comprc!>sion, being
linear in the clastic range up to the de1-ign yteld of f>kh, where jyk b the
characteristic yield nnd ), is the partial tnctQr of safely.
Short-term design wess-stmin 1,.
CUIVe for relnforcEC>ment T.
Tens1on and
\\ 1thm the cla:-.tic range. the the Mrel>' and strain is
Stres\ elaqlc mouuiU\ ,.. stralll
= ,
'iO that the uel>ign yield Mraut i1>

E) =
ulthe ultim:tte limit 500N/mm
= 500/( 1.15 X 200 X 10
= 0.00217
(4.1 )
It !.houlu be noted that EC:! permits lhc of an ulternutive design strc!>s-strain
curve to that shown in figure 4.2 with an inclined top branch and the maximum strain
limited to a value which is dependent on the clth:-. of reinforcement. However the more
commonly used curve shown in figure 4.2 \\ill be U!.Cd 111 th1s chapter and throughout
the text.
4.2 Distribution of strains and stresses across a section
in bending
The theol) of bending for reinforced concrete assumes that the concrete will crack in the
regions of tcnllilc and that. after cracking, all the tension is carried by the

- I

Analysis of the section 61
- E '-- s- 0.8x
,_ if-n':utral P- JF-
,.._ axts

mtoon Strains
Stress blocks
ment. It i-; also thar plane of n member remuin
atter so thnt the section thl.!re must be a linear distribution of
rc l3 the cross-section of a member subjected w bending, and the
t struin diagram. together with three different types ol stress distribution in the
triangular tlistribution applies when the 01rc very nearly
' ntonalto the which generally (lt;curs ntthc loading h:\cl!<. cncour11crcd
e \Hirl,ing condltiOn\ and is, therefore. used ut the scrvicenhJiitv limit
ed.tngular parabolic \trcs hlocli. represents the dJstrihution at failure when the
1 essi\c 'trams are\\ ithin the plastic range. and it "associated the
I rt ultunatc limit state.
C<flll\'alcm rectangul;lr 'tress block is a '>impht1ed altcrnall\e to the rectangular-
tx_,hc dl'trihuuon
mere ts cornpatihtht) of strain<. bet\\cen the reinforcement and the adjacent
e. the \truins 111 und .. .... tn compresston cun he determined from
n dragram. The relntlonshtp). het ween the depth of neutrul u \1!-. ( ') and the
m concrete \trurn ond the arc given by
\ d')
- d 1' the effective depth of the beam and d' is the depth olthe
n.., determined the \train,, we can evaluate the streS!>es in the reinforcement from
,_,train curve of figure 4.2, together wrth the equations de\ cloped 111
'\I\ of u secuon with known steel strains, the depth of the neutral a \i\ can be
r d b) rearranging equation 4.2 ac;
Figure 4.3
Section with strain diagram
and stress blocks
62 Reinforced concrete design
At the ultimate limit !.tate the maximum comprel!sive strain in the concrete is taken as
feu:! = 0.0035 for concrete clas-. C50/60
For higher classes of concrete reference should be made to EC2 Table 3.1 - Strength
and deformation characteristics for concrete.
For \tecl ''ilh.f;t = SOON/mm
the y1eld strain from section 4.1.2 is f> = 0.00217.
Inserting these values for and :> mto equation 4.4:
\' = 0.00217 =

+ 0.0035
Hence. to yielding of the tcn!.ion ..,tccl at the ultimate limit state:
At the ultimate limit state it JS important that member sections in Aexure should be
ducti le and that failure should occur with the gradual yielding of the tension steel and
not hy a sudden catastrophic compression failure of the concrete. Also, yielding of the
reinforcement enables the formation of hinges \O that rt!distrihution of maximum
moments can occur. resulting in a safer and more economical To en .. ure
rotation of the plastic hinges with yielding of the ten!'ion ... tecl and also to
allow for other factors such the strain h:.mlcning of the steel. EC'2 the depth of
neutral axis to
for concrdc CS0/60.
Thi' 1:. the hmiting ma\imum \aluc for 1 gl\cn b} I.C2 w1th no redistrihut1on applied
to the momcntl> calculated b) an cla\liC anal):-1' ot the c;tructure. a.c; described in
Chapter 3. When moment redi,tnbuuon '' apphcd these maxunum values of .t arc
reduced a:. described m Section 4 7
The UK Annex 10 EC2 can gl\e different limiting \alucs for 1. The EC2 value of
\ OA5d is within the rcqu1red limit' and 11 ensures thut a grudual
fuilure of the steel occur:, at the ultimate limit \late. and not wdtlcn briulc fuilure of the
concrete in compression.
4.3 Bending and the equivalent rectangular stress block
For most reinforced concrete it is to commence the design for the
conditiom at the limit state, followed hy to ensure that the structure
adequate for the serv1ceability limit state with(lut excessive dcncction or cracking of the
concrete. For this reason the in chapter will lirst consider the
rectangular stress block wh1ch can he U\Cd for thc design at the ultimate limit state.
The rectangular stress block us shm\n in ligurc 4.4 may be used in preference to the
more rigorous rectangular-parabolic strc" block. This \imphfied stress distribution will
fac1htate the analysi' and provide more manageable de.,ign equations. in particular
\\hen dealing \\ith non-rectangular cro!>s-scctions or when undertaking hand

It can be \ecn from figure that the stress block doe" not extend to the neutral axis
of the section but has a = 0.8.\. Th1s will result Ill the centroid of the stress block
being sf2 OAOx from the top edge of the which very ncar!) the same
location a' for the more precise rectangular- parabolic hhx:k. Abo the areas of the
iaten as
uld be
I and
. .,f the

'o to
rpth of
lkd in
I arc
a.: te of
t the
Analysis of the section 63

0.0035 0.85f,Jy, = 0.567("
---J l..o -
" S=0.8r-.-
_ l
Stress Block
_ L
L: l,d
'res of block arc approximately equal (see 11ection 4.9). the momen1 of
,t.tnce of the section will be simi lar using calculations based on either of the two
,, hlods.
-he tle11ign cquntions derived in sections 4.4 to 4.6 arc for tcro redistribULion of
ncnt!>. When moment redistribution is uppl ied, reference be mudc to
1011 4. 7 which how to modify the desi gn equmions.
Singly reinforced rectangular section in bending at
the ultimate limit state
4 4.1 Design equations for bending
Bendang of the \ection will mduce a resultant tcn,ilc force F,
m thc reinforcmg \lecl,
31ld a resultant compre"t''e force Ill the concrete /\, which act' thmugh the centrotd of
the- effective arca nf concrete in a!> 1-hnwn in fi gure -1...1.
f-ur eqtullbnum. the ultimate destgn moment. M. mu't he balanced by the moment of
,t,tance of the 'ection so thai
H 1-.<-:. F,,:
hcrc ;: the luver arm bet ween the resultant forces F,( anti / ,
f _. x areu of uction
Figure 4.4
Singly reinforced section w1th
rectangular stre55 block
)lock x JJ.1
r the
ore is
... ular
, the
: d s/2
'>O 1hat in equation 4.5
Jnd replacing 1 Jrom equation 4.6 gives
M - 1.13-l.fclh(d ;::);::
Rearranging und wbslttuting K = M
(:/d)'- (:./d) K 1.1 34 0
Soh ing quadratic equation:
+ j(o.2s- K/ 1.134))
64 Reinforced concrete design
K M bd
f.. 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.167
Figure 4.5
0 954 0.945 0.934 0.924 0.913 0.902 0.891 0.880 0.868 0.856 0.843 0.830 0.820
0 0.05
maxomum value of z/d
accordong to the Concose Code
and previous UK practoce
i 1
K M/bd
required (al Mbt)
0 lS 0 167
The percentage values on the K axos mMk the limits for stngly reonforc.ed sections
woth moment redtstrobutoon applted (see Sectoon 4.7 dnd Table 4.2)
tn equation 4.5
F,, = "'
\ "ith I 15
0.87J; .. A,
Equations 4.8 4.9 can he to rhe area of tension reinforcement in
singly reinforced concrete section to an ultimate moment. ;II.
Equation 4.R fm the lever arm :can also he used 10 up a table and drnw o lever
arm curve as shown in ligure 4.5. This curve may U\CULO determine the lever :trm
instead nf solving equation 4.8.
The lower limi t of 'l. = 0.82d in llgurc 4.5 when the depth of the neutral ax11
equals 0.45d. This is the maximum value allowcc.J hy EC2 foro singly reinforced seclim
wirh concrete class less than or equal to ('50/60 in order to provide a ductile section thu
will have a gradual type failure as already described in section 4.2.
4.4.2 The balanced section
The concrete "irh the depth of neutral at the spectficd m<l\imum dept11 o
0.45d 1s often referred to a<, the balanced because at the ultimate limit state tht
concrete and tension '>ted reach their ulumare at the same time. This occurs a
the ma-<imum moment or for a 'illlg.l) rem forced section. that is a -;ection \\ 111
no compres,ion -.tcel. So for thi secuon w1th
Xrut = 0.45d
( 4.9)*
ment in u
a lever-
.:r arm. ::
rral axis
eJ ... ection
Jeplh of
<;tate the
;ecur' at
on with
Analysis of the section 6
0e depth of the stres:. block is
OoR\h,J) = 008 X 0.45d = 0036d
The force in the concrete stress block is
F ,, = 00567/.1. x - 00204/c;;bd
For cqUJhbnum Lhe force m the concrete Fccbal he balanced by the force F,rt>al in
'reel. So that
...,, - F"b.'' = Oo2<Hf.:kNJ
1'hc cfore
\ = [)(/
per cent
u:h is the steel percentage for a balanced section which not be excccucd for a
..:ulc reinforced secuono
fhuo.,, for example. with = 25 N/ mm
anti 500
- '>J .<
"3 4 x 1.17 1)er cent
bd - - o"t 500
n t ullunnte moment of resil'-tancc of the balanced ion b M ... ,

: 1 ti \ ( 2 - 0o8:!c/
h'tituting for r .. h .. l anti ::
\/1\;11 Ool6


0.167 KNI
. M,t
\\hen the moment M
such thm 0 b
, Kbol 00167 then the cannot
fcl.. (
'mgly reinforced and compression reinforcing steel i:-. requino:tf in the compn.:s,ion
nl' of the is the limiting value of K Oo l 67 on the horiz.ontal
a.' ' of the lever arm curve l'hown in figure 4.5 .
Design of a singly reinforced rectangular section
':'"he ultimate moment 10 be resi sred by the sec1ion in figure 4.6 I R5 kN mo
Determine the area of ten:>ion remforcement (t\ ,) required given the charactcnMic
11aterial are fu = 500 :-..tmm
and f., = 25 N/mm'

185 10"
:!6() 4401 X 25
00147 < 00 167
tncrefore :.teel is not required.

Figure 4.6
Design example - singly
reinforced section
66 Reinforced concrete design
Lever arm:
= d{ 0.5 T / ( 0.25-

= 373mm
cor allcmalively. the value ol = f.,d he obtained from the lever-arm diagram,
figure 4.5.)
185 X 10
0.87 X 500 X 373
I 140 mrn
Analysis equations for a singly reinforced section
'I he following equations may be used to calculate the moment of resistance of a given
:-.cction \\ ith a kno'' n area of \lee! retnforcement.
For equilibrium of the compres-.tve force 111 the concrete and the tensile force in the
\tcl'l tn figure 4.4:
Therefore depth or block.

x = s/0.80
Therefore the moment or resi\lalll:e of the secti on
M P,
- .1/ 2)
. (
=- o.87}yiA d -
(4. 11 )
equations assume the tension reinforcement ha'> >ielded. which will be the case if
.\ < 0.617d. If thi., i-. not the the problem would require solving by trying
-.uccesshe value' of..\ unttl
with the Meel Mrains and hence '>tresses being determtncd from equations 4.2 and 4.1. to
be u\cd in equation 4.12 instead of
a gram,
_____ )
t a gi\'en
tree m the
case if
.ru -l.l, to
Analysis of the section
Analysis of a singly reinforced rectangular section in bending
Determine the uJlimatc moment of resistance of the in fiuure 4.7
en that the chamctcri!>tic strengths are i)l = 500 Nlmm
for the rcinforcen;ent and
:!5 N/mm
for the concrete.
- ,-
:;:; - ---

A, .. t470 mm

For equilibrium of the compressive and forces on the
Frc - /,1
0.567/' O.X7/;kA
0.567 < :!5 3()() X I= 0.87 X 5(X) X 1470
.1 .1 / 0.8 15CJ; O.X
lHH mrn
value of .1 is than the value of 0.6l7d derived froml>Cction 4.2. and therefore
the steel has yielded and /,
Moment ol' re1>istance of the section i s
O.H7 x 500 x 1470{520- 150/2) x lO
284 kN m
Rectangular section in bending with compression
reinforcement at the ultimate limit state
(a) Derivation of basic equations
It -.houhJ be noted that the equauons in thb !-.Cc.:tion ha\'e been deri\ed for the case ot
zero moment rcdiMrihution. When this is not the ca"e, reference should he made to
'ection 4.7 '' hich deal' with the effect of moment rcdbtrihut1on
Figure 4.7
Analysis example - singly
reinforced sect1on
68 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 4.8
Section w1Lh compress1on
0 0035

.------,_j_d 1
A,' 1 0 45d
. A, .
Section Strains
Stress Block
from the deal ing with the analysis uf u 1>ingly reinforced section nnd for
concrete class not grcall:r than CS0/60 when
M >
the desi gn ultimate moment exceeds the moment of' of' the concrete(Mbal) and
therefore compression reinforcement required. For 1his condition the depth of neutral
axis, 1 .... 0.45c/. the maximum value all owed hy the code in order to en&ure a tension
failure with a ductile Therdorc
1 = d- !it-aJ/'2 = d O.Rlh:ll/2
= d - O.t{ 0.45cl,2
= 0.8:!d
For equilibrium of the section in ligurc 4.K
that Wtth the reinforcement at yteld
or with
S 0.8 X 0.45d 0.36d
0.204fdbd 1-
and taking moments about the centroid of the tension l.lecl.
M - F.c x ;:""' I F\<;(d - d')
= 0.204/.kbd X 0.82c/ + 0.87/;kA:(d - d')
= 0.167fckhcP + (d- d')
rrom cqunuon 4.14
I M- O.l67hbd
A, = O.R7J;dd- d' )
Muluplying both ;,ide;, or equation 4.13 by : = 0.!!2d and rearranging gi vel>
A = .... 1\
' 0.'07};1. X .:ba1 '
\\ ith ;:,., = 0.82d.
(4. 13)
(4. 15)*
and tor
r ) and
a ren ... ion
-l. 14)
- 15
- 16
Analysis of the section 69
.. areas of compression steel. and tension l>tecl, A,, can he calculated from
5 and 4.16.
1 1g A rut 0.167 and K = M I bd7cl into these equations would convert
a }sts it hru, been assumed that the compressiOn steel ha' yielded so that the
'J ... = 0.87}yl. From the proportions of the strain distribution diagram:
(4. 19)
\\ith };1. = 500 the steel strain "' = = 0.00217. Therefore for
l l the compresston o,teel
() 002 17 <, 0.38
= 0...15tl
() 171
(4.21 )
rnttu or d' / d for the yielding of other grades of steel can be determined by u ... ing
tclu in equmion 4.19. but for values of ]yl. les& thun 500N/mrn'. the
<. tton or equation 4.21 wi ll provide an adequate safe check.
II I' cl .. 0. 171. then it is necessary to calculate the strain f from equation 4. 19 and
determine l'rom
/:', X 'c
200000 "'
\,tlue of stress for the compressive 'tccl then he in the denominator of
ton 4.15 in place of 0.87/yL in order to calculate the area A: of compression steel.
Tbe area of tension steel is calculated from a modified equation 4.16 such that
1 /,..;
A = -A
0.87/yL;J,at ' 0.87Al
ne above equauon' apply for the calo.e \\here the concrete clu"' "' I c-.-. than or equal
( 50/60. lor concrete cla!>ses greater than CS0/60 equation ... \\llh di fferent
can be derived based on the EC2 requtrement for the-.c classes. The constant11
r concretes up to clalo.s CS0/60 arc tabulated in table 4.1.
70 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 4.9
Typical chart ror doubly
Table 4.1 Limiting constant values
Limiting xt...1 d
Maximum Zbaf
- limiting K
Limiting d' d
Maximum percentage steel area 1 OOAoa
, bd
(b) Design charts
Concrete CS0/60
, fv<
The equations for the design charts arc obtained by taking moments about the neutral
axis. Thus
M = 0.567fck0.8x(.x- O.Sx/2) + d') + f,.A,(d- .1)
This equation and 4.13 may be written in the form
A, . Y
f.,, bd - 0.45+fd d t .f-.: hd
b l
' = -,, ( I - 0.40)
l - t -
f.,, bd I

For ratios of A: / lu/ . . 1j d and d' / d. the two non-dimcn:-.ional cquations can be
'>olvcd to give for Aj btl and M ' /}{/ ' \o that a of dc.,1gn charts such as the one
'hm' n in figure 4.9 ma> be plotted. Before 1hc equation' can be 1he steel
r. f11U'1,l be calculmed for each value of 1/ d. i!> achieved by first determining
the rclc\ ant strain:- from 1he strain dwgram (or by applyu1g cquauons 4.2 and 4.3) and
1hen by e\aluating the stresse:-, from the Mres., Slram curve of figure 4.2. Values of t:/d
below 0.45 will apply when mome111s are ltl>hould be noted that EC2 does
not give design charts for bending. Hence although 1t to derive cham; a<.
indicated. it may be Simpler to the equations derived earlier 111 chapter or simple
0 0.5 1 0 1.S
2.0 2 5 3.0
1 5
L n be

.1 nd
Analysis of the section 71
( EXAMPLE 4. 3 I
Design of a rectangular section with compression reinforcement
'lO moment redistribution)
"i'le !thown in figure 4.10 is to resist an ultimate design momcm of 2g5kNm. The
c racterislic material strengths are fyk = 500 N/mm
and = 25 N/mm
. Determine
e areas of reinforcement required.

285 ( l<t - 0 1'>6
260 X X 25 - --
> 0.167
steel is required
d'!r/=50/440 0. 11 <... 0.17 1
as 111 4.21 and the compres:.ion will have y1elded.
C mpre 'l>ion :.tecl:
(K -
0.87.1)dd d' )
(0.226 0.167)25 ) 260 X 440

0.87 X 500(440 5())
= 438mm

0.167 X 25 X 260 -W()2
= ..... 438
0.87 )< 500(0.82 4.40)
= 1339 + 438 - 1777

Figure 4.10
Design example with
compression reinforcemen l,
no moment redistribution

Analysis of a doubly reinforced rectangular section
Determine the ultimate momem ol resistance of the cross-section shown in figure 4. 1 I
,_!IV en that the characteristiC \trengths are f,k = 500 N/mm
for the reinforcement and
J, = 25 N/mm
for the concrete.
For equilibrium of the and compressive forces on the .o,ection:
= Fcc + F,_
initially that the steel fs
and fs, arc the design yield values, then
0.87/ykAs = 0.567fcL/H
72 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 4.11
Analysis example, doubly
reinforced section
.. I

A."= 628


d =50
s =
r ...
Stress Block


().H7 x 500(2410 628}
0.567 X 25 X 2SO
= 195 mm
1 - s/0.8 = 244 mm
1/d - 244/510 0.48 < 0.617 4.::!)
!>O the tension steel will haw }icldcd. Also
d' j.1 = 50/ 225 0.22 <.. 0.38 equation 4.20)
so the compres<;ion steel \\Ill abo have ) tcltled. as
Taking moments about the tcn-.iun steel
M = F,,(cl - 2) r "'( d d' )
0.567f,kb:. (tl - 1/ 2) d' )
0.567 x 25 x 280 x 195(510 195/ 2)+0.!!7 > 'i00 :><. 620(510 50) X lO
= 319 - 124 443 !...N m
If the depth of neutral axis was such that the or tensile had not
yielded. it would have been nccc1.sary to try successive vnluc:, of .r unlil
F" = Fe, + F..,
balances with the &teel and being c.:ulculaled from C4m11ions 4.2, 4J and
4.1. The btcel at halancc would !hen be used to calculate lhe moment of
4.6 Flanged section in bending at the ultimate limit
T-sections and which have their flanges in can botl1 be designed
or analy:-ed in a similar manner. and the equations \\ hich arc derived can be applied to
either type or cross-section. As the gene rail} pro\ ide a large compressiYe area. it
j.., usually unnecessary to cons1der the where compressiOn steel i:-, required; if it
.should be required. the design would be on the principles derived in ..,ection 4.6.3
Analysis of the section 73
lbc '1ngly reinforced section it is necessary to consider two conditi ons:
block li es within the compression tlonge, and
.:'' block extends beiO\\ the flange.
Flanged section - the depth of the stress block lies within the
:ge s hr (figure 4.12)
acpth of stress block. the heam can be considered as an equivalent rectangular
1 llreadth bt equal to the flange width. is because the non-rectangular
belm the neutral axb i' in tcns10n and b. therefore, con'>idered to be cracked
:U\c. rhus K = M can be calculated and the lever arm determ1ncd from
a m curve of figure 4.5 or equation 4.H. The relation between the lever arm. ;:.
\.of the neutral axis is given by
d I 2
- d- ::)
O . .S671,,
"1 1r-1
,---n-eu-tr_a_l a-xi-5 X S - "F.,
-r r ---
Section Stress Block
e" than the flange thtd..nes-; Chr). the block lie wtt htn the nange as
....._.._..___.. .... 1nd the area of retnforccment is given hy
de,ign of aT-section beam is described further in section 7.2.3 with a worked
E. MPLE 4.5
of a flanged section
n nc the ultimate moment of resistance of the T-section in figure 4. l3.
dl.tractcri<.tie material arc [
1. - 5()() N/mm
and /d -= :!5 N/mm
'\.5 u me initially that the block depth lies wi thin the and the
is strained to the yield. thal /.
0.87 }yk
Figure 4. 12
stress block with1n
the rldnge, s h1
74 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 4.13
Analysis example or a
T-section, s < llf
b, = 800
' r--
=150 t-=fF-
- - A,= 1470 mm< _j .
For equilibrium of the \ecuon
Fe, = F,,
and for the depth ol stress
0.87 X 5()(} X 1470
.\ -
0.567 X 25 X 8()()
= 56mm < 11
- 150mm
.\ = 1/ 0.8
Stress Block
s/ 2
Hence the stress blocl. does li e within the Aangc ami with thi' depth of neutral the
t->lcel wil l have yielued ns:-.umec.J.
Lever arm:
d s/ 2
- 420 - 56/ 2
'392 nun
about the centmid of the reinforcement the moment of resiMance il>
M F" x :.:
;::: 0.567
0.567 X 25 X 8()() X 56 X 392 X 10
249 kN m
If in the analysio; it had been found that s > h
then the procedure would have been
:.unilar to that in example 4.7.
4.6.2 Flanged section -the depth of the stress block extends below
the flange, s > h,
For the design of a nanged section, the procedure dcscribt.:d in section 4.6.1 wil l check if
the depth of the stress block extends below the nangc. An alternative procedure is to
calculate the moment of resi tance. M
, of the section with s = lt
, the depth of the
1 'the
. eck if
-e IS to
f the
Analysis of the section 75
(see equation 4.22 of example 4.6 following). Hence if the moment. Md. is
\/d > Mr
'1 the <;tress block must extend beiO\\o- the flange. and
ht\ ca\c the design can be carried out b) either:
a w .. ing an exact method to determine the depth of the neutral axis. as in example 4.6
for the conservative conditi on of x = 0.45d. which ;, the maximum
value of r for a reinforced secti on and concrete class C':'i0/60.
Design of a flanged section with the depth of the stress block below the flange
T-section heam )hown in figure 4.14 is required to an
of I XO kN m. The material strengths arc .f>l
25 N/mm
Calculate the area of reinforcement required.
I j
h,. 100

X s I
'"" j
lo axo}
Stress Block
In figure 4. 14
is the l'orcc developed in the flange
I c"' is the force developed in the area of web in comprcsl.ion
\lomcnt of Mr. of the flange is
Ml X ;:1
Jfr 0.567 }ckbl ltr(d 11
/ 2)
0.567 25 X 4()() X 100(350- 100/ 2) X JO-h
= 170 I..N m < 180 m. the design moment
Therefore, the :..tress blod. extend belo'' the flange .
ultimate design
:'iOO N/mm
It is now to determine the depth. s,. . of the web in compres,ion. where
Figure 4.14
Design example of a Tsewon
l h.
76 Reinforced concrete design
For equilibrium:
Applied moment
I HO x ::1 -'- F," x
= 170 ..L 0.567 v ;:
- 170-0.567 X 25 X 200l., (250- 1" / 2) X I()
170 + 2835sw(250 X 10- h
Thi 'i equation can be rearranged into
- .. t 1.os < 10
= o
Solving this quadratic equauon
v .. - 15 mm
that Lhc depth of neutral axis
X (/tr + sw)/0.8 (100 j 15)/0.8
= I.Wmm 0.4ld
A\ \ 0.45d remforcement not required.
For the equilibrium of the section
F,1 - F,1 I Few
0.87/>kA,- 0.567j;.b, h +
0.87 < 5(X) X tl , 0 567 X 25(400 X 100 -r 200 15) = 610 X 10
Then: fore
610 X 10
0.87 X 5()()

Analysis of a flanged section
Detcnnmc the ultimate moment of of the T-bcam section 'ho\\ n in figure 4. 15
g1vcn - 500 N/mm
and fck = 25 N/mm
rhc compressive force in the nange is
F.r 0.567 f.:kb, It ,
o 567 x 2s x 450 ISO x Io-
957 kN
Then force in the remlorcmg <;teel, a-.suming it has yielded. i'
0.87 x 500 X 2592 x 10-
= I 128 kN
Analysis of the section 77
/). = 450

ht = 150
Stress Block
cfore 1-',,1 > F" so that s > lit and the force in the web is
f " 0.567/dbw{.V - fir)
0.567 X 25 X 3QO(s - 150) X lQ
4.25(.1 - 150)
equi librium
F. F,1 F"
4 150)..: I 128 - 957
... '-e
= 190 nun
0.R 231:1 mm = 0.43d
\\nh thr\ depth of ncutml a\is the reinforcement has yielded, :I\ assumeu. and
F, .. 4.25(190 150) 170kN
It f 1 > F,,, the the block would not extend beyond the llange and
he analysed Ul. in cxumplc 4.2 for a rectanguiLlr of b
x d.)
l rng momcms about centroid of the reinforcement
\I flt /2) I f cw(d hr /2)
[957(550 150/2) I 170(550- 190/2- 150/2)] x 1() -
5.19kN m
Design of a flanged section with depth of neutral axis x - 0 4Sd
,Jfc but con:-.crvmive desrgn tor a flanged section with f > Jr
can be achieved hy
ung the depth of neutral axis to .r = 0.45cl, the maximum depth allowed in the code.
equations can IX! derrved for this condition a:. follows.
Depth of blocl... s 0.8x = 0.8 x OA5d = 0.36d
Figure 4.15
Analysis example of a
T-section, s > /If
78 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 4.16
Flanged section with depth of
neutral axis x = 0 45d

x = OASd
s" 0.8x

r -
Stress Block
Divide the flanged within the depth uf the block into areas l nnd 2 ns
shuwn in figure 4.16. so that
Area I = bw X s = 0.36b,,,d
Area 2 (br hw) X ht
and the comprc:-.sion forces developed hy these urc
Fd x 0.36b,.d 0.'1f..,b,.d
Fc2 - (b, - /J" )
Taking about Fr' at the centroid of the flange
M F,, (d h
/2) Fd (.\j2 h, /2)
= 0.87 /ikA,(d- h
/ '1 )- 0.2/,.d(O. \()(/ 11,)
!:' + 0.1 /.:lbv. d(0.36d - ht)
cun (d - 0.511, )
equation should not he when 11
Applying thi::. equation to example 4.6:
180 X I 0
+ 0.1 X :!5 X 200 X 350(0.36 X 15() I 00)
A, - (J.ln X 500(350 - 100/2)

(compared wi th 1407 111111
in cxamrlc 4.6)
Before using equation 4.23 for calculating A,, it i\ necessary to confirm thnt
compre!>sion reinforcement not required. is achil!vcd by using equation 4.24 to
chcc.:k that the moment of ot the concrete. M
ul. greater than the design
moment, M. )

4.6.3 Flanged section wit h compression reinforcement
\V1th x OA5d m figure 4.16 and taking moment\ about A_. the max1mum res1stance
moment of the concrete is
Mba! = Fc1 X + Fe'! X :'2
= 0.167fc .. b,.d
- bw)(cl - hr/ 2) (4.24)
(Note that the value of 0.167 was derived in equation 4.10 for the rectangular section.)
Analysis of the section 79
(4.25) ..
c .tpplied design moment. M > MbaJ. compression reinforcement i' required. [n
,e the area of steel can be calculated from
M - Mt\Jt
0.87 J;dd d')
the equilibrium of forces on the section
r the nrco of tens10n steel is
+ 0.567 (bt - b" ) +A 1
n. t1
/.\ < 0.18, otherwi11e the steel less than 0.87 .
.7 Moment redistribution and the design equations
pht\tic hcha,iour of reinforced concrete at the ultimate limn state affects the
huuon of moment' 111 a \tructurc. To allow for thi s. the moment!> denved from an
111 tnal)l>i' may be redi-.trihuted based on the that plastic hinge-. have
ed at the section<, \\ tth the largest moment' (see secuon 3.6). 1 he fonnatton ol
1 htnge' require\ relnth ely large rotations with )'ielding of the ten \ion
rcement To ensure large \tram-; in the tension Meel. the code of practice n.:\tncts
epth ol the neutral according to the magnitude of the moment redi,tribution
cd out.
Tne for gtven by EC2 for concrete less than or equal to CS0/60 is
I k ,\'b,ll
i' 2: "I I 2 d
( 4 .28)
moment at section after redistribution
0 - ---- < 1.
moment m section hefore redistribution
.nd con .. from the EC2 code and the UK Annex and ,.hl is the max1mum
ah I! of the depth of the neutral which will take the limiting value of the equality of
equation (4.28) but should be less than OA5d for concrete cia<;" < CS0/60.
Tht: depth of the 1>trcs' block is
= 0.8.\'t>.l
an the le\cl arm ts
80 Reinforced concrete design
The moment of resistance of the concrete in compression is
Mt>al - Fcc X Zt>>l =- 0.567 X ;:bat
Koot = = 0.567.1hat X
This equation for K""
and the previous equations from 4.28 to 4.29 can be arranged to
Kt>al - 0.454(/' - k!) j k2 - 0.182"(6-
or alternatively
Kt>ul c:')
From EC2 clause 5.5 the constnnts k, anu k
arc given as: k
0.44 and k
- 1.25, but
from the UK A1u1ex to EC2 k
= 0.4 and k2 1.0.
The relevant values of Xtll'" Zbal and Kbnl ror varying pcrccntagcs of momem
redistribution and concrete c; luss < C50/60 are shown in table 4.2.
When the ultimate design moment that
M > KhaJbd
or K > Kbal
then compre:.sion !)teel i!> required '>Uch that
I (K

A - .;_,..,..--.;_..;;..;.._--.,...
0.87 /ydd- d' )
where A
Mto.. t
(4.31 t
( 4.32)
( 4.33)
These equations arc iucnlical in form to derived for the design of a
with reinforcement untl no moment rcdi:-.tributton. If the value ot
d' /d for the section exceeds that :-.hown in table 4.2, the compression steel will not have
yieluetl and the compressive stress will be thun 0.87 In such cases. the
compressive stress _he will be where the strain
, i:-. ohtuincd from the proportion)
or the strain dingram. This vnlue of should replace 0.87/Yk in equation 4.31, and
equation 4.32 becomes
K bd A 1
A, :;: + ' X ---
0.87 0.87 /vl
It should be noted that for a singly reinforced (K < Kbatl. the lever arm
calculated from equution 4.8.
For a l.ection requiring 'teel, the lever arm can be calculated lrom
equation 4.29 or by U'>ing the equution
-: = d[o.s- )(0.25- Koot/1.13-t)] ( 4.3-t
"hich il> similar to equation 4.8 but with Krut replacing K.
l=-ed to

t5. but
I 3.3)*
"t n
e of
Analysis of the section 81
Table 4.2 Moment redistribution design factors
1/d Zt>al/d Kbal d'/d
According to EC2, k, - 0.44 and k
= 1 25
0 1.0 0.448 0.821 0.167 0.171
10 0.9 0.368 0.853 0.142 0.140
15 0.85 0.328 0.869 0.129 0.125
0.8 0.288 0.885 0.116 0.109
25 0.75 0.248 0.900 0.101 0.094
0.70 0.206 0.917 0.087 0.079
According to EC2, UK Annex, k
- 0.4 and k;- 1.0
0 1.0 0.45 0.82 0.167 0.171
10 0.9 0.45 0.82 0.167 0.171
15 0.85 0.45 0.82 0.167 0.171
20" 0.8 0.40 0.84 0.152 0.152
25 0.75 0.35 0.86 0.137 0.133
0.70 0.30 0.88 0.120 0.114
Maximum perm1tted redistribution for class A normal ductility
b Max1murn perrnltte?d redistribution lor class Band C h1gher ductility see section 1.6.2
Design of a section with moment redistribution applied and to 0 8
The -;cellon 'hown 1n figure 4.17 i::. subject to an ultimate design moment of 230 k.. m
niter a 20'/r reduction due to momem redistribution. The characten,tit matcnal Mrcngths
Jre 'iOO t\/mm
and = 25 N/mm
Determmc the area' of reinforcement
required Ul>ing the con,tants ond from (a) the EC2 and (b) the UK unncx to EC2.
(a) Using EC2
(1) From first principles
Limiting neutral axis depth,xhJI
I rum EC2 clau!>e 5.5
0.44 and - 1.25,
therefore .thul (0.8 - 0.44)490/1.25 = 14 1 mm
St I'C!.S bloc I,. depth = 11 3 mm
Lever arm :hl = d - .lbal/2
490 l l3/2 = 434mm
'-'1omcnt of of the concrete
MhJI F,., :t>al 0.567 X Zbal
0.567 X 25 X 260 X 113 X -l34 X 10 II
<. 230 kN m, the applied moment
therdorc 'oteel is required.
d'jxt,.al = S0/ 141- 0.35 < 0.38 ( ee equation 4.20 in :.ection 4.5)
therefore the compression steel has yielded.
b e 260
d' so

A,' 0

Figure 4.17
example with moment
redistnbution, = 0.8
82 Reinforced concrete design
Compression steel:
I M - MOO!
A, = 0.87 [f.:{d - d')
(230 -181) X l(f
0.87 X 500(490 - 50)
Tension steel:
Mt>al 1
A, - -:-A,
0.87 /,LZbJJ
J8J X 10
= -256
0.87 X 500 X 434
= 959 + 256 1215 mm
(ii) Alternative solution applying equations developed in Section 4.7
From equations 4.30 to 4J4:
Khal = 0.454(0- k1 )/k1 At J/k1':
- 0.454(0.X 0.44)/ 1 25 O.llUI(O.H - 0.44)/ 1.25/
0.131 -0.015 = 0 116
which agree<. with the value given in tahlc 4.2.
228 X 10"
260 X 49()1 X 25
= 0.146 Kbal- 0.116
Therefore compression Meel requtrcd.
(K -

O.R7.1'ydd- d')
{0. 146 0. 116)25 X 260 X 490
0.87 X 500(490 50)
Tension steel:
Zhul = d[0.5 J(Ols- Kt>n17TIT4)
d[o.s.,.. J(o.2s- o.II6/ Ll34)) - o.89d
t\ , =
0.87 /,L:.t..J '
0 116 X 25 X 260 X
- I 244
0.87 X 500 X 0.89 X 490
= 954 + 244 = 1198 mm'
..., Using the UK Annex of EC2 and applying the equations developed in section 4.7
From the UK Annex of EC2 clause 5.5 kt = 0.4 and k1 = 1.0
Ff m equations 4.30 to -U4:
= 0.45-l(/i- kt)jk1 - 0 182!(b kt )/k, f
= 0.454(0.8 0.4)/ 1.0 - 0.182[(0.8 - 0.4 )/ I.Of
0.182 - 0.029 = 0.153
hich agrees with the value given 10 table 4.2.

230 X
260 X 4902 X 25
0. 147 < KhJI = 0.153
1bc: <.:om pression steel is not required.
'10n '>teel:
,jng equation 4.8 in section 4.4
d(o.s + /(0.25 - Kt""'li.T34)]
490l0.5 I J(0.25 - 0.146/ 1.134)] 490 x 0.847 415mm
0.!l7 X 500 X 415
Analysis of the section 83
- 8 Bending plus axial load at the ultimate limit state
.1pplled axial force may be ten\tle or compressive. In the analy,i'i that follows. a
nn:sstve for<.:e 1:-. considered. For a load the principles ot
lt hrium. compatibilit y or strain!., and stre),s- strai n rcltttionships would apply, hut it
td he necessary to change the 'ign of the upplied load (N) when we consider the
1 hrium of force-. on the cro-.-. (The area of concrete m compression nut
reduced to allow for the concrete hy the comprc:-.sion steel. This could he
en tnto uccount by reducing the stress.f,c in the comrression steel by an :unount cquul

cure 4.18 represent-. the of a member with typical struin and strcs'
butions for varying position& of the neutral The subject to a
..,ent M and an nxial compressive force N. and in the figure the direction of rhc
-nent such a., to cause compre%ion on the upper part of the section and on
wer part. For ,.,here there is tension in the section (figure 4.18a) the limumg
ete !;train is taken as 0.0035 - the value used in the de,ign and analysts of !>ccuons
However for cases where rherc is no tension in the section (figure 4.1 Rh)
I miting strain taken as a value of 0.002 at the level of 317 of the depth of the
84 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 4.18
Bendmg plus axial load w1th
varying pos1tion of the
neutral axis

S= O.Bx< h
1 '



Section Stral11s
Stress Block
s = h: 0.8x > h
he the comprcS\IVC force developed in the concrete and acting through the
cemroid of the <.tre-;<. block
F.... he Lhe force in the reinforcement area A: and acting through
r , be the tensile or force in the rcmforccment area and act
through it!> centroid.
(I) Basic equations and design charts
The applied force (N) mu!it be balanced by the forces developed within the cro
section, therefore
N = + F M: +
In thi !t equation, /'_ wi ll be ncgutivc whenever the of the neutral axis Stk
that the reinforcement/\, in tcn!tion, at-. in ogure 4.18a. Sub1-tituting into equau
the term), for lhe stresses and areas
where /.... the comprec;sivc m reinforcement A; and .!- is the tensile
compressive stress in reinforcement A .
The moment M must he halunccd hy the moment of of the fore"
developed within the cro<,s-,cction. Hence, t:1king moments about the mid-depth oft"

Analysis of the section 85
he depth of neutral axis is such that 0.8x as in part (b) of li gure 4.18, then
lc concrete 'cctton 11> 'uhject ton uniform compressive stres<> of ... fn thi<>
concrete pmvide<; no contribution to the moment or rcsiaancc and the lirst
the right of the equation 4.36 di:-.appenr1-..
') mmerricnl ammgement of reinforcement (A: =A, A,.j'2 and d' - It - d).
' -U5 and 4.36 can be re\\ riuen m the folio\\ ing form
0.567.1 f..c A, A,
(4J7) --1--+ -
It bh 1".:1 bit
0.567.1 ( 0.5-
It 2/t
!-. C'
fckbh II
f.. t\, c
.fck bh It
0.5) (4J8)
cquauon' the Meel \tram'>, ami hence the 'tre'se' f, and f,. \ ary "11h the depth
m:utral ax1' (\). N / bl!f.: and M

can he calculated for 'pccified ratios

bh and r/ h so that culumn de))ign charts for a arrangement of
nrc ment l>Uch the one !>hown 111 hgure 4. 19 can he plotted.
cltrcct solutiOn of equauonl> -1.37 and 4.38 for the dcs112-n ol column re1nforceml.!nt
bl.! very tedious and, therefore, a set of design chart s lor the usual case of
trical available in publicatiOn!> :.Lu.:h The IJeli[.lntr.\ Guide (rd. 20).
pie' 'hO\ing the of column 'teel arc gl\:en 111 chapter 9.
\fodes of failure
ltlve magnnude of the moment tM) and the ax1al load CN) governs whether the
wi ll fail in tension or in compression. With Iorge effective eccentricity
./ N) a failure liJ...ely. but\\ ith n '>mall cccentncity a railure
likely. Thi.! magmtude of the ecccntncll) affcch the ol the neutral axi:-.
hence the and !>lrcs,cs in the re1nforceml.!nt.
01 0.2 0.3 OA
Figur!! 4.19
TypiCal column design chart
86 Reinforced concrete design
..., be the compressive strain in reinforcement A:
, be the tensile or compressi\'e o;train in reinforcement As
l be Lhe tensile yield strain of steel as -;hown in the stres\-stmin curve <J
figure 4.2.
From the linear strain distribution of figure 4.18(a)
E: -.: = 0.0035 c- X d')
d X)
e:, = 0.0035 -x-
For values of x greater than h, when the neutral axis extends below the section, as shown
in figure 4.18b, the steel !.trains are given by the allernmive expressions:
7(x d')
:..c = 0.002 (?x _ j fl )
7(x - d)
, - 0.002 {7x 3h)
The and strain'i arc then related according to the stres!'.- Strnin curve 0 1
figure 4.2.
Consider the foliO\\ ing mode.., of f:ulure of the \CCtton shown on the interaction
dtagram of figure 4.20.
(a) Tension failure, s > "'y
Tim l)pc of failure is with large eccentrictlles ((')and 'imall of ncutr ...
(.\). lailure begms with yteldmg of the teno;Jic retnforcement, followed by cru'ihin,..
of the concrctl! as the tensile stratns raptdly 111crea'ie.
(b) Balanced failure, "s -.:y, point b on figure 4.20
When fat lure occurs with yielding or the tcn-.ion !.led und cru'ihing of the concrete at the
sume inslant it is described us a oalanccd ft1ilurc. WiLh cy nnd from equation 4.39
.I = = t
For example, the vn lues ol ), = 0.00217 for grade 500
.\hJI = 0.617d
Equations 4.35 and 4.36 hccome
Nto..t Fcc- F"" - F,
0.56 7 f..kb X 0.8Xbat 0.87
FG- -F-. c d') l,(d
.f-. 0.87./;k
e of
rune of
eat the
Analysis of the section 87
--.- ..
;;; ::l
c "'=

nt h on the intenmion diagram of figure 4.20. N Nhut. M M"'' and
-0 87 When the design load N > Nhul the section wi ll fail in wmpression,
there will he ao initial tensile fai lure, wit h yielding uf
Otroression failure
c."e 1 '''"' and N > The t:hange in slope at point r in ligurc 4.20 occurs
fror'l equation 4.39
0.0035d' (0.0035 .:) )
2.63d' for grade 500 l'tccl
r "ill ot:t:ur tn the tension failure Lone of the imcrm:tton dtagrJm if .1
< '"'''
n 1 d
_ O.H7 ... and tcn,ile
n 1 d
'hen 1 d
f, nnd t:mnpressive
.. n r become:-. very large and the a Mate of uniform axial
0.00217 y lor grade 500 steel
1 thl\ stage, both layer!> of <,tee) will have yielded :md there will he 7ero moment of
t-tam:c with a \ymmetrical section, 1.0 that
0.567 0.87 J;K(A:- A,)
c\t the stage where the neutral a>. is cmncidcs with the bottom of the sectton the :.train
changes from th:ushO\\ n in figure 4.18a to the alternmh c 'itratn diagram -;hown
hgure 4.18b. To calculate N and M at this stage, corrcspondtng to potnt s in
,.urc 4.20. equation!> 4.35 and 4.36 should be used, taking the neutral ax.t!'l depth equal
the overall section depth. h.
Figure 4.20
Bending plus axial load chart
with modes of failure
88 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 4.21
Non M N
lnteraclton examplt'
Such M-N interaction can be constructed for any o;hape of cross-section
vv hich has an axis of symmetry h) applying the ba!>ic equilibrium and strain
compatibility equations vv ith the rclauon\, a\ demonstrated in the
foUowmg examples. These diagram., can be very for design purposes.
M-N interaction di agram for a non-symmetrical section
Construct the interaction diagram for the :.hown m figure 4.21 wirh
= 25 Nlmm
and J, ... = 500N/mm
The bending causes maximum compression on
the face udjm:cnt to the steel area
For a <.,ymmetrical taking momenb about the centre-line of the concrete
section will give M = 0 with N = N
and both of stt.:cl ut the yield mess. Thi-; '
nn longer true for unsymmetrical steel area., / " I at yidd therefore,
moments should be calculated about an rcfcrn.:d to as tht.: 'plastic centroid'. The
ultimate axial lond No acting through the ce111rt1id a unifnrm
the section with yielding of all the reinf(lrccment. and thu\ there zcr
mwm:nt of resistance. With uniform :.train the neutral-axis depth. x. is at infinity.

II .,
b 3SO


A,': 1610
A, 982

d'= 60

The locution of the plasttc centroid determined by of all the stre
rewltants about an arhitrary axil. :.uch "' AA in figure 4.21 so that
'LJFcc fl /2 I F,cd' I F,d}
.\p f ' F)
L. 'cc + + '
= 0.56 7 X 450/2 + >< 60 O.X7 X 390
0.567 /.:kAcr + 1
0.567 X ::!5 X 350 X 45t)a /2 I ().87 X 500{ l6JQ X 60 + 982 X 390)
0.567 25 X 350 X 450 + ().1{7" 500( 161() l 982) --
=::! l::!mm frumAA
The fundamental equation!> for calcul..ning points on the interaction diagram '"th
varying of neutral a>.b nre:
(I) Compatibility of (used in table 4 3. columns 2 and 3):
E" = 0 0035 (" d')
, 0.0035 (d ')
.. strain

n the
Th1s is
. The
, 1ero
\\ ith
Analysis of the section 89
Table 4.3
M-N interaction values for example 4.10
(7) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (1)
t K .Es

) (kN) (kNm)
d' 60 0 >0.00217 0 0 87 fy 189 121
263d 158 0.00217 >0.00217 0.87 fyt. 0.87 fyl 899 275
0617d-241 >0.00217 0.00217 0.87 fyk 0.87 fy.. 1229 292
d 390 >0.00217 0 0 87 0 2248 192
h- 450
>0 00217 0.00047 0 87 fyk 93.3 2580 146
X 0.00217 0.00217 0.87 fyk 0 87 fyk 3361 0
or when the neutral axis depth extends below the bottom <>f the section (x > II):
_ ., 7{.t d') . ,. = 7(x d)
c,, - 0.00. (?.I_
11) ,tnd 0.002 (7.l _
t ii 1 \train for the (table 4.3. columns 4 and 5 ):
"Y = 0.00217 J - 0.87/yk
f = l:: xc
(Iii) Equil1hrium (t:lble 4.3. 6 and 7):
0.!<1 "
0.8.1 ,
N = Fe, r ... + /',
N - 0.567 O.lh f..._ A: t J A
N -f.,.,\: f,,\,
'I .tbout the pla,tic centroid
O.!ll h
().1:!.\ ,
M = / "(' p- (Uh/ 2) t F.,.( lr - d') - 1 (c/ lr )
M l._(.i r- h/ 2) + F,,:(.rp tl' ) f',(tl .lp)
F, i., negative when{, i\ a tensile
have been applied 10 provide the in Utblc U lor a range of key
\<llue:-. of I. rhcn theM N interaction diagmm been ploucd in figure 4.22 from the
HllliCl> in tahlc 4.3 us a of straight line!>. or courr.e. N and '"' could have been
calculated for imcrmediulc val ue!> or x to provide u more accurate curve.
(0, 3361)
M (kNm)
Figure 4.22
M-N interaction diagram for
a non-symmelrical sec11on
90 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 4.23
exam pip
EXAMPLE 4 . 11
M-N interaction diagram for a non-rectangular section
the interaction diagram for the equilateral triangular column section in
figure -l.23 ''ith fck = N/mm
and /)k 500 Nlmm
. The bending is about an axis
parallel to lhe side AA ami max1mum compres!-tion on the corner adjacent 10 the
tee I an:a i\:.

... , ..
31125 bars


I or triangular 'ection. the plastic centroid at the location the geometric
centrOid, 'ince the momcnt off"' equals the moment of r, ubout axi1. when aU the
bur<. have yielded in
The fundamental equation' lor compatihility and the steel's 1.trcss stram
are as presented 111 e\amplc 4.10 and arc aga111 m th.b example. The
equilihrium equauon!'t for the tnangular secuon hecomc
,\' I " + F ,. r,
0.8.1 <.. "
0.81 > h
0.!\.l <,
N = 0.567 /2 -l j-.._A: I /.A
N > 400/2 -+ j',.A: f f,A,
M O.XI')/1 f /- ,,(211/1 t!' )- F,(cl 211/3)
M = F-. (211 /3- tl' ) /',(c/ 211/])
F, is negative when f, b u tensile stress. and l'rom the geometry of figure 4.23 the
width or the section at depth 0.8..1 I - .vJ3.
Table 4.4 M-N Interaction values for example 4. 1 1
f!( fs N M

) (N/mm
) (kN) (kNm)
d'- 100 0 >0.00217 0 0.87 fyl 375 37
- 0 61 ld 0.00158 0.00217 317 0.87 - 96 72
- 183
2.63d'- 263 0.00217 0.00044 0 87 fyk 88 490 66
d= 296 >0.00217 0 0 87 fyk 0 672 61
h- 346 >0.00217 0.00051 0 87 fyo. 101 940 50
')... >0.00217 >0.0021 7 0 87 0.87 fyk 1622 0
Analysis of the section 91
0 20
luhlc 4.4 has been calcul ated using the fundamental with the of \
'hown. The intcntction diagram b constructed 111 figure 4.:!4.
Figure 4.24
M-N interaction diagram for a
non-rectangular section
With a non-rectangular section. it could he advisable to a more accurate
ntcractinn dwgram U\ing other mtcrmcdJate of r. Th1' would ceJtai nly he the

"ith. say, a flanged \Cction \vherc there Js change in breadth.

4.9 Rectangular- parabolic stress block
rc!ctangulur parabol1c block may be u'ed to prOVIde a more ngorou' unalys1s of
c re111forccd concrete section. The stress block i\ suniln.r in to the !.train
trve for concrete in figure 4.1, having a maximum Mres' of 0.567 the ultJJnate
r.ti n of 0.0035.
In ligure 4.25
I) the concrete wain at the end of the parabolic section
11 the !'rom the neutral nxis to Mrain ec2
depth of the neutral axis
the mean concrete
J.1.r depth to the centroid ol the hlock.
a) To determine the mean concrete stress, k
om the strain diagram
- ---
0.0035 -:
92 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 4.25
Section in bending With a
rectangular parabolic stress
Figure 4.26
ProperliN of a parabola
d -

for - 0.002 <figure 4. 1 l
II '= 0.571.\
For the hlotk
area or 'tress hlock
aren pqrs - area rst
0 .567(,_
Centroid of
stress block
Stress Block
using the area of a parahol.1 "' \hown in figure 4.26. we have
, 0.567f..,.11/3
"' = t
Sub,tituting for '' from equation 4.43 !.!I"C'
J.. , = 0459},
(b) To determine the depth of the centroid k
( 4.43)
tktcnnincd lor a rectangular 'cellon by tal-..111g area moment!> of the stress blou
about m:utral axis see figun.:' 4.25 nnd 4.::!6. Thu-;
nren pqrs x r/2 area r:-.t x 11 -j
(.1 - /.. 1x)
area of block
(0.567.f" .... 1).1/2 - ... 11'/l)ll-/4
=---- -

Pos1Uon of centroids: a1
s ..
( 4.43)
' 'bloc!-
A =
Suh,liluting for u from equation 4.-+3
t. ) 0.567 fcLr rQ _ 0.571
\ - "2' = .) - --.,-
x l L
I _ 0.168[., = I _ 0.268/cL = 0.4!
kt 0.459/..L
Analysis of the section 5
Once we 1-nO\\ the properties of the stress block. the magmtude and position of the
e'ultnlll compres-.h e force in the concrete can he determtned. and hence the moment of
e-.istance of the -.ection calculated procedures stmtlar to tho:-l' for the rcctangulnr
,tress block.
Comparison oJ' the rectangular-puraholic and the rectangulllr WC\1>
(tl Stress re!\u ltant. Fer
rcctangular-paraholic: k
bx::::::: 0.459/;.kh.l
rectangular: 0.567 f.k x 0.8bx:::::
(til Lever arm.:.
recwngu lar parabolic: d ::::: tf - 0.416.1
rectangular: d - x 0.8.1 = d- 0.4lh
\o hoth \lrc'' hlocks ha\e almost the same moment Cll rc\i\tancc. I,., ' . \howrng Itt\
lil'quate to u'e the ''mpler rectangular ... bloc!- for de\lgn culculat intl\.
4.10 Triangular stress block
The triangular !'ltre'1> hlocl- applies to ela,tic condition' during the ),ervtceahiiH) limit
,t,Hc. In practice it i' nllt generally used in design calcultHion), cxcept for lrqllld-
etaming :-.tructure1>. or ror the calculations of cruel- width' :tnd dcflectiorh a' dc1-.crihed
n chupter 6. With the triangular strc1-.s the can he con,idcrcd as
(t ) cradcd in the tcn,ion 1.onc, or
(i t) uncrackcd with the concrete a tlll\Ount or tension.
4.1 0.1 Cracked section
\ \Cction \hown in figure 4.27 with a stre)>s resultant /,
at'ting through the
of the )>\eel and /_. acting through the centrotd of the triangular block.
r:or cquilihrium of the ),ection
or 0 5/J.\f. .. =
( 4.46)
and the moment of 1'1.!\1\tance
M Fe, >< = F,. ><
M - .\f3) = AJ,M- 1( J )
94 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 4.27
Triangular stress block -
cracked sectton
Figure 4.28

sect1on with the
d -
--- -

axos 1
(I) Analysis of a specified section
The t.lcpth of the ncutrnl axis, x. can he determined by converJ ing the section into nn
equivalcnl' area or concrclc as shown in fi gure where O'c ,/ Ec. the modulur
Transformed C,A, rr..A
steel arta f.
(, the area momcnh about the upper edge:
}JAI )
Then.: fore
Sofvtng quaurallc equation gives
f-.quation 4.48 may be \ohed U\tng a chart 'uch the one in figure
Equattons to can be to analy).c a reinforced concrete section.
mto an
.! 29.
e ...ection.
Analysis of the section 9
a.A. 'Ibd
0 30


0 20
0 0.2 0.4 0.6
(ii) Design of steel area, As, with stresses fn and fcc specified
1 e depth of the neutral can abo be in tcnm. and sucsses ol
tl concrete anu \!eel.
I rom the ltnear Mrain distribution of figure 4.27:
\ /.;./,
I = - .t;.f -1 f," ,

" 1 J..,
Ec uations 4.47 and 4.49 may be used to design the area of tcn:-. ton \ tccl required, at a
cified in order to resist a given moment.
Analysis of a cracked section using a tri angul ar stress block
or the 1\ection in fi gure 4J O, delenninc the concrete and srcel sl rc\scs caused hy
momcnl of 120 kN m, asl\uming a cracked section. TaJ... c J::.j t., nt 15.
15 X 147()
'OO > 460
l '111g I he chart of figure 4.29 or equation
.! 4X gi\'C\ ' - 197 mm.
hom equation 4.47
fc, ( d j)
3H2S 1470 mmz
b- 300
.. -


L----l - '
Figure 4.29
Neutral-axis depths tor
cracked rectangular sections
elastic behaviour
Figure 4.30
Analysis example with
triangular stress block
96 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 4.31
Triangular stress block
uncwcked section
1 ( 19
1:!0 X 10" = 2 X 3000 X 197 X fcc 46()
fcc 10..1 N/mm
From equation 4.46
10.3 I ,
300 >< 197 '( -:;- x
= 207 N/mm
- 14
4.1 0.2 Triangular stress block - uncracked section
The concrete may be to a :-.mall amount of tension. In thts ca'>c a ten'>Jic
stre% resultant Fc
acts through the centroid of the triangular stress hloek 111 the tension
Lone as n in figure 4.31
Fnr equil ihrium of the section
F" F,1 -+ F,t
''here I ,, = 0.5bx
F" = 0.5b(ll - rl.(t
and r I =A, f.,
Taking moment!. about F._, the moment of resistance nf the secti on is given by

( 4.51 }
The depth ol the neutral ' can he determined by taking area moments about the
upper edge /\A of the equivalent concrete section n tn figure 4.32, :-uch that
1:., . I h d I .
n,. = 1s tcrme' l e mo u ar ratiO

Sect ton Strains
t 2x/3
2(h- x)/3
Analysis of the section 97
- Transformed= fA = M
steel area E.
bh X 11/ 2 + OcA, X d
- bll o. A,
h + 2ncn/
2 I 2ncr
r A,/ bit
!-rom the linear of the strain diagram in figure 4J I:
fl, = -
- X C'ct
1 r
d \'
C',, XC',,
" \
Tht rcfore 'tres<, strain:
j,, ,. Cl
= - ,-x j"
I -,\
d - \
= --x nJ.
(4.52) "'
(4 54)
1-: <: nee tf the maximum :-.tran or 1s spccihed. it is po:-.sihle to calculate the
c rre:-.ponthng concrete und steel tensile from cquntinns U4.
!'he equations denved can be u:.ed to analyse g1ven CI'Oi>s-scction in order to
.:ttrminc the moment ol or the 1-ection.
( EXAMPLE 4.13
Analysis of an uncracked section
lw the section shown in figure 4.30, calculate Lhc serviceability momcm of
\\ ith nn cracking or the concrete, given ,k, - 3 He - 30 I.Nimm' and
l:.'s 200
300 520
- 30
Figure 4.32
Equivalent transformed
section witil the concrete
98 Reinforced concrete design
11 + '2o . .,rd
2 + 2n.,r
= 520 + 1 X 6.67 X 0.009-f X 460 = '2?2 mm
2 + 2 X 6.67 < 0.0094
f, = = ::) uJ..,
= (460- 272)6.67 x 3
(420- 272)
1470 X 15.2 (460-
) J(} X 30()(520 - 272) X 3
X G X 272 i (520 272)) 10 ,,
= 8.3 + 38.7 = 47 kN m
Shear, bond
and torsion
This chapter deals with the theory and derivation of the design equations for 5hear,
bond and torsion. Some of the more practic<JI factors governing the choice tlnd
arrangement of the reinforcement are dealt w1th in the chapters on member des1gn,
particularly chapter 7, wh1ch contains examples of the design and detailing of shear
and torsion reinforcement In beams. Punching shear caused by concentrated loads on
slabs is covered in section 8 1 .1 of the chapter on slab design
1 00 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 5.1
Pnncipal \ltl'I\C'I in d lJ(ldm
5.1 Shear
Figure 5.1 represents the distributton of principal the o;pan of a
concrete beam. The din.!ction of the princtpal comprcssi'c <,tresses takes
the fom1 of an arch. '' hile the tensile ... es have the cun e of a catenary or sm.pemled
chain. mid-span. \\here the \hear i'> lm\ andthc bending arc dominant.
the direction of the !>tresses rends to be parallel 10 the beam axi'>. Ncar the support.'>.
where the shearing forces are greater. the principal :.tres!>es become inclined and the
greater the -;hear force the greater the angle ot mcilnation. The tensile stresses due to
l)henr are liable to cau-;e diagonal cracktng of the concrete near to the support so that
1>hear reinforcement must be provided. this reinforcement either in the form of
(I) 'ltirrups. or (2) inclined har-. (used in conjunction with Minups) as shown in
5.4 ant.l 5.5. The :.tcel urc often referred to as
Load Comprtmlon
D1agonal tension cracks
The concrete uc;elf can rest\1 'hear hy a combinatton of the un-cracked concrete tnthe
wmpresston zone. the dowelltng action of the bendtng remforcement and aggregate
mterlocJ... across ten,ion cracks but. becau-;e concrete ts weal tn ten'>ton. the shenr
remforcement is destgned to restM all the tetl'ille cau<;ed by the force'>
E\cn \\here the l>hear force!) are smull near the centre ol of a beam a minimum
amount of shear retnforcement tn the form of ltnk'> mu..,t be provtded 111 order to form a
cage supporting the longttUlltnal reinforcement and to resiM any due to
factors <L" thermal mo\ und sht i nkagc or the concrl.!tc.
I he actual hehavillur of com:rctc in shear 1s complex, and diflicult to
analyse theoretically. but by applying the results from many experimental investiga-
ti ons. reasonable procedures for und design have been Jcveloped.
In EC'2 :t method uf !>hear prese111cd which will be unfamil iar to
designer:-. who have been usccl to design methods lxl'>cd on previous British Standard
design codes. Thi!> method b known a\ The Variable S1r111 l ncfinlllion Mellwd. The use
of method allows the designer to seck out economic!. in the amount of shear
rcinlorcement pro\ tded. but thnt any economy achieved may be at the
expense of having to prO\'tde :tdditional curtailment and anchorage lengths to the
lcnMon steel O\'er and above that normally requtred for re,i-.tanc:e to bending a-.
dcscnbed 10 'ecuon 7.9.
5.1.1 Concrete sections that do not require design shear
The concrete o;ectiom. that do not require -.hear rcmlorccmcnt are matnl) lightly loaded
floor and pad Beam!'. arc genera II) more hea\ il> loaded and ha\'e a
smaller cross-.,cction \o that they ncar!) ah\3)''> require remforcement. Even
p:m of a
iSe' rakes
.md the
' due to
'o that
torm of
O\\ n in
!ek mthe
1 .:.:regate
e 'hear
form a
11! due w
ICUit tO
:> tho:-c
The use
e at the
to the
:nding a<:
have a
Shear, bond and torsion
1ghtly loaded beams are required to have a minimum amount of shear link!.. The only
e\ceptions to this are very minor beams a!. short span, lightly loaded linteb over
"im.low\ and doors.
Where shear forces are small the concrete section on it'> own rna} have l>Ufficient
,hear capacity <VRd to resist the ultimate shear force (V
) result1ng from the worst
.:omhination of acuons on the slructure. ahhough in mo<,t ca-;es a nominal or minimum
Jmount of l>hear remforcement will usually be pro\ ided.
In those l>ectiono; where Vtd ::::; VRd, then no calculated .,hear reinforcement is
The shear capacity of the concrete. VRtt c. in such situations i:. given by an empirical

wi th a m1nlrnum value of:
VRd c =

I'Rd, the dc.,ign shear rc!tistancc of the section without reinforcement
(I +

/.. /-;;- ::::: 2.0 with d cxpre!tscd in mm
tl,, <. 0.02
b.., d -
= the area of ten.,ilc reinforcement that extend'> beyond the \CCtion he1ng
by at Jca.,l a full anchorage length plus one effective depth (d)
b., - the \\idth of the l>ection m the tensile area (mm)
Some typ1cal values ot the corresponding Mrc" (I'Rd, VRo1 ,fb.,d)
.uc given in chapter 8 (table 8.2).
5.1.2 The variable strut inclination method for sections that do
require shear reinforcement
In order to derive the design cquutionl- the action of a reinforced concrete betlln in
is reprc:-.cmcd by an analogous truss shown in figure 5.2. The concrete acts the top
1.,. b ---1
Figure 5.2
Assumed truss model for t
variable strut Inclination
1 02 Reinforced concrete design
compression member and as the diagonal member!. inclined at an angle B
to the horizontal. The bottom chord is the horilCmtal tension steel anu the vertical links
are the transverse tension members. 11 should be noted that in this model of !lhear
bcha,iour all -;hear will be resisted by the prO\ of links 1rit/tno tlirect colllribution
from tlte capacity of the concrete itself
The angle (} increases with the magmtudc of the ma,amum shear force on the beam
and hence the compressive forces m the diagonal concrete members. It is set by EC2 to
h:t\C a value between 22 and 45 degrees. For mo\t cases of predominately unifonnl )
distributed loading the angle 0 will be 22 but for heavy and concentrated Joads it
can be higher in order to resist crul-lhing of the concrete diagonal mcmberl-..
The analysis of the truss to derive the equntions \.\ill be carried om in the
following order:
1. Con),iderution of the compressive strength of the diagonal concrete strut and it1-
unglc 0;
2. Calculation of the required shear reinfon:cmcnt for the vertical tics:
3. Calculmion of the stccl/1,
required in the bottom chord member.
The following notation is used 111 the equations for the de1-ign
A\w = the area of the two lege, of the
1 = the of the linb

VEd =
the lever arm between the upper anu lower chord members of the
the dcl.ign yield strength of the link reinforcement
the charactensttc strength of the link rctnforcement
the shear force due to the actionl-1 m the ultimate limit :-.tate

= the ultimate l>hcar force at the face ol the suppon
v .. ,j the \hear force in the link
VKu , the shear rcsiMance of the ltnk\
VKd the maximum design value or the shear which can be resisted by the
com.:rcte strut
( 1) The diagonal compressive strut and the angle 0
The shear force applied to the sectton must be li mite<.! so that excessive compressive
do not occur in the diagonal compressive struts, lea<.ling to compressive failure
of the concrete. Thus the maximum design shear force VK.J.
"' is limitcu hy the ultimate
!>trength of the diagonal concrete member tn U1e trus), and its vertical
With reference to figure 5.2, the effective cross sectional area of concrete acting
the diagonal il> taken a' b.., x and the de!.ign concrete f,k/ 1.5.
fhe ultimate '>trength of the srnu = ultimate x cros\-sectional area
= lf.l/1.5) x (b" x ::cos B)
and its venical component - lf.l/1.5)" (b .. x :-cos B)) x sinO
!>o that v,td mu i.kb .... : coso sine 1 t.5
t. angle 0

e beam
EC2 to
I oads it
m the
Jnd its
of the
a mate
ct ng as
which by conversion of the trigometrical functions can also expressed as
.. :
1.5( COLO-'- tan 0)
Shear, bond and torsion
In EC2 this equation ts modified by the indus ton of a Hrengllt redu('tivn factor (r
for concrete cracked m shear.
.. ;:l't )
VRu = 1.5(cot0+tan8 (S.
where the strength reduction factor takes the value of 1
0.6( I - and.
putting ;: - 0.9d. equation 5.3 becomes
0.9t! X b .. X 0.6( I -
=- l .5(cot8 + tan B)
0.:16bwrl( I -
(cotB+tanB) (S.4)*
and to that there is no crushi11g of the diagonal 1-trut:
Thi:-. must he checked for the maximum value of on the beam, whid1
taken !I)> the 'hear force. \ 'tt at the face of the \O that
pre\iou,ly noted EC2 hmitr. B to a 'aluc het\\Cen 22 and 45
(i) With 0 22 degrees (this is the usual case for uniformly distributed loads)
1-rom equation 5.4:
VRd, ma\(21J - 0. l - fck/'250)fck (5.6) *
It mu\r!l , < v, r then a larger value of the angle() be thm the diagonal
concrete Mrut ha5 a larger vertical component to balance Vcd
(ii) With e 45 degrees (the maximum value of 0 as allowed by EC2)
From equati on 5.4:
VRJ - 0. I Bb,.d( I - {5.7)*
which is the upper limit on the strength of the concrete diagonal member in
the analogous When > VRd.

from equation 5.7 the diagonal wi ll

be over and the beam's dimensions must be mcrensed or a higher of
concrete be
(iii) With 9 between 22 degrees and 45 degrees
The requtred value for 0 can be obtained by equating Vc.t to VMcl ,, and solvang for(} in
equation 5.4 follows:
0.36b..,.d( I - fck/ 250)/.;k
\' "' - VRd - __ .::...._..:....,-___:..::.::..:...-::-:--=:.;.:
"" - ' ma' - (Cot () T tan fJ)
1 04 Reinforced concrete design
I I (cot 0 l tan 8) = sine X cos e
- 0.5 sin 20 (sec proof in the Appendix)
therefore b} substitution
B=O.Ssin-'{ V1-.J .., } S 4S
o.l8b"d( 1 - _so}f.;l
which alternatively can be expressed as:
0 = 0.5 sin-' { V VEr } < 45'
Rd mu,l-l'il
where Vr:
is the shear force at the face of the und the culculutcd vulue or the
angle(} can then he used to uctcrmim: col 0 and cak: ulate the !<>hear reinforcement
from equation 5.9 hclow (\\hen 12 < 0 <- 45 ).
(2) The vertical shear reinforcement
previously noted, all wi ll be resisted hy tiK provision of linl--1. with 110 direCt
co11tri/.Jurion .fmm rlze 5I! ear cupacity the COIIcrl'ft' it.1e(( U'ing the method of !>ections
11 can he seen that. at \ection X-X in figure 5.2. the force in the vertical link member
n,",) equal the shear force (\'Ed). that i'
\ '"d = Vt:.J - /w.<JAw.
If the hnks are spaced at a distance 1 apan. then the force 111 each link is reduced
proporllonatel) and is given hy
= o.87/ykA, ....
Vwu = VE,t
! l sw
= O.R7 cot 0
.1' J
0.87 A,w COl 8
thus rearranging
A,"' I'EJ
0.78d/yk cot8
EC2 spec1fies a minimum value for A\v./:. such that
A'" rnrn 0. 08fck O.S b,.

(5. 10)*
Equation 5.9 can be used to determine the amount and '>pacing of the shear links and
Will depend on the value Of (} USed Ill the de!o.ig_n. f-Or mo!-.t Ca\CS Of beams With

Shear, bond and torsion 1 05
predominately unifonnJy distributed loads the angle B will be 22 degrees with
cot 0 2.5. Otherwise the value for 0 can be calculated from equation 5.8.
EC2 that. for beams with predominately uniformly distributed loads.
the design shear force VEd need not be checked at a distance less than d from the face of
the hut the shear reinforcement calculated must be continued w the support.
Equation 5.9 can be rearranged to give the shear restMancc \' Rd , of a gi\en
arrangement of hnks Aw. / :..
{5.11 )*
(3) Additional longitudinal force
When using this rneU10d of shear design it necessary to all ow for the additional
longi tudinal force in the tcn::;ion steel cuused by the shear VEd This longitudinnl tensil e
force t::.F
d i:- caused by the horizontal component required to bulance the comprer-sive
force in the inclined concrete strut.
Resolving forces hol"iz.ontnlly in the section YY shown in figure 5.2. the longitudinal
component of the force in the compressive is given hy
Longitudinal force = ( Vr:.d/ 0) x cos()
- ' ' J cot 0
It that half of force is carried by the reinforcement 111 the wne of
the beam then the additional tcll'.tle force to be pro\ided in Lhc 1one ts gi\en by
J./111 0.5\'htCOtO (512)
ro pnmdc for longitudinal forl:c, at any ll necc,,al) to pro\ tde
longlludtnnl reinforcement additional to thut required at that to re,i'it bending. In
practice. increasmg the cunailmcnt length-. of the bottom-face reinforcement
cun U\Uttlly prO\ tde the required force. reinforcement hen<.ling
in of lugh &ngging bending moment and then. "hen no longer reqUtrcd 10 rest<.!
bending. can provtde the additional tensile force to re1-1st shear in those sections away
from mid nnd townrds the supports where bending reduce hut
shcur forces increase. Tim, is discussed further and illuqruted in section 7.9 (Anchorage
and curtailment of reinforcement)
The lolul force given hy Mtd/:. -1- !:::.F
d shoulclnm be taken us greater thnn MHcl,
where Mr,l,""'' is the ma>.imum hogging or mnximum sagging moment along the beam.
Equntions 5.3 to 5. 12 can he Ul'ed together to design a i>ection for wi th n value
of (I chosen by the wi thin limits of 22 anu -+5 degreef. as sped lied in EC2. I rom
these it obvious that the steel ratio IS a function nf the or
cot (J (equation 5.9), the ma>.imum force governed by diagonal compression
failure is a function ot the of (cot 0 +tan 0) Cequmion 5.4) and the additional
longitudinal tensile force. j.f
cJ varies with cot 0 (equation 5.1 J).
Figure 5.3 the variation of from which it can be that
reduced le'' reinforcement IS required, but thi.., is compen<;nted for by an increa'e
in the ncce..,<;ary longitudtnal re111forcemcnl. At 'alue<., of 0 greater or than 45 the
o,hcar capacny of the secuon. based on compressive failure in the d1agonal i.., alo,o
reduced. 1 he should calculate the -.alue of 0 but. a-. previously for
practical reasons I-.C2 places a lower and upper limit of 1.0 and 2.5 on the
\alue of em 0. This corresponds to limiting B ro 45 and 22 respectively.
1 06 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 5.3
Variation of VRd , .,
and A""fS
1.0 ...

1 0 20 30 40 so 60 70 80 90
Angle (0)
Summary of the design procedure with vertical/inks
1. Calculate the ultimate design shear forces \lEd nlnng the beam's span.
2. Check the crushing strcnglh\ of the concrete diugonal strut at the l;CCtion of
maximum shear, usually \11-1 at the face of the beam's support.
For most cases the angle of inclination of the 0 2:! . with cot()= 2.5
and tan f) = 0.4 so that from cqumion 5.4
0.36b.,.d( I /..k/250)J;k
VRII ma\ = (cot()+ tan())
and if \ ' Rd.max ?: Vn with 8 22 and cotO 2.5 then go directly to (3).
However. if VRd m.L\ < V
r then 0 22 and therefore B mu)>t he calculated from
equauon 5.8 as:
() 0 5 -;in
{ \ 'EI } < 45
.. 0. 18b.,.d(l ./ .. .
Tf calculati on a value of B greater than 45 then the beam should be
rc-"ized or a higher cla"1-. of concrete could he u'cd.
3. The 1.hcar linb required can be calculated from equation 5.9
A"' \lr:d
s 0. 7Rdf)'k cot (I
where Asw is rhe cross-sectional nrca of the legs of the links (2 x rrd>
/4 for single
For a predominately uniformly dislributcd load the \hear VE.t.J should be enlculnted
at a d from the face of the suppoll ami the reinforcement should
continue to the face of the support.
The shear for the links actually specified is
Vmm-- X 0.78df.,k cot 0
s .
and this value \\ill be used together wnh the force envelope to detenninc the
cunailment position of each "et of hnk\
4. Calculate the mmimum linh reqUired by EC2 from
A"' '"'"

s i)k
:tJon of
I = 2.5
p (3).
' lrom
MJid be
Shear, bond and torsion 1 0/
5. Calculate the additional longitudinal tensile force caused by the shear
J.f,d = 0.5 cot 0
addillonal tensile force can usually be allowed for by the
curtailment length of the ten!>ion bars as described in section 7.9.
Example., illustrating the design of shear reinforcement for a beam arc given in
Chapter 7.
( EXAMPLE 5. 1
Shear resistance of a beam
The beam in figure 5.4 spans 8.0mcLres on 300 mm wide :-.uppons. It is requin:d to
a uniformly distributed ultimate load, ll'u of 200 kN/m. The
material strengths arc hk 30 N/mm
for the eontrcte and 500 N/mm for the
steel. Check if the shear reinf<>rcement in the fonn of the vert ical links shown can
supron, in shear, the given ultimate load.
at 17S spcg ...
b: 350
[ d II [1 11111 1
Hl2 fO
Sect ron
2H2S. A, 982mmz
Total ultimate load on beam
Support renetion
Sheur. V
1 1
ut face of
= 200 " 8.0 1600 kN
= 1600/ 2 HOO kN
- ROO - 200 X 0.3/ 2 770 kl"\
Shear. VC<J distance d from face of = 770 200 x 0.65 640 kN
1. Check the strength VRd. mnxOf tlw concrete diagonal :-.trul at the face of the
From equation 5.6 with B = 22''
vl{d 0.124h,.c/(1
0.124 X 350 X 650( J - 30/ 250)30
- 7-l5 kN ( < liEf = 770 I.N)
From equation 5.7 with 0 45
0.18b"d( l-/d../ 250}kk
= O. JK ) 350 X 650( 1 30/ 250)30
= 1081 kN ( > VH 770J..N)
Therefore: 22 < fJ < 45 .
Figure 5.4
Beam wrth stirrups
108 Reinforced concrete design
2. Determme angle B
From equation 5.8(a)
B=0.5sin-'{ \IEf } <45
0.18b_.d( I - f.:k 250}f.k -
or aJternatively from equation 5.8(b)
IJ = 0.5sin '{v VEt } =0.5stn '{

} =:!2.7
From which wt 0 2.39 and tan 0 0.42.
3. Determine resi stance of the linl-..s
The cross-1.cctional arca ""'' of a 12mm httr 11 3 mm
Thus for the two legs of
the link and a :.pacing of 17 5 mm
_ 2 X 11 3 _ 1.
s 175
(or alternatively the val ue could have been obtained from Lahlc A4 in the
From equation 5.1 I the shear VRJ , of the il> given by
Rd,, =- x 0.78l({)k cot()
= 1.29 X 0.78 > 650 500 >< :!.39 10
781 1-..N
Therefore shear rc-.istam:c of lin!-.-. 781 kN.
Oe,ign shear. VEt! diMancc d from the face of the -;upport - 640k\ (< 781 k.N).
Therefore. the beam can 'upport. in 11hcar. the ultimate load of 200 k'\/m.
4. Additional longitudinal ten:.ile force in the ten,ion '>tccl
It is nece:.sary to checlo.. that the bottom tension steel hu-, a suffictcnt length or
curtailment and anchornge to resist the additional hori1.ontal tcn,ion oF
" cuused
by the design shear. These addi ti onal tension forces arc calculutcd from
equation 5. I 2. Therefore
D.Fcd 0.5Vtzd cot()
0.5 X 640 X 2J9 765 kN
This force is added to the MEd/: dingrom. us dc!,crihed in section 7.9, to ensure
there is sufficient curtailment of the ten<.ion reinf'mcemcnt and anchorngc bono
length at the suppons, as described 111 section 5.2.

5.1.3 Bent-up bars
To restst sheanng forces. longintdmal tension bars rna) be bent up near to the support
shown in figure 5.5. The bent-up and the concrete 111 compress1on are considereo
to act as an analogous lantce girder and the \hear resistance of the bars is determined b.
taking a section X- X through the girder.
F' of
1 of


Shear, bond and torsion 1 09


s = 0.9cl(cot u + cot 0)
(a) Single System
(b) Multiple System
hom the geometry of part (a) of figure 5.5. the of the bent-up bars is:
.1 O.lJd( COl n t cot 0)
and at the '>Cctaon X X the <.hear rel>i'itancc of a single bent-up bar (\l"d) mw.t equal the
'>hear force (I 1 .a).
where A, .. i' the cross-.,ectional area of the bent-up bar.
ror a multaplc 'Y'tem of bent-up a' in part (bJ of ligurc '\.5. the shear
" ancrca,cd proporttonately to the Hence:
. . 0. 9d( cmn cot 0)
Va d ().!l7fvkA,w Sill 0 X --
. s
A,w Vt-.a
- = --:-:--:--
'' 0. 7Rrl/yk (col n + col 0} sin n
equation ic; to equation (5.9) for the shear rc!.istanc:e of shcua lin i-s. In a
!.imi lur way it can be that, bused on of the concrete in the compressive
the analogous equation to (5.4) is given by:
(cot 0 + cotn )
( I ' (J ) (5.14)
- I cot
und the additional tensile force to be provided by the provi!.ion of additional tension
\lee I j.., gaven by a modtficd 'crsion of equation 5.12:
= 0.5va.J(cotfJ cotn ) (5.15)
EC2 abo require., that the max1mum longitudinal spacmg of bent-up ban, as hmJted to
0.6d( I + cot o ) and '>pecifies that at least 50 per cent or the rcquared shear
reinforcement should be in the form of shear link'>.
Figure 5.5
Bent up bars
11 0 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 5.6
Shear between flange
and web
5.1.4 Shear between the web and flange of a flanged section
The provision of shear links to resist vertical in a nangcd beam i., identical to that
previously de cribed for a rectangular section. on the as!>umption that the web carries aJJ
of the vertical shear and that the web Width. b..,. is used as the minimum width of the
\Cction in the relevant calculations.
Longitudinal complemental) shear stresses also occur in a nangcd !>ection along the
interface between the weh and flange as shown in tigurc 5.6. allowed for b)
providing transverse reinforcement over the width of 1he flange on the a:.sumption that
reinforcement actl> a!> tic!> combined \\ ith compre.,s1ve stnlls in the concrete. It i.,
necesl>ary to check the posJ.ibility or fai lure by cxce ... sive compressive stresses in the
and to provide sufficient steel area to prevent tensile fai lure in the ties. The
variable strut inclination method is used in a similar munncr to that for the design to
resist vertical shear in a beam described in 5CClion 5. 1.2.
The design is divided into the following
1. lhe longitudintll design shear stres1.cs, ut the web-flange interface.
The longitudinal she:lf stresses arc ut a maximum in the of the maximum
changes in bending stresses that, in turn. occur ut the stccrest part<; of the bending
moment diagram. These occur al the up to the maximum hogging moment
nver the supports and at the awuy from the zero moments in the
of the beam.
rhe change in the longitudinal force .J.Fd in the llangc OUtl.tand at a section i'
obtained from
.J.Fd = .J.M X bto
(d h, / 2) b,
where b
= the effective breadth of the flange
bro = the breadth of the OLII'>tand of the flange (b
b.,. )/2
b.., the breadth of the weh
the of the flange
and 6M the change in moment over 1he distance
6M (br - b-.)/2
(d hr /2) hr

r by
ID is
Shear, bond and torsion 111
The longitudinal <;hear stress. I'Ed at the vertical section between the outstand of
the Hange and the web is caused by the change in the longitudinal force, ..:':J.Fd. which
occur., over the di.,tance that
The maximum value allowed for ...lx is half the dtstance between the \ection with
tcro moment and that where maximum moment occurs. Where point loads occur
..:':!..' should not exceed the distance between the loads.
If is less than or equal to 40 per cent of the design tensile \trength of
the concrete.

t.e. OAfcw O..+Jc,,j 1.5 = then no ),hear reinforce-

ment is required and proceed directly to step 4.
2. Ched.. the shear strel>ses in the inclined stmt
As before, the angle 0 for the inclination of the concrete strut is restri cted to :J lower
and upper value and EC2 recommends that. in thi s case:
2o.s , e, _ 45
3R.6 ::;: 0
::; 45 '
i.e 2.0 > cot 0, I .0 for in
i.e 1.25 > cot 0
> 1.0 for flanges in
To prevent crushing of the concrete in the compressive struts the longitudinal
shear limited to:

l't:d <
- 1.5( cot o, - tan e,)
where the ), reduction factor,., = 0.6( l - }d/250).
(S 17)
The lower value of the angle 0 fiN tried and if the :\hear are too high
the angle e J\ calculated from the following equation:
0.5 \in t { 0.1( I
3. Calculate the trunsversc shear reinforcement required
The required reinforcement per unit length, A,

may he calculated
lrom the equtl ti on:
A,, > V[dht
1r - cot Or
(5. 18)
which is derived by considering the tensile force 111 each tic.
4. The reqUirements of
EC2 require' that the area of transverse steel should he the greater of (a) that given
by equation 5. 18 or (b) half that given by equation 5.1 R plw .. the area of steel
required by transverlle bending of the flange.
The minimum amount of tranwerse steel required in the flange is
1\, nun (> 0.0013bdr) mm
/m. where h - 1000 mm (),Ce table 6.8).
Example 7.5 (p. 184) illustrates the approach to calculating shear
reinforcement in flanged
11 2 Rei nforced concrete design
Figure 5.7
Anchorage bond
5.2 Anchorage bond
The reinforcing bar subject to direct ten'>ion 'ihown in figure 5.7 mu'>t be firmly ancll
if it is not to be pulled out of the concrete. Bar.. suhject to forces induced by flexure rr.
be anchored to develop their de),ign \tresses. The anchorage depend<; on
bond between the bar and rhe concrete, the area of contact and \\ hethcr or not the b;.;
located in a region where good bond condition'> can be expected. Let:
/b r<JJ = basic required anchorage length to prevent pull out
<iJ = bar size or nominal diUmeter
.ft>J = ultimate anchorage bond stress
.r:. = the direct tenllilc or strC!.ll in the bar .
. I
Considering the forces on the bar:
Tensile pull-out force - cross-sectional area of bar direct '>treso.,
= m:rf
-4 '
anchorage force = comact area .tnchorage hond '>trcll.,
- (lt> ryd7r<iJ) xAt
/h,rqd = 'ifbtJ
and when h = /yd the yteld strength of the rcinrorccmcnt ( = /yk/ 1.15) tl--
nnchoruge length is given by
/h.rtjd = ( / 4) ([l;k/ 1.15]/!hd)
/h.rqd = (/yl/-+.6/t>tJ)
Basic anchorage length
Equation 5.19 may be used to determine the /)(me anchorage lmgrlt of harl. which arc
either 111 tension or compre:.sion. For the calculation of anchorage design ,alucs
of ultimate anchorage bond stresses are specified according to whether the bond
conditions are good or otherwise.
-e muc;t
'on the
har is
Kh are
e bond
Shear, bond and torsion 11
45 <IX< 90
for all of h
It< 250 mm
Good bond condition) for all bars
direction of concreting
h> 2SOmm
h> 600 mm
Good bond conditions in unhatchPd zone
Poor bond conditions 1n hatched zone
Good hontl are t:onsidered to he when (a) bors are inclined at an angle of
hctwccn 45 and 90 to the hori.amlal or (h) zero to 45 provided thnt in thi:-. second case
additional requirements arc mel. These additional nre that Ute
1. either placed in members whofte depth in the <.lircction or wncrcttng not exceed
250mm or
2. embe<.lded in members With a depth greater than 250 mm an<.! arc ctther in the lower
250 mm of the member or at least 300 mm from the top ,urfm:c when the depth
600 mm.
Thc'c condlti<>n' ure Jllu,trated in figure 5.R. When hond condition' arc poor then the
ultimate bond 'ihould be reduced by a factor of 0.7.
The dc,tgn \alue nf the ultimate hood 1s also dependent on the bar For all
har site' (o) greuter than :12 mm the hon<.l Mre:-.s 'hould addittonally he mulliplied by n
fm:tor ( IJ2 )/ I 00.
Tahle 5. 1 give., the <.Jc),ign of ultimate hond for 'good' conchtions.
depend on the cln..,:. of concrete and arc obtained from the equation ./t-.

where if> the characteristic tent.ile strength or the concrete.
Design anchorage length
'I he baviC' unchorage length discussed above lll\ISt be further JllOUiticd to give the
minimum design anchorage lenglh taking into account not directly covered by
tahlc 5. 1.
Tabl e 5. 1 Design values of bond stresses fbd (N/mm
f,k N/mm
12 16 20 25 30 35 40
Bars 32 mm diameter and
good bond conditions 1.6 2.0 2.3 2.7 3.0 3.4 3.7
Bars 32 mm diameter and
poor bond conditions 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.1 2.4 2.6
Figure 5.8
Definition of good and
poor bond conditions
45 50 ss
4.0 4.3 4.5
2.8 3.0 3.1
114 Reinforced concrete design
Table 5.2 Coefficients a
Value (1 allows for the effect of:
of (I
The shape of the bars
Concrete cover to
the reinforcement
OJ Confinement of transverse
reinforcement not welded to
Lhe main reinforcement
Type of anchorage
Other than straight
Other than straight
All types of
Reinforcement in
0.7 if <d 3.0o
or 1.0 if not
1 -Ol/o
but 0 7 and <:. 1.0
1 - 0.15(cu - 3o)to
but > 0.7 and < 1.0
but > 0.7 and 1 .0
Confinement of transverse
reinforcement welded to the
main reinforcement
All types, position and 0.7
Confinement by transverse
sizes of reinforcement
All types of
NOll': tht' product "J >< "J O) should be greater than or equal to 0.7
but 0.7 and 1.0
The required minimum anchorage length " given hy
ft..t r1t. o,. ""11\, ,,.
/A, rrn'
where A, n:,
, = area of reinforcemenl required nod 1"0\ idcd at that section
o ( 1 to 5) = set of coeflicients given in Table 5.2
In Table 5.2:
- concrete cover coefficient us in figure 5.9
K values as shown in figure 5. 10
)., = (L:A,,- l:A,I,min)/A,
LA" = the cross-sectional nrcn of the trnn!>vcrsc rcinfon:cment along the design
anchorage length
= the cross-sectional nrea of the minimum rcinforccmcm
( = 0.25A, for beams nnd Lero for
= the area of a single anchored bar with maximum har diameter
Thi!-. minimum design length must not be than:
for tension bars: 0.3/b. rqd
for compression bars: 0.6/tuq.J
In both the mmimum value also exceed both lO bnr diameters and 100 mm.
may also be prm i<.lc<.l by hook' or bends in the remforcemem. Hooks and
bends are con-;idere<.l adequate form' of anchorage to the main reinforcement if they

Shear, bond and torsion 115
Straight bars
' .. min (o/2, c,, c)
A, o,A.,
K 0.1
Straight bar
Bent or hooked bars
' = min (o/2. c,)
Ka 0.05
: I
looped bars
Ceo= c
A, o,A,,
90" < u < 1 so + r
ft '
Minimum I radius of a hook, bend or loop = 2o or 3.5\'l for Q > 16 mm
the ITI1n1111UI11 in figure 5. 1 J. Bends and ure IIOl
recommended l'or a!> compression anchorages. In the ense or the and bend&
shown in ligure 5. II the anchorage length (shown m. which is l'quivalcnl to that
required by the straight bur can be simply calcula1ed from the expression:
/b eq = n 1/b,rqd where n
is Iuken us 0.7 or I .0 depending on I he cover
(">ee table 5.2).
The internal diameter of any bent bar (rcfemd to as the mandrel size) is l imited to
avoid damage to the bar when bending. For less than or equal to 16mm diameter
the mternal diameter of any bend should be a minimum of 4 the har dtametcr. For
larger bar '>t7es the limJt as 7 umes Lhe bar diameter.
To give a general idea of the full anchorage lengths required forf.:k 30 N/nun
f..l 500 N/mm
with bar diameters, < 32 mm. /b can vary between 25 bar
diameter' (25) and 52 bar dJameten, (52o). depending on good and poor bond
and the value of the coefficiems Ct from rable 5.2.
Figure 5.9
Values of Cd for beams and
slabs (see table 5.2)
Figure 5.10
Values of K lor beams and
slabs (see table 5.2)
Figure 5.11
Equivalent anchorage
for bends and hooks
116 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 5.12
Anchorage for a beam framing
into an end column
Calculations of anchorage length
Determine the anchorage length required for the top reinforcement of 25mm in the
beam at its jum:lion with the external column as shown in figure 5. 12. The reinforcing
bars are in resisting u hogging moment. The characteristic material are
.fcL = 30 N/mm
and / ) k 500
H25 bars
100 = 4Q

Assuming there is a joint in the column ju&l above the beam as the
bars arc in the top of the hcum. from ligurc 5.8 the bond conditions arc poor nnd from
table 5.1 the ultimate anchorage hond -.tress i' 2.1 N/mm ' .
the hem mto the column and the concrete co,er coefficient. <'d (figure 5.9)
is equivalent to 4o. which i' greater than 36, from table 5.2 cocfticiento
i-, 0.7. Abo
from tahlc 5.2, codticicnl n' - I 0. 15ktt Jr
1)/<P I 0.15(4ril - 3o}/ 0.85.
Hcm:c the requi red anchorage length
/t.J Cl jll' 0
/. l )
- 4.6/bd
500 )
= 0.7 x () 85 t:.
- ri1 = 31
4.\) X _, I
= 31 25 = mm.
Sec ahn tahlc A.6 m the \ppcndix lor tahulated \aluc' of anchorage length'>.

5.3 laps in reinforcement
Lapping of remforccmcnt is often necessary to transfer Lhe force:. from one bar to
another. Laps between bars should be and should not occur in regions of high
stress. The length of the lap should be on the minimum anchorage length moditied
to take into account factors \Uch as cover. etc. The lap length /
required g1ven hy
fu ftvqJ X 0:1 X 01 X X X f\(1 (5.21)*

n:!, o,, and ns, arc obtained from table 5.2. n

.5 (with an upper
and lower limit of 1.5 and 1.0 respectively) and p
ts the percentage of reinforcement
lapped \\ithin 0.65/
from the centre of the lap length hcing considered. Values of 0:
can be comcniemly taken from table 5.3.
1, .1s the

- Al\0
= !.85.
_ __,)
ne bar to
.. of high
_en by
5.21 )"'
.m upper
.. of n6
Shear, bond and torsion 11
Tabl e 5.3 Values of the coefficient a
Percentage of lapped bars relative to the tolal
cross-sectional area of bars at the section being <25%
lntermedoate values be onterpolated from the table
(a) tension lap

(b) compresston lap
r -
33% 50%
1.15 1.4 1.5
Notwithl-llandtng the abmc rcquirements. the absolute lllllltnlum lap gi\cn us
In mlu 0.3nr,ll, r
> 15 , 200 mm
' l runsvcrse rcinl'orccmcnt be providcd around lap), un the hipped bars nrc
less thon 20 mm tl iumctcr or there is than 25 per cent lappcd bar)\. In thcsc
minimum reinforcement provided J'or other purposes )>Uch shcar links will
he atlcyuate. Otherwi!>c reinforccmcm be prm 1ded. a:-, 1\hown in
figure 5.13, having a total area of not less than the urea of one -.pliccc.l har.
The arrangement of lapped must confom1 to figure 5. 14. ' I he clear
bet11 ecn lapped 'hould not he greater than ole;) or 50mm other11 i!>c an additional lap
length e4ual to the clear <.pace must be provided. In the ol atljm.:ent the dear
dtstancc hctween adJacent not be greater than 2o or 20 mm. The
longirutlinal dl\tance between Lwo adjacent should he greater than 0. ""' If allthe!-.c
condttion' arc compiled '' Hh then I 00% of all tension bars 111 one layer at any o;ecuon
may be lapped. mhemi'>e. where bar' arc in \everallayers. llgure \lmuld he reduced
to sorr.. In the CU\C of compress tOn !.!eel. up to I 0011- of the reinforcement at a
may be lapped.
Figure 5.13
Transverse reinforcement
for lapped bars
118 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 5.14
Lapp1ng of adjilcent bars
Figure 5.15
Tor.1onal reinforcement

<40or 50 mm
5.4 Analysis of section subject to torsional moments
5.4.1 Development of torsional equations
Torsional moments produce shear th<ll result in principal tensile
inclined at approximately 45 to the 1()11gituclinal md1. of the member. Di<\gonnl cracking
occurs when these exceed the strength of the concrete. The cracks
will form a spiJ:ll around the member ns in figure 5.15.
Reinforcement in the flmn of closed and longitudinal bars will carry forces from
incn:asing torsional moment after crnckmg. hy a action wilh reinforcement acting
m. tension members and concrete as between links. Failure will
eventually occur by reinforcement yielding. coupled with crushtng of the concrete along
line A- A as crack!. on the other face open up. lt ts a\sumed that once the tor..ional
'treso; on a <.ection exceed.., the value to cau'e erad,ing. ten!>ion reinforcement in the
form of closed mU'.t hi! pro .. ided to rest\t the lullwn.ional moment.
The cquauon!- for tor.;iorlJI destgn arc developed from a !>tructural model where it b
:Mumed that the concrete beam m beha1c-. in a <;rmilar fashiOn to a thin \\:tiled
ht)\ .,cction. The box'' rdnl'orced wrth longitudmal bar:- 111 each corner v.itJl
... urrup' a-. tcn,ron uc-. and the concrde prm iding dmgonal cornprCl.loiOn
.,trut,. It i., a .. wmed that the concrete cannot provrde any tcn,tle resistance.
EC2 gi\'C!> the princtple' .llld .,orne lunucd design equations for a .,hape of
1 hollow bo\ .. cction. In thi' se1.tron ot the text we\\ til develop the cquauons that can be
used lor the dcsrgn and or a solid nr hollow rcctungle hox section.
Consider ligure 5.16a. The applied tmquc (Tt.r) at the far end or the section
a .1hearjlnll' (q) around the perimeter of the box m the ncar end of the diagram.
rhe sheur now is the product ol' the <;hc<tr stress ( r) and the or the hollow
section. lienee from clnl'osicul clnstie theory the applied torque can be related to the shear
now hy the expre:.sion
T ===
wherc Ak ts the area enclosed within the centre \me of the hollow box section, hence

\ ill
L t is

l 10p

II ow
Shear, bond and torsion 119
Compression slruts
Torsional shear Ioree
Tension In
longitudinal steel
Triangle of
(b) Forces actfng on whole body (one face shown representative of all four faces)


.. qh
qh hcotU
(c) Forces actang on one lace of the sectaon
q i'> the force per unit length of the circumference of rhe bo\ :.l'ctton. the
forr' produced hy the !>hear llow is the product of q unci the circumference of the
area lienee. if it u<;:.umed thai this force i'> resi .. tcd hy the action of the
compressive acting m an angle. 0. together with tension in the longitudinal .-.tccl,
from figure 5. 16b the force {F,) in the longitudinal tension Meclts given by
(/Ilk cos() (jill.
l>in () tan()

2/\k ton B
The required urea of longi tudinul tcnl'ion steel lo rcsi .. t torsion (/\,
), acting at its
dc:.i gn slrength 1. 15), IS 1herel'orc given by

Tu1. cot 0
2A1. tan() 2Ak
In the ::tbO\C equation tJ1c torque. T, is the max11nurn that can he by the
longirudinal rcinfnrcernent and therefore equivalent to the de-;ign ultunare tor'>tonal
moment. T Cd lienee
The required cross-secrional area of torsional link, can be determ1ned b) considering
one tace of the hox section m .-.hown in figure 5.16c. If ir is assumed that the urea of one
Figure 5.16
Structural model for torsion
120 Reinforced concrete design
leg of a link (Asw) is acting at it)> design yield 1.15) the force in one link is
given by
AsJ;i../ 1.15 = q X h
H1mc'"er if the linh arc spaced at a distance apart the force 10 each link b reduced
proportionately and given by
A,.J,l I s ql
=qxtx-- ---
1. 15 h cot 0 cOL ()
2A cot B
Equations 5.26 and 5.27 can be used w a section to res1st torsion and an
example of their given in chapter 7. The calculated amount oJ reinforcement must
he provided in addition to the full bending and ),hear reinforcement requirements for the
ultimate load comhinalions corresponding to the tor:.ionul lofld cnse considered. Where
longitudinal bending reinforcement is required the ndditional torsional steel nrea ma)
either be provitll:d by increasing the size of the bars. or by additionul bnrs. Torsional
must consist of tully anchored links spaced longitudinally no more than
apart. The longitudinal steel must of at lea'>! nne har in each corner of the
:-.cction with other bar5 di\trihutcd around the 111ncr periphery of the links nt no
than 350 mm centres. Where the reinforcement I!) known 5.26 and 5.27 can lx
rearranged for :malysis purpo).es to gi\c TEd and 0 a-; follows:
A.,.. /\,1 .

\ . IlL
(" '" ) I (As I )
tan (} =
The use of ullthe above equations that the seclion i!> replaced by an equivalcn
hoiiO\\ bo\ section. To determine the thickness of the !'>Cction an equivalent
Urtl 1-; used. detinet! equul to the towl area of the cro!\)o-l'>CCtion dtvided hy the oute
circumfen:ncc of the In the case of un aduul hollow section the
aren woulcl include uny inner hollow and the culculatcd thicknel.s should not be
taken grcnter than the actual wollthickncs!'l . In no :-.hould the thickness be take'"
as lc:-.s than twice the cover 10 the longitudinal
When analysing or dc)oigning a it is abo to check that excess""
cnmpresl>ive stresses do nol occur in the diagonnl strut!>, leading possibly t
failure of the concrete. With reference to figun: 5. 16c and taking th ..
lim1ting torsional moment for strut l"adure as
rOI'CI! in = (q X
Ana of strut =

x (II 9)
Stri!H in = rorcc; Area = --. CB/ II - l5
let Sill C0\11
"here IS the characteristic\ e in the concrete. As q = TRd ma,I(:!J\
then the above equauon can be a-.
<J.. / 1.5
tcr sin0cos8 - ,1.
K' Link is
5 27)*
and an
e,t mu't
, for the
ca may

e thnn
tr of the
- l311 be
: .28)*

c outer

not be
>e taken

'1hly to
ng the
TRd "''" $ 1.33}ckldAksin8cos8)
which can ai\O be expressed as

Shear, bond and torsion 121
In EC2 th1s equation j, modified b} the inclusion of a rtrength reduction facwr (1
) to
TMtl m." < 1.331'lfcltcrAl/(cot8 +tan 0)
(5.31 )*
where the strength reduction factor takes the value of 0.6( I -
In using the above to design for the designer L' free ro choose a
value of () which will permit a reduction in link requirements halttnced by a
corre:-.ponding increase in longitudinal Meel, as for the Variable S11ut Inclination
M<'fhod for !.henr design. However there are practical on the of(} that
can he and EC2 recommends that 1.0 2.5 li miting values of
0 of -15 and 22 respectively.
The arproach to design for torsion is therefore:
(a) on the calculated ultimate moment

t:heck the maximum

tor"onalmomentthat can be carried hy the (TRJ
,,.) whit:h govemed hy
in the concrete struts. w, given hy equation 5. 31:
7j ... <. 0 t tan H)
(h) Calculate the tor-.ional rcmforcemem requ1red from equation 5.17
A,. , 1 1, ,1'(2. 87}>k cot B)
A " I'> the area of one ltg of a hnk.
(l:) Calculme the additmnal longitudinal reinforcemcnt (t\,
) from equation 5.26:
1\,1 cot 0/( 0.87{> 1d
Further infonnation on the pmctieal details of design fo1 and a de11ign
example arc given in charter 7.
5.4.2 Torsion in complex shapes
A of a T. Lor I :,hapc should be divided into component rectangles
and each component h. then separately to C<lrry 11 proportion of the torque
! rEd). The torsion carried by each rectangle (7;) can be dctcrminetl elastically hy
calculating the torsional or each part according to ih St \lt'IWIIt
from the
lj Jk, (limon
L (A hmon 'lima\}
''here limon and limo\ arc the minimum and maximum dimcn'>lon of each K i-. the
5t Venant'1 torlimwl cml\tallt that varies according to the ratio hm."/ llm
: typical values
of '' hich arc 'hOI\ n 111 table SA. The subdh is ion of a into Its component
rectangles should be done in order to maximise the L ( Kh
122 Reinforced concrete design
FigureS 17
Combined shear and tonton
Table 5.4 St Venant's torsional constant K
hmax hmon
1.0 0.14 3.0 0.26
1.2 0.17 4.0 0.28
1.5 0.20 5.0 0.29
2.0 0.23 10.0 0.31
2.5 0.25 >10 0.33
5.4.3 Torsion combined with bending and shear stresses
Torsion is present alone, ttnd in most practh;al cases will be combined '
shear and henuing
(a) Shear stresses
Diagonal cracking wi ll start on th.: face ol a member where torsion and '
arc addi11ve. Pigurc 5.17 .,how' a typical ultimate torsion and ultimate '
intcrat.:tion diagram from wh1ch 11 can he that the hcmn'., resistance to comh
shear and torsion i' than that -when \UbJCCI to either effect alone. The
comhined hear and ... s may therefore need to be considered a
th1' both shear and tor.,ion are calculated on the ha.,i:-. of the <>arne equivalent
"ailed <,ecuon pre\ iou:-.1} for tor\! on at de\lgn.
The recommended ...rmpllfied approach to de,1gn i' to cnl>urc that the ultimate 'ht
force (VEd l and the ultimate torl>IOnal moment (/
) the interaction formula
TRd ,.., the dc\ign tor-.JOnttl (equation 5.31)
I'Rd the design shear (equation 5.8)
I r thi!o. imcraction equation the of the andLOr!.ionnllinks can b..
carried ()Lit separately providing th:.H the assumed angle of the compressive sull!s (0) '
the same for both tor:-.ionul and lihe;lr design.
However for a solid rectangular secti ou, rcluti vcly small torsional and shea
neither shear nor torsional reinlon:cmcnl i.., necessary if

where VRd is the capacity nf the concrete a:. given by equation 5. 1. TR.J.c
torsional momem \\hich can he calculated from equation 5.23 for a shear me,
equal to the dc!>ign tens1le strc..,..,, /<hi of the concrete. i.e. from equation 5.23:
where q shear force per u1111 length :.hear ..,tress x x I) or
T = shear x x
ned \>.ith
d \ hear
e 'hear
..!feel of
c:J ,tnd in
crll thin
te -,hcnr
-:i .J:I}*
' can be
h (8) is
is the
.tr stress
Shear, bond and torsion 1 .
'0 \\hen the concrete reaches its design tensile cracking strength .

'lkd,c = X let X
- 2A
- l.Sfet k
It should abo be noted that the calculation for A"' for shear !equation 5.3) gives the
required cross-sectional area or both of a link whereas equation 5.27 for
gives the required cross-sectional area of a single leg of a link. needs to be taken
mto con-;ideration when dctermming the total link requirement as 1n c'<ample 7.9.
lurthermore, lhe addnional area of longitudinal reinforcemem for l>heur design
(equation 5. 12) must be provided in the tension zone of the heam. whereas the
udditional longitudinal reinforcement for torsion (equation 5.26) must be distributed
Jround the inner periphery of the links.
(b) Bending stresses
When a bending moment b dtagonal cracl,s will develop from the top
of Aexurnl cracks. The nexural only slightly reduce the
1-ttillness provided that the diagonal crack\ clu not dew lop. The ltnalmodc of failure "ill
depend on lhc di-,tribution and quantity nt reinforcement present.
Figure 5.18 shows a typical ultimate moment and ultimate torsion iutcrur.:tion curve
for a As cun be seen. tor moments up to approximately RO per cent of the
ultunate moment the section cun resbt the lull ultimate l<lf'>tonal moment Hence no
calculations tor OfC generally for the tlltitnti!C limit Stale Of bending of
reinl'orced unless has been iucludccl in lht.: original analysis or is
required for equi lihriurn.
When combined nnd il> COll\ tdered the longttuclinal tor both C:l'\C:.
can be determined :-.cparately. In the flexura l tension tone the longitudinal required
for both cases can be added. llowever in the flexural compressive ,.:one no additional
tor'lonul longitudinal 'lee! i'> ncces<;ary 1f the longitudinal force due to i' le%
than the concrete cnmpresstve force due 10 Ocxurc.
Figure 5. 18
0.8M,. M,
Combined bend1ng and

and stability

The concept of serviceability hm1t St<ltes has been introduced m chapter 2, and for
reinforced concrete structures these Me often by observing empirical
rules which effect the detailing only. In some circumstances, however, it may be
desired to estimate the behaviour ol a member under work1ng conditions, and
mathematical methods of estimating deformations and cracking must be used. The
design of prestressed concrete is bclsed prirnilrlly on the avoidance or limitation of
cracking and this is considered in chapter 1 I .
Where the loundat1ons of a structure are in
contact with the ground, the pressures developed
will influence Lhe amount of settlement that Is likely
to occur. To ensure that these movements are
limited to acceptable values and are similar
throughout a structure, the sizes of the foundations
necessary are based on the service loads for the
Consideration of durability is necessary to ensure
that a structure remains serviceable throughout its
lifetime. Th1s requirement will involve aspects of
design, such as concrete mix selection and
,. ..... .
d for
11 "cal
:on of
e in

s 1kely
e sure
iO..Il its
SeNiceability, durability and stability requirements
determination of cover lo reinfordng bars, as well as selection of suitable materials for
the exposure conditions which are expected. Good construction procedures including
adequate curing are also essential if reinforced concrete is to be durable.
Simplified rules governing selection of cover, member dimensions and
remforcement detailing are given in sections 6.1 and 6.2, while more rigorous
procedures for calculation of actual deflection and crack widths are described 1n
sections 6.3 to 6.5. Durability and fire resistance are discussed 10 $eCtion 6.6.
The stability of a structure under accidental loading, although an ultimate limtt
state analysts, will usually take the form of a check to ensure that empirical rules,
designed to give a minimum reasonable resistance agatnst misuse or accident are
satisfied. Like serviceability checks, this will often mvolve detailing of reinforce-
ment and not affect the total quantity provided. Slclbilily requirements are
discussed in section 6.7 and considered more fully for seismic effects In
section 6.8.
6.1 Detailing requirements
Thc\C reqturemcntl> cn\urc that a hal> uwahiltty and 'cnu.:cuhility
performance under normal circumstances. EC2 \tmplc conccrmng
the concrete llll\ and to reinforcement, minimum memhc1 dm1cn'IOil'-. and hmlt'
to n:infon.:emem quantilic!-., \pacmgs and bar diameter!> \\ hil:h mu\t be tuJ..en into
account at the member \t.!ing and remforcement dctathng \tagc. In \OillC tabulated
value' arc pronded for I) p1cal common "h1ch are ba,cd on more complc\
formulae gi\en 111 the code of practtce. Reinforcement detathng may he aflcch.:d hy
\tahi lity as tlc!>crihed in sectton 6.7. well concerning
anchorage and lapptng of bars which have been in section' 5 2 and 5.3.
6. 1.1 Minimum concrete mix and cover (exposure conditions)
rhese arc interrelated and. although not rully dcwiled in EC'2, EN 206
Concre/1! Pt't.fnmtance, Prod11clirm. Plal'ing and Complirmce Criteria and the
comrlememory SIUndard BS 8500 give more detailed guidance on minimum
comhinattons of thickness nf covel' anu mix chan.tcteristi cs for of
cxpthurc. It be noted that the UK national Annex to F.C2 (and 8500) induuc
'igni licant to EC2 itself. The mixes arc in tcnm of minimum
cement content. maximum free water/cement ratio and concrete
cl:l\S. are given intahlc 6.1 whtch then the mix
und cmcr reqUirements and so on "hich must be complied \\ith.
to re111forcement 1s specified and on a nominal \:tlue. This
obtaincu from
i' ""m - < mm
"here b an allowance for construction dcnation<, and b normally taken I 0 mm
except where an appro\'ed qualtry control \)'Mcm on cover (e.g. 1111>1tu i'
specified in which ca.\C it can be reduced lo 5 mm.
126 Reinforced concrete design
Table 6.1 Exposure class designation
designatton Description
XO No risk of corrosion
- Very dry
CarbonatiOn-induced corrosion risk
Dry or permanently wet
Wet - rarely dry
Moderate humidity
Cyclic wet and dry
Chloride-induced corrosion risk (not due Lo
Moderate humidity
Wet, rarely dry
Cyclic wet and dry
Chlondc-induced corrosion risk (sea water)
Exposed to airborne salt but not 1n direct
water contact
Perm.mently submerged
Tidal, s p l t ~ s and spray zones
Freeze/thaw attack whilst wet
Moderate water saturation - without
dt>-icing agent
Moderate water saturcll!On with
de-Icing agent
lligh water saturation -without de-icing
High water saturation - with de-icing
agcnL or sea water
Chemical auack
Slightly aggressive
Moderately aggressive
Highly aggressive
Examples of environmental conditions
Unreinforced concrete (no freeze/thaw, abrasion or
chemical attack)
Reinforced concrete buildings with very low
Reinforced and prestressed concrete:
- inside structures (except high hum1dity) or
permanently submerged (non-aggressive water)
completely buried in non-aggressive soil
external surfaces (mcluding exposed to rain)
exposed to alternate wetting and drying
Reinforced and prestressed concrete:
exposed to airborne chlorides, bridge parts away
from direct spray containing de-icing agents,
occasional/slight chloride exposure
- totally immersed in water containing chlorides
(swimming pools, industrial waters)
exposed to de-cing salts and spray (bridges and
adjacent structures, pavements, car parks)
Reinforced and prewessed concrete:
external 1n coastal areas
- remaming saturated (e.g. below mid-tide level)
- in upper tidal, splash and spray zones
Concrete surfaces exposed to freezing:
vertical exposed to rau1
vertical (road structures) exposed to de-Icing
agents as spray or run -off
horitontal exposed to rain or water accumulation
- horizontal exposed to de-icing agents directly or
as spray or run -off. Others subject Lo frequent
- Defined in specialist literature
a 1ay
I or

Serviceability, durability and stability requirements 12
The cover is necesr.ary to provide
1. c;afe tran!>fcr of bond forces:
2. adequate durabilit)<
3. lire reSIStance.
The value of r mon \hould not be than the bar diameter (or cqui\ alent diameter of
bundled bar:.) to ensure satisfactory bond performance. Tile value of <"nun lO cnwre
adequate durability i'> inOuenced by the exposure das<;ificauon, mtx and
intended design life of the structure. i1> a potentially complex proces!> since there
may commonly be a combination of expowre cla;;scs rduting to nuack ot the
reinforcement. whil5t freeze/thaw and chemical auad, apply to the concrete rather tiMn
the steel. The range of relevanr mix parameters include maximum water/cement ratio.
minimum cement content, cement type. aggregate size and air-entrainment.
Tuhle 6.2 show!' typical combinations of cover and mix dctui ls for commonly
occurring situations. If any of the parameters of cement type. uggn:gatc ,;,c or de1.>ign
life change, then adjuMmcnts will be Design he on the most
severe exposure if more than one nre combined. Minimum com:rcle mix
requirement:. f'or where freeze/thaw apply are summnriseu in luble ().3, wh il st
exposure to chemical attack (class XA exposure) may place fun her limit), nn mix dctalls
nnd mny nl))o require additional protective mea:-.urc),. Reference should he mode to the
appropriate documentation in !>uch cases (e.g. BS R.'i00).
Table 6.2 Cover to reinforcement des1gn life, Portland cement concrete with 20mm
aggregate size) [Based on UK Nationa Annex]
Exposure class Nomma/ Cover (mm)
Not recommended for reinforced concrete
XCl 25
35 35

XC3/4 45 40 35 35 30
40 35
45' 45
Maximum free
wat er/cement ratio 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.35
Minimum cement
) 240 260 280 300 320 340 360
Lowest concrete C20/25 C25/30 C28/35 C32/40 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55
l. contt>nt should be mneased by 20 kgtm
abolll' thE' values shown in the tdble.
2 Cement contem should be Increased by 40 kg/m
AND wat4'f 'E'ment rauo reduced by 0.05 compdred woth the value$ shown in I he
Ctnerol Notes
These v,llues may be reduced by S mm 1f an approved quality control os spcclfoed.
Cover not be less than the bar diameter + 10 mm to ensure adequate bond nee.
128 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 6.1
Deflntllon of do\t.mce, 0
Table 6.3 Minimum concrete mix requirements for concrete exposed to
freeze/thaw (Exposure Class XF) - 20mm aggregates
Closs Strength Closs (maximum water/cement ratio)
No air-entrainment
C25/30 (0.6)
(25/30 (0.6)
C25/30 (0.6)
C28/35 (0.55)
1. freeze-thaw resisting to be specofo!'d
3.5% air-entrainment
C28/35 (0.6)
(32/40 (0.55)
(40/50 (0.45)
(40/50 (0.45)
6.1.2 Minimum member dimensions and cover (fire resistance)
In order that u reinforced concrete member is capable of withstanding tire for :1 specified
pcriou or time. it is necessary to the provbion of minimum dimensions and cover
(here delincu as nominal minimum concrete !illrfncc to muin har axis dimension as
illustrated m ligure 6.1) for various types of concrete mcmher. In many practical
sli\Hltiono;, with modest fire resistance pcrioc.l\. the cover provided for durability wtll
govern the design.
Structural fire design in coni-.idcrcd h> part 1-2 of l:.C2. wh1ch gi-.cs several
methods rang1ng from detailed calculations to 'impltried tabk:-. as presented here. Hre
effect\ are con,idered further m 6.6.2 and dc).1gn based on load
heanng (R). 1ntegrit} (E). and msulatmg (II performance as appropnate.
!'he approach offers the destgner ol member and
a-.:1' dt,tance a" indicated 111 Tables 6.-t to 6.C1. for a range of \tandard lire
period' (minutes). These '' 111 generally appl) ''hen nonnul deta11tng ntleo;, have been
follm' cd und ''hen moment redt,tribuuon doc:-. not C\cecd 15q f-or benms nnd !.labs.
Table 6.4 Minimum dimensions and ax1s distance for RC beams for fire resistance
Standard fire nslstance
Minimum dimensions (mm)
Possible combinations of a and bm
n where a is the overage axis distance and brn
is the
width of the beam
Simply supported
A B c D c r G H
bll111l 120 160 200 300 120 200
a 40 35 30 25 25 12
150 200 300 400 150 250
a 55 45 40 35 35 25
200 240 300 500 200 300 450 500
a 65 60 55 50 45 35 35 30
280 350 500 700 280 500 650 700
90 80 75 70 75 60 60 50
Note: The oiXt) o,1 from the sidt' of a beam to the comer bar should be o+ IOmm except whtrl.' bn,., tsgreater lhdn the values in
cofumm C and f
I 1re

Serviceability, durability and stability requirements 1
further detailing requiremenb may appl} for higher fire periods. \\htl<;t effecti\e length
and nxial load (relative to design capacity) may need 10 be specili<.:ally considered for
Tabl e 6.5 Minimum dimensions and axis distance for RC slabs for fire resistance
Standard fire Minimum dimensions (mm)
One-way Two-way spanning Ribs in two-way spanning ribbed
I. < 7.5
1.5 < ly, l. 2.0
REI 60
/1, - 80 80 80 bmln- 100 120 20C
a -
20 10 15 o- 25 15 10
REI 90 11, 100 100 100 bman - 120 160 250
a - 30 15 20 a = 35 25 15
REI 120 hi
120 120 120 b,,,ll ... 160 190 300
o- 40 20 25 a - 45 40 30
REI 240 h, = 175 175 175
450 700
a - 65 40 50 a - 70 60
I. The! sl"b 11. 1S the 111111 ol the slab ond tht' ol ''"Y noncombultlbh lloo11ng
2. In two-way siJbs the axis ref'rs to the lower I,Jyfr of re1nlorcrmfnt
3. Th' term 'two-way Sldbs' to slabs supported .11 cJIIfour edgPs, if this s not the Cd5e they shmold be .u one-wJy sp.mmng
4 For r bb od llabs.
(a) axis d11l.10CP measuretlto the iatpr,ll surfctce oftht' rib should be to 10J.
(b) The values whPre thtorc h predomli1cH1tly unitormty clhtrllluted loatllllq
(c) There \hO\Jid llc at olll' rrstrained t><lqt>
(d) The top remfor<.cment should be pi.Krd in lht' upper h'll of the ll.snge
Table 6.6 Min1mum dimensions and axis d1stance for RC columns and walls ror fire res1stance
Standard fire Minimum dimem1ons (mm)
Column width bmnlaxis distance, a, of the main Wol/ distance, a, of the main bars
Columns exposed on Columns exposrd on Wall exposed on one Wall exposed 011 two
more than one side one side side sldel
R60 250/46 155/25 130/10 140/10
R90 350/53 155/25 140/25 170/25
R120 350/57
175/35 160/35 220/35
R240 600/70 295170 270/60 350/60
1 Based on the of the deSJgn cJxtcJI lo.1d under lin: cond1Uom to thl! dPs1gn reSJStanct> at normal tempt>rature condllons
as 0 7
2. Mmlmum of 8 bars reqwed
1 30 Reinforced concrete design
6.1.3 Maximum spacing of reinforcement
Crad .. ing of a concrete member can result from the effect of loading or can
of to \hrinkage or thermal mo\l.:ment. In addition to providing
minimum area of bonded reinforcement (see sectton 6.1.5). cracking due to loading
minimised b} ensuring that the maxtmum clear 'pacing-. hetween
reinforcing hars in beams i<. limited to thm gi\Cll in table 6.7. Thi., \\ill th..t
the ma\imum crack \\ idths m the concrete do not exceed 0.3 mm. It can he seen that li c
:-pacing on the arcss in the reinforcement which should be taken as the !.trc,,
under the aclion of the qua.11-pemwnem loadings. The qumiperma11ellf loading tal-.el'
a' the permanent load. Gk. a propmtion of the variahle load. Qk, depending on the
t) pe of su-ucture. The calculation or the f>tn.:.,!-> level can be complicated and an
acceptable approximalion is to take l as
.f.. (6.1
I'm orlicc and domestic (sec fable 2.4 for other circum&tances), where .r;k j,
the characteristic )>trcngth of' the reinl'orccment. h will hove a value of 1.0 unle'
mnml.!nt reubtribution hm. been earned out. in whil.'h t the ratio of the distribute ..
moment to the moment at at the ultimate I unit.
Table 6.7 Maximum clear bar spacings (mm) for high
bond bars 1n tension caused by loading
Steel stress
Maximum bar spacing
Thcl'te do not apply to with u11 overall thickness of200 mm or lc"'
In this cu!.c the srmcing of longitudinal rcinforcemem '>hould be no greater than thrt:o;
times the ovcrull dcpth or .. wo mm, whichever is the le!>ser, and secondar:
reinforcement three-and-a-half time' the ucpth m 450 mm gt:nerall y. In arens o
concentrated loadi't or maximum mo111cnh these should he rl!duccd to 2h < 250111111 al1'
311 400 mm respectively.
6.1.4 Minimum spacing of reinforcement
To permit concrete llO\\. around reinforcement during con ... truction. the clear
between should not be less than (t) the maximum bar siLc. (ii) 20mm. or (iii) the
maximum aggregate size 5 mm. \\h1chever ts the greater figure.
and an
6. 1
Serviceability, durability and stabil ity requirements 1 3
6. 1.5 Minimum areas of reinforcement
For most thennal and shrinkage cracking can be controlled acceptable
mit<; by the use of minimum reinforcement quantities. The princtpal requirements, to
"e checked at the detailing stage. are as specified in table 6.8. Requirement-; for \hear
nks are gtven in sectiOns 7.3 and 9.3.
In addttton to the requuements of table 6.8 a tmntmum \tecl area, \, mon mu!'tt he
" ovided tn all ca es to control cracking. The proviston of the minimum \!eel area
.. n,ures that the remforcement does nor yield when the concrete in the Llme
.. mcks with a 1oudden transfer of stress LO the reinforcement Tim, could caUM! the
tncontrolled development of a few wide cracks. Whenever thi'l minimum area is
provided, then yield should not occur and will then he diMributed throughout
the !.Cction with a greater number of cracks but of lc%er width. A, min given by the
A,,""" Act /.fyk
\\ here
- minimum area of reinforcement that must be provided within the tensile
- area of concrete within tensi le 70ne det1ned a., that area which is in
ten ion JUSl before the initiation of the fir..,t crack
ctt ten<.tle strength of concrete at ttme of cracking \\'llh a minimum
of 3 /mm
otherwi!.e obtained from tahle 6.11 a concrete
cla\s appropriate to the anticipated time of cracking
J.., wess coeffictenl ( 1.0 for pure tenston. 0.4 for llc\ttre)
non-linear dt!>tnbutton coeffictent
restrattll force
leading to a rcduclton 111
1.0 for web less than 300 nun deep or 11ongcl> than 100 mm \\ide
0.65 for webs greater than ROO nun deep or flange' grcatcr than
ROO m m '' ide
(intcrpohttc for imermeduue values)
Table 6.8 Minimum areas of reinforcement
Concrete claS$ (fyh Tension reinforcement In beams
and slabs ------------------
0.26 fctm ( 0.00131
Secondary reinforcement > 20% main reinforcement
Longitudinal reinforcement in columns
A '"'" 0 1 ON..., 0 87 0 002Ac where N!d is the axial compression force
Vert ical reinforcement in walls
A, m11 0 002-A.
Note b, es the ml'dn wodth of the tenseon zone.
132 Reinforced concrete design
6.1.6 Maximum areas of reinforcement
are determined largely from pracllcal need to achic\e adequate compaction of
the concrete around the reinforcement. The limns specified arc a.-. follows
(a) For a or beam, ten'>ion or compressiOn reinforcement
I OOA, A, < -l per cent other than at lap..,
(b) For a column
I OOA,/ Ac ::; 4 per cent other than at laps and 8 per cent at laps
(c) For a wall. verticnl reinforcement
lOOA, j A, ::; 4 per cent
6.1.7 Maximum bar size
Slction 6.1.3 dc\crihed the.: limitations on har \ ptlci ng to cn:-.un.: that crack widths due to
loading nrc h.epl within acceptable limi t\, When cnnsidcring lmu..l -induccd cracki ng bar
diameters may be a' indicated 111 tahlc 6.9 which is on ('30/.n concrete
nnd 25mm cover as an altcmativc to limiting -;pac1ng. Jn calculatmg the the
approximation given in equation 6. 1 may he U\ed.
Table 6.9 Maximum bar diameters (0.3 mm crack width)
Steel stress
Mox1mum bar lize
When cracldng occurs as u of re:-.truint to or thcrmul effects then the
hur si;ws nutst be limited us indicated in table 6.9. but the maximum of
tnbk 6.7 do not need to be applied. l'he \Ice! to he used in table 6.9 can be
cnlculated from equation 6.3 where A, P''" is the steel area pmvidcd at the under
and A, nun i5. given in equation 6.2.
(6.3 )
6.1.8 Side face and surface reinforcement in beams
In beams over I m deep addiuonal remforcemcnt mu ... t he prO\ 1ded in the 'Ide faces to
control as indicated 111 figure 6.21al Thts reinforcement be distnbuted
evenly between the main tension steel and the neutral a\.t\ and within the \tirrups. The
Serviceability, durability and stability requirements 133
(a) (b)
t (d - x)
m111imum area of this reinforcement can be cakuluted from equati on ()_2 with k taken
as 0.5. In assessing the maximum spacing nnd of lhi:. reinforcement from tables 6.7
and 6.9 a -.tress -.alue equal to one half of that calculated for the main tenc;tle
reinforcement may be used and it mny he a11sumcd that the side face reinforcement is in
pure tension.
In addauon to the ahove requirement, EC:? requires that surface reinforcement
provided where it is necessary LO control spalling of the concrete due to tire (axis
distance> 70 mm) or where hundled hun, or greuter than -10 nun diameter are
U\ main rcanforccment. In the Ul\, however. thi'> " not adopted due to practical
in providing such relJ1fnrccmenl. !or high covers il n:conunencled that
udditional fire protection i' provided and crack wiuth calculations are recommended
with largl! daametcr
The suaface reinforcement, if provided, :.hould consist of' welded mesh or small
diumeter high bond bars located 0111\iclt the lin"-' as indicated in lagurc 6.2(b). Cover to
thi' reinforcement mu't comply\\ llh the requirements of )o.ectton 6. 1.1 and the mimmum
area of longitudiawl reinforcement should be I per ecnt or the area ol the
cnncrete ouhide the link.!> and in the tension zone below the neutral axb: shO\\ n as the
nre.t in figure 6.2(b). The .. urface reanfon.:cment 'hould he no further
than 150 mm und if properly nm:hored can he taken into account as longitudinal
bending and shear reinforcement.
6.2 Span-effective depth ratios
The appearance and function of a reinforced concrete heum or skah may he impaared if
the deflectaon under 'e" iccahiltty Joadang ts Deflections can he calculated
indicated in 6.3 but it is more usual to control dellcctions hy placing a limit on
the rutio of the spun to the effective depth of the hcam or ,Jah. EC2 specilie' equations
to calculnte ha,ic span-effecta\e depth h> comrol deflection' to n maxamum of
span/250. Some typical values are given in table 6.10 for rcct::tngular sections of cluss
CJ0/35 concrete and for grade 500 steel. The ratios can abo he for Hanged sections
except where the rtltl() of the width of flange to the \\idth of web exceeds 3 when the
values should be multiplied by 0.8. For two-way slabs. the check for the
-;pau effective depth ratio be based on the \horter span whereas for nat
calculations \hould be on the longer span.
The two col umns given in table 6. 10 correspond to levels or concrete !'>t rcs!. under
"erviceability conditaons: highly Slrc-,sed when the steel ratio p exceeds 1.5 per cent and
Figure 6.2
Side-lace and surface
1 34 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 6.3
Graph ot basic effective
depth ratios for different
classes or concrete
Table 6.10 Basic span-effective depth ratios (fyk- 500 N/mm
, C30/35 concrete)
Basic span-effective depth ratio
Structural system
Factor for
Concrete Concrete
highly stressed lightly stressed
system K
(p- 1 5%) (p- 0.5%)
1. Simply supported beam or 1.0 14 20
one/two-way spanning simply
supported slab
2. End span of continuous beam 1.3 18 26
or one-way continuous slab or
two-way slab continuous over
one long side
3. In tenor span of continuous beam 1.5 20 30
or one-way or two-way spanning
4. Slab on columns without beams
1.2 17 24
(!lilt slab) based on longer span
5. Cantilever
0.4 6 8
lightly strc:.\ed when p equal:. 0.5 per cent. pi-. gtven hy IOOA, rr.:<J/bd where A, rt 1
the area of tension retnforcement required in the lnterpolauon b..:tween the
values of p indicmcd is permissible. In the case or 11 lahs it is reasonable to a\sumc th ll
they are lightly
Since the value of allowable effccti\e depth ratio i-. atfccted b> ho
reinforcement rntio and concrete &trcngth it may be more convenient to use the char
in rigurc 6.3 \Vhich is for a simply supported '>pan with no compression steel togcthc
with a modification factor K (as -;hO\\ n 111 table 6.1 0) accord111g to member type. T1
upprouch is basl.!d on the same equations and offer!> greatl.!r flexibility than
placet! on tabulated values.
"' v




"' 2:

100A, .,
0.40% 0.80% 1.2% 1.6% 2.0%

Serviceability, durability and stability requi rements 1 35
The basic ruti os are modillcd in particular cases a:- follows:
(a) For spans longer than 7 m (except tlat slabs) and where it is necc1-sary to limit
dellcr.;tions to ensure that finishei>, such as partitions. are not damaged. the basic
values -,hould be multiplied by 7 / span.
tb) For llat ,Jabs with span-, in e'<cess of 8.5 m. similarly multiply the by
(c) For characteristic steel strengths other than 500 '/mm
, multiply the basic ratios
(d) Where more tension reinforcement is provided (1\, prm) than that calculated (A,.rcq)
at the ulttmate limit state, multiply the basic rauos by A, rn" / A . req (upper
limtt I 5).
These basic ratios assume a steel working stress of = where
[yk = 500 N/mm
( EXAMPLE 6. 1
Span-effective depth ratio
A rcctungul:lr hLam or cla:,s C25/30 concrete spans 10 m. If the breadth is
300 mm, check the acr.;eptahi lity of an eJTer.:ti vc <.h:pth of 600 mm when hi gh yield
reinfon.:ement, = 500 N/mm'. is used. At the ultimate limit :.tate it is determined that
1250 mm
nt tension Mecl ill needed and 3 No. 25 mm diameter reinforcing b<u:.
(A, f'""

an: actually prmtded in an intenor 'pan.

I OOA, "'<l/ bd
( J0(l X 1250)/(300 X 600)
0.7 per cent .
From table 6.1 0, tor nn intcnm 11pan K = 1.5
-.pan cffecuvc depth rn11o (figure 6.3) = 16
Thercfure for an anterior srxan-etTcctivc depth ratio= L.5 x 16
T<> avoid damage to finishCll fllr span greater than 7 rn:
Modified rat ao = 24 x

Ylodthcation for :.tccl area provaded:
Modified rmio 16.8 x
- 19.8
.. . . 'd d I 0 X I () l t. 7
Span c lecuvc depth ratao provJ c =
= 1,1.
which tl> lcl>S than the allowable upper limiL thus deflection requirements nrc likely to be

1 36 Reinforced concrete design
6.3 Calculation of deflection
The general requirement i<. that neither the efficiency nor the appearance of a structure
harmed hy the deflections that will occur during its life. Deflections must thu.,
considered at stages. The neces ar) to satisfy the requirement'
vary con.,iderably according to the nature of the struct ure and its loadiJ1gs, but
reinforced concrete the folio"' ing ma) be considered as guides:
1. the final deflection of a beam. slab or cantilever should not exceed 'pan/ ::!50
2. that part of the dellection which takes place after the application of or tl
of partition., should not exceed span, soo to a-.osd damage to and tutm<-
Tile code that deflections should he cakulated under the action of the quCl\
permanen1 load combi nation, assumwg tim loading to be of long-term duration. Hem:,
the total loading to he tuken in the calculation will he the permanent load pJu.,
proponion of the variable loau which will typically be 30 per cent of the variable hl L
for ortice-type construction. This i., a rea-.onahle as,umption a\ deflectson will 0.
affected hy long-term dfech as wncrctc creep, while nOL all of the variahle loud
likely to be long-term and hence wtll not contrihute tt> the creep
Lateral delkction mu't not be ignored. especiall y on tull structures. and
limitation:-. in these be Judged b) the engineer. It smpot1ant to realise th. l
there arc many factors which may have \ignificant effects on anti me
difficult to allow for. Thus any calculated values mu-.t be regarded a' an cMtmatc onh
The mo.,t unportunt of these factors arc:
1. suppon re-,traint mu\t he c:-.timatcd on the ham ol si mpllticd whll
\\ill have varying of aceur:tl.);
2. the prl'ci'e loadmg cannot he predicted and crrnrs in permanent loading may have a
signsfl calll l'lfect,
3. a rneml1t:1 will heha-.c differently from one that is uncracked - thi<. may be
problem in ls ghtly resnlnrccd wher1. the v.orksng load may be ncar to
4. the effects ul floor finishes und partition:-. urc very tlsfficult to
frequemly these are neglected dcl.pllc thesr .,uffemng' effect.
It may he to allow fur the'c factors hy averaging maximum and minimut
estsmalcd effects and, provided that this is done. there :m.: a number of culculattor
methods available \\ htch \\ill give reasonable rc.,ults. The method adopted by LC2 1
ha<.ed on the calculation of curvature oJ sections to the nppropriatc moment'
wtth allowance for creep and 'hrinl...age where necessary. Deflections arc the'
calculated !rom curvature:.. A approach to dellcction is to calculate th(
curvature at intervab along the .md then use numerical Integration technique' t\
estimate the critical dellections. into account the fact that sections along tht
span will be under load and other:.. in rcgson' of lesser moment, \HII ill;
uncracked. Such an upproach is rarely justified and the approach adopLed below. based
on EC2, assumes that it acceptahly accurate to calculate the curvaltlre of the beam o
slab ba,cd on both the cracked and uncracked and then l o U'\C an average
value in estimating the final deOection using standard deflection formulae or simpl"
numerical mtegration based on clasric theor).
The procedure for estimating deflcctionl> involves the following stages which :lrl
slfustrated m example 6.2.
Serviceability, durability and stability requirements 137
6.3.1 Calculation of curvature
Curvature under the action of the quasi-permanent load should be calcul::ued hased on
both the cracked and 11/ICracked An estimate of an average' value of curvature
can then lh: olnained usmg the formula:
1/r +( I (){ l fr)u,
l f r
( 1/r)u, } _
( 1/r)., -
average cunature
of curvature calculated for the uncracked Calle and cracked case
coefficient g1ven by I - allowing for tcn1.ion stiffening
loud duration factor (I for a single short-term load; 0.5 for
or cyclic loading)
in the tension for the cracked concrete
stresf> in the tension steel calculated on the hasis of a cracked section
1111der the loadinp, thar ll'ill just cause rrar-king at the secllml heing
Appropriate value\ of concrde tensile strength to he u-,cd in the cnlculation of 11,
he obtained from table 6.11. In calculaung rmio (a,,/11,) can more convcmcntly be
replaced hy (Mc
/M) \\hen: M,., 1s the moment that \\ill ju't cau<,e cracl-ing of the
'>ection and M i' the del>Jgn moment for the calculmion of curvature und deflection.
In order to calculate the 'average' curvature. separate calculation' have to be earned
out lor both the cracked and uncracl-cd ca'>e\.
Uncracked section
fhe :h1-Um.:d clu-.tic stram and di.,trihution for an uncraci-cd ts shown in
tigure 6.4.
For n given moment. M. and I rom elastic bending thenry. the curvature of the
( I/ r).,,. is g1ven by
where i1. the ciTective clastic of the concrete allowing for crccr effects
anti ''" is the second moment of arcH nf the uncracl-ed concrete section.
Table 6. 11
Mean tensile strengths of concrete and secant modulus of elasticity
Strength class
20/25 (25/30 00/37 05/45 (40/50
fcrm (N/mm
) 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.5
Ecm (kN/mm
) 30 31 33 34
(45/55 CS0/60
3.8 4.1
36 37
1 38 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 6.4
Uncracked section strain and
stress distnbutiOn
Figure 6.5
Cracked section - strain and
stress distribution
- -f-
-. .

Cracked section
transformed sect1on
(d- x/3)
- -
The strain and 'iti'C':- diMihUiion tor a cracked section is in
figure 6.5. Thi-; IS identical to that shown in ligures -1.27 and -1.21:!. and equation 4.48 or
figure -1.29 can be u:-ed to determine the neutrala>.i' depth. Alternativcl). momenb ol
area can be taken to the depth d1rectly. 'I he l>Ccond moment
ol area of thc cracked section can then be determined hy laking <>econd moments of area
about the neutral axi'
where is the modultlr nttio equal to the ratio of the cla!>tic modulus of the
reinforcement to that of the concrete.
For a given moment, M, and from clastic bending theory, the curv:uurc of the cracked
section. { I / r).:, is therefore given by
( 1/rlcr=-E I

6.3.2 Creep and shrinkage effects
The effect of creep will be to increase ddlccuons v.ith t1me and thu' 'hould be allowed
for in the calculations by using an cffccthe modulus. /.:., ell the equatton
cfl = Ecm/ ( I - 6( ro))
where tt> IS a creep coefficient equal to the ratio of creep strain to initial elastic strum
Serviceability, durability and stability requirements 139
Table 6.12 Final creep coefficient of normal weight concrete (Class C25/30)
Age at
100 200 300
Notional size (2fl.cfu) mm
500 100 200 300
Dry atmosphere (inside: 50% RH) Humid atmosphere (outside: 80% RH)
4.7 4.3 3.8
3.8 3.6 3.1
3.2 2.9 2.6
2.6 2.3 2.1
2.3 2.1 1.9
Note: A - area ot concrete, u perimeter of that area exposed to drymg.
The value of rJ>. \\ hile oeing affected oy aggregate properties, mix design and curing
conditions. is also governed by uge at loatling. the durm.ion of loatl and the section
Table 6.12 gives some rypit:al long-term of q'( XJ, to) a)< by EC2 for
a class ('25/30 concrete made with a type N cement. arc valid if the concrete
not subjected to a compressive greater than

at age fn (age at time of
loading) and wi ll reduce as the concrd<.: strength Equations and charts arc
in EC2 for a range of cement type,. concrete loadtng age' and nottonal
member !>i7es. These the tlevelopmenL of creep with time anti
.tdjustmcnts if the at loading exceeds thut indicated above. The notional of
the secttcm is taken U'\ I\\. tee the area divtded by the penmcter of the area
w drytng. An estimate or the ela&tic moclttlus of concrete, l,rn. can be obtained
!rom taole 6.11 or from the cxpresl>ion:
f.:.'.:m 22 [ (!:\ R) r l kN/mm
l'he ciTect or nf the concrete will be to increusc the curvanm: and hence the
deflection of the beam or 'ilab. The curvature due to shnnkage can be calculated using
the equation
1/ t;; = E,,a, S/ 1 (6.9)
L/ r.:, = rhc \hrinkage curvature
'".:, = free shrinkage strain
S = fifl>t moment of area of reinforcement about the centrotd of the section
I = second moment of area of section (cracked or uncracked a" appropriate)
lie - effective modular raho (l:. ,f Ec. cff )
Shrinl..age influenced by many features of the mi\ and procedures hut
for most normal weight concrete:. values of .,, may be obtatned from table 6.13.
Shrinkage strains are affected by the ambiem humidity and t:lement dimensions. The
total shrinkage strain can be considered a'i two component).: the drying shrinkage
140 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 6.6
Pin-ended beam subji'Cl
to a constdnl moment M
Table 6.13 Final shrinkage strains of normal weight concrete (1 0
) (Class C25/30
Location of
Relative humidity
Notional size (2Ac tu) mm
200 300
470 410
280 250
Note A .., cross-sectional area of concrete, u penmeter of that area expo!oed to drying
?::. 500
strain E: nt which develops slowly as water through the hardened concrete and
the autogenous shrinkage =cu which develop1. during hardening at early ages.
EC2 formulae to evaluate lhese components al various ages or the concrete
from which the typica l long-term values in table o. l j have hecn d,:velopccl for a ciOS'I
('25/30 concrete. The total slui nknge wi ll tend to he fut lc:.s for higher strengrhs
c'pccinlly a1 lower relative humidities.
The average' shrinlage curvature can he calculmcd from equ:uion 6A having
calculated the curvature based on both rhc 'cral.'kcd' and ''
6.3.3 Calculation of deflection from curvature
The total curvature can he determined b) adding the c;hnnkap.e curvature to the
calculated cunmure due to the havmp. made aliO\Hmcc lor creep
The dcflecuon of the beam or -.lab can be calculated from the IOta! cur\<llltrc
elu'>tic hcnthng theory which for smnll on the cxprC'>'>ion
M, (6.10
whcre ts the bending moment nt a section 1 rmm the origin 3); shown in
ligure 6.6. lor small deflections the term upproximalely equals the curvuturc
which is the reciprocal of the of curvalurc. Douhlc integnuion of equation 6.10
wi ll yield un expression for deflection. This may be by considering the case
of a pin-ended beam subjected to con.,lunl M throughout its length. thttt M, - M.
El ., ,
(6.11 )
-, 8
::25 30)
1r a cia'
1 the
I = \f
Serviceability, durability and stability requirements 141
but if the zero at mid-span where x L/2, then
C=- ML
d\ ML
dl . 2
Integrating agarn grves
M.1.:. ML\ D
2 2
li t at support A whcn .t 0. y = 0. Hence
D ()
M ('"2 J..')
f, J I -
ut any !>ection (6. 12)
The maxtmum dellcction in will occur m mid-'>pan, where t L/2. in which
,.ntJ\ =
M J2
1 R
but '"1c.:c at any uncracked section
II r
tne ma\imum dcllcction may be expressed a\
I , I
p, I. r
Yrn l\
In general, the bending-moment along a member wil l not be hut
Ill be a function or.\. The ha1.ic form of the result wi ll however he the l\ame. antlthc
c:tlcction may be as
. 1 . kL' I
muxrmum del cellon a = -
(o. IW
k n the value of which depends on the nl bendrng
in the member
L the effective span
..!_ =- the mid-span curvature for beams. or the support curvature for cantilevers
T)plcal valucll of k arc given in table 6.14 for varioull common shape!> of bending-
ment diagramll. I f the loading is complex. then a value of k muM be estimated for the
c :nplete load smce summing deflection" of simpler components will y1eld incorrect
1. ults.
142 Reinforced concrete design


. .... .
5 No 25mm bars
Figure 6.7
Deflection caltulalion
Table 6. 14 Typical deflection coefficients
Loading B.M. diagram k
(.M M;;


- Ba 1 1
.... 'aq-

(if a- 0.5 then k 0.83)


at3 - a)

End deflection -
(if a - 1 then k 0 33)
1--oL ...
End deflection
a(4 a)
(if a 1 then k 0.25)
Although the derivation hn'> been on the bu-,h of an uncracked -;cction, the final
cxprcl>sion is tn a form that will deal with u by the of
the appropriate curvature.
Since the involve11 the square of the lipan, it is important thut the true
el'fccti vc span as dclincd in chapter 7 used. particularly in the of cnmilevers.
Dcllections of canti levers may he im:rcascd by rotation of the ).Upporting member.
and tim mu.,t he taken into :u.:count when the structure 1s fairly 11cxible.
Calculation of deflection
the lung-term deflection of the he:.un in figun.: 6.7. It spans 9.5
nnd '' desi gned to carry a unirormly load giving rise to :1
moment of 200 kNm. It l:Onstructcd with class C25/30 concrete, is made of normal
aggregate\ and the construction props are removed at 28 duys.
(a) Calculate curvature due to uncracked section
I rom equation 6.5:
( I /r)""
where from table 6. L l. Ecm - 31 1-.N/mm . From table 6.12, a\suming loadtng at 28 day!.
with indoor exposure, the creep cocflkienl ri> 2.R
(2 X [700 X 300])/2000 = 210
and hence from equation 6.X the effective modulus given by
Ecctf 31/(l-2.8)
2()() X 10
(1/r) -
uc - 8.15 X 10
X (400 X 700
I 12)
2.86 X 10-
1 mm
Serviceability, durabili ty and stability requirements 143
ote that in the above calculation lu..: has been calculated on the of the gross
concrl.!tc \CCtional area ignoring lhe contribution of lhe remforcemcnt. A more accurate
calculation could have been performed. as in example 4. 13 in chapter 4, but such
accuracy not JUstified and the 111m pier approach imlicatct.l will be accurate.
(b) Calculate curvature due to cracked section
To calculate the curvmure of the crackct.l secti on the I val ue or the concrete
secti on must he calcul ated. With reference lO fi gure 6.5 the calcul:llionl> can be out as
(i) Calcul ate the neutral axis position
Taking arcu moments about the neutral axis:
b X .1" X .r/2 llcA,(d - t)
:wo ., .
300 <.\' / 2 8.15 ( .450(600- .I J
has the \Oiuuon
x- 329mm
(ii) Calculate the second moment of area of the cracked section
/" b.1
f 3 t 1),
\{)()X 329'
()(60() _
3 . 15
= 7976 X I 0
' mm
(iii) Calculate the curvature of the cracked section
From equation 6.7
200 x J0
8. 15 x 101 x-7-9-76_ x_l_Q6
3.08 x 10
f mm
(c) Calculate the 'average' of the cracked and uncracked curvoture
From equation 6.4:
1/ r W/r)<, +(I -{)( 1/ r )oc
{ = I - i(a"fa,)
= I - 3(Mcr/M)
144 Reinforced concrete design
(i) Calculate Mer
From lltble 6.11 the cracking of the concretc.fctm is given 2.6 Nlmm
from bending theory and considering the uncracked concrete section, the moment
that will just cause cracking of the section. Mc
, is given by
M, , X (bwhzl6)
= 2.6 X (300 X 7{)0) j 6) X 1()
(ii) Calculate {
= I - ,i(M.,jM)
= I 0.5 X ( 63.7 / 200)
= 0.95
(Iii) Calculate the 'average' curvature
1/ r = c( I lr)"' + (I -
0.95 X 3.08 X I()
-r ( I - 0.95) X 2.X6 ,.. 10 I>
3.07 ,.. 10
(d) Calculate shrinkage curvature
(i) For the cracked section
l f r<, = . ,,a.Sj fer
s .1)
2450(600 329)
664 10
and I rom table 6. 13. ,., ::::: 470 x 10
(becau:-e 211, lu 210. in pan (a)).
470 X 10-
'(200/ 8. 15)664 X 10
llr,., :: ---w,6 xlQO- --
= 0.96 x 10
/ mm
(i i) For the uncracked section
1 I rc, = I fuc
S A, (tf x)
= 2450(600- 70012)
=- 61 2. 5 x mm
470 X 10
(20018.15)612.5 X 1()
l I ,.,, :::: 300 X 7003 I 12
= 0.82 x 10-f> j mm
(iii) Calculate the 'average' shrinkage curvature
1/ r., l f r ),r- (1- {)( 1/ r)IK
Serviceability, durability and stability requirements 145
= 0 95 X 0.96 X 10
( I - 0.95) X 0.82 X 10
= 0.95 x 10
j mm
(e) Calculate deflection
Curvature due to loading = 3.07 x lO
j mm
Curvature due to !.hrinkage = 0.95 x / mm
Therefore tottll curvature = 4.02 x 10
/ mm
lor a 11imply supported subjected to a uniformly distributed load. the maximum
mid-!>pan deflection is given by
Deflection . 0. 104L
(1 / r)
0.1()4 X 95()0
X 4.02 X l Q (>
37.X mm
value almost exactly matt.:hcs the allowable value of \pan/250 (9500/ 250 =
3X mm) and would be acceptable noting the tnhercnt um:crtainty ol of
thc parameter' 111 the
___________________________________________ )
6.3.4 Basis of span-effective depth ratios
The cnlculatmn ol tkOcction ha' been shO\\ n to be a tediou<, operation. llowevcr. for
general ntb ba,cd on limiting the span-effecuve depth ruuo of n memhcr arc
adequate to cn1>urc that the deflections are not excessive. The application of th11. method
was described 10 \ection 6.2.
1 he rclauonshp between the deflection and the span effective depth ratio ol a
memher can be derived from equation 6.14: thus
dcflccliou r1 1-
<lnd for smull dcncctions it can be !\een from figure 6.8 that for unit leugth, s
1 "'em + " till
I'll d
cc,rn." maximum compressive !>train in the concrete
"'rm ten),ile \train in the reinforcement
1- a factor whtch depends on lhe pattern of loading.
effective depth
= -----
146 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 6.8
Curvature and strain
10kN UDL
I I I I II !
effective span L
Figure 6.9
Point load on a cantilever
The strains in the concrete and temile reinforcement depend on the areas o
reinforcement provided and their Thus l'or a particular member section and .,
pattern of loading. it possibl e to determine a span-ciTective depth ratio to satisf) ..
particular a/Lor deAecrion/span li mi tation.
The span- effective depth ratios obtained in section 6.2 are bnsecl on limiting Lhe tot
dellection to !.pan/250 for a uniformly di1-trihuted loading and are presented fc
dirft:rent stress depending on whether the concrete highly or lightly stressed
in turn depends on the percentage or reinforcement in the section. For span
of than 7m this shoulcl abo ensure that the of after application o
linishes are met but. for over 7 m when: avoidance of damage to finishes may be
important, the basic ratios of tnble 6.10 should he factored by 7 ; ... p<m.
For loading patterns that are not umformly di!'ltributcd a rcvbed ratio is given h
changmg the basic ratio in proportion to the relati\e of L a!. shm\ n 1r
example 6.3. Similarly, for limiung the deflectiOn to \panf.j
revised ratio = baste rauo )
Tn cal>cs where the bas1c rntio ha!'l been modified for greater than 7 m, maximu
deflections arc unlikely to exceed span/ 500 after of partitionl- and tini,h!:
When another deflection limit ill required, the ratio' given he multiplied t'l.
500/ a where a is the ma'\imum dellection.
Adjustment of basic span to effective depth ratio
Determine the appropriate basic ratio for a cantilever beam supporting a uniform load
and a concentrated point load at i ts tip !.hown in figure 6.9. A:-.sume that Lhe concrete
is C30/35 and is highly stressed.
Basic ratio from table 6.10 = 6.0 for u.d.l.
From table 6.14:
/.. for cantilever with u.d.l. over full length 0.25
/.. for cantilever with po1nt load at tip = 0.33
Thu!>, for Lhe point load only. adjul>ted ratio equal!>
6 0 0.25 - 4-
X 0.J3- . .:>
em. of
:rued for
.. esscd.
11ay be
\Cn by
1wn in
SeNiceability, durability and stability requirements 1
An adjusted ba!>iC ratio to account for both loado; can be obtained hy factoring lhe
moment due to the poim load by lhc ratiO of the J.. value:. as follow!>
Mudl = 10 X L/ 2 = 5/,
MP<,tnt = 20L
. d b . . B . . (Mu<ll- M"'""' X
JUSte alae rauo = astc rauo
.()(5 20 X 0.25/0.33)
s 1 ::m
= 4.8
it can be !teen that the effed of the point load dominates.
6.4 Flexural cracking
),UhJeCt to bending generally cxh1bit a of di::.trihuted fle.xural cracks.
even at wQrking The:-.c cracks ore unobtrusive und harmless unle!>s the width
hecomcl> excessive. in which appearance and durability suffer a' the reinfon:cment
" to corrO!>JOn.
I he actual widths of cracks in a reinforced concrete 'truclllre w11l vary between wide
limits and cannot he precisely e!-.ti mated. thu:- the limitutg rcqui remclll to be is
that the probability of the maximum width exceeding a !>atisfactory value i' <>mall. The
ma\lmum acceptable "alue 'ugge,ted b) EC2 1\ 0.3 mm for all classe'> under
thi.! action ol the comtuna11on of Other codes of pract1cc may
rccommend lower values ol crnck wi<.lths for important member:-. and for
cases. such a:-. water-retaining may he even more stringent.
Flexural cracking i-. generall)' controlled by providing a minimum area of ten.,ion
rcinlorccment hection 6.1.5) and limiting bar (\ection 6.1.3) or limiting bar
s1zes (section 6. 1.7). If culculmion::. lo estimate maximum crnck widths arc performed,
they are based on the qua.1i f!t' mlwzelu combination of and an effective modulus
of elasticity of the concrete \hould be u!>cd to aiiO\\ for creep effect,,
6.4. 1 Mechanism of flexural cracking
Thi-; can be illu\trated by COihidcring the hcha' 1our of a mi.!mher subject to a uniform
A length or beam shown in ligure 6.1 u Wi ll initially behave elastically throughout,
as the urplied moment M increased. When the limi ting tensile stra1n t'or the concrete
reached. a crnck \\ill form and the adjacem tensile ;one will no Iunger be acted on by
direct tens1on force!'.. The curvature of the beam. hO\\.C\'Cr, further direct
stres!-.cs to develop at some diswncc from the original eruck to maintain equi librium.
This in turn further cracks to form, and the process continue1> until the distance
between cracks does not permit sufficient strl.!sscs to develop and cauf.e further
cracking. The-.e tnt11al crach are called 'pnmary crack;. and lhe average spacing in a
region of constant moment is largely independent of reinforcement detai ling.
the appli ed moment is increased beyond this point. Lhc development of cracks is
governed to a large extenL hy the reinforcement. Ten-.ilc stresses in the concrete
148 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 6.10
Bending of a length of beam
surrounding reinforcing bar::. are caused hy homl the strain rn the rcinforceme These !:>tresscl. increase with distam:c from the primary cracks and m ...
eventually cause further cracks to form approximately mid-way between the primar
cracks. This action may continue with moment unti l the bond betwee
concrete and steel incapable of developing 1.uflicierH tension in the concrete to cau"t;
further cracking in the length between existing Since the development of
tensile stresses is caused directl y by the prc),ence of reinforcing bars. the spacing o
cracks wi ll he innuenced by the spacing of the rei nforcement.
If bar<; are sufficienlly close for their 'tones of inAuem:c' to overlap then
eracb wil l join up across the member, while otherwif..e they will form only adjacent!
individual According to EC2 (sec 'ection 6.4.2) the average crack spacing 111
Hexural member depends in part on the effictency of hond, the diameter of reinforcin:
bar used and the quantity and location of the reinforcement in relation to the tensto
face of the <,cction.
6.4.2 Estimation of crack widths
If the behaviour of the member m figure o.ll i-. exammed. 11 C<lll he 'ccn that the over ..
extension per unit length at a depth ' the neutral io; gtvcn b)
where e., is the avcmgc Mrnin in the main reinforcement over the length considered, a
may be to be equal to rrJ E, where rr, is the I ).\res' ttl the cracked
is the strain at l evel y which hy definition is the extension over the unit length ott.
member. Hence, assuming any tensi le of concrete hctween cracks is
!'ull bond is never devek1ped. the totnl width of al l craeb over this unit lenglh \\
equate tn the extension per unit length, that is
y 0',
Et = - - - = L._. W
(d - x) E,
where L 11' the sum of all widths at level ."
The actual width of indJVrdual crack!> Will depend on the number of cracks in this u
lcnglh, the average bemg given by unit length/a">erage 'pacrng (snn) Thus
average crack width w., = --- ---
av. number of

= ( I f.\nn)

of the
mg of
.... mdury
em ttl
1g in a
.. uons.
or the
h will
,., unit
Serviceability, durability and stability requirements 14
The designer is concerned however with the maximum crnt.:k width which ha1-. an
acceptably IO\\ probabilil) o1 betng exceeded. lor dc!>1gn the design maumum
crack width, ll'k, be on the max1mum sr.rn lienee the design crm:k
\\ idth at an) level defined hy ,. in a member will thu'> t>e given b)
The exprc,sJOn for the crack \\idth g1vcn in EC2 J' of tlu: above form ami tS
given a<;
H'k the dc.,.igu crack width
.lr ma\ the maximum crack 'pal'ing
the mean .llrain in thl! reinfiwnnu'lll allowing for the effects of ten-.ion
suiTcning of the concrete. etc.
thc mean -.train in the concrete between c.:rads
The mean ,
, will he less than the appun:nt value t
and (e\m E'.:m) given by
the expression
.fcLd l
/...,- (I + 1\dlp <II)
> 0.6""
, H,
where rr, i-. the stres' in the steel calculated the cracked concrete sectl()n .
u factor that accounts for the dura!IOll of loading (0.6 for loud. 0.4 for
long-term load).
The maximum crack spacing . 1
,.,. hy the empirical formula
where <f> is the bar 11 i1e in mm ur an average bnr '11e \\here a mixture of different \i7es
have been and c is the CO\Cr to thL' longllutlinal re111forccmen1. /q a coeffic1elll
accounting fm thc honcl pmpettics of the reinforcemelll (0.8 for high hontl. 1.6 for plain
bnr ... ) und f..:, i' a coefficient accouming for the nature ol the \tram "'htch for
cracking due to llcxure cnn he taken as 0.5. l'p.cfl is the cffet.:tivc reinforcement ratio.
-\, f A, efl \\here A, i'i the area of reinforc.:ement within an effccllw ten\ion area of
concrete Ac.en. as 11hown in figure 6.12.
The effective area io; that area of the concrete which \\ill crack
due to the ten)>ion developed in bending. 1' the crncking which will he controlled
hy the presence ol tm appropriate type. amount and distribution of reinforcement.
Generally the dfecthc tensiOn area should be taken a-, having a depth equal to 2.5 tunes
the distance from the face of the concrete to the centroid of the reinforcement.
Figure 6.11
Bending strains
150 Rei nforced concrete design
Figure 6.12
Typical examples of effective
concrete tension area
.... .

-- -,
: q.:
tension area
tension area


he, ttl
tension area
for thas lace
Member in tensaon
h, lesser of 2 5(h d), (h - x)/3 or h/2
although for the depth of this effective art:a should be limned to (h - \ )/3. A 1
ovcrnll upper dcplh Jimil of h/'2 applies.
Although not directl y incorporared into the above formulae. it should be noted th.u
crack wiuth11 may vary rhc width of the of a beam and urc generally
to he greater at po,iliom, mid-way hclwccn longitudinal rcinforciJJg and at the
corner-. nl the beam. Where the ma\lmum crack l>pacmg cxcccdf. 5(, +- then
up)'ler hound to cracl-. "1dth can he estimated b) usmg ma' 1.3(11 t).
6.4.3 Analysis of section to determine crack widths
To uM: till' formula of EC2 i t to carry out an clastic analysis of the cracl-.eo
conm.:tc u.,ing nn effectiw , ell given in equation (l.R to allow for
The method.., 10 \Cct1on 4.10.1 :-hould he used to find the neutral axi
po),iuon. \, ant! hence the u, and rT,,. in rhe ten ile reinforcement from
which "" (equation 6.16) can he obtained.
Calculation of flexural crack widths
Calculntc rhe design flexural crack width.., for the beam 'hown in figure 6.13 when
to u moment of 650 kN m. The concrete is da\s C25/30 and the
reinforcement i s high bond with a total cross-secrional aren of 3770 mm

(a) Calculate the mean strain f sm
Fmm t.1ble 6.11. Ecm 31 kN/mm
. hom table 6.12. loading at28 days \\ith
indoor exposure. the creep coefticicm o 2.63 (hecau\e '21\J u = 2 x II 000 x 4001/2800
= 285) and hence the effccri vc modulus is gi ven hy equation 6.8
Ec,ttl - 31 /( I + 2.63) 8.54 J...N/mm
td that
at the
\\ tor
Serviceability, durability and stability requirements 151
b= 400
- ...
_ y neutral axis
3 No 40mm bars
(i) Calculate the neutral axis depth of the cracked section
Taking moments about the neutral axis:
h x ,, x x/ 2 - acA,(d x)
400 X .r2 /2 -- - X 3770(93() X)
which I he solution .\ 457 111111.
(ii) Calculate the stress in the tension steel, I'Ts
Taking ahout the leH!I of the force in the toncrctc:
M /(d \ jJ)A,
650 ><
(930 457/3 )J770
- 222
(iii) Calculate (
m- E'cm)
1 .f..t.rlt ( )
()', - " -- I + OcPp.cll
Pr.dl 17,

= 0.4 assuming long-term loading
(from table 6. 11) = 2.6
t., 200
n,. 6.45
F.un 31
A, 3770
== -..,.....-,:-::-:---:
<II 2.5( 1000 - 930)400
222 - 0.4 x -
( I t 6.45 '>< 0.0539) .,.,.,
- _ ___,0=.0=-= > 0 6 ...:.:.:._
:!00 X 10
. 200 X 10
.,.,., - Jl' 97
-w- _ 'J_ , - > 0.{)()067
200 X JOl -
CJ.OOl > 0.00067
Figure 6.13
Crack width calculation
152 Reinforced concrete design
(iv) Calculate the maximum crack spacing (s, max)
c = cover = 1000 - 930 40
2 = 50 mm to main bar-.
0.8 for ribbed bar;
k1 0.5 for flexure
o - bar diameter = 40 mm
- 3 4 X 50 0.425 X O.R X 0.5 X 40
.I, ln.l.l< - + 0.0539
296mm (which is than S(r I r&/2) 350mm)
(v) Calculate crack width
1\'k ().()Ql X 296
=0.30 mm
which ju..,t satisfies the recommended limit.
l _______________________________________
6.4.4 Control of crack widths
II I'- from the expre:-.,ion'> derived ahove that there arc four fundamental \\'8)
111 \\ h1ch .,urfacc crack '' idth' may he reduced:
(I) reduce the .. in the retnlorcement (a ) "h1ch w1ll hence reduce "":
tiil rc.!duce the har dtamctcr' (ol \\h1eh \\Ill reduce b:u -;pacmg and ha\c the effect d
reducing the crud .. spacing (1,
(iii l tncrease the effective rcint'orccment rnrio (Pp.rtt );
(iv) U\C high bond rather thtm plain
The u:-,c of steel at reduced i:. generally uneconomicul and, ulthough ll
approach is used in the design of watcr-rctllining where crading mu\t
he avoided altogether, it is generally easier to limit the bar diumcter11, incrcal!c f!p,dl
high bond bars in prclcrcncc to plnin bnn .
To increase Pr .r1 the effective area should he made small .:.
possible. Thil' hest achieved by placing rhc reinforcement close to the tension
&uch that the depth of tension area {2 . .5(11 d)} mudc as as possib-
recogni .... ing, nevertheless, that duruhility requirements limit the minimum value c.
The calculation of the design crack indicated above only to region
'' ithin the effective tension zone. Since cracking can also occur in the side face of
beam it j., also good practice to con!>idcr the provbion ot longitudinal !>tee! in the siti ..
faces of hcam\. The critical po<.ition for the \ddth of crack\ is likely to tx
approximately mid-way bet\\ecn the main ten!\ion steel and neutral axk Recommend ..
tions regarding rhis and requirements for the matn remtorcement arc discus'>ed t
'ection 6.1. u these recommendation" are foliO\\ ed. 11 ts not nece'>'>ary to calculate cract
width" except ll1 unu,ual circunmances. RelllfOrc.!ement detailing. however. has beer
\hO\\ n to have a large effect on flexural crack1ng. and mu-.t 1n practice be a compromt'e
hct\\ccn the requiremenL\ of, durab1ltty and con.,tructional case and costs.
Serviceability, durability and stability requirements 153
6.5 Thermal and shrinkage cracking
Thermal and !>hnnkage effects. and the developed pnor to of the
concrete. were dtscuc;sed m chapter I. The rules for providing minimum areas of
remforccment and ltmiung bar l.i.tes to conLrol thermal and c;hrinJ...age were
in sections 6.1.5. 6.1.7 and 6.1.8. In this section. further con-.idcration "ill be
given to the control of such and the calculations that can be performed. tl
to cakulate design cracJ... \vidth!..
Consider the com:rctc section of figure 6.14 which i1> in a state ot stress owing w
thermal contraction and concrete shrinkage and the effects of external restrnmt. After
cracking, the equilibrium of concrete adjacent to a cracJ... is lll> illustrateJ.
l::.quaung tcthion and comprc-.sion forces.
t\ ,/:t - A,J-..,
If the condllton J), con-.idcrcd when steel and concrete \tmultancou,Jy reach the1r
limiung values in tension. that "' /..
and = f(t.etr = the ten\llc strength ol
concrete at the time \\hen i' expected to develop (usuall) taken a-. thn.!e days).
ll,tf .. ..t( - A..J-..:
The value of can be calculated hut is generally very lomall and may he taJ...en a-.
7ero without llllroducing undue inaccuracy. Hence the criucal value of steel area i'
If the ureu isles!) than this amount then the steel will yield intension. resulting in a
few wide cracks: however, if' it is greater, then more crach will be lormcd hut of
narrower width. In EC2 thi s l'ormulu is modi lieu hy the inclusion ol a f..lrcss tlislrihution
coefficient (kc) wJ..:en 1.0 !'or pure tcn!'ion and a furt.hcr coefficient (/..) thnl accounts
for non-linear stress distribution wi thin the section. For thermal and shrinkage k
can range from 1.0 for where II 300 mm or with width 300 mm tc> 0.65
for webs with II > ROO mm or flanges XOO mm interpolating accordingly. lienee the
recommended minimum steel area required to control thermal and shrinJ..:agc cracking i\
given by
A, mon = /..).A,/.;L
- kAJ,,
6.5.1 Crack width calculation
The expression for the design cruel.. wtdth gtven m EC2. and di1>cusscd in 'ection 6.4.2
for the Calle of ncxural crackmg, can be used for the calculation of thermal and
Figure 6.14
ForcE's to a crack
154 Reinforced concrete design
Table 6.15 Restraint factor values
Pour configuration
Thin wall cast onto massive concrete base
Massive pour cast onto blinding
Massive pour cast onto existing concrete
Suspended slabs
lnfill bays, i.e rigid restraint
0.6 to 0.8 at base
0.1 to 0.2 at top
0.1 to 0.2
0.3 to 0.4 at base
0.1 to 0.2 at top
0.2 to 0.4
0.8 to 1.0
;;hrin!..age cracking with some minor modilicationl-. The cruck widlh given in
equation 6.1 S by
ll'k f rm)
where wk is design crack width .. 1, .""" is the maximum crack spacing and is the
mean 1-lrain in the
For steel areal. greater than the minimum value as given by equation 6.18.
and when the totnl contraction the ultimate for the concrete. the
shrint..age and thermal movement will be accommodated by cuntrollcd cracking uf the
concrete. Any tensile strain in the concrete between em as and Lhe effect
may be approximated for buildang \tructure.., by the e>..pression
(- .n
- - cml = 0.8R"
mp \\here
mp " the ot the free shrinkage and thermal
That is
where " i' the "hrinkagc I i-. the rull in ll:mpcruturc rrom the hydration peak and
oa il. the coefficient of thermal of concrete often taken as half the value
for mature concrete to allO\\ for creep
The rcl.traint factor. R. w altO\\ for differences in restraint according to pour
conliguration. and typical value' are given in table 6.1 5.
In prnctice. in conditions large variations within members.
and hetween :-.imilnr mcmhcr1., with full' seldom occurri ng as
indicmed in wble 6 . .I 5. Cracking behaviour thus considerably on the degree and
noture of the restraint and temperatures at the time of casting. CIRI A Guide C660
(ref. 25) offers further guidance on early-age crack control.
The maximum cruck 1
mu' is given hy equation 6. 17 wit h fuctor k
a:-. 1.0. Hence !'or rihheJ han .. :
of crack width:!> there tore be considered as realistic 'estimates' only
and engineering judgement may need to be applied in interpreting such results.
Calculation of shrinkage and thermal crack widths
A :-.cction of reinforced concrete wall i'> I SO mm Lhick and i:. cast onto a massive
concrete base. A drying :.hrinkage Mrain of 50 ( c .. l j<, anticipated together
with a temperature drop (T) of 20 C after setting. Determine Lhe minimum
Serviceability, durability and stability requirements 1 55
emforccmcnt ro control cracking in the lower prut of the wall and calculate the design
width and maximum spacing for a suitable reinforcement arrangement. The
ollowing parameters should be used:
Three-day tensile strength of concn.!te (/.: ctt ) = J .5 N/mm
Effective modulus of elaf.ticity of concrete (Ecerd 10 k
Coefficient of thennal expansion for mature concrete (liT,) = 12 microstram/ C
Cbaractcrbtic yield strength of reinforcement (j}l) - 500 N/mm
Modulus of of reinforcement = 200
Mini mum steel area to be provided. from equation 6.18:
\,.mm- I.OA,Jc,
.N,uming n value of 1.0 for factor k in equation 6.18
If hori7ontal steel is to he placed in two layers the area of concrete within the tensile
lOne, A.:t can be taken as the full wall thickness multiplied by a one metre height. Hence
A s,nun 1.0(150 X 1000) X 1.5/ 500
Thi1> could be convenient I> pro' ided a., I 0 mm at 300 mm centres m each face of
the membet (524 mm
/m). For thb reinforcement and :1ssuming 35 mm cover, the crack
spacing is given by equation 6.20 :ll>
Sr. mu' JA< + 0.425 X 0.8 X l.O<i!/ /)p oi l
fir = = 524/( 150 x HXlO} = 0.0035
, , 3.4 x 35 -1 0.425 x O.H x 1.0 x I 0/0.0035 I 090 mm
The imposed Mra1n in the section gtven by equuuon 6.19:
mp=(. Tnr. )
=(50 20{12/2}} X ]() h
170 micro!>! rain
The ultimate tensile J'or the com:rclt'
= 1.5! ( J(X)()())
150 n
Therefore the section can be considered as cracked. The design crack width is given
= Sr nr.1x X O.XRc,mp
Thus tiling U CUI (table 6.15)
= 1090 X 0.8 X 0.8 X 170 ( J0 h
= 0.12 mm
156 Reinforced concrete design
6.6 Other serviceability requirements
The 1 wo principal other seniceability considerations are those of durability and
to fire. although occasionally a situauon an es ut \\hich some other factor
may he of importance to ensure the proper performance of a stnlctural member in
'en icc. This ma) include fatigue due to moHng loads or machinery. or specific thermal
ru1d sound properues. The method\ of dealing with c.uch requirements rna}
range from the use of reduced working \tresses in the material .... to the u\e of special
concretes. for example light\\eJght aggregates for good thermal
6.6.1 Durability
Deterioration will generally he associated with water permeating the concrete, and the
opportunttie!> for this to occur shoult.l he minimiset.l us far a:- possihle hy providing gotld
nrchitectural dewils with adequate drainage and prmcction to the com:rctc surface.
Permeahility is the principal churactcriqi<.: or the com:n:te whi<.:h affects t.lurahility.
although in some it is to <.:Oils tdl'l und chemical effects
which may cause the concrete lo dccuy.
rOI rdnforcet.l <.:Oncretc. U further imp()rttllll uspe<.:t of durability the degree of
pmtcction which is given to the reinforcement. Cnrhonation by the rnmosphere will. in
de,troy the alkalinity of the zone concrete, antl il thh reaches the Je,el of
the reinforcement will render the '-tee! vulnerahle to 111 the of
and oxygen.
II a concrete 15 made w11h a ... ound mert aggregate. dctennratmn \\' Ill not occur 10 the
absence of an external mfluen<.:e. Smce concrete '' a h1ghly all-.alinc matenal. it'
rc,Jstance to other alkah.., 1s good. hut Ill' hm\e\er \Cr) ,u..,ceptihlc to auad hy acid' or
\Uhstnnces \\h1ch en,ily decompose w produce uc1d .... Concrete made \\ith Portland
cemclll I'> thus not <.uttahle for U\C in \\here 11 into contuct with
material:-. \\ htch include hcer. mill. tmc.J futs. Some neutral \a Its may also attack
the t\\o rno't notahk hc.:ing calciUm chlondc.: unt.l !>oluhlc \Uifulc.:!>. These react
\\ lh a mtnor wn,tituent of the hydration prmlucts in different \\aY' The chloride
he Ill t'lliH:Cntratcd \Oillllllll. \\ hl.!n 11 hll\ <I Solvent dfcct Oil the concrete in audition 10 itS
more \\ idcly n:t:ognised aeuon in promoung the corrn,ion of the reinforcement, while
'ullall'' need only be pre,em 1n much 'maller quantities to internal expansion of
thl' t:ota:n.:tc \\ ith consequent cracking and streugth lu\1-o. Sulfates present the most
met chemicnl-n1tack problem for concrete si nce they may occur in
gmundwatcr and sewage. In such conwini ng reduced proportions of
the vu lnerable tncalciurn aluminate, Sulfate Portland Cement. should
be used. The addition of Pulverised luel Ash (Pf") or ground granulated furnace
'lag <ggbfs) may also be henelkial. Both chlorides and sulfates arc present in sea water,
and because of the chemical actHm' arc different, 111 reduced sulfate
damage. although if the concrete is of poor quality. damage may occur from
rcactiOJh ot 'oluhle magnesium saltll with the hydrated cumpounc.Js. Well-constructed
Portland cement ha\e ncvcrthelc1-oll been found to endure for many year!> in
'ea water.
The mallcr of exposure da:o.\itication' related to erwironmental condillon!. is dealt
\\ ith Ill detail in E:-\ 206 and BS 8500 together \\' llh the of appropnate concrete
matenuk BS 8500 includes the use ol n \)'stem of of a wide range of
chemtcully\e em1ronments based on recommendauons of the UK Building
Research E:-.tabli!>hment (BRE Spec1al Digest I). In some linble Ill aggressive
Serviceability, durability and stability requirements 157
chemical attack Adtlitional Protective Measures (APMs) such controlled penneahility
formwork. smface protection. sacnficial layers or site drainage may he recommended.
of the concrete must also be coni>itlered. This may come from nbra,ion
or anriuon as mny be caused h> sand or shingle. anti by alremate \\cUing and df}ing. The
Iauer effect I'> panJcularl) important in the ca.-.c of marine structure). nenr the \\ater
surface, and cause to develop if the movements producetl arc re),traincd. It
also JX>ssihle for crystal gro\\ lh to occur from drying out of sea water in cracks and pores.
and this may cause further mtcmal stresses. leading 10 cracking. Alternate free7mg anti
thawing is another maJOr of physical damage. particularly 111 road anti runwa) slabs
and other \\here water in pores and cracks can frccLc und expand, thus lead111g
to spalling. It been found that the cntrainmem of n .small percentage of air 111 the
concrete 111 the form of small dllicrete bubble'> offer::. the mo<.t effective protection againl>t
form or attack. Although tlus reduces the strength or the com:rcte. it is recommended
that between 4.0 and 6.0 per cent by volume of entrained air llhould be included in
concrete subj ected to rcgulur welting and drying combined with lrost.
All the:>e of attack may be minimised hy the production of a dense, well -
compacled and well cured concrete with low pcnncahility. thus rc1-.tricting damage to
the surfucc 1011e of the rncmhcr. Aggregates which are likely to react with the
matrix be avoidetl (or the alkah levels of the cement carefully limited). a:- must
which exhibit unu:-.ually high -.Jmnknge If thi\ i:-. done, then
pcrmcahili ty, and hence durability. affected by
1. aggregate type and dcn,lly;
2. water cement ratto:
3. degree of hytlr<llmn of cement:
4. degree of
A low water cement rutm necessnry to limn the vouh due to hydration. which
be well advnnced \\lth the ussl\tance of good curing techniques. E:\ 206
minimum periods taking account of expnsure cl:Js\tficmion. \trength
development rate. concrete temperature nnd ambient conditionl> Coupled with this I' the
need fnr aggregates \\ hich arc hard enough to re,ist any allntion, and lor
thorough compucti on. It is that the mix i' designed to have adequate
workability J'or the situnli on in which it is to be used. thUll the cement content of the mix
must be reasonably hi gh.
EN 206 1>pecifics minimum cement content:- for vnriou:- contlitions
according to cement ns well as minimum strength and maximum wmer
ratio which can ulso be related to minimum cover in
6. 1.1.
The of thermal effects on duruhility must not be ove1l ookcd, and very
high cement only be used in conjunction with u detai led cmcking
A cement content of 550kg/m
i!. oJ'tcn regarded an upper ]unit fnr
Provided thnt ure taken. and that adequutc cover ol \Ound concrete
gtven to the remforcement, deterioration of reinforced concrete unlikel> Thus
alt hough the concrete mu} be affected. the rcinfor'-111!! \ICC] \\Ill remain
protected by nn alkaline concrete matrix which not hcen cnrbonated h) the
atmosphere. Once tht!> CO\ er hrcaks dlm n and '' ater and po!>sihl) chem1cab can reach
the Mecl, ru-;ting and con\cquent cxpan,ion lead rapid!) to cracking nnd of the
cover concrete and /.evert: dnmage - \ and sometimes :-.tructurally.
158 Reinforced concrete design
6.6.2 Fire resistance
Depending on the type of structure under cono,idcration. it may be to constde""
the lire reststance of the individual concrete members. Three conditions must -
1. effects on structural strength
2. name penetration re:>Jstance
3. hc<ll transmi,sion properties
in the of dindmg memhcrll \UCh as \\'all
am! slabs
Concrete and steel in the form of reinforcement or prestressing exhib
reduced wcngth after being subjected to high tcmpcruturc .... Although concrete has k
thermal conductivity. and thu1. good resistance to temperature rise. the strength
drop significamly at temperatures above 300 C and it haf> n tendency to spall at hi:
temperatures. The extent of this spalling is governed hy the type of aggregate. \\1
si liceous materials being particularly susceptible while cnlcurcous and lightwetg
aggregate concrete& suffer very little. Reinforcement will retain about 50 per cent of
normal strength after reaching uhout 550 C. while for prestressing tl-!
corresponding temperature is only 400 C.
I hu:- as the tcmpcralllre rise' the heat i\ tranF-ferred to the interior of a concrt :
member. w11h a thermal gradient cstahlished in the concrete. gradient will
affected by the area and of the member 111 addition to the thermal properties of the
concrete. and may lend to e\pan,ion and los' of strength. Dependent on the thid.n
and nature of cmer. the ''ill 111 temperature and <;trength, thus leadin.,
dellecuom. and eventual \tructllral failure of the mcmher II the \tccl temper:
becomes e\cc,.,i,e. mu\t therefore he aimed at prm tdtng and
cover of concrete as a protcction. thu., delayrng the tempcratllre nse m the o.;teel. 'The
presence of plaster. and other norH.:omhll'.tihlc a\,i<.ts the cover
protecting the retnforcement and may thtl' he allowed for 111 the design.
tabulated values ot mi111mum dimen.,ion\ and cover' for variouf> types
concrete member which arc neces ... ary to permit the member LO withstand fire for
<;pecified period of time. These values. which have been in tables 6..+. 65
and 6.6 for siliceous aggregates may be considered ndequute for normal purpo'c'
More detailed information concerning design for fire rcsi,tum:e i:o. given tn Part 1.2 l
Eurococle 2 including concrete type, member type nnd detai l:. ol finishes. The periw
that n member i)o required to both in respect of 1.1n.:ngth in relnt ion to worldn.,
londs and the containment of lire, will depend upon the Lypc and usage of the strucwre
and minimum requirements arc generally ),pccilied by building
concrete beams must be in view of the incrcu,cd vulnerability or
the steel.
6.7 Limitation of damage caused by accidental loads
While n would he unreasonable to expect u '>tntclllre to '' nh,tand cxtrcmcl. ot accidental
loading as may be caused by colli'>ion, c\plo.,ion or stmtlar, n i' important that resulting
dumagc 'hould not be to the cau-.e. It follm'' therefore that a major
<;truclllral collapse not be allowed to be cau .. cd h> a rclathely minor mi,hap which
ma) ha\'e a high probabihry of huppcnmg in the anticipated lifetime of the

Serviceability, durability and stabili ty requirements 159
The of a structure buckling or overturning under the 'design loads will
have been as part of the ultimate limit analysis. However. in
instances a will not have an adequate lateral -;trength e\en though 11 hal> hcen
designed to the speci fied combinations of wind load and vertical load. Thi' could
be t11e case if there IS an or a slight earth tremor. since then the lateral load\
are proportional to the of the '\tructure. Therefore it is recommended that at any
floor level. a should alwayl> he capable of rcsio;ting a minimum lateral force al>
detailed 111 section :\.4.2.
Damage and pOl>sihle in,tability should also he guarded again-.L \\hercvcr possible.
for example vulnerable load-bearing '\hould be prmected from collision by
protective features iluch as hanJ..s or barrier),.
6.7.1 Ties
l.n additi on to the&c precautions, the general stabi lity and robustness or a bu il ding
structure can be increased by providing reinforcement acti ng ti cs. These ttes
act both verticall y hetween roor and foundations. ami horizontally around anti m:rw.s
each noor (figure 6.15). and all external vertical load-bearing mcmhl!rs should he
anchored to the nnd If a building divided hy expansion into
independent sections. then each section should have an independent tying

Internal ties
Vertical ties
Vertical ties
Column ties
Vertical tics are not generally in of lc),s than f1vc hut in
higher should be provided by reinforcement, effect1vely from roof
10 foundation by means of proper laps. running through all vcnical load-hcruing
'I \ tee! he capahle of resisting a tcnsih: force equal to the maximum
ultimate load carried hy the column or \\all from any one or the roof.
Although the accidental load ca.\c io, an ultimate limit the ultimate load
hould reflect the loads hkely to he acting at the umc and the qut1.1i-pemwnen1 value
would normally he taken. The mm to contribute lO n bridging sy:-.tem in the event of
loss of the member at a lower Jc,cl. In in silu concrete. requtrement almost
invarinbly satisfied hy a normal design, but joint detailing may he affected in preca<;t
Figure 6.15
T1e forces
160 Reinforced concrete design
Horizontal ties
HoriLontal ties '>hould be provided for all bulldmgs, irrespective of heighL in three
1. peripheral Lies:
2. internal ties:
3. column and wall Lies.
The of thc:,e ties when strcs!>ed to their charm:tcril>LiC strength is given m
terms of a force F,. where F
60 I. X or (:!0 + 4 x numhcr of in structure) k.\1.
\\ hichever is less. Thil> expression tal.cs into account the increased risk of an accident in
a large building and the seriousncs:-. of the collarsc of u tall structure.
(a) Peripheral ties
The rcripheral rie must be provided. hy reinforcement which is effectively continuous.
around Lhe perimeter of the building at each lloor and roof level. This reinforcement
lie within 1. 2 m of the outer edge and at characterist ic strc!>s be capahle of
resisting a force of at least /

(b) Internal ties
lntcmal tie ... should abo provided at each noor in two perpendicular directions anu
he anchored at each end. c1thcr to the peripheral tic or to the column or
\\all tiCS
ues be effect!\ cl} contmuous and they may either be ')pread even I)
acros'> a floor. or grouped at or a-. cun,en1ent. Where walls are used. the tie
reinforcement must be withm 0.5 m of the lop or hottom of the floor -,lab.
The resiilance required h. related to the :-.pan and loading. lntemal uc:-. be
capable of a force ol F
kN per metre w1dth or lltCIIl + lJk )/7.5 1r/5l.N per
metre width. if this 1' greater. Ln th1s expression. lr greatest homontal 111
the d1rcction ot the tic between the centre!'> of vertkal load-bearing . Tht..
load1ng (Rl - q!..) I.N/m! is the characteristic load on unit of the floor
If the tie:-. are grouped their maximum spacing should he limited to 1.5/r.
(c) Column and wall ties
Column and wnll tics must be ahle l l) resh.t n Coree of ut lenst per of the total
verlil:al ultimate load at that level for which the member has been designeu
Additionally, the resistance provided must not he li.:sl. than the small er of 2F1 or
IJ2.5 kN where/, is the floor to ceiling he1ght in metre:.. ure nssesscd on tht
basi' ()['the ahovc forces acting per metre length of the wall. while column tics are
within lm of of the column cemrc lim.:. Part1cular care
be taken with comer column' to cnr,ure they urc tied 111 two perpendicular directions
In the structure subjected w accidental loading it i., assumed that no othe
force:-. are acting. Thu reinforcement pro\'ided lor an} other purpmes may also act a
tics. Indeed, peripheral and intcmalt1es mu} abo be to be acting a:-. columr
or ""all tie'>.
A<, with Ycrtical tiC'>, the provision of horiLontal for ;, \itu construction wi I
-,cldom affect the amount of reinforcement promled. Detailing of the reinforcemcn
may hm,cvcr be affected. and particular auenuon be paid to the manner in whic ..
internal tics are anchored to penphcral tics. Typical detail"> for the anchorage of intern ...
en 111

l'lt in
Serviceability, durability and stability requirements 16
Full anchorage length

..... -


(a) (b) (c)
are in figure 6.16. If tull anchorage i-. not posc;iblc then the
strel\se1. tn the ties muM he reduce<.! appropriately.
concrete construction. however. " more problem the
requirements of tie forces anti easil> com.tructed joum are not always
compatible. Unle!.!. the ue can be provided WJLh the bar!> anchored by
hook!\ and in the case of column and wall an analysis of the structure must be
performed to the remaining stabilit) after a 'f>'!Ctfied degree of structural damage.
( EXAMPLE 6 .6
Stability ti es
Calculate the \lability tiel> required in an eight-storey buildtng of area 'ho\\11 in
figure 6.17:
Clear storey height under lk:ams = :! 9 m
rloor to ceiling height ({,) 3.4 m
Characteristic permanent load = 6 kX/m'
Characteristic variable lo<Jd (qk) \
Chanl<.:tcn-;tie steel strength 500 N/mrn'
(20 + 4 X number Of
= 20 I 4 8 - 52kN 60k'i
(a) Peripheral ties
Force to he r..:,i-.tcd - F, 52 kN
52 X J()
lhr area required I 04 mm'
Thb. could be provided by one H 12 bar.
Precast floor slab
\ t
b,.m, i-----1----------11---....
14 bays 6 Sm - 26m
Figure 6.16
Typical anchorage details fo1
Figure 617
Structure ldyout
162 Reinforced concrete design
(b) Internal ties
. . FrCI?l -1 qk) I,
lorce to be = " -::- k p.:r metre
7.5 )
(1) Transverse direction
5"'(6 ..L 3) 7
Force = ---- x - = 87.4 J...N/m > F
7.5 5
Force per bay= 87.4 x 6.5
= 568.1 kN
Therefore. bnr area required in each mmwcrse interior beam i..,
113" 2
500 . \)mm
This could be provided hy 4 ll20 burs.
(2) Longitudinal direclion
. 5::!(6- 6.5
force = - _ - --:-- X 1.1 J...N/m 1'
7.::. )
rheo:forl' force alnng kngth ol huikhng XI. I x 7 567 7kN. hence bar area
required in each lnnglluc.hnal heam .,
567 7 IO' _
--=::. 7mm
2 500
rtm could he prm 1dcd h) 2 H20 har, ,
(3) Column ties
lmcc 10 he designed for i!'.

= < 2F,
or 3 per cent of ultimate lloor loud on a column
8 ( 1.35 x 6 + 1.5 x 3) x 6.5 x - 69 kN al ground lcvd
10() 2
To allow for 3 per cent of' column self-weight. taJ...c design forc.:c tt> be 72 kN. say, at
ground level.
72 I( 10'
Area of ties rcquire
. u 500
Thi' would be provided by I IT20 bar and incorporall:d with the internal tics. At higher
floor lcwb a design force ol 70.7 kN \\oultl hi! giving a similar practical
remforccmcnt requirement.
(c) Vertical ties
quasi-pemumenr loading \\ith 111 , 0.6. Thull the ultimate dcllign load
= 1.0 > 6 1
Serviceability, durability and stability requirements 163
... ,unum column load from one storey approximately equal to
7.S X 3.5 X 6.5 177.5 kN
nerefore bar arc<t required throughout each column is equal to
177.5 x 10
=. mnr
' would be provided by 4 Ill 2
6.7.2 Analysis of 'damaged' structure
I must be undertaken when a -.tructure ha\ five or more storeys and doe!> not comply
1\ nh the vertical-tie or when every precast lioor or roof unit docs not have
,ufficient anchorage to a force equal to F
kN per metre width acting in the
direction of the 1-pan. The an:1ly:-.i1> that each key load-bearing
and the horizontal mcmher:-. '' hich provide lateral support. arc able to
1\ ithstand a sped lied loading from any direction. If this cannot he satt:,.hed. then the
maly:,.is must demonstrate that the rcmm al of an} single \ en1cal load-hearing element.
Hhcr than key membcrs, at each store) 111 turn \dll not 111 collapse of a !.igniticant
part of the 1>1ructun.:.
Thc minimum loading that m;,y mt from any direction tlll a key member is
recommended us 34 J..N/m
. The decision as to what load:. should he considered acttng is
left to the engineer, but will generally he on the basis of permanent and variable
O<ld estimate\, depending on the building usage. Thh method attempting. therefore,
to a quantitall\ ely the effect\ of exceptional load111g \uch e\plosion. I he de,ign
pressure' must tlms be regarded "'a l>Omewhat arbnral) value.
The 'pressure' method wi ll generally be suitable for npplicatinn to column:- in
tmmed however, where precast load-bearing panel is being used
an approach incorporating the removnl of individual element.-. muy be more uppropriatc.
ln this case. \ c111Cal loading/> -;hould be U'>:;e-..,cd a' described. and the
mve:-.tigated to dcterr111ne '' hcther it i-. able to remain b) a d1fferent ,true tum I
Jet ion. Tills actton may 1nclutle parts of the damaged :.tructurc bchtl\ 111g a ... a canttlcver
or a catenary. and it ma> also be to the strength of non-load heanng
pur1itions or cluoding.
Whichever upprouch is adopted, such analyses arc tedious. and the of
tie forces within the structure be regurded as the preferred solution hmh
from the poun of view of design and performance.
Continuity reinforcement and good detailing '' 111 greatly enhance the overall ltre
resistance of a \tructure with respect to collapse. A tire-damaged with reduced
member may even be ltkened to u subjected to accidental overloud,
<111d analysed nccordingly.
6.8 Design and detailing for seismic forces
Earthquakes are cau:-.ed hy movement of the earth's along faults or slip planes.
TI1ese movements re!>ult in horizontal und vertical with vibrations of varying
lrequcncy, amplitude nnd duration to act on within the earthquake zone.
164 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 6.18
TectoniC plaitS
The earth cmst not one contmuous outer layer but cons1sts of seven major p
number of minor tectonic plates as shown in figure 6. I 8. These bear ag<limt"
other contlllually moving and grinding at their adjacent edges. Occasionally a
slippage tnkcs place with o Jnrge release of energy. causing an e:u1hquake
horiLOntal and vibr.Hions. These c:Ul de,truction and damage to strut
and with large losse' of life. of thc),e earthqual-..cs occur ne ..
boundaries of the tectonic but powerful earthquake' occur 1n
interior or u plate.
When the earthqual-..c occur:-. on the ocean floor. large called tsunamJ'
generated \\h1ch :-.pread out rathall) !rom the epicentre at a large speed of
ROO km per hour. The proportional to the depth of water so as the w:l\ e
approach the coa,tline the\ sl<m dov.n and there '' a large build-up of \Hiler "u
wavts hitting the coast and causing extensive major dcslfUction.
dbturhancec, are mea,ured according to their intensity on the Richtt.
lognrithmic up to in magrutudt: are generally con!>idcred to
motfl'rate but higher oJ' 0\er 0 are \eVCI'e. as high as 9.5 have

In many parts or the world, such, Japan and California. where earthqual-..t.
can be se\erc. 10 force' form' a cnllcal part of the structuml
In other area:-. of the world. such the British Isles. earthquakes arc less common
not nearl) so -,e\ere so that the for \\ind loadtng. or the requirements for thl!'
'truclltrc to be able to resist a minimum hnri.wnwl force, plu' the prm ision of
continuity \tcclthroughout the structure according to the requirements in section 6.7 are
generally adequate. (l;evcnhele'' \\ tth Important -,uch rmtJOr darm Jt
nuclear pO\\Cr stations where l':ulure or damage can hove cnta!-.lrnphic cl'fects. the
to set'illllC nm\1 .tbo he consrdcred. C\Cil in the Bntbh J,b
The nmurc of the vibrations and the lorces induced by an cnrthtiLtnke arc complt.
phenomena, as ,., the dyn.tmlc rcspon'e of a highl) 111detcm1inate concrete
This has ltd to the development of computer programs to carry out the analysi,,
\Otllctimes rdem.:d to a multi-modal rc,ponse 'pectrum A .,jrnplcr approacl'l
the equrvalcnt analysis tn which 1he ),henr at the fool of the
Serviceability, durabilily and stability requirements 165
calculated and distributed as hori1ontal forces at each floor level according to certain
defined criteri:t. Thil> approach is allowed in many national codes of practtce for the
design of approximately regular and symmetrical structures. 1-:.urocode 8 provides
guidance relev:tm to countries within the European Cnion.
The full numerical dc'>ign requirements of the coder. of practtce are beyond the <;cope
of tht<; book but it is hoped that highlighting some of the import:tnt principles and
requirement<; tor the overall design and detailing may be of help in the design of
6.8.1 Construction and general layout
Jt is particularly important that good quality material<;, including high ductility
reinforcing )tccl, arc used together with rigorous and control procedures. Design
should ensure thut sudden bnrtle shear or comprcs1;ivc fai lure b nvoit.lcu with emphasis
on energy dissipmion. Good construction practices, inc.:luding steel lixing. c.:ompaction,
curing and inspection arc also essential if n Stntcturc is to perform under
seismic loading.
Foundntions should be designed to provide a regular lavout in plan and elevmion und
to he aprroximntely symmetrical about both orthogonal axes in plan with no and
major change in layout or con:.trul:tion. It is important that there i' adequate bending
and rcsi,t:tncc about both axes of the Some illu,trattve examples or
good and poor prnc!lce are shown in 6.19 and 6.20.
Sway effects under horizontal motions should be minimi'>cd hy ensuring
approximately equal loading at each floor le\el with no hea\y lond' in the higher
Effort' 'hould he made to pro' ide a highly indetermmate !.tructure that '' well
Good plan layout
Poor piJ n layout
Good elevat1on des1gn
Poor elevat1on des1gn
Figure 6.19
Examples of good and poor
Figure 6.20
Examples of good and poor
166 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 6.21
One-storey building
Figure 6.22
Examples of good and poor
foundation design
tied together with continully reinforcement so that the loading can be ano
alternative :.tructurul actions may develop if The m
lleCLion 6.7 are relevant to thi s.
Slah!. can provide rigid to transfer loads at the roof" and cm:h fl oor
Figure 6.21 :;hows hO\\. in a one-storey building, a rigid hori7ontal slab or hrucing
roof le' el enables the -.tructurc to act us a closed box gi' ing more rigidit) and streogt
to resist cracklll g.
6.8.2 Foundations
In addition to a regular and layout in plan discuiosed above. it
preferable Lhtll only one type or l'ound:llion is u!>ed throughom n :.tructure and thutn
on a level ground base and tied together with strong ground beam11 to lin
relati\e mu\'ement. Tim. illw,trated in ligure 6.22.
arc a common feature of earthquakes and they cause much 11tructu
damage and loss ol lile. f'ht.:rcfore nm be built on steep 111
ncar or cl ifl\ II al:-.o be recognised thm vibrations during
ca11hquake can cau).e liqucf.tction of as sandy or silty cau-.
of bearing !>trcngth. excessive seulcment and failure.
Serviceability, durability and stability requirements 167
6.8.3 Shear walls
Shear wal11> provtde a strong reSiStance to the lateral from an earthquake and they
should continue down to. and be anchored into. foundations. They should never be
on beams. 'lah" or columns
If coupling beam-, are required these should be reinforced '"ith diagonal of Mccl
bar& and diagonal reinforcing bars should also be provided to resist hori7ontal sliding at
constntction joint1> in the wall. These bars should ha\e at lca't a tension anchorage on
either of the con,truction JOint. Some typical reinforcing !.lccl detail" are given in
I:C!! and a typtcal detail for a coupling beam is shown in figure 6.23.
coupling beam
I - v

diagonal cage
of rCinforcement
Section X -X
X _.
6.8.4 Columns
Column' and their connection' to beaml> are critical parts of a 'tructurc. ratlurc of a
column in a huilding can be leading to a progrcs-.ivc collapse. and the
formation of plastic hinges 111 columns above the of u building 'hould be avoided.
llorimntul hoops of helical reinforcing bars have been found to give a Monger
containment to the longitudinal vertical bars than thot provided by rectangular links and
at a beom-to-cotumn joint horizontal steel reinforcement hoops not than 6mm
diameter are udvisahlc within the depth of the beam.
At extetnal columns the longitudinal reinforcement of beam:-. should he well
anchored within the colu mn. Thi!-. may rcquirc special as the provision
of henm hounches or anchorage and some typical examples of detail s ure given
in hC8.
6.8.5 Beams and slabs
he ducule so that plastic hinges can form. and should be dtstributed
throughout a \tructure. uvotding 'soft' sroreys. This will provide a gradual type of
failure und not a 'udden catastrophic frulure such a:; that U!)suciatcd with shear or brittle
failure. The formotion of plastic hinges also allows the ma\imum moments
to he rcdi,trihutcd to other pans of the statically indelenninatc \lructurc. thu)) provtding
more overall Mtfcty.
The fir:-t pluMic hinges arc likely to form in the sections of the beam ncar the column
\\here the maximum moments are hogging, causing compression on the lo""cr fibres i.O
that the section acts cffecuvely as u rectangular section. Plastic hinges which form later
Figure 6.23
TypiCal reinforcement detail
for a coupling beam
168 Reinforced concrete design
at mid-span will have compression on the upper fibre!. -,o that the '\ection is effective!} ..
T-section \\ith the slab acting a!-. the flange and there i' a large area to resist the
compress10n. Further of the de,ign of ducule \ectJOO'> given in
4.2. 4.4 and 4.7.
The beam section<; near the .,upport \hould he reinforced by dm.ed :-.tecl link!>. close!)
'paced to resist the c;hear and to prmide greater compre ... sive resi,tancc to the cnclo:.t'd
concrete The provision of comprc\sivc steel reinforcement abo cn\ures a more ductile

The \lab' in a building act :1!> rigid horitontal diaphragms to stiffen the
against tor11ion during and nlso the hori7ontal forces into
the columnl> and shear walls. The l>labs be well ned into the columns. the ::.hear
walls and the perimeter beams wtth contimuty reinforcement indicated previously.
When precast concrete slabs nre used they have good length' of hearings onto
the :-ttpporting beams and sheur walls also he provided with continuity 'ltcel over
their supports so that they can net :\)., cont inuous indeterminate members. In this way
they can also develop their full ultimate reserve of 'llrcngth hy enabling a tensi le
(:!liCJHiry action.
Design of
concrete beams
Reinforced concrete beam design consists primarily of producing member detai ls
which will adequately resist the ultimate bending moments, shear forces and torsional
moments. At the same time serviceclbility requirements must be considered to n ~ u r
that the member will behave satisfactorily under working loads. It is difficult lo
separate these two critf'ria, hence the design procedure consists or a series of
interrelated steps and checks. These steps are shown 1n detail in the flow chart in
figure 7.1, but may be condensed into three basic design stages:
preliminary analysis and member sizmg;
2. detailed analysis and design of reinforcement;
3. serviceability calculations.
Much of the material in this
chapter depends on the theory
and design specification from
the previous chapters. The load-
Ing and calculation of moments
and shear forces should be car-
rit.>d out using the methods
descnbed in chapter 3. The
equations used for calculating
the areas of reinforcement were
derived in chapters 4 and 5.
Full details of serviCeability
requirements and calculations
are given in chapter 6, but it IS
normal practice to make use of
simple rules which are specified

1 70 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 7.1
Beam design flowchart
EC2 Section
8 and 9.2
7 4.2
Y4ttable actiOns
Estimated self-weight
Permanent actions
Trial b
Esumate d from
Con crete class
Con crett' cover
Mtnim um sectton
ab1hty and Dur
singly reinforced
doubly reinforced

basic 1pan-crfrcttVe depth ratoos __ _
Select II
8endong moment and shear force
,J ..
Bend1ng re1nforcement design

Bending relnforcPmcnl details
depth rauo
rconforcement deso9n
crack wodths (of rtQuored)
Calculate denectlom (if required)
4.3 and

"' c



Design of reinforced concrete beams 171
in the Code of Practice and are quite adequate tor most situations. Typical of these are
the span-effect1ve depth ratios to ensure acceptable deflections, and the rules for
maximum bar spacings, maximum bar sizes and minimum quantities of reinforce-
ment, which are to limit cracking, as described in chapter 6.
Design and detailing of the bending reinforcement must allow for factors such
as anchorage bond between the steel and concrete. The area of the tensile
bending reinforcement also affects the subsequent design of the shear and
torsion reinforcement. Arrangement of reinforcement is constrained both by the
requirements of the codes of practice for concrete structures and by practical
considerations such as construction tolerances, clearance between bars and
available bar sizes and lengths. Many of the requirements for correct detailing are
illustrated in Lhe examples which deal with the design of typical beams.
All calculations should be based on the effective span of a beam which is given
lrtt In a, a2
111 is the clear distance between the faces of the supports; for a cantilever In
is its length to the face of the support
o1, o2 are the lesser of half the width, 1, of the support, or half the overall
depth, h, of the beam, at the respective ends of the span
7.1 Preliminary analysis and member sizing
The luynut anti -.i;c of member\ nrc very often controlled hy archttectural tletail1-. and
clearances for machtnery nnd equipment. The engineer mu<>t either chcc'- that the hcam
arc adequate to carry the londing. or altcmutively. decide on !lite:-. that arc
adequate. The preliminary need only provide the maximum and
in ordet to asccrtuin reasonahle t.limensions. Beam required arc
1. cover to the n.:inlorccmcnt
2. breadth (b)
3. effective depth (c/)
4. overnll depth (h)/
Adequate concrete cover i-. required to ensure adequate bond and to protect the
reinforcement from corrosion and t.lamagc. The necessary CO\'er on the dass of
concrete. the exposure of the beam. and the required fire Table 6.2 the
nominal cover that 'hould be provided to all reinforcement. including Thi' cover
may need to he increased to meet the fire resistance requtrements of the (ode of
The -.trength of a benm is affected considerably more hy its depth th:ln th breadth
The spun-depth rauos usually \'ary between say 14 and 30 hut for large spans the ratio\
can be greater. A \ttitahle breadth may be one-third to one-half of the depth: but it mu)
be much les:-. for a deep heam. At other times wide shnllow hcam'i are to conserve
1 72 Reinforced concrete design
I , covN
I i
Figure 7.2
Bcdm dimensions
Figure 7.3
Lintel beam
headroom. The beam should not be too narrow: if it is much less than 200 mm wide
there may be difficult)' in providmg adequate side cover and c;pace for the reinforcing
Suitable dimensions forb and d can be decided by a few trial calculati ons as follows:
1. Por no compression reinforcement
K = Khut
Kt-..t 0.167 for < C50
With compression reinforcement 11 can he shm' n that
M / bd
fck <
approximmely. if the urea of hcnding reinforcement is not to be excessive.
2. The maximum design sheur force Vblmux !>hould not be grculcr than VRu m.u =
0.1 I To avoid congested shear reinforcement. Vl'u

preferably be somewhat to half (or less) of the maximum allowed.
3. The span -effective depth ratiO for 'pun' not exceeding 7 m should he within the
hNc \'aluc' given in table 6. 10 or figure 6.3. For greater than 7 m the basK
ratio' arc multiphcd by 7/..,pan.
4. The overnll depth of the beam 1s g1ven h)
II d +cover + t
where 1 cslimnled distance from the ide of the link to the centre of the tension
( figure 7.2). For exumple. with nominal sited 12 111111 link!- unJ one layer ot
32 mm tension barli. 1 mm approximately. It will. in fact, be slightly larger
than this with deformed they have a larger overall dimension than the
nominal bur :-.ite.
Beam sizi ng
A concrete lintel with an ciTcctive of 4.0 rn supporLs 3 230 mm hrick wall as shown
in ligurc 7.3. The loads on the lintel arc lOOkN nnd 40kN. Determine
dimens1ons for the lintel If class C25/30 concre1e
Assumed load
m wide
t n the
le basic
er of
' n the
The beam breadth b will match the wall thieknl!ss so that
b;;;;: 230mm
Design of reinforced concrete beams
Allo" ing. say. 14 I..N for the \\eight of the beam. gives the ultimate loac.l
/ 1.35 X 114 1.5 X 40
;;;;: 214k.\
Therefore maximum design shear force
VFd = 107 J..l\
Asc;uming a triangular load dbtribution for the preliminary nnalybis. we have
M _ r x span= ::!14 x 4.0
6 6
143 "'-N m
For 1>uch a rclati vely minor beam the case with no steel be
I /
,}. < Khu1
)( ' Ll
141 ( 10
230 d' )< 25
Rcammging, d .;> 386 mm.
A\\umc a com: rete cover of 25 mm to the reinforcing steel. So for I 0 mm and .
s.t}. n mm han.
O"crall beam c.lcpth h d + 25 + 10 32/2
=d+ 51
'll1crelorc make II - 5::!5 mm as an integer numher of bril:J.. courses. So that
d 525 51 474mm
Maximum is
VRd.n1u' 0.1 Rbwd( J -
0. 18 X 230 x 474 X ( I -"15/250) x 25 x 10 J
4461..N -:. ll.,..t = 1071-N
Basic :.pan effective depth

= 8.35 < ::::: 20 (for a li ghtly heam in C25
concrete tabll! 6. 1 0)
A heam siLc of 230 mm by 525 mm deep would he 'uitablc.
Weight of beam 0.23 x 0.525 x 4.0 x 25
- 12.1 kN
l" hieh i!> 'ufficentl} dose to the assumed value.
1 74 Reinforced concrete design
7.2 Design for bending of a rectangular section with no
moment redistribution
The calculation of main bending reinforcement is performed using the equations and
charts derived in chapter 4. In the of rectangular sections which requi re
tension steel. the lever-arm curve method probably the simplest approach. Whert
compression :,teel is required. either design charts or a manual approach with the
simplified design formulae may be u'cd. When design charts arc not applicable or nll
available. as in the case of non-rectangular sections. the formulae balled on the
equivalent rectangular stress block wi ll !>implify calculations considentbly.
The grade and ductility class of reinforcing steel to be must he decided initial
-;ince this. in conjunction wtth the chosen concrete class, will affect the areas requirt.-.
and also influence such factor' a:, bond calculation\. In moM one of th..
available types of high-yield hars will be used. Areas of reinforcement are calculated
the critical M.:ctions with maximum antl1-uitable bar si1.c:-. c
bar areas arc given in the appendix.) ' I anchorage calculations to bt
performed und dewil\ of har arrangement to be produced, into account t
gutdance gl\cn b) the C'otb of Practice.
An amount ot n:111forcemcnt u'ually indicate'> thUl a member is undcr!>i Zt
and it may also cause tid llculty in lixing the bars and pouring the concrete.
the code ... t ipulates that
lOOt\ 1 \, _ 4Cf except at
On the other hand too ltttlc reinforcement i' abo therefore
I 2
;. 0 ..,
I /\, b
r .> of. - per cent and nol less than . I., per cent

A, the area of concrete = b x II for a n:ctangular
b the mean width of the beam's tension .wnc
. 'I ' . I 'I I 0 " f'-:.
r j'

rn ts , 1e concrete s mean ax to tenst e Mrengt 1 . 1 x. d. 10r . <k C50
Value'> for tltfferent concrete .,trengths are given in table 6.8
To avotd exces,he detleetion' it i\ abo to check the span to cllecuve dcp
ratio tt!-. outlined in chapter 6. -
It :-.hould be nmed thm equations derived in th i:-. chapter are ror concrete
less than or equal w C5016d. l'he equations for higher cla\!.es of concrete can be deri\( '>imilar procedure., but using the ultimate concrete '>tratn' and for c
of concrete from EC2 and attonul Annex.
7.2.1 Singly reinforced rectangular sections, no moment
redi stribution
A beam section need<; reinforcement onl> in t11e tenstle tone \\hen
u < Kh.t = 0.167
) ./Ck
The singly reinforced section considered ;., \hown in figure 7.4 and it is subjected t<
sagging de\tgn moment M at the ultimate limit state. The design calculntion'> for l
longimdtnal \teet can be summarised a-. follows:
th no
on I)
tr uall)
e the
., e' of
to be
1t the
k 'ILCd


ed to a
f1 r the
Design of reinforced concrete beams 1 7


1C 0.811 I
neu __ ..L. __ _!"
ax z = t.d
Stress Block
1. Check that K = b <r < Ko.d = 0.167

2. Determine the levcr-am1, <., from the curve of figure 7.5 or from the equati on
" + ,j(0.25 - K/1.134)]
3. Calculate the area of tension steel required from
4. Select bar
(7. I)*
5. Chcd that the urea or -.tccl actually provtded i1. within the rcqutred hy the
code. that ss

100 A, m.o, < 4.W'f

'> 26 -% and not less than \

0.3 X

for < C50
maximum value of z/d
according to the Concise Code
Dnd previous UK practice
- I
requ1red (at M
0.82 L.. ____ L_ _ _ __ ..L.._.::.: _ _ _ _
0 oo.s 0.10 0.15 0.167
K = M/ bd
The percentage values on the K axis mark the limits for singly reinforced
section with moment redistribution applied {see section 4.7 and table 4.2)
Figure 7.4
Singly reinforced section witl
rectangular stress block
Figure 7.5
Lever-arm curve
176 Reinforced concrete design
b .. 230
"' 0
"" .,.,
II .,.,
"b II

A, 3H20
Figure 7.6
Singly reinforced beam
Design of tension reinforcement for a rectangular section, no moment
redi st ribution
The beam secti on shown in rtgure 7.6 charaetcristi c material strengths of
.fck = 25 Nlmm
for Lhe concrete and[yk = 500 N/mm
for the steel. The moment
at Lhe ultimate limit state i'> 165 kN m which cause\ sagging ol the heam.
1. K
_!!_ __ 165 X 10
-Q p
bcf2/ck - 230 X 4902 X 25 - .
Thh. is less than Kbl -= 0. 167 therefore compression steel j., not required.
2. From the lc\er-arm cur\C of figure 7.5 1. 0.88. therefore lever ann := lad =
0.88 ( 490 = 431 mm und
M 165 X 10
' - 0.87/.l;: = 0.87 x 500 x 43 1 = RHO mm
4. Prm ide three H20 bar... area = 943 mm' .
. ( ()()/\ , ( (){) X 94J
5. l- or thl! prov1ded -c;;--
= 0.8.:1 ( > 0. 1 1%)
IOOtl , 100 943
0.75 ( 4.011)
)( 550
therefore the perccntagl! is wuhin the l>pecilicd h) the code.

Figure 7.7
Beam doubly reinforced to
resist a sagging moment
7.2. 2 Rectangular sections with t ension and compression
reinforcement, no moment redistribution
Comprc!..,ion steel required whenever the concrete in by i!. lln::tbk
to develop the moment of resistance. Des1gn charts <;uch Ui> the one 1
figure 4.9 may he used to determine the \tee\ hut the "mphtied equation-. based <
the equivalent rectangular Mrcs' block are quick to appl}. The arrangement of the
reinforcement to rc!>ist a sagging moment h shown in li gure 7.7
In order to have a ductile section so avoiding u sudden compressive i'ailure or the
concrete it i'> generally required that the maximum depth of the neutrnl axis I'
Sect1on Strams
stress block

f the
Design of reinforced concrete beams 177
Xt>al = 0.45d and this is the value used in the design of a section with compression steel.
The method and equatiom are those derired in Chapter .J for fertions lllbject to
The design arc:
1. Calculate K = f. M ,
. dbd
f f K > Kt>al = 0.167 compressiOn reinforcement is required and .I = = 0.45d.
2. Calculate the area of compression steel from
I (M -
A, :.. .f-.(d dl) (7.3)*
where the compressive stress in the steel.
If t/
/x < 0.3S the compression steel hal> yielded and
If d
/r > 0.3S then rhc strain e,c in the CC>mpressi ve steel mu!>t be calculated from
the proponion1) of the di agrum and .f..L 200 x 10
3. Calculate the area of tension required from
Ktmtf.:l. hd2 I f.,<
A, 11\ --
Cl.S7f)' 'O.S7],1.
with le'ver arm :: = 0.82d.
4. Check lhe areas of \tee! required and the areas provided thai
(. \: """ A: rc") (A, pro' - A, rtq}
(7 .5)
Thi' i'> w rhar the depth of rhe neutral has nnl exceeded the maximum
value of 0.45d by providmg an over-excess of tensile rcinforcemem.
5. Check thm the area of 1>lecl actual!) provided i' wi thin the ltmil'> required by rhe
Code of Practi ce.
Design of tension and compression reinforcement, no moment redistribution
The beam section shnwn 1n figure 7.R has chnracteriMic matcril1l :-.l renp,lhs or
f.k 25 N/mm
and .f)k 500 N/mm
. The uliirnare design moment is 105 kN m,
caul>ing hogging uf the heam:
M 165 X 10
230 " 330
X 15
0.26 ,> 0.167
\O that comprc,.,ion 'tee! is required.
2. x 0.45d- 0.45 330 = 148 mm
tl' I \ 50/ 14X 0.14 < ().3R
therefore the \tccl yielded and
b:: 230, 1

Figure 7.8
Seam doubly reinforced to
resist a hogging moment
1 78 Reinforced concrete design
From equation 7.3
. (M - 0 167f.:bd
Compress1on steel 1\
= )
0.87J;dd d'
(165 X 0.167 X 25 X 230 X 330
= ---
0.87 X 500(330 - 50)
= 496mm
Pro\ ide two H20 bar'> for area 628 mm
bottom 'iteel.
3. From equation 7.4
Tem.ion steel A,


0.87fyl;. '
0.167 X 25 X 2J0 X 33Q2
- --+496
().1{7 X 5()() X 0.82 X 330
X8H + 496 1384 mm
Prmide three H25 for A" area 1470mm". top
4. Chccl. equatton 7.5 for the area'> ot '>tccl required and prO\ 1ded for the compre-;sll)n
and remtorccment to ensure dw.:tility of the section
pnw- (1\l.prnv- A,, ,cq)
That i.,
628 496 (= 132) 1470- 1384 ( 86)mm
5. The har areas provided arc within the upper and lower specified by the codl
To rc!.train the comJWO!.sion l.>teel, at least 8 rnm links nt 300 mm centres should
7.3 Design for bending of a rectangular section with
moment redi stribution
The redl\trihution of the moments obtained from the ela'>tiC analysis ol ;1 concrt
strucrurc Hil-es account of the plastic1ty of the reinforced concrete as it
uhimatc limit srate. In <m.lcr to achieve thi1- plasticity the concrete secti()n:o. muSI
designed so that plaMic hinges can form with the yielding of the rcinforceme
will result in a ductile structure thut has a gradual failure at the ultimate limit 1
and nm a !.Udden cata\trophc failure of the concrete in compress1on. To en,urc this H
limits on the maximum depth of the neutral ax111 '"''' so that there ure high stm.
in the tension steel allowing sufficient rotmion of the section ror hinges to for
The limit to Xt>ul is set according to the amount of redistrihution 6. Por the EC2 code it
,.bal :::: 0.8(b- 0.44)d for hL < CSO
h = moment at the section after reclistrihulion
moment at the before
However the UK Annex to the EC2 modifies the limit to as
Xbal < (h 0.-l}d
Design of reinforced concrete beams 1 7S
Table 7.1 Moment redistribution factors for concrete classes CS0/60
M.vumum permitted rediWibutton for cld$S A I ductility steel
" Maximum permitted redistribution for cl.m 8 and C hogher ductihty sectoon I 6.2
In this chapter the examples will he on the L K equation 7.6h. hut.
because many of the in the UK arc for which may require the
u'c or the 1!('2 example 4.9 part (a) was hascr.l on the usc of the EC2
7.6a. Also !able 7. 1. which is a copy of table 4.2, li sts all the relevant design
odors such l'h;oh Zbat und Kt>at for both the EC2 and the UK Annex equati onl. so that
e examples on mo111cnt redi!>tribution in thi:-. chapter can be readily amended for usc in
of the EC2 equmton. The ratio d' f d in table 7. 1 the limiting upper value for
l e yield of the comprCS\1011 Meel.
The moment redtMribuuon i'> generally carried out on the maximum momems along a
m and the'c arc generally the hogging ttl the Example J.9
oment rediwihution 'hows how the hogging moment may be n:duccd without
l!a,mg the maximum sagging moment in the bending moment envelope. Thus there
n economy un the amount of steel rcinfon.:ement required and <1 reduction of the
of' at the beam-column connecti on.
'he usl!U in the design procctlurc1-. that lollow arc on the
ed tn secti on 4.7.
- 3 1 Singly reinforced rectangular sections with moment
L'tgn procedure the equations based on the UK Annex to EC2 "
u K M / fu/
Kbnt from table 7 .I, or alternatively calcul ate
0.454(b - 0.4) - O. IR2{b- 5. C50
here b = moment after redistribution/moment hcfore redislrihution
a check. that K < Kb.oi Therefore steel b not required.
180 Reinforced concrete design
3. Calculate j(0.25 K
4. Calculate A
= --. -
5. Check that the area or steel provided is within the maximum and minimum lirnll
7.3.2 Rectangular sections with tension and compression
reinforcement with moment redistribution applied
(based on the UK Annex to EC2)
TI1e \teps in the design are :
1. Calculate xb.u < (b- OA)d
2. Calculnte K = M /bd
3. Take Khnl from table 7. 1 or alternatively culcLLiatc
K 0.454( f. - 0.4) - 0. 182( b - 0.4 )
for [cl C50
If A.

compres<>ion 'tccl j.., required.

4. Calculate the area of comprc"ion 'tccl from
(K -
where .f,,. i.\ the in the cmnpres,ion steel
If d' / r <" OJ8 the compre)>sion /ilCel has yielded
I r d' / r > 0.38 then the strain c '" in the compressive eel must he calculated from
th(! proportions of the )>train diagram nnd .h, = ,_.,._- 200 x 10
5. Calculate the area of tension \Lccl from
O.R7ho.:. '0.87/yk
\\here ;: - d O.RxhJI/2.
6. Ch(!c(.. cquauon 7.5 fnr the ol required and the an.:u ... provided that

> (A, ,pto A, ,rcq)

This to ensure that the depth of the neutral axis hns not exceeded th(! maximum
va[U(! of' Xb
1 by providing Ull Of tensile reinforcement.
7. ChccJ., that the area of steel pr<Widcd il> within the maximum and minimum limit'
Design of tension and compression reinforcement, with 20 per cent moment
redi stribution, 8 = 0.8 (based on the UK Annex to EC2)
The beam section sho\\n in figure 7.9 has mutcrial of
25 Nlmm
and f.,k 500N/mm
. The ultimate momt.:nl j., 370 "-N m, cau<>ing
hogging of the beam.
Design of reinforced concrete beams 181
Section Strains
1. the moment reduction factor b = 0.80, the limiting depth or the neutral ax i!> ill
X - (6 - 0.4)d
= (0.8 0.4)x 540 = 216mm
2. K M

- 370 X 10('/(300 X 540

X 25)
0. 169
3. Knal

0.454(0.8 0.4) - 0. 182(0.8 OA )
() 152
K '> Kt>.J therefore required.
4. tl
/ \ I 00/ 216 0.46 0.38
therefore f.._.
From the or the \train diagram
. 0.0035(x - d' )
Stet:! compre!.<,Jvc Mra111 e" -
0.0035(2 I 6 - I 00) = O ()()ISS
216 .
Steel compressive EsE'sc
= 200()0(} X 0.00188
= 376 N/111m
(K Knudfckbd
1\ - --
\ .t:.c (d tl')
( 0.169 0.152 )25 X 3()() J< 54()
376(540 - 100)
224 nun
Provide two I 120 hars for /\;. area = 628 111111
5. Tension steel

I f...
-- +A--
0.87/yk: ' 0.87/yk
-: d 0.8.\/ 2 540 - 0.8 x 216/ 2 = 454 mm
Figure 7.9
Beam doubly reinforced to
res1st a hogging moment
182 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 7.10
Tbeam and L
0.152 X 25 X 3l)() X 540
;\, = +224 X - -
0.87 X 5()() X 454 0.87 X 500
= 1683-'- 19-t- 1877mm
Provide four H:?S bars for ;\. area= top
6. Check equation 7.5 for the areas of !>teet required and provided for the compress10r
nnd ren:-.ion reinforcement w l.m!.ure ducti li ty of the section
I""' - A:. ceq) ;::: (/\,, prov - A,, rc
That is
628 - :?24 ( 40-t ) 1960 1877 (- 83) mm
7. Thc:.e area!-. he within the rnax1mum and minimum limits specified by the code. T ,
re)>train the 1>teel, at teaM 8 mrn links m 300 mm centre!> hi:
7.4 Flanged beams
Figure_ 7.10 sections through a T-benm and an L-hcam \\hich form part ol a
and slab tloor with the slab spanning between the and the
the :-.lnb as the llnngcs of the beams ns f,hown in figure 7.1 1. When the heams ..,
),agging moments. the slab acts a compn.:ssion llonge and the members rn
he as T- or L heams. With hogging moment' the slab will he in tensiOn a
to he cracked. therefore the beam must then be des1gncd a!-. J rectangu
\CCII on of \\ itlth b,. and overall depth h.
At in tel mediate supports of conunuous hcums where hogging moments occur t
1owl area or reinforcement be spread over the effective width of tr
flnngc as shown in ligurc 7.10. Part of the reinforcement mny be conccntrnted over the
weh \\idth.
I he eltccttve flange '' idth bcu i-. specified by the following equation:
b d1 b.,. - L 1
1 1
0.2b, I 0.1/o < 0.2/o tllld also 1 b
is the clear distanec between the webs of adjacent beams
i., the diswncc hetween the of contranexure along the beam as sho\\
111 tigure 7.11.
..!!!!:. _ bv.+b"'2
1- b.. _
d I,
Design of reinforced concrete beams 183
lz _ _____ l_:_ ,
lo= 0.851, 0.1 5(1, ... 1
) 1
= 0. 70/z
lo = 0.1511 +I,
Note: (i) the length ol the cantilever should be less than hall the length or the adJacent span
(ii) tht rato of ad1acent span lengths should be between 0.67 and 1 .50
b ,
b_l __ _
So that for the intenor of a T-heam "-ith h
lh 1/ and /
= 0.7/
brrr h.,., + 2 0.2b' -1 0.071J b" + 1 O.l -'1
For moments the flange), uct a large areu rherefore the
bh:k for the Hanged hearn \Cction U\ually fall!> within the tlange lor tht!>
of the \trc'' hlod ... the \Cction may be designed as an cqutvulent rectangular
\Cclion of breadth h

retnfon:cmcnt .'lhould he placed the full width of the flange to re.,t\1
the 11hear developed hetween the web and the flange. a., dcscnbed 111 l>Cctton 5.1.4. Qutte
often thi\ reinforcement is adequately provided for hy the top !lteel of the hcnding
reinforcement tn the \lah supported by the beam.
Design procedure for a flanged beam subject to a sagging moment
1. Culeulatc and determine lu !'rom the lever-ann cttrvc of figure 7.5 or from
hrd :fck
equm ion 7 . I
lever arm /Jd and the depth of the block = 2(d -
rr <' h the block fall s within the flange depth. and the design mny proceed
for a rectongular 1.ection. breadth h
On the very few that the ncutrnl
doc:-. fall bclov. the flange, reference should be made to the methOlh dcscnbed in
\Cction 4.6.2 for u full analysi),.
2. De!.t!n tranwcro;e \teel in the top of the flange to the longitudmal \hear
at the flange- \\Cb interface (see section 5.1.-J).
These longitudinal shear Mre,,es are a maximum where the 'lopes dM / d\ ol the
hcnding moment envelope arc the greatest. That (a) in the regton of tcro moment
for the span .'lagging moments, and (b) the region of the maximum momenh for the
hogging at the :,uppon....
Figure 7.11
Dimensions to be used in
the calculation or effective
nange widths
184 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 7.12
Design of bending and transverse reinforcement for aT-section
A simply supported beam has <l span /, = 6.0 m and has the nangcd sho\\ ,
in figure 7. 12. The charactcrbtic material strengths arc = 25 N/mm
an I
- 500 N/mm:! and the ultimate design uniformly distributed toad W
is 44 kN p.:
,. .... .. d' .. I .w X 90 N
va\lmum a .en mg moment at mlu-,pan t!t M = -- I o k m
(1) Longttudinal reinforcement
M 19X X 10
/1r 600 x 5 301 x 25
From the lever-arm curve. ligurc 7.5. Ia = 0.95, therefore
h:vcr arm ;: = l,,d 0.95 x 530 503 mm
depth of strcsl. block v '2(d 2(530 - 503)- 54 mm ( < lrr)
Thu' the qres-; block hcs "11lun the Oangc
1\ ,
M 19R )( 10
0.87/yl;: 0.87 X 5()() X 5()3
Provide 1 wo H25 area 982 mm
For these bars
IOOA, 100 x 982
0.74 per cent > 0. 13
b.,d 250 X 53()
Thus the percentage " grcutcr than the minimum specified b) the Code of Pmctice.
(2) Transverse steel in the flange
The design foliOWl> the anti equations set out in 5. 1.4
(i) Calculate the design longitudinal shear vEd at the web-flange interface
For a 'laggi ng moment the longitudinal arc the greatest over a distance of
from the point of :t.ero moment and .6..\ i:. tl'> half the diswnce to the
maximum moment at mid-:,pan. 0.5 x L/ '2. = L/ 4 = 1500mm.
Design of reinforced concrete beams 185
TI1en.:forl.! the change in moment :::C.M over distance 6x = L/ 4 from the tero
ll 'u XL L
ll'u X I. L 3wuL
3 X 44 X
= 1491-.:--!m
2 4
4 8 32
The change in longttudtnal force .J.F at the Hange- web interface ''
= .J.Af >< bto
(d - hr/2) b,
where b
., is the breadth of Hange outstanding from the web.
b" )/2 .
.J.Fcl (
/ " x --
-. a:, gtven on page 11 0
t ,, _) ,,
= _ 14() X (600 250)/ 2
(530 150/2) I 600
The longitudinal shear l>tre),s i nducud is
D.Fd 96 X 10'
(It , ) U.l )- 150 )< 1500
(ii) Check the strength of the concrete strut
From equation 5. 17. to prevent of the in the !lange
0 6( I
l ' t d <
- I 5(cot 0
tan fl
fhc moment ... arc 'aggmg 'o the nange i,} in and the lun11' tor 8
26.5 o, 45
with Or mimmum value of 26.5
.'. l 'ftl l mto\1 - 0.6( I 25/ 250) x 25 = 5.4 ( > O.H N/mm1)
(2.0 0.5)
and the concrete has ' trength with () 26.5 (lor a nungc in ten&it1n the
on{) arc 45' > 0 > 38.6 or 1.0 cot (J :S 1.25).
(Iii) Design transverse steel reinforcement
shcllr reinforcement is rcquirl.!d if ,., d ;>


i!. the
charac1eriM ic axial tensile Mrength of concrete.! ( = l.X N/mm
for 25 concrete).
The maximum allowable value of ''Ed- = 0.27 o< I.H 0.49 N/mm
( 0.43) and transvur!.c reinforcement therefore not reqlllrctl.
A minimum area of 0.13t:f, of tranwerse steel should he provided :h given in table 6.8
or in tahle A3 1n the Appendix.
A,1 = 0 13bh
1 100 0. 13 1000 x 150j 100 195 mm
Pro' ide 1110 har' at 300 mm centre' = 262 mm
/m (see table A.3 111 the Appendix).
Longitudinal remforcemem :.hould also be provided in the flange a\ !>ho'' n in
figure 7 . 12.
186 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 7.13
Onespan beam-bendmg
7.5 One-span beams
The following example the calculations for designing the bending
reinforcement for a simply supported beam. II b1ings together many of the items from
the prcvioul> sections. The :,hear rcinfon.:cmcnt for this beam is de:;igned later in
example 7. 7.
Design of a beam - bending reinforcement
The beam shO\\n in tigure 7. 13 :-.upports the foliO\\ing uniform!) loads
pennllncnt ;oad Kl ()0 1-N/m. including self-weight
load lfk = I R kN/m
The \lrengrhs of the concrete and :.tcel arc ./:k 30 N/mrn

500 N/mm". Effective tkpth. d 540 rnm anti breadth, /1 mm.
2H32 + lHlS
(a) Ultimate loading and maximum moment
Ultunatc load Hu = ( 1.35g, 1.5q,) kN/m
= ( I Vi X 60 -+ I 5 I H) I 08 k.N/tn
max1mum moment M
(b) Bending reinforcement
M 486 X 10
lui'f.:k = 300 x 5-J.O"W
108 ' 6.0
kN 111
0.185 , KbJ.l = 0.167
1 herd ore re10forccment. reqUJred.
ct 1 d 50 5-tO 0.09::! 0. 171 111 table 7.1. therefore/..:= 0.87/>l

I (A
A, = f ... (t! d')
(O.IK5 0.167) X 3U X 300 >( 540
=- 0.!:!7 X 500(540- 50)
Provide two H 16 bar:., mm
.. tccl. A, =

r m
Design of reinforced concrete beams 187
50% 100% 50%
Simply supported
where. from the lever arm curve of figure 7.5 /
- 0.82. Thus
0.167 X '\() X 30() ')'l
+ 2 __
0.87 X 500 X (0.82 54())
2275 + 222 2497 mm
Provide two 1132 and two H25 bar:.. area 2592 mm
, I OOA,/ bd 1.6 > 0. 15.
(c) Curtailment at support
The rension reinf'on:cment shnuh.l he anchored over the supportll wi th a hend as shown in
figure 7. 14 which i1. on past UK practice. Two b:m, may he curtai led ncnr to the

(d) Span- effective depth ratio
f1 100. 1, ......
/bd ( 100 x 540) U4 per cent
From tuhle 6 10 or figure 6.3 span-effective depth ratio l..f
Modification fur !'ltccl area prov1ded:
Modified ratio 1-Ul x
= 14 5
Span cffcctin: depth rauo provided =
= 11 . 1
which Ill lcl-\ than the allowable upper limit. thu). deflection rcqturement-, arc likely to he
7.6 Design for shear
theory and design requirements for :.hc(ll' were covered in chapter 5 and the relevam
design equati on!> were derived bused on the requirements of EC2 the Variable
Strut Inclination MetJ10u.
The rei nforcement wi ll usually take the form of vertical nr a combination
of and bent-up bars. Shear reinforcement may not he required in very min<ll'
door or window with short of le-,:-. than say 1.5 mctn:1> uno light
The following notation U!>ed in the for the \hear de,ign
A\,. the area of the two legs of the slirrup
,\ the -,pacing of the \tirrups
:: the lever arm between the upper and lower chord or the
analogou-; tn1ss

the design yteld of the stirrup reinforcement
Figure 7.14
Simplified rules for curtailment
of bars in beams
188 Reinforced concrete design
the cbaractcri),tic strength of the stirrup reinforcement
VEd - the !>hear force due to the action!> at the ult1mate limit state
v\\J = the shear force in the stirrup
VRtl , = the shear resistance of the stirrups\ the maximum design value of' the shear which can be resisted by
concrete strut
7.6.1 Vertical stirrups or links
The procedure for the shear links as follows
1. Calculate the ultimate shear force' Vw along the beam s span.
2. Check the crushing .,trength VR11. m:u of the concrete diagonal 'itntt at the l
maximum shear, usually at the face of the heum support.
For most c;.u;cs the angle of inclination of the strut is () 22, with col() = 2.3
and tan 0 0.4 so that from equation 5.6:

, = 0.124/> .. d( l - / ck/ 250)/ck (7.9
and if VRJ, m
, 2: Vr'd then go to Mcp (3) with fJ 22 nnd cot 0 - 2.5
but if VKJ mnx < V1" then () > 22 and 8 be calculated from equation 7.10 ..
fJ () 5 ,in
{ - } < 45 (7. 10
O. !Mb .. tlj,d l - .f, k/ '250) -
3. The shear links required can be C<th.:ulutcd from equation 7.11
Aw Vtu
cot 0
(7. 11
\\here A"' 1' the area of the leg!. of the surrup' (2 x 7HJ
/4 for
ror a predominately uniformly distributed loatlthc shear vl(d should be tuken at "
distanced from the face of the support and the shear remforccment
w the lace of the supp<.>rt.
4. Culculate the minimum ltnJ.. ... requtred by EC2 from
A," mlu

- .\'
(7. 12
nnd the resistance for the !Jnks actually specifred
A," o n
\1111111 -X COtv
.$ '
(7. 13 .
value 'hould he marked on the shear force envelope to show the extent of
link!:. a' 'hov.n in figure 7.16 of example 7.7.
5. Calculate the additional longitudtnul force cuusetl by the shear force
<1 = 0.5\IE.JCOtB (7.14)
This additional tensile force increases the curtailment length of the tension bars a'
shown in section 7.9.
ote = 2.5
(7 .9)*
m 7.10 a!>
(7. 11)*
1r 'iingle
ai.;en at n
p. l2)*
(7. 13)*
1 of these
7. 14)*
m bars a:.
Design of reinforced concrete beams
Open hnk
Closed link / Multiple lonk
The minimum spaci ng of the links is governed by the requirements of placing and
compacting 1he concrete and should not normally be less than about 80 mm. EC2
gives the following guidance on the maximum link spacmg:
(a) Maximum longitudinal berween shear in a seri e' of
S1 mox = 0.75d(l I cot a)
where (t is the inclination of the shear reinforcement to the longitudinal axis of
the beam.
(h) Mnximum transverse spaci ng between legs in a serie1. of shenr links
.111 0.75d ( ::; 600mm)
Types ol links or &tirrups arc shown in figure 7. 15. t he open link" an.: u"ually
in the span of the beam with longitudinal '\teet of top hanger hars and
hotlom tensile remforcemcnt. The links arc u'ed to enclo'e top and bottom
reinforcement such as lhal ncar to the -;upports. Multiple linh nrc u!-.ed when there
arc high shear forces to be
Design of shear reinforcement for a beam
Shear reinforcement b to be designed for the one-span hearn of example 7.6 as 'hown in
figures 7.11 nnd 7. 16. The total ultimate load i1> kN/metrc und the characteristic
of the concrete and Mcel arc = 30 und ./y< 500 N/mm'.

308kN [ -
SR .-
I 1
SF d1agram
9 H8 It 200 HS links@ 350 9- H8 Cill 200
Figure 7.15
Types of shear link
Figure 7. 16
Noncontlnuous beam-she
relnf orcement
190 Reinforced concrete design
(a) Check maximum shear at face of support
Maximum design l>hear = '''u x effective span/ 2 - 108 x 6.0/ 2 = 324 k.N
Design shear at face of \'Ed= 324 - 108 x 0.15 = 3081-.N
Crushing VRd rna' of diagonal strut, assuming angle (J = 22 . COl B = 2.5 is
VRd. max OJ?4b"'d{1 -
= 0 124 x 300 ) 5-tO(I - 30/ 250) X 30 x 10--'
530 kl'\ ( > \' F.t 308 kN)
Therefore angle B = 22' and cot B = 2.5 as n'sumcd.
(b) Shear links
At distance d from face of support the \' F..s 308 - '''ud =
308 - 108 x 0.54 =- 250 kN
.1 cot()
250 10
0.7!\ 540 x 500 2.5
Using table !\.4 tn thl! Appendix
Provide 8 mm links at 200 mm l:Cntres. A "/ 1 = 0.503.
(c) Minimum links

- ,,k-
0 ()!{ X 3()
< X 100
Provide 8mm links at350mm centres. A,w/ 1 0.287.
The shear of the links actually specified
\f mn - ' '" v 0. 78t/J; k cot lJ
= 0.287 x 0.78 x 540 500 x 2.5 Ill' = 1511-.N
(d) Extent of shear links
Shear link\ are required at each end of the hcam from the face of the support to the point
11here the force '" 1'mm = 1511..'1 as shown on the \hear force diagram of
figure 7.16.
From the face of the support
308 LSI
Therefore the number of H8 links at 200 mm centres required at each end of the beam is
1-t( \ 1) 1+ ( 1450/ 200) =9
!>paced over a dbtance of (9 - 1)200 = 1600mm.

(e) Additional longitudinal tensile force
.J.F,d = 0.5\lld COl 0
0.54'308 J( 2.5
Design of reinforced concrete beams 19
This additional longitudinal force is provided for by extending the curtailment
l pomt of the mid-1.pan longitudinal reinforcement di,cu!.sed in ).ection 7. 9.
7.6.2 Bent-up bars to resist shear
In regions of high forces it may be found that the usc of links to carry the full force
wil l e<wsc steel congestion and lead to constructional prohlems. In these situuti ons.
consi derati on should he gi ven to 'beuding up main rei nforcement which is no longer
required to bending forces but can be so used to re!. ist part of the
The for dc11igning this type of shear reinforccml.!nt and thi.! additional
longitudinol tension fore!.! were derived in chapter 5 and arc given below
0.78tif..,dcot o + cot 0) sin n
0 5 0 - cot ll )
"hl.!rc o 1s the angle ol tnclinallon "ith the horitontal olthe belli up har.
Bent up har-; muM be fully anchored paM the point at'' hich they arc acttng a' ten-.ion
mcmhcrs. a'> W<L<; indicated 111 figure 5.5.
EC2 al-.o require., that the maXJmum longtLUdinalllpacmg of bent-up har' i' limited to
0.6d( I cm o ) and at leaq 50 per cent of the required shear retnlorcement \lwuld he tn
thi.! form of \hear links.
7.7 Continuous beams
Beams. and columns of :1 in .1i1U structure nil m:t together to fnrm a
londbcaring st rtH.:turc. The rein forccment in a conti 11t1ous beam be de:-.igned and
derailed to maintain continuity by connecting adjacent sp11ns and tying together the
benm nnd its supporting column!>. There must al:-.o be trnnsvcr'c rcinf'orcement to unite
the nnd the benm.
The bending-moment envelope is generally a 'cries of sagging moment). in the spans
and hogging moments at the supports as in figure 7.17, hut occasionally the hogging
moments may extend completely 0\Cr the ).pan. Where the snggmg moments occur the
hcam and -;lab act together. and the beam can he des1gned a T-scdion. At the
supports. the heam must be designed a.s a rectangular because the hogging
cuu-;e 111 the slab.
The moment of reo;1stance of the concrete T-bcam 'ection 1s l>Ome\\hat greater than
that of the rectangular concrete section at the support\. Hence it I') often advantageous
to rcdbtrihutl.! the support moments as described in chapter 3. B) thi s means the
!>upport moment). can be reduced and the de-.ign -.pan moments possibly
192 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 7.17
Continuous beam
arrangement or bending
Design of the beam follows the procedures and set out in the previous section,
,--- factors v. hich have to be con),idered in the detailed design are as follow\:
1. At an exterior column the beam reinforcing bars which resist the design moment'
must ha\e an anchorage bond length within the column.
2. In monolithic construction where a l-imple has been lll.!>umed in the
structural analysis. partial fix.iry of atlcast 25 per cent of the moment should be
allowed for in the design.
3. Reinforcement in the top of the \lao must pa<;\ over the beam steel and still have the
necessary coYer. Th1' must be con\idered \\hen detailing the beam reinforcement
and when deciding the effective depth of the heum at the :-.upport sections.
4. rhe column and beam reinforcement must be carefully detnilcd so that the bars can
pa.\s through the junction' without interference.
Figure 7.17 illustrate!:> n typical armngement of the bending rcmforcement torn two-
continuous beam. The rcinl'orcemcm hal> been arranged with reference to the
bending-moment envelope and in accordance with the rules for anchorage ru1d
B.M Envelop!!
10 the
uld be
Design of reinforced concrete beams
curtailment dc. ... cnbed in section 7.9. The application of these rule!'. establishes the cut-
off beyond wblch the bars must extent! at leal>t a curtailment anchorage length. It
should be noted that at the external columns the reinforcement ha-. been bent to gi\'e a
ful l anchorage hond length.
The shear-force envelope and the arrangement of the !.hear reinforcement for the
same beam are shown is figun.: 7.18. On the shear-force envelope the
resistance of the minimum stirrups has heen marked and this the of the
beam which need shear reinforcement. When the shear reinforcement.
reference should be made l<l the arrangement of bending re1nforcement to ensure that
the longitudinal tcn:-.ion bar:-. used to establi:-.h \'R
, extend at least d -lbd beyond the
secti on being considered.
( EXAMPLE 7. 8
Design of a continuous beam
The be41m hal> a Width, bw = 300 mrn and an overall depth, /1 660 mm wi th three equnl
... pans. L 5.0. In the tranwcr'c direction the beam'i arc 8 = 4.0 m centre'
\\Jlh a slah th1ckness. lrr = 180 mm. a!> :.hown in ligures 7.19 and 7.20. The
have a width of 300 mm.
The unifonnl} distributed ulttmutc load. 11" = 190 kN/m. The ultirnatl.! design
and ),hcurs near pan und the nrc shown in 1igurc 7 . 19.
The characterbtic of the concrete and arc ./,k = 'O '-'/mm' and
500 N /mm,.
0 523 523
Moment M (kNm)
428 333
Shear V(kN)
427 570 522 522 570
S.Om Cl
F 1.3SG, 1 SOQ,
Total ultimate loud em each ),pnn b
r 190 x5.0 950kN
Design for bendmg
427 1
L 5.0m
(a) Mid-span of 1 sl and 3rd end spans - design as a T-seclion
Moment .[!8 k.N m sngging
Lffectivc width of Hange
ben hw + 2t0.2b' + 0. 1 x 0.851.1 ( :5 ""' + 2[0.2 x O.X5Lj) (see fi gure 7. 11 )
= 300 :!
(0.2 > (2000- 300, 2)) t (0.085 x 5000)J - 1890 mm
bw + 2[0.2 X 0.85/.l = 300 + 2[0.2 X 0.85 X 5000] = 2{)()0 mm
Therefore br - btu = 1890 mm.
Figure 7.19
Continuous beam wtth
ultimate bendtng
moments and shear rorces
194 Reinforced concrete design
428 X 10
1890 X X 30 - (}.():!2
From the le' er-ann cur"e of figure 7 .5. 1. = 0.95. therefore
= 0.95 x 600 = 570mm
d ;: 600 - 570 = 30 ( < ,, ( 1)
so that the block lie within the 180 mm thick flange and the eel ion i
designed as a rectangular section with b = b

A, =
428 X J0
= - l?Jomm
0.!!7 X 50() X 570
Provide lhn:c TI25 bars and two Hl 6 area = IH72mm
(b) Interior supports - design as a rectangular section
M 523 m hogging
A/ 523 X (()(I
btf]}, k 3()() !\ 5802 X 30
0. 173 > 0.167
Therefore. compres<;ton steel i' required.
0.87j;dcl - d')
(0.173 - 0. 167) '< 10
= --O.H7 X 500(580
100 x sxo'
Thb :.mall area of reinforcement can be prt)\ tdcd h) e\tcnding the bottom :.pan
bcyoml the i merna I supports.
From the le\er arm curve (Jf figure 7.5 1., 0.82. therefore:
0. 16 7fckbtf1 1
+ A

0. 167 X 3() X ]()() X +
O.X7 X 500 x (0.82 x 580)
24-l4 I 79 - 2523 mmz
Provide four H25 bars two IT20 :1rea 2588 mm
(top !>ICe(). The arrangement
or the reinforcement is shown in figure 7.20. At end support A two 1125 have been
provided a' top continuity to meet the requirement ol item (2) in section 7.7.
(c) Mid-span of interior 2nd span BC - design as aT-section
M = 333 kN m. sagging
From figure 7 . II. cffccti\'c flange \\ idlh
bttr =- b.., + 2[0.:!b' + 0.1 x 0.70L]( < bv. + 2[0 2 v 0.70/, )
=- 300-:! (0.2 x (2000 300/ 2)) (0.07 x 5000)1 1740 mm
h.., I :![0.2 x 0.7L] = 300 + 2[0.:! > 0.7 ) 5000] = 1700mm
Design of reinforced concrete beams
H8 @ 200 !.-- H8 @ 300
H10@ 200
4-H25 2 H20
ls5.0m __ _
2525 25
.. 300
near the interior support
Calculating M /( brcPf<d and the lever-ann curve. it i-. found that 1. 0.95
333 X 10
13-B mm'
0.87 X 500(0.95 >. 600)
Provtde three 112'5 har .... area = 1470 mm
Design for shear
(a) Check for crushmg of the concrete strut at the maximum shear force
N'laxtmum !>hear i\ 111 spans AB and CD at supports D and (',
At the face ot the
570 ll'u X support Width/ 2
570 190 x 0.15 = 542 kN
11g of diagonal
- 0. 124bwd( I .kk/ 250Kk assuming angle {) 22' , cot() 2.5
= 0.124 x 300 x 600( I - 30/ 250) x 30 = 589 ( > Vm 542 kN)
Therefore angle () 22 and cot fJ ::.?..5 for all the
(b) Design of shear links
(i) Shear li11k.l in end rpan.s at A and D
Shear distanced from face of suppon b Vl:d = 427 - 190 x (0.1 5 + 0.6) 285 kN
A,,. VF..s

0.78df,l cotO
2R5 > 10'
= - -,-=0.49
0.78 X 600 X 5()() X -5
Provide 118 linb at 200 mm centres. Aw. j s 0.50 (Table A4 in Appendix)
Figure 7.20
End-span remforcement
196 Reinforced concrete design
Additional longitudinaJ tensile force is
=0.5VEdcot B
- 0.5 X 285 X 2.5
This additional longttudinal force is prO\ ided for by extending the curtailment
point of the longitudinal reinforcement, as in !.CCtion 7.9
( ii) Shear lin/.. f in end 1pans at 1'11pports 8 and C
Shear Vhu distance d fmm face of support is
VEd 570 190(0.15 - 0.58)
= 431 kN
I\"' Vtu
0. col 0
43 1 X [() -'
-- -----
0.78 < 580 ')()() I( 2.5
Provide 1110 a1 200 mm A .,. /s = 0 762 (Table A4 in Appendix)
Additional longitudinal force 1s
0.5 \'1.1 cot U
0.5 431 "2.5
I hb additional longiludinal force is provided for by extending the curnulment
point of the longitudinal reinforcement. in section 7.9.
(iii) Shear fink.1 in middle span IJC til mpport.\ B and C
Shear d"tance d from the face of = 522- 190(0. 15 I 0.6) 380kN.
The calculatiOnS for the shear links \o\OUid be 10 thol>c for the other supports in
sections (i) and (ii) giving IOmm link'> at 225mm centres.
fhe longitudinal ten,de force. F
.t 0.5 3RO 2 5 475 kK
(i1) Minimum 1/tear lin/.. v
A,.,., mm h""
o.ox 30
= 0.:!63
Provitle HR m 300 mm spadng. A,w Is = 0.335 (Table A4 in Appendix).
Shear of links prm ided
Vmon =-X cotB
s . '
= 0.335 X 0.78 X 600 X 500 X 2.5 X )()

Design of reinforced concrete beams 197
( 1') trem of vhear links
Links to re:.i't are required over a dist<mce x, from the face of the supports to the
point on the shear force diagram where the shear can be re!>isted by Vn
m = 196 a..,
provided by the mimmum linl.s.
For the face of the end supports A and D the distance r

427 196
For the interior B and C of the I st and 3rd spans
570 196
0. 15 = I.S2m
For rhe links nL 8 and C in the middle spun
522 196

- 0.15- 1.57m
Based on these dimcm.ions the link!. are arranged as shown in figure 7.20.
7.8 Cantilever beams and corbels
The effective .,pan of a cantilever JS e1ther Ca) the length to the face of the -;upport plm,
half the O..:am's overall depth, h or (b) the di stance to the centre of the 1f the
beam " contlnuou ....
The moment-., 'hear:. and deflections for a cantilever beam arc l>Uh'ltanually grcatc1
than for a beam that 1s l>Upponed at both ends \\.ith an equivalent load. Aho the
moment:-. in a canlllcvcr can ne\'er be red1'ilributed to other part\ of the 'ltructurc the
beam mullt alway!. he capable of resisting the full static moment. Occausc of these
and the pmhlcms thut often occur with increased detlections due to creep, the
design and detailing of a cuntilcvcr Ileum !.hould be done with cnre.
Particular aucnti on he paid to the anchorage into the support of the top
reinforcement. The steel should he anchored ut rhe support by. nt the very leust, a full
maximum anchorage length hcyond the end of its effective spnn. Some orli <.:cs
11pecify nn anchorage length equal LO the length of the <.:anlil cver, mostly to avoi d !>lecl
lixing error) on site.
on n cantil ever can cause the adj<lCCnl interior span w I)C stlhjectcd to a
hoggi ng moment over all or of its span. The critical loading pattern for thi s
condition be as shown in figure 7.21 where the maximum load on the cantil ever
together with minimum load on the interior span could cau!.c a hogging moment to
occur in 1he interior span.
1 35C + 1 SQ,
Figure 7.21
Cantilever loadtng pattern
198 Reinforced concrete design
7.8.1 Design of corbels
A corbel. as shown in figure 7.22 is cons1dered to be a cantilever when
OAI!, :::; a, :::; he where h, is the depth of the corbel at it\ junction with the column and
a" b tile distance from the face of the column to the hearing of the vertical force. F bJ
When the \ertical load has a stijj' bearing a, may he measured to the edge of the
bearing but where a flexible beanng 1<; a, i' mea,urcd to the vertical force.
Corbels can be as a stnll-and-ue 'Y'tem <L'> illu!ttrated tn figure 7.'22. In the
figure the \'erticalload FEd at point B 1s resi!.ted by the force Fed in the inclined concrete
stnlt CB and the force F
d Ill the horilllntal steel tie AB.
The design and de1ailing of a cnrhel has the following requirements:
1. The bearing stress of the load on the corhel directly under U1e lond should nut
exceed 0.*8( I -
2. A horizontal force 0.2Fr J must nlso be re:-isted. Thii. force acts at rhe level ol
the Wp of the bearing, a diMance ar r nbove the horitonlul tic.
3. The main tension steel. A, "'''
" must be fully ::111chored into the column and the other
end of these bars must he welded to an anchorage device or loopfl of reinforcing
4. The ungle of inclination, (J of the compression \trut must he within the limn,
22 0 :::; 45. or 2.5 cotiJ 1.0.
5. The dc-,ign of the c.:oncrctc strut not exceed (nu.kkhc)lr where:
''r - 0.6( I - /..1../' 250)
o, .. = 0.85
-., = 1.5. the part1al factor ol for concrete in compression.
Therefore not exceed 0 1-lf,d I ./,L/' 150)
6. llorizontal linf.s of total area A hnk he prm idcd to confine the concrete in the
compres'>ion strut and I: A, 0.5/\, mJ"' .
The strut and tie system of design
Tht.: forces on a corhcl produce n complex comhinutinn or due to bearing. shcnr.
direct compression, direct tension nnd hending concentrated into a small urea. The strut
and tie system combined wi th good detailing i:-. able to simplify the design 10 produce a
workable and safe design.
Figure 7.22 shows the corbel with the inclined strut RC at un angle fJ to the horizontal
tie AB. The force in the strut is Feu and F,d in the horizontal tic respectively. Point B i'
distance a' (ac -r 0.2aH) from the face of the column because of the effect of 1hc
honzontal force. HEd ( =
From the geometry of the triangle ABC. the lever ann depth is given b)
;; = (a, -t 0.2an) tan 0.
(a) Force in the concrete strut, F,d
The stress for the concrete strut IS/.:.r ( I From the gcometl)
of figure 7.22 the width of the concrete strut mca.,urcd vertically is 2(d ;;). Hence. the
width uf the strut measured at right angles to ih axis b given by '''wu
2(d- ;;) cos (J
Design of reinforced concrete beams 199
2(d- L)cosO '
Thus the force Fn
ill the concrete strut is
= X X bw
x 2{d ;:) x bwcosO
where b" is the width of the corbel.
(b) Angle of inclination, 1 of the concrete strut
ing vertically at point B:
\in 0 - /cd )( 2(d
.: kiJ X (t/
I F..t

z) x b .. > cosO x -.inO
a' tan O)b,. Stn 20
(7. 15)
(7. 16)
Thi!- equation cannot be solved directly for f) but table 7.2 (overleaf), which has been
developed directly !'rom equation 7 .16, can be used.
(c) Main tension steel, As,maln
horiwntally at B. the force F,J in the steel tie is given hy
F,d I c
t cos 0 F c.J 0 FFJ cot B
The towf force in the steel tie. including the effect of the hori1ontal force of0.2Ft.d
io; given by
F;d FEdcot8 t 0.2fht
= FEd( COl 0 t 0.2)
The area of main tension steel, A, m.un given by
A,. maon =
(7. 17)
Figure 7.22
Strut and tie system in a corbel
Reinforced concrete design
Table 7.2 Values of 0 to satisfy equation 7.16
H f[d
(degs) f,ddbw
d d= 1 d d d- .8 d i d - 7 d d - .6 d d - 5 d l d- .4
22 0.429 0.458 0.487 0.516 0.545 0.574 0.603
23 0.400 0.429 0.459 0.488 0.518 0.547 0.577
24 0.371 0.401 0.431 0.461 0.490 0.520 0.550
25 0.343 0.373 0.403 0.433 0.463 0.493 0.523
26 0.315 0.345 0.375 0.405 0.435 0.466 0.496
27 0.288 0.318 0.348 0.378 0.408 0.438 0.468
28 0.262 0. 292 0.321 0.351 0.381 0.411 0.440
29 0.236 0.266 0.295 0.324 0.354 0.383 0.412
30 0.211 0.240 0.269 0.298 0.327 0.356 0.385
31 0.187 0.216 0.244 0.272 0.300 0.328 0.357
32 0.164 0.192 0.219 0.247 0.274 0.301 0.329
33 0.143 0.169 0.195 0.222 0.248 0.275 0.301
34 0.122 0.147 0.172 0.198 0.223 0 248 0.274
35 0.103 0.126 0.150 0.174 0.198 0.222 0.246
36 0.085 0.107 0.129 0.152 0.174 0.197 0.219
37 0.068 0.089 0.109 0.130 0.151 0.172 0.193
38 0.053 0.072 0.091 0.110 0.129 0.147 0.166
39 0.040 0.056 0.073 0.090 0.107 0 124 0.141
40 0.028 0.043 0.057 0.072 0.086 0.101 0.115
41 O.Q18
0.030 0.042 0 054 0.067 0.079 0.091
42 0 010 0.020 0.029 0.039 0.048 0.057 0.067
43 0.005 0.011 0.018 0 024 0 031 0.037 0.044
44 0.001 0.005 0.008 O.Q11
0 015 0.018 0.021
45 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Design of a corbel
l)esign the reinforcement for the corbel in figure 7.23. The corhcl u breadth
h 350 mm and supports an ultimate load of Vhl 400 1--N at a tli!.lancc ac - 200 mm
from the face of the column. The bearing is ncxihlc and at u a
75 mm above
the tension tic. The bearing is 350 111111 by 120 111111.
The characteristic material strength:. arc 30 N/mm
/)k 500 N/mm
Check the bearing stress
Safe bearing Mrcss 0.48( I - !d/250)/.;k 0.48( I 30/ 250)
Actual bearing wess = 400 x I0'/(350
120) 9.6

Concrete strut
The effecti \'e depth of the corbel b d 550 111111
Di:.tance. u' = (200 + 0.2 x 75) 215mm
Therefore a'/d 215/ 550 = 0.40
30 = 12.7 N/mm
12.7 N/J11Jn
Design of reinforced concrete beams 201
.fed (I .f,;k/250) 0.34 x 30 x ( I 30/250) 8.98 N/mm
Fr.d 400 x 1000 = O
8.98 X 55() X 35() -
lienee, from table 7.2. 0 35.5 .
Main tension steel
The force 1n the ma111 tcnc,10n steeiJS
400(cot 35.5 + 0.2) = 400( 1.40 + 0.2) = 6-tO kN
MO >< to'
0.87 500
1471 mm
Pro\ltlc two II 12 hal".. area 1610 mm

A, hnb 0 5A, """" 735 mm,
Pro\itlc four 1116 linb. A,

Figure 7.2-1 :-,how' the detailing of the reinforcement in the corbel.
Figure 7.23
Corbel example
Figure 7.24
Reinforcement in corbel
202 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 7.25
CurtallmenL of rclnforcemenl
envelope of tensile forces
7.9 Curtailment and anchorage of reinforcing bars
As the magnitude of the bendtng moment on a decreases along its length so
the area of bending reinforcement be reduced by curtailing the bars since they are no
longer required. as shown in figure 7.25. It should he recognised though that because oi
the approximations and assumption<, made for the loading. the qrucrural analyst:. and
the behaviour of the reinforced concrete, the curtailment cannOt be a particularly precise
procedure. In addition the curtailment length\ are in man} case11 supe!'lleded by the
requirements for ser\'iccability, durability and detailing. such maximum bar l>pacing
minimum bar numbers and curtailment beyond the critical sections for shear.
Each curtailed bar should extend a full anchorage length beyond the point at which 1
is no longer needed. The equations for an anchorage length were derived in !>ection 5.2
The equation for the design anchorage length, /h<J, IS
fbd =--X rtn
<fn is a series of coefficients depending on the unchoruge conditions
r/1 is the bar diameter
.fbd is the design bond strength which, for a beam. depends on the concrete >trer:
and the bar size and whether the bar is in the top or hot tom of the beam. The
honds better wnh the compacted concrete in the hottom of the beam.
For a straight bar with o _ 32 mm. the order of anchorage lengths are /bd = 52c 1 r
top bar and /bd = 36 for a bonom bar \'wllh C30 concrete.
The curtailment of the tens1on reinforcement i' ha,ed upon the envelope of ten
F\. derived from the bending moment envelope 'hown 1n figure 7.25 such tmr
at any location along the -;pan
F,- Mf.1/:. + 6.F1o
MEd il> the design bending moment from the moment envelope
z the lever arm
!:J.F1d the additional tensile force obtuined from the design for
1 ot: full anchorage length 1

c""'"m'"' .-J "'"'""'''''' "''"m (hogglog "''")

4 - I
4 \
0 '
M,.J z y M,.J l envl'lope dtagram (saggtng region)
2 2

Curtatlment anchorage
Design of reinforced concrete beams 203

is a maximum where the shear force is a maximum at sections of zero moment,

and b zero at the maximum moment near to mid-span and the interior
For members where shear reinforcement is not required the tenc;ile force envelope
may be estimated by snnply 'shifting the bending moment envelope diagram
honzontally by a dt!>tance a
(=d) as shown in figure 7.15.
To determme the cunailmenr positions of reinforcing bar the ten\ile force
emelope i" di-.ided into secuons as shown. in proponion to the area or each har. In
figure 7.25 the three haro; provided for the sagging envelope and the four for the hogging
cmclopc arc <.:onsidcrcd to be of equal area so the em elope i" div1ded 11110 three equal
for the sagging part of the Cll\clope and four for the hogging pan.
When considering the curtail ment the following rules must abo he applied:
1. At one-quarter of the bottom reinforcement should extend to the \Upports
2. The hollom reinforcement at an end support should he anchored into the
:-. hnwn in li gun; 7.26.
3. At un end where there i:, little or no fi xity the holtom steel should be
designed to a l'orce of to allow for the tension induced by the
l>hcur with a minimum requirement of 25% or the rei nfon:emcnl rrovided in the

4. /\tan end :-.upporl when: there is f'ixity but it has been analysed a\ a
top steel 1>hould he and anchored lo resist at leu't 25 per cent of the
maximum :-.pnn moment.
5. At internal the houom !.hould extend at 10 har diumcter:-.
beyond the face of the \upport. To achieve continuity and to '>uch factor\
a:-. acctdcntal uamage or '>ei-.mic force!>. plice 1>hould be pm\tdcd acrm., the
'>Uppon with a lull anchorage tap on each stde as shO\\Iltn ligure 7.27.
6. Where the on a heam are $Ubstamially uniformly ut'-.tributed, 'implified rules
for curtailment rna) he used. These rules only apply to contmuou:-. hcam" if the
variable load does not exceed the charncteristic permanent load and
the l>ran'> arc approxi'lnntely equal. Figure 7.28 the rule'> in diagrammatil.:
form. llowcvcr 11 -.houlcl be noted that these rule:) do not appear in EC2 and arc
based on previou& eMablished UK practice.
( 1) Beam supported
on wall or column
(2) Beam mtcrsecting
another supporting beam
Figure 7.26
Anchorage of bottom
remforcement at end supports
Figure 7.27
Anchorage ill intermediate
204 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 7.28
Simplified rules for curtailment
of bars in beams

;I ', I
0.08L '
Simply supported

c ..
c = 0 1St
60, ;;
Continuous beam
7.10 Design for torsion
The theory and design for torsion were covered in section 5.4. The design
procedure consiw. of calculations to determme addit1onal arcus of and longiiUdinal
reinforcement to re&ist the torsional moment. an equivalent hollow box section
U),uully 1t is not necessary to design for tor!-.ion m \latically indetcnninate sLructure'
\\here the tor<.ional forces are often only a 'econdary effect and the mucture can be m
cquilihrium even if the tor,ion i' neglected. When the equilibrium on thl
toNtmal the effect\ ol tor ... ,on nlll\t he
7.2.1 Design procedure for torsion combined with shear
,J Design torsion moment
I'Ku nw Maximum torsional moment of re'iistance
v, ,,, Design shear force
VRd, m .. Maximum shear resistance based on crushing of the concrete
The following section the procedure for for and explains ho\\
torsional must he considered together wtth the for shear.
(1) Design for shear using the Variable Strut Inclination Method
The procedure for thts is descrihed in 'cctiom. 5.1.2 and 7.6 and illu-.tratcd with
examples 7.7 and 7.8.
Usc the procedures to determme the angle of inclination 0 of t11e
concrete compressive strut and the stirrup remforcement to resi).t the shear forces. Also
required is Lhe additional horiLOntal tensile force .:lf
The angle 8 should range between 22 and 45 so that cot 0 i'> between 2.5 and 1.0.
The \alue determined for 8 should be used throughout the \uhsequent sections of the
Design of reinforced concrete beams 205
(2) Convert the section into an equivalent hollow box section of thickness t
!See figure 7.29b.)
Area of the section A
Perimeter of the section 11
that for a rectangular section b x lz
2(/h- /r )
Calculnte the nrea AL within the centreline of the equivalent hollow box section. For u
rectangular section
= (b- t)(h t)
and the peri meter of the centreline is
IlL 2(b lz - 2t)
(3) Check that the concrete section is adequate to resist the combined shear and
torsion using the Interaction condition
, , ... d < 1.0
7 Rd. mu VRd -
l't 0.6( I
(4) Calculate the additional stirrup reinforcement required to resist torsion
A,w Tt:.u
The ).pacing s of the lltinups should not exceed the bser of (a) llk/8, (b) 0.75d or (c) the
leust dimension of the beam's cross-section. The stirrups should be of the closed type
fully anchored by means of laps.
(5) Calculate the total amount of stirrup rein(orcement Asw/s
Thi s is the sum of the &I irrup reinforcement for shear and tor!.ion from ( I )
and (4).
(6) Calculate the area As
of the additional longitudinal reinforcement
cot 0
2Ak0.87/yt L
Thts reinforcement should be arranged so that there is ar least one bar at each corner
with the other dic;tributed equally around the inner penphery of the link'> ,.,paced at
not more than 350 mm centres.
206 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 7.29
Torsion example
Design of torsional reinforcement
reinforcement to be des1gned for the beam of examples 7.6 and 7.7 which 1
also ::.ubjecr to an ultimate torsional moment of 14.0 kNm in addit ion to th.
uniformly distributed loading of 108 kN/mctrc already considered in the previou
The beam i.-. in figure 7.29a. The step<, in the an
numbered outlined in the pre\ iou::. descriptioo of the dc.,ign procedure. Th ...
charactcrh.tic strength-. of the concrete and steel arc 30 and
1. l)e.,ign for 'hear the Variable Stntt Inclination Method the de'i1g
calculati ons of example 7 7>
From example 7.7:
\'hi = 308 kN and Vku.

530 kN
The angle of inclinntion of the concrclc strut i.-. 0 = 2:! with cot 0 1.5 a!ld
tanH 0 4
For the 'hear 0.475 (required)
The additional longitudinal force

3!-!5 J..N
2. Con\crt the rectangular M!Ction to an equivalent holl ow hox !.ection
figure 7.29h)
of box section
A 600 X 30()
2 ( 600 + 300)
Area w1th111 centreline (I> t)(h I)
Perimeter of centreline

... b = 300 ...J
200 500
100 10'
2(h I h -1t )
1400 mm
H8 lit 12S
H16 TI
(a) Crosssection (b) Equivalent box section (c) Reinforcement details
3. Check if concrete section adequate
Tt:.u vlid
- -+- -< 1.0
T Rd."'"' \'Rd. -
(cot 0 tan B)
0.6( 1 - = 0.6( I - 30t250) = 0.528
1.33 X 0.5'28 X 30 X 100 X 100 X 1()- l
TRd rna'-
(2.5 + 4.0)
72.6 kN ( > Tt:d 24.0 kN)
308 = 0 () 8
72.6 I 530 .. +
= 0.91 10
Therefore tlu: concrete is adequate.
Design of reinforced concrete beams 207
equation 5.31)
4. Calculate the additional link rei nforc.:emcnt required to resist (Note that A__.
is for one leg onl})
.1 2/\l O.!l7}yk cot 0
24.o x to<>
2 100 X 10' X O.!l7 X 500 X 2.5 = o. I(()
5. Therefore for shear plus and on the area ot two legs
0.475 I 2 X(), ll O 0.695
!or 8 rnm '>tirrup., at I '25 mm cemrcl> A... .1 = 0.805 (!>ee Appendix table A4)
Spacing v 125mm ( .. 175mm)
6. ('olculate the area A,
of' the udditional longitudinal reinforcement required for
J J;<JIII. COl 0

= (24 x 10
1400) " 2.5 =
2 X 100 X 10' X 0.87 x 500
additional longitudinal Meet can be pro\ ided for by H 16 bars. one in each corner
and one in each of the side faces as 'hown in tigure 7.29(c). llte addttionallongrrudinal
tensile force of 385 k.N rc:-.ulting from the design for shear will he catered for by
appropriate curtailment Of the main tensile rcinforccmcnr as previously disCUS),Cd in
section 7.9.
208 Reinforced concrete desi gn
7.11 Serviceability and durability requirements
The requirements for the ser\'iceability and durability limit have been co, em:_
cxtcru.ively in Chapter 6 -.o thi' section i' a 'hort review of the factors lhat appl} t
de\ign and detailing of beam'>. Ahhm1!!h thh \CCllon " a :-.hort rc\ icw at the end <:..
chapter it sbould be empha\ISed that the for the :-.cniceabilit) and durabilit) I
if> JUSt as important a-. the design for the ultimate limit '>Late. Failures of ...
at the ULS are fortunately quite rare hut can get a lot of publicity. \\hereas failure-.
to durabiliry and 'crviccability an; much more common during the life of a structure
they can quite ea-,ily lead eventually to a :-.tructural failure or be one of the
causes of a fa.ilurc. Also poor detnal1ng and con\tructaon can be the cause of '
as lcaldng roofs nnd basements and dasfigurement of the structure 1\
const:qucnt high maintenance col!ts and reduced working life.
Adequate concrete cover to nil the reinforcement bar.\ is all-important to pre
ingress of moisture and corrosion of the steel hnr:- wi th resultant staining and spallin:
the concrete. Cover of the concrete is required for fire The detai ling.
siting of the reinJorcin!! und !'.tirrups should take account of the dimensJ
tolerances during bending und ion of the qed cages in order to maintain
required concrete cover.
The maximum and minimum <,p:tcing of the stccllnm should meet the
of EC2 c;o th:ll there i'l ample room for the now and compaction of the concrete, bu
he so large a gap that there 1s ,, lack of rcsJ\tance to cracking of the concrete due
shrinkage, thermal m<l\ement and ... ettlcmcnt.
For similar rca.,ons the requirement:. for maxunum and minimum percentage'
reanforcemcnt m com:rctc mcml"ll:r' mu't be al\\ays be checked.
The beam' he \Lilt to pre\l!nt e\ceo.;"ve deflection' that I.\
cracking of 'uch feature' a' flour Jina.,he,, gl:171ng and partition ... This '' mort
lakely with long o.;pan beams or cantilevers. For mo\t heaam it i' not ncee-;sary to cam
out detailed dcnection calculations. EC2 prO\ 1des equulions and ha,ie span-to-ue-
to meet this requirement. Compression 111 the wnes ol I
'pan beams und cantilevers help\ to resa.\t the long term deOcctions due to creep.
Muny of the more commonly used cqlwtions und tables from EC2 to meet all
above requirements are mnre fully in ('huptcr 6 and are outlined in the
Appendix at the end of the hook for rcfcn.:ncc.
Good working practit:cs und tlual ity wntml on the construction site an: u
important ro ensure such features correctly dc!>igned concrete mixes. fixing
the formwork and reinforcing with adi.!4U11tc placement, compaction and curing
the concrete.
Design of
concrete slabs
Remforced concrete slabs are used in floors, roofs and walls of buildings and as the
deck of bridges. The floor system of a structure can take many forms such as m situ
sol id slabs, ribbed slabs or precast units. Slabs may span in one direction or in two
directions and they may be supported on monolithic concrete beams, steel beams,
walls or d1rectly by the structure's columns.
Continuous slabs should in principle be designed to Withstand the most
unfavoLJrable arrangements of loads, in the same manner as beams. As for beams,
bcnd1ng moment coefficients, as given in table 8.1, may be used for one-way
spanning slabs. These coefficients are comparable to those 111 ngure 3.9 for
continuous beams and are based on UK experience. If these coefficients are used
Lhe reinforcement must be of ducti-
lity class B or C and the neutral -axis
depth, x, should be no greater than
0.25 of the effective depth such that
the lever arm, z ( d O.Sx/2), is
not less than 0.9d to allow for
moment redistribution Incorporated
in the values given (which may be
up to 20 per cent). In addition, as
for beams, table 8.1 should only be
used when there are at least three
spans that do not differ in length by
more than 15 per cent , and
Q. should be less than or equal to
1.25Gk and also less than 5 kN/m
21 0 Reinforced concrete design
The moments in slabs spanning in two directions can also be determined using
tabulated coefficients. Slabs which are not rectangular in plan or which support
an irregular loading arrangement may be analysed by techniques such as the
yield line method or the Hille borg strip method, as described rn section 8. 9.
Concrete slabs are defined as members where the breadth is not less than 5
times the overall depth and behave primarily as flexural members with the design
similar to that for beams, although in general tl is somewhat simpler because:
1. the breadth of the slab is already fixed and a unit breadth of 1 m is used tn the
2. the shear stresses are usually low in a slab except when there are heavy
concentrated loads; and
3. compression reinforcement is seldom required.
Minimum thicknesses and axis distances for fire resistance are given in table 6.5
but derleclion requirements will usually dominate.
Tabl e 8. 1 Ultimate bending moment and shear
spanning slabs
force coeffi cients in one-way
End support conditiOn
Pmned Continuous
Outer Near End End span At first At mrddle At mterior
support middle of St.Jpport interior of interior Sl.lpports
end span st.Jpport spans
Moment 0 0.086FI 0.075FI 0.063F/
0 04FI 0.086F/ 0.063Ff
Shear 0 4F
0.46F 0 6F O.SF
I crrcctve spdn.
Area or each ,:: 30 m
(A bay I$ a strip or sl,lb ocross thl! 1tructurl' bl'lween adjacent rows of
F total ultimate load 1.35Gf + l .SOQ, ,
8.1 Shear in slabs
The of a bOiid :.lab may he calculated hy the given ir>
chapter 5. Experimental work indicated that. compared wtlh beam\, shallow slat.'
fall at slightly higher shear stresses and thb incorporated into the values of
ultimate concrete shear resistance. VRd , as given by 5.1 and 5.2. Calculation'
arc usually based on a strip of slab I m wtde.
Stnce shear stresses in slabs subJeCt to umtormly loads are general!)
-.mall. shear reinforcement will seldom be requtred and 11 would be usual to design tbe
slab such that the design ultimate shear force. \'Ed ic; leo;s than the shear strength of tbe
unreinforced ection. \'Rd..: In thic; ca'e it " not neces<;ary to provide any shear
reanforcement. This can conveniently he checked us1ng Table !!.2 which has been
I using

0 063FI
rows of
..!1\Cn Ill
w 'lahs
., of the

k:.tgn the
= 'h or the
} shear
.. as been
Design of reinforced concrete slabs
Table 8. 2 Shear resistance of slabs without shear reinforcement vRd,c N/mm
(Class C30/35 concrete)
A, j bd Effective depth, d (mm)
s 200 225 250 300 350 400 500
0.25% 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.47 0.45 0.43 0.40
0.50% 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.51 0.48
0.75% 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.59 0.58 0.55
1.00% 0.75 0.72 0.71 0.68 0.65 0.64 0.61
1.25% 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.66
1.50% 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.70
2.00% 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.77
k 2.000 1.943 1.894 1.816 1.756 1.707 1.632
Table 8.3 Concrete strength modiiicalion !actor
) 25 30 35 40 45 50
Modification factor 0.94 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.14 1.19
derived from Equation!-. 5.1 and 5.2 for C30 concrete on the that the
allowable in the unreinforccd 1-lah i-; given hy
\'RtJ <
In this cr"e, the applied ulttmntc
bd - uU
Tuhlc 8.2 also clearly rhe cf'f'cct of increasing :-.lah on the depth
related factor k. as noted abo\oc. Where different concrete strength' are U\Cd. the values
in table 8.2 may he modtfied hy the factors 111 tahlc lU provided fit
As for the secuon should also he checked tn ensure that Vt'.d docs not exceed
lhe maximum permissible shear force. Vlht,
,,\ If 1ohcar is required then
the methods given in char>ter 5 can he nlthough practical dif'lit:ulties conccmed
with hending and fixing shear reinforcement make it unlikel y thm reinforcement
could he provtdcd in 'lah' le'\:. than 200 mm tluck.
Localised 'punching' actions due to hca\ y concentrated loads ma). hO\\ever,
more critical condition!\ as -,hown tn the following <;ections .
8.1.1 Punching shear - analysi s
A concentrated load on a slah causes shearing on a section around the load: this
effect ill n:ferred to as punching :-.hear. The critical \urface for chccktng punching '>hear
ts shown ao; the perimeter in ligure 8.1 which i' located at 'l.Od from the loaded area.
The maximum force that can be carried by the slah wtthout shear reinforcement (VK
can be obtained using the values of ''Rd, c given in table 8.2 based on equations 5.1
and 5.2 for normal shear in beams and &labs. where Pt J{pyfJ
) where /Jy and p, arc
212 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 8. 1
Punching shear
- area
JJ, JJ Load

the reinforcement A, /bd in the two mutually perpendicular directions (see
table A.3 in the Appendtx for A,) then
\/Rd c =
(R.I )
d = ciTecuve depth of sectton !average or the two 11teel layer1- in perpcndicu..;

directions ,
u = length of the punching shear perimeter.
If there are axial loads in the plane ot the slah an addiuonalterm is added to VRd c to
allow for the effect of these axial loads. This term is ..,.0.1 11er where 11cp is the nverage of
the normal acting in the y and :- direction!> (from or
external forces). Such compre"ive \tresse:. thus the punching shear resistance
whilst conversely tcn!>ilc stresses reduce the capacity.
must alsu be undertuken to ensure that the maximum permissible shear force
( VR,t max) nnt exceeded at the race of the loaded nrca. The mnximum permissible shear
is given by VRu, mu = where 11 ill the pertmeter of
the loaded area and v
, the strength reduction factor = 0.6( I
Punching shear
A l75 mm lhick. uverage effccti vc depth 145 mm is constructed with C25/30
concrete <lnd reinforced with 12 mm bar' at 150 mm centre:. one wa} mm
/m) and
10 mm bat'l at 200 mm centres in the other direction (393 mm
/m). Determine the
maximum ultimate load that can be carried on nn area 300 x 400 mm.
For the unremforced the first critical perirnetct
It 1 :: (2a + 2/J -'- 2;r X 2d)
= 2(a -1- b) -1 4r.d
= 2(300 + 47i X 145
=- 3222mm
(8. J)

itO\ Rd t tO
erage of
re'tress or
car force
'ble shear
"!leter of
m) and
mtne the
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 21
hence from equation 8. J
\!Kd c = X 3222 X J45
= 467 190vRd. c
Average steel ratio
fit VPy X p,
P> 754/( 1000 X 145) = 0.0052
{11 393/( 1000 X 145) = 0.0027
/It - )(0.0052 X 0.0027) 0.0038 = OJRl;f,
Thus from I able 8.2. for a 175 mm slab, c = 0.56 N/mm" for a cl:m C30 concrete
and from table 8.3 for C25 concrete, used ht:rc, modification factor O.<J4.
lienee. maximum ultimate load
\!Rd,r 0.94 >< 0.56 X 467 Jl)() > 10 J
The maximum 11hcar force on the lace of the lnadcd arl'a gf\ en b)
the maximum !>hear
\ ' Rd ""'' 0.5ud[o.6(1
0.5 2(_1()() ..,.. 400) X 145 X [0.6 (I
25 )] 25 1
250 T5 )
v.hkh clearly exceeds the value VRd r based on the first critical perimeter. I fence the
lmaximum load thar the can carry is 246 kN.
8.1.2 Punching shear - reinforcement design
If reinforcement required to resist shear around the contrnl perimeter indicatcd in
Figure 8.1, il he placed between not more thnn 0.5d from the loaded area and a
distance 1.5d inside the outer control perimeter m \Vhich shear reinforcement no
longer required. The length of this is given hy u
tr = II,.J/( ' 'Rd. eel) from wh1ch the
dio;tance from the loaded area can he calculated. If i' than .1d from the
face of the loaded area. then reinforcement should be placed in the zone hetween 0.3d
and l .5d from this face.
Vertical link\ wtll nonnally be used and provtdcd around m lcao;t two perimeter<; not
more than 075d apart. Link spacing around a perimeter wuhin 2d of the face of rhe
loaded area not be greater than l.5d. incrcuo;ing to a limit of 1.0d at greater
214 Reinforced concrete design
perimeter-.. Provided that the slab is greater than 200 mm thick overaiJ then the amou
of reinforcement reqlllred is given by:
IRd c' - 0. 751'Rd.l"
SJI1 0' d X r
1.5 J)'l'
.lr X 111d
A," 1s the total area of shear reinJorccment in one perimeter (mm
1, is the radial spacing of perimeters of shear reinforeemenl
.f)wd,cr is the effective of the :.hear reinforcement and i:. gl\en
f,"cJ <I 250 ..1.. () 25d J; .... ,j.
l'l(d.,., is the punching 'hear reststance or the reinforced slah nnd n is the
between :.hear relllforcement and the plane of the -.lab. that sin n = I
vertical rcinforecmem.
This cl'fectively for a 75 per cent contribution from the unreinforcc:
concrete !>lab. and for vertical links can be e\prcssed a\:
l'l(cJ _. 0.751'Rd.c
/\.-, (.--)
l.5 ./y"u d
.I rill
where the requircu l'lhl,c' would be given hy .. ,.
llj (
A ched, mu"t al:.o be made the calculated reinforcement sausfie-. the minimu
requirement that:
0.053.j1,7(sr. v,)

where 'l I)> the spncing of link'i around the perimeter and A,
mrn the area of m
indil'idt/(/1 fin/... hg.
Similar procedure:- must be applied to the regums of Om 'ilab' which arc close t<1
!.upponing. columns, hut allowances must he macte for reduced criw.:al near
sinh edge' and the effect of moment from the column11 described 1n
-.cction 8.6.
Design of punching shear reinforcement
A 260 mm thid. slah ol class C25/30 concrete reinforced by 12 mm high yield m
125 mm centre!> in each direction. n1e 'lab is "UbJCCL to a dry environment and must be
able to corry a localised concentrated ultimate load of 650 J..N over a square area of
100 mm :,Ide. Detcm1ine the -.hear reinforcement required for f>l = 500 N/mm

For exposure class XC-I, cover required for a C25/30 concrete is 25 mm. thu:. average
cffecti\e depth for the two layer' of steel and allowing for 8 mm links i!. equal to
260- (25 +X+ 12) = 215mm
I for
1m urn
01 (/fl
fo,e w
terS ncar
1bed in
(i) Check maximum permissible force at face of loaded area
\11aximum shear resistance:
\'Rd. =- 0.5ud [ 0.6 (I -
[ (
25 )] 25 .
- 0.5(4" 300) X 215 X 0.6 1 - ::?SQ 1.
X 1()_,
= 1161 kJ\ ( > Vut =- 650 kN>
(ii) Check control perimeter 2d from loaded face
Perimeter 11
- 2(a f b) t 4rrd
2(300 -1- 300) + 4r. x '215 = 3902 mm
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 215
hence for concrete without reinforcement the capacity is given hy:
Vnct ,c l'fttt ,r X 3902 X '215 = 838 930vRd.c
bending ratio
A, 905 (
- =
= 0.0042 ( > 1.40 per cent}
btl I
hence from tahlc 8.2. I'Rd , 0.5n fnr C30 concrete and. I rom tahlc !U,
modification factor for da-.s C25 concrete O.lJ-1 then
Rd., !OX 930 X 0.56 0.94 x 10-'
= 442 kN < < - 650 k:-.l)
and punching :.hear rc111forcemcnt 1:. required.
(iii) Check outer perimeter at which reinforcement is not required
Vr:d 650 " 10' =
I' Rtl ,d 0.56 > 0.94 X 215
This wtll occur at n diMance .rd from the face of the lmtdcd area. such thlll
5743 2( \()() I 300) I 2;; X 215 X .I
and 1 .1.36 ( 3.0)
(iv) Provision or reinforcement
Shear n:inl'orccment should thus he provided within thi.! tnnc extending from a
not gretttcr thnn 0. 'id and less than (3.36 - I .5 )d = 1.86d from the loaded l'ncc
lot peritm:ters < 0.75d apar1. 3 perimerers of steel will thus h.: adequate located at
0.4d, 1. 15d and 1.9d. i.e. l\5. 245 and 111111 from the fucc of the loaded area
(i.e .. 1
loOmm apurt).
Since all perimeter' lie within 2d (=- 430 mm) of the lnad and maximum lin I. spacing,

). is limited to 1.5d ( 323 mm).
The minimum link leg area i), therefore given hy:
0.05 3 ..j]d ( \1 )
A,w,rnm = r
0.053 /3( 16() X 323)
- 27.3 mm= \lhich tl> l>atil>ficd by a 6 mm diameter har (28.3mm '>
Hence the Hmm lin"-' ''ill be adequate.
216 Reinforced concrete design
The area oJ steel requi red/perimeter is thus given by:
A > I'Rd ,, - 0.751'Rd .
- (f )
1.5 /y .. ,
where. for the outer perimeter
VF,t 650 X 10
\'Rd" = -
- v., = 0.77511.1/mm-
lltl 3,.,)_ _l)
l'l{d = 0.94 x 0.56 0.526 N/mm
!.v.d d = 250 1- 0.25 x 215 = 103 N/mm' ( 500)
UIIU Vr - 160111111

(0.775 - 0.75 X 0.526) X 160 X J9()2
A" > -- -- -- --
' - 1.5 X 303
= 523mm
(v) Number of links
The nre:1 of one leg of nn X mm link 50.3 mm
. lienee the number of II nk-lcgs required
523/50.3 11 on the outer pcrimeler. Thl: same number of link::. cnn conveni entl y be
pro\ tded around each of the 3 proposed perimeter' as 'ummarised in the table hclo\\
The table tndicate' the numhct of g mm diameter (urea = 50.3 J
proposed for each or lhc three n:inforcemcnt perimeter' taking account of the maximum
requm:d spacing and practical h\ing cnn,idcrauon,. Bendtng retnforccment i' 'paced at
I 25 mm centres in hoth directions: hence link spacing is at multiple!> or thb value.
Dl5tance from Length of Reqtlired ltnk Proposed link Propo5ed
load face (mm) perimeter spacing (mm) spacing (mm) number of finks
85 1734 158 125 14
245 2739 249 250 11
400 3713 323
250 15
muxir'num allowed
8.2 Span-effective depth ratios
<.lellection' of slabs will cause damage to lhe ceiling, 11 om finishes or other
archttccrural To a\Oid thi!>. hmil'> arc set on the -.pan-depth ratio. These
arc exactly the ns those for hcarns described in section 6.2. As n slab i'> usually a
!.lender member. the restrictiom; on the ratio hecomc more important and
this can often comrol the depth of slah required. ln tenm of the 'pan- effective depth
nlliO. the depth Of slah IS gtVCI1 by
. span
mtnimum effective depth = -.--. -. --. - -
baste rauo x correcuon I actor:-
: bcJO\\.
.3 mm
I!P3CCd at
' of links
__ )
. or other
:e'e limitt-
u,ually :.1
1ant and
1 e depth
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 2
The correction factors account for slab type and conditions well as cases of
span!> greater than 7 and for flat slabl> greater than R.5 metres. The ba:-.ic ratio may
also be corrected to account for grades of sreel other than grade 500 and for" hen more
reinforcement 1\ provided than that requlfed for at the ult1mate limit -.tate. Initial
values of ratio may be obtained from tables (e.g. table 6. 10) but thc-.e arc concrete
strength dcj)l.!ndcnt.
It may normally be that in usUlg such table-., ,Jab., are hghtl) Mres\ed
although a more exact determination can he made from ligurc 6.3 when the percentage
of tcnllion reinforcement is known. It can he seen 1hat the ba,ic ratio can he mcrcased
hy reducing the stress condition in the concrete. The concrete \trel>' may be reduced by
providing an area of tension reinforcement grcall.:r than that required to rc1>i1-.t the design
moment up (() a maximum of 1.5 x lhm required.
In the case of two-way spanning slabs, the check on the span effective depth ratio
r.hould be hased on the sltorler span length. This doc!' not apply to llat slabs where the
longer span should be checked.
8.3 Reinforcement details
To resist cracking of the concrete. codes of practice as the minimum
area oJ reinforcement required in a and to the maxnnum anu min1mum
spacmg oJ bar\. Some of thc\e rules are
(a) M111imum area\ of rdnforcemenr
minimum area 0.26f.:
d/f)1. "> 0 0013b
in hmh direcuons. where b is the mean '' idth of the terNie tone or scct1on. The
m1nimum remforcement provision for crack control. a' spec1hed 111 'cction 6.1.5
may also huve to t>e cons1dered ''here the ,Jut> depth exceeds 200 mm. Secondary
tran!>vcrsc re1nforcement should not be less than 20 per cent olthe minimum mam
rcinfon.:cment requirement in one way <.lahll .
(b) Maximum areas of longtnldinal and trun!>verse reinforcement
muximum urea - 0.04A,
where A, il' the gross cross-sectional area. This limit applic1-. to sections away from
arcus of bnr lapping.
(c) Maximum spacing of bar!i
For slabs not exct:eding 200 mm hur spacing should not exceed three
timet- the overall depth of slab or -100 mm whichever i:-. the for main
reinforcement, and 3.511 or 450 mm for secondary rellllmceml'nt. In areas of
concentrated load or maximum moment, thc1-c arc reduced to 211 < 250 mm
and 111 <.. 400mm respectively.
(d) Reinforcement in the flange of aT- or L-beam
' I his i' described in deuul in section 5.1.4.
(c) Curtailment and anchorage of reinforcement
The general rules for curtailment of ban. in nexural members \\ere discus'icd in
section 7.9 Simphtied rules for curtailment in different I} pes of c;lab arc IIJu,trated
in the sub,equent o;ecuons of this chapter. At a \imply \UPI10rted end. at lea!-.t half
thl' span reinforcement should be anchored in figure 7.26 and at an
unsupported edge U bar\ with leg length at leaM 2h llhould t>e provided. anchored
h) top and bottom transverse bars.
218 Reinforced concrete design
rlgure 8.2
Slmpliht-d rules for curtailment
or ir1 slab }panning In
one direCtion
8.4 Solid slabs spanning in one direction
The -.labs are de-.igned as if they consist of a serie-. of beams of I m breadth. The ma1
is in the direction of the span and secondary or distribution steel required in tht
transverse direction. The main steel should fonn the oUier layer of reinforcement to giH
it the maximum lever ann.
The cakulations for bending reinforcement foliO\\ a similar procedure to that used ir
hcum design. The lever arm curve ol fi gure 4.5 is used to determine the lever arm (
and the area of tension reinforcement then gi\cn by
A, - --
0 87f.,L:
solid slabs spanning one-way the simplified rules for cwtuiling hars as shown 1
hgure 8.2 may be used pro\ 1ded that the load' are uniformly distributed. With
continuous sluh it i-. also necessary that tht: spans arc approximately equal. The,,
simplihed rule\ arc not gi,en in EC2 but arc recommended on the basis of prO\t
sati sfactory performance established in previous codes of practice.
8.4. 1 Single-span solid slabs
The ha-;1c span effective depth ratio lor thl\ type of slah i' 20: I on the bal>l'i that it
' li ghtly stressed' and that grade 500 steel is in the design. For a start-point
a \alue abo\'e can U\uall} he c),timatcd (uniCl>S the slah ic, known w b-
hcavily loaded) and subsequently checked once the main n.:mforccmcnt h
been designed.
fhe effective 1>pan ol the may he taf..en the clear d1stance hctween the face l
lhc supports plus a distance at both ends taf..en a), the of (a) the from tl,
face of the support 10 11\ centreline and (b) nne-half of the menlll depth of the l!lab.
25% or m1d-span SLc!!l
c- 0.20L
Stmpty Supported
Continuous Slab
' 0.3L
'" 0.1SL
10\\ n in
lth a
p men
m the
r ,Jab.
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 21
( EXAMPLE 8. 3
Design of a simply supported slab
The :-lab \ hown in figure 8.3 ts to be designed lO carry a variable load of 3.0 kN/m' plus
floor and cetling loads of 1.0 kN/m!. The charactcrhtic matcnnl are
fc1.. = 25 Nlmm
nnd - 500N/mm
Baste span effecti,c depth ratto = 19 for a
lightly i-lab from rigure 6.3 for class C25/.10 concrete and p O.Y'f.
For \impl icity. take the effective span to be 4.5 m hetween centreline' of supports.

HlO - 150

, ...
(7) First design solution
Eslimate of slab depth
HlO 300
Try a baste span-depth ratio of 27 (approx. ahovc value from ligurc 6.1)
f d h
mnumum c tccuvc ept =- 27 x correction (C.f.l
4500 167
').7 X c.f. c.f.
A,.,. ) icld '>tee I t'> lx:ing used and the span le'' than 7 m the correction tact or:. can
be taken a' unny. Try an effective depth of 170 nun. For a cia'' XC I cxpm.ure the
co.,cr 25 mm. Allowing. 5 mm tl" half the har diameter of the rci nlorct ng har:
O\erall uepth of \lab 170 f 25 f 5 200 mm
Slab loadi ng
f weight ol slah 200 x 25 x 10-
= 5.0 kN/m
tolul pcrmancttl load 1.0 1 5.0 - 6.0 kN/m
Fm a I tn width of slab:
ul ti mate load ( 1.35Rk I 1.5qk)4.5
= (J.35 X 6.0 + 1.5 X 3.0)4.5 56.HN
M 56.7 x 4.5/R 31. 9 kNm
Bending reinforcement
,\.f 31.9

I ()(X) X 170
x 25 0.()4
From the lever-arm curve of ligure -t5. = 0.96. Therefore adopt upper limt t of 0.95
and lever-arm ;: -lad- 0.95 x 170 = 161 mm:
M 31.9 X 10
55 '!
A, =- --. - = = ..t mm m
O.l:!7})kZ 0.87 X 500 X 161
Provide HI 0 bar.. at 150 rnm centres. As = 523 mm
/m (al> shown in tahle A.3 in the
Figure 8.3
Simply supported slab
220 Reinforced concrete design
Check span-effective depth ratio
I = I OOA, n:q = I()() X
- ( >0. 13'* minimum requirement)
I bd 1000 X 170
!-rom figure 6.3. to a baste span-eftectt\'e depth mtio of 32. The actual
ratio= 4500
170 = 26.5: hence the chosen effecuve depth ts acceptable.
At the face of the !>uppon
55.5 (2.25 - 0.5 X O.J) ..,
hear =T
=- . N
I(){) X 523
PI = IOOO x t70=0.J I
... - t'Rd,,bd where vR
., from table 8.2 = 0.55 (note: no concrete strength
adjustment since fiJ < 0.4%). Thus:
VKu , - 0.55 X I 000 X 170 93.5 kN
as VL:d b less than VRu, then no reinforcement required.
End anchorage (figure 7.26)
From the tahle of anchorage lengths in the Appendix the tenswn anchorage length
= 40c, 40 x 10 = 400 mm.
Distribution steel
Pm\ldc minimum 0.00 JJbd - O.O<ll3 x I O<Xl x 170 221 nun
Prm ide 1110 at 300 mm centres (262 mm
/m) \\htch \llll'lhe' ma>:imum bar spacing
It mit,.
(2) Alternative design solution
The 1-.ccond part ot thl' exumple lllu<;tralel> how a depth of lab is adequate
provided it b reinforced with Mecl in exec:-\ or !hat required for bending thus working at
a lower in service. Try a of sloh, II 170 mm and d = 140 mm:
or !. lab = 0.17 X 25 4.25
Iota! permanent load = I .0 + 4.25 5.25 kN/ml
ultimate load ( l.35gk +
=- ( 1.35 X 5.25 1- 1.5 X 3.0)4.5 52. I kN
Bending reinforcement
M = 52.1 X 8 29.3 kN Ill
!:!..__ = 29.3 )( 106 = 0.060
bd2J'ck 1()0() X 140! X 25
From the le,er-arm curve of figure 4 5. 1. = 0.945. Therefore, lever-arm ;: l.,d =
0945 x 140 = 132mm:
M 29.3
A,= = 510mm
. Q.87f}k: 0.87 ) 5()0 X J32
Provide H 10 han. at 150 mm centre!>. A, 523
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 221
Check span-effective depth ratio
IOOA, l00 x 510
p bd = 1000 )( 140 =
f-rom figure 6.3 this to a span-effective depth rat1o of 24.0.
Acrual Span
45 000
= 32.1
Eff. depth 140
Thi!> is inadequate but can he overcome by increasing the Mccl area.
Span . . A,. p
Ef ' d th = b<l!-IC rauo x --
1. ep Au eq
Try IOmm at I 00 mm centres, prov = 785 mm

510 = 1.54
Upper limit w torrection factor (UK National Annex) I 5.
lienee al lowuhle . . = 24 x 1.5 - 36 which greater than that provided.
efleetiVC depth
Therefore d 140 mm is adequate.
8.4.2 Continuous solid slab spanning in one directi on
f-or a conllnuous slab, bottom reinforcement j., required \\lthlll the 'pan and top
reinforcement over the The effective span i-. the diStance hct\\ecn the
centreline of the ..upport<> and the ba.<.ic l>pan-cffettivc depth ratio of an 1ntcnnr 1-pun i'
10.0 for 'lightly where grade 500 steel and C'30/35 concrete arc U\Cd. The
limit for an end span is 26.0.
If the conditions given on page 209 are met. the bending moment and Ioree
given in table R.l mt1y he used.
Design of a continuous solid slab
The four-spun slab shown in figure H.4 a variable load of 3.0

plus lloor
fini\hes and a ceiling load of 1.0 kN/m
. TI1c characteristic material arc
.f.l 25 N/mm
and f>k 500 N/mm
Estimate of slab depth
the end 'pan i-. more critical th<m the interior try a ha\IC ..,pan effecti\e depth
ratio 30 per cent above the end-:.pan Limit of 26.0 (i.e. 31.0):
minimum effective depth = .
33.0 x correcLJon factor
4500 136
33.0 X c.f. c.f.
222 Reinforced concrete design
figure 8.4
E' 'E' 'E'
, E'


'""' ' ""'
. co

I I I 1---- 1----
LJ u u u J
4Sm 4.5m 4.Sm J_ 4.5m
A"' high yield \tecl is being and th\: span is lcs1. Lhnn 7 m the correction factor can be
as unity. Try rtn effective depth of 140mm. For a class XC-I exposure U1e
cover 25 111m. AIIO\\ mg. 'ay. 5 mm as half the bar diameter of the reinforcing bar:
overall depth of slab 140 + 25 + 5
Slab loading
of slab 170 x 25 I 0 ' 4 25 kN/m'
totul permanent load I .0 4.25 = 5.25
For a I m w1dth of slab
ulumme loud. F = ( - 1.5q, )4.5
= ( I J5 x 5.25 I 1.5 x 3.0)4.5 52.14
lhmg the codficiems of lrthle R.I. the end support i' pinned, the moment at
the m1ddlc of the end j.., gi\cn by
M 0.086F/ 0.086 x 52.14 x 4.5 = 20. 1 X kN m
Bending reinforcement
M 20. 1X X 10
JO()() X f.tQ1 25
0 04 12
From the lcvcr-rtrrn curve of figure 4.5, 0.96. Therefore. lever-arm . l.,d
0.95 x 140 133mm:
M 20.18 X 101'1
0.!!7 X 500 X 133
= 349 111111
Provide n I 0 har)o at 200 mm cemrc:.. A, = 3'>3 mm
Check span-effective depth ratio
= 100 X 349 = 0.2-19
IJd I 000 x I 40
lit at
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 223
HlO- 400 HlO 200 Hl0-250
.. s ; ,
jk > 9

Hl0-200 Hl0 - 400 Hl0 - 250
f-rom figure 6.3 thb to a basic span-effective depth ratio m excess of
12 x 1.3 (for an end 41. The acrual ratio 4500/ 140 = 32.1; hence the
chosen effective depth is acceptable.
Similar calculations for the supports and the intelior give the steel l.hown
in figure 8.5.
At the end there ill a monolithic connection between rhe slnb nnd the beam,
therefore rop steel should be provided to resist negative moment. The momcnl w he
rt minimum of 25 per cent of rhe span moment. I haL is 5.1 kN m. In fact, to
rrovide a m1nimum of 0. 13 per cent of steel, I-l l 0 ban m 400 mm centres have
The layout or the reinfmcemen\ in 11gure 8.5 i.., accmding to the ..,implit1ed
rub for curtailment of in slabs as illuwared in llgure 8.2.
remforcemcm = 0.00!3bd
0.0013 x 1000 " I

Provide Ill 0 m 400 mm centres top and boll om. where,er there t\ matn
( 190 mm' lm).
Solid slabs spanning in two directions
When a is on four of :.ides it effectively spun..; in both
and it is sometimes more to design the slab on this amount of
bending in cuch direction will depend on the nttin of the two 11pan:-. and the conditions
of remain! at each support.
If the slab square and the rcr.traints are similar along ti\C l'our sidus then the load
will s.pon c4ually in both directions. If the slah rccrungular I hen more than t)ne-half of
the load will be c:urried in the stiffer, shorter direction and less in I hi! longer direction. If
one span much longer than the other. a large proportion nf the load will he carried in
the direction and the slab may as well be designed as spanning in only one
Moment!> in eac:h direction of span arc generally calculated using tabulated
coefficient<;. Areas of rcinforcemem ro resist the moments arc dctcrmmed mdi!pcndently
for each direc11on of lipan. The slab is reinforced with bars in hoth d1rections parallel to
the span" \\ith the steel for the shorter span placed funhest from the neutral a xi' to give
it the grcatcr effective tlcpth.
Thi! -.pan-etlecuve depth ratios are based on the -.horter :.pan and the percentage of
reinlorccmcnt in that direction.
With a uniformly chstributetl load lhe loads on the 'iUpportlllg beam' may
be apportioned a.' in figure 8.6.
Figure 8.5
Reinlorcement in a continuous
224 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 8.6
Loads carried by supportmg

Beam A
Beam B
8.5. 1 Simply supported slab spanning in two directions
A slab simply -.upponed on its four will c.lenccl uhmn both under load and
will tend to lift and c.:urlup l'rom the supports, c.:ausing torsional momems. Wher>
no provision has been made w prevent th1s lifting or to resist the torsion then the
moment cocffidents of tahle 8.4 may be U1'>Cd and the maximum moments are given
' M,x = a,,nl; in direction of span f,
M,y = in direction of /).
M" and M,) are the moments at mid \pan on \trips of unit width with c;pans /, and
11 - ( + l.Sql.). that b the total ultimate lond per unit urea
I> = the length of the longer side
I, - the length of the shorter side
a,, and a,> arc the moment coefficients from mhlc 8.4.
The area of reinforcement in directions/, and /\ respectively arc
M,x .
=- 'f, . per metre w1dth
M, y
ll,y = -- per metre width
111c s!ah should be reinforced uniformly m:ro:-.s 1he full width, in each direction.
The effective depth d used in should he le'' than that for A,, because
Of the different of the tWO Of reinforcement.
Tabl e 8.4 Bending-moment coefficients for slabs spanning in two directions at right
angles, simply supported on four sides
1 7
I 4
3IId 1

Design of reinforced concrete slabs 225
F.stabli hed practice '>uggcsts that at least 40 per cent of the mid-span reinforcement
<,hould extend to the supporL<; and the remaining 60 per cent should extend to within
0. 11, or 0.1/y of the appropriate support.
It should be noted that the above method is not specially mentioned 111 EC2: however.
as the method was deemed acceptable in B$8110. Its continued use should be an
acceptable method of analysing this type of slab.
( EXAMPLE 8 .5
Design the reinforcement for a simply supported slab
The :,lab 220 rnm thick and spans in two direction:.. ThL: effective span in each
direction is 4.5 m and 6.3 m and the :-.lah supports a variable load of 10 kN/m
churucteriM ic material suengtb:, arc fck 25 N/mm
and /yk 500 N/mm
fy/1, 6.3/4.5 = J .4
From lahle = 0.099 and a,) 0.051.
Self-weight of !-lab = 220 x 25 x 10 ' = 5.5 t..N/m
ultimate toad = 1.35gk + 1.5qk
= 1.35 X 5.5 t 1.5 X 10.0 - 22..431-N/m'
Bending short span
With clas'> XC- I cxpo:-.urc conditions take d - 1 R5 mm
M" a,,nt; 0.099 x 22.43 x 4.5
45 OkNm
45.0 X 10
bcl'.f..k I 000 X 15 = 0.0::>
From the lever-ann curve. figurc 4.5. -= 0.95. TI1crefore
lever-arm - 0.95 x 185 - 176 mm
O.R7 X 500 X 176
588 rnm
Provide 11 12 at 175 mm centres, A,= 646rnm
Span-effective depth ratio
= IOOAueq = 100 X 588 = 0.
It bd 1000 > 185
From figure 6.3. tht'> correl>pondl> to a ba'iic 'pan-effective depth ratio of 28.0:
-;pan 4500
actual ?4 3
cffecti vc depth 185 - ..
Thu'i d 1 R5 mm b adequate.
226 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 8.7
Simply supported slab
spanning in two directions
Bending - long span
M,) -
= 0.051 X 22.43 X 4.5!
= 23.16kN m
Since the rei nforcement for this span will have a reduced effective depth. take
;: = 176 - 12 = 164mrn. Therefore
A - M,y
' -
:n. l6 x 11Y
0.87 )( 500 164
Prm ide H 10 at 200 mm centres. A, = 393 mm '/m
lOOA, 100 .193
-;;;/ =- (()()() v 164
= 0.24
"h1ch i' greater than 0.13, the mm1mum for tranwer'e 'teel, wuh cia'" C25/30 concrete.
rhc arrangement of the reinforcement ''shown 10 hgurc 8.7.

8.5.2 Restrained slab spanning in two directions
When the slabs have fixity at the supports and reinl'orccment is added to resist torsion
and to prevent the corm:rs of the l> lab from lifting then the maximum moments per uni t
width are given hy
M,, = in direc1i nn of span I,
M,) = in direction ol span ly
where and d,y are the moment coefficients given in table 8.5. hased on previou'
experience. for the specified end and n - ( 1.35gl l.Sqk ), the total
ultimate load per unit area.
The slab is di\ided into middk and edge !.trips as \.hown in figure 8.8 and
reinforcement is required in the mtddle smp-. lO re'>ist ,H,x and M,y. The arrangement
this remforcement should tal..c i-. illustrated in figure 8.2. In the edge only nominal
reinforcement i:-. ncccssaJ). such that A,/ bd = 0.26f.:
m/f}l > 0.0013 for high yield

min a I
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 227
Table 8.5 Bending moment coefficients for two-way spanning rectangular slabs supported by beams
Type of panel and moments considered
Negative moment at continuous edge
Positive moment at midspan
Negative moment at continuous edge
Positive moment at midspan
Negative moment at continuous edge
Positive moment at midspan
Negative moment at conti nuous edge
Positive moment at midspan
., .
... .
1 ..
"' :;;
(cl) ror span I,


Short span coefficients for values of
1.0 7.25
1.5 1.75 2.0
Interior ponels
0.031 0.044 0.053 0.059 0.063
0.024 0.034 0.040 0.044 0.048
One short edge discontinuous
0.039 0.050 0.058 0 063 0.067
0.029 O.Q38
0.043 0.047 0.050
One long edge discontinuous
0.039 0.059 0.073 0.083 0.089
0.030 0.045 0.055 0.062 0.067
Two adjacent edges discontinuous
0.047 0.066 0.078 0.087 0.093
0.036 0.049 0.059 0.065 0.070
- - - --
.. ...
1- _ _ Edge slnp - '
Mtddle strip
--Edge Slrlp -
l I,
(b) For span
In auditi on, torsion reinforcement is provided ut c.lbwnrinuous nntl it
1. consist of top and bottom mats, each hoving in both directions uf
2. extend from the edges n minimum diE.tunce 1, / 5:
3. ut a corner where the slab is discontinuou!l in both directions hnve an area of steel in
each of the four layers equal to of the urea required I'm the muximum
mid-span momem;
4. at a corner where the slnb is discontinuous in one direcrton only, have an area of
reinlorcement only half of that !.pecified in rule 3.
Torsion reinforcement il> not. however. at an} corner \\here the 1>lah ;..,
continuous in both directions.
Where /) fl, > 2. the slabs should be as in one dtrecllon only.
lr be noted thatrhe coefficients for both shear and momen111 can only be U\Cd if
d w., B or C ductility reinforcement .\pccificd and the mrio .1j d is limited 10 0.25.
Long-spon coeffidents
for all values of ly , lx
figure 8.8
D1v1sion of slab into m1ddle
and edge strips
228 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 8.9
Continuous panel spanning in
1,= S.Om
supported edge
., 'C

Moments In a continuous two-way sl ab
The panel an edge panel, U\ in figure 8.9 and the
lontl, n ( 1.35gk + l.Sqk) I 0 kN/m

The moment coefficient"\ nre taken from table 8.5.
I, 5.0
I ::!5
Positive momenls at mid-span
M,, :;::; ().().l5 X 10
II :!5 kl\ m tn I,
M,> - d,)111: 0.028 10 "s'
7.0kN min direction ly
Negative moments
Support ad. M, 0.059 x 10 )( 5' 14.75 kl\ m
Support<, nb (llld de, o.o:n X 10 X s' 9.25 kN m
The calculated arc for a metre width of slab.
The of reinforcement to resist these momenb would follow the usual
procedure. Tor,ion reinforcement, accordtng to rule 4 requtrcd at corners h and c. A
check would aJ,o be required on the effective depth ratio of the sl ab.

8.6 Flat slab floors
A llat slab noor is a reinforced concrete sltth supported directly hy concrete column'
without the usc of Lntermctliary be:um. The moy be of constant
throughout or in the area of the column it may be thickened as a drop panel. The column
may aJ<.o be of constant '>Cction or it may be llared to form a column hend or capital.
These vanoul> forms of arc illu11trated in figure R.l 0.

1 ,ual
.... A
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 22'
Floor without drop
panel or column
Floor with column
head but no drop
Floor wllh drop
panel and column
The drop panels ore effective in reducing the shearing where the column i11
liable to punch through the slab. and they also provide an increase<.! moment or
re!.istance where the negative moments arc greatest.
The llat slnb floor has many a<.lvantages over the beam and ll oor. The simpl ified
rormwork ar1 d the reduced heights make it more economical. Win<.lows can
extend up to the of the slab, and there are no beams to the light and
the circulation of air. The absence of sharp corners gtves greater fire resistance as there
rs less danger of the concrete spalliog and the reinforcement. Deflection
requirements will generally govern slab thicknesl> which should not normally he le:,s
than 180 mm fur lire rcl>istance as indicated tn table 8.6.
l'hc analy\is of a nut 5lab strucrure may be carried out hy divtding the into a
\eric' of equivalent frames. The moments in these may he determine<.! hy:
(a) a method of frame analy:,is '>uch ru. momelll dtsmbution. or the "iffne!-ts method on
a computer:
(b) a stmpltlted method using the moment and \hear ol table K.l subjeCt to
the followtng requirements:
(i} the lateral stabrltty not dependent on the slab-column connections:
(ii) the for using table tU <.lcscrihed on page 209 arc sati:,ricd:
(iii) there nrc at lenst rhree rows of panel:, of tlpproximately equal span in the
direction being considered;
(iv) the hay exceeds 30m
Table 8.6 Minimum di mensions and axis distance for Flat slabs for fire resistance
Standard fire res1stance
REI 90
REI 120
REI 240
Minimum diml'nslom (mm)
Slab thickness, h
Axis a
1. of moments not to exceed 15% .
2. for hre R90 and above, 20% of the total top reinforcement in each dirtction over
mtermedidte supports should be continuoU5 over the whole spJn cmd pl.lced '" the column strip.
Figure 8.10
Drop panels and column
230 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 8.11
Flat slab divided into strips
Position of maximum
---------:.._-_- moment
Postion of maximum
--1--- pos1L1ve momcnl
W1dthof half column strip= //4 with no drops
or = half drop width when drops arc used
Interior panels of the Aat sluh be t.livit.led as shown in ligure g.l l into colur
and middle strips. Drop should be ignored if I heir smaller dimension is less
one-third of the smaller panel dimension JK . If a panel is not square, strip widths in hv
directions are ba.'>ed on l,.
dctennined from a structural or the coefficient1. of table 8.1 ... or
distributed between the as shown 111 table !.0 such that the negative and poslll
moments by the column and middle totul I 00 per cent in each
Reinforcemenl designed to re i't these \lab moments may be detailed according t.o
the simplified rules for slabs, and c;atisfying nom1al spucing limtl!>. This should be
spread the respective strip hut. in <,olid 'lab' \\ithout drop,, top steel to re'l
negati\e moments in column strip-. 'hould ha' e one half of the area located in 1
centml 4uartcr-strip width. If the column Mrip ts narrower because of drop,,
moments rcsbted b} rhe column and middle \trip' be proponional _
illu,truted in example 8.7.
Column moments can be calculated from the of the equivalent fr..
Particular care is needed over the of moments to edge column<;. This b to
that there is adequate moment capacity wtthin the slah udjucem to the column since
moments will only be able to be transferred to the edge column by a strip ot sinh
narrower than the normtll internal panel column sttip width. As seen in
table a limit placed on the negative moment transfcned to an edge column, and
reinforcement 'i hould bl.! concentrated wi thin width be a'i defined in figure R.l2. If
exceeded the moment shoult.l be limited to thi s value and the positive moment increased
to maintain equilibrium.
Table 8.7 Division of moments between strips
Negative moment at edge column
Negative moment at internal column
Positive moment in span
b. width ol edge strip.
Column stnp
1 00% but not more
than 0 17bpd
Middle strip
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 231
C, slab edge
y '
* ..
inner face of column j 4 !
b. = l y/2 ..j-
Note: All slab reinforcement perpendicular to a free edge transferring moment to the column
should be concentrated within the width be
(a) Edge column {b) Corner column
The reinforcement for :1 Rat slab should generally be arranged according to the rule!.
lll ui>tratec.J in Jigurc 8.2, but at least 2 bottom bars in each orthogonal c.Jirection shoulc.J
through internal columns 10 enhance robustness.
Important in the design of the slabs are the calculations for punching shenr nt
the hend or the and at the change in depth of the slnb, if drop are used.
The design !'or .\hould follow the procedure described in the previous sect ton Oil
punching except thm EC2 requires that the design shear force be incrca,cc.J ahnvc
the calculated value by 15 per cent for internal columns. up to 40 per cent lor edge
columns and 50 per cent for corner to allow for the of moment transfer.
'iimpltfied rules only apply to braced where adjacent 'pans do not differ
by more than
In constdenng punchtng shear. EC2 plaeei> additional requirements on the amount
and di-;tnbuuon ol re111forcement around column head\ to en,urc that full punching
'hear capacuy io; de\'eloped.
The U'iUlll basic \pan effective depth ratios may be u ... cd hut where the greater '>PliO
exceed' R.5 m the basic rntio should be multiplied by 8.5/span. For flm the
effective depth calculation should be based on the longer span.
Reference he made to codes of practice for further detatled informntion
describing the requirements for the analysis and design of Oat including the ol
bent-up to provide punching shear reststance.
Design of a flat slab
The arc at 6.5 m centres in each direcUon and the slab a variable lond
of 5 kN/m
I he characteristic material strenglhs are = 25 N/mm
for the concrete,
and 500 N/mm
for the reinforcement.
1t decided to use a floor ... tah us in figure 8.13 wi1h 250 mm overall depth of
slab. and drop panels 2.5 m square hy I 00 mm deep. The column heads arc to he made
1.2 m dwmetcr.
Permanent load
Weight of slab = 0.25 x 25 x 6.5
= 264.1 kl\
Weight of drop - O.l x 25 \( 2.5
= 15.6 kl\
Total= 279.71<1'\
Figure 8.12
Definition of be
232 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 8.13
Flat slab example
6.5 m column centres each way
Variable load
Total= 5 x 6.5
= 211.3kN
ultimate load on the Ooor. F = 1.35 x 279.7 1 1.5 x 211 .3
- 695 kN per panel
and equivalent distributed load. n
ll1c effective span.

L - clear between column head') +
at either end
(6.5 1.2)
350 .,
"' X-
10 l
A concrete cover of 25 mrn has been allowed, and where there urc two equal of
rctnforcement the effect1ve depth has heen taken as the mean depth of the two in
calculating the reinforcement (d - 205 mm in and 305 mrn ut suppOI'l!>.)
The drop d1 is greater than one-th 1rd of the panel dimension. therefore the
column strip is taken as the width of the dmp panel (2.5 m).
Bending reinforcement
Since the variable load is less than the pl.!rmancnl load anti hay size 6.5 x 6.5
42.25 m
( c 30 m
), from table 8. I:
1. Centre of interior span
moment = 0.063/-'/
= 0.063 X 695 X 5.65 247 kN m
' I he width of the middle i!'. (6.5- 2.5) = 4m which is greater than half the
panel dimension, therefore the proponion ol moment taken by the middle strip
can be taken as 0.45 from table 8.6 adju<;ted as sho" n.
0.45 X 6 I" = 0.55
.5 -
Thus middle strip positi' e moment = 0.55 '>' 24 7 = 136 I..N m.
The column strip poi>itivc moment = ( I - 0.55) x 247 llllli m.
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 233
(a) For the middle strip
_!!_ = I 36 X 106 = 0.032
bd2fck 4000 X X 25
From the lever-arm curve. figure 4.5. Ia = 0.97. thcrcfon:
M 136 X let
A - ---
' - 0.87 X 500 X 0.95 X 205
1605 mrn
bottom steel
Thu\ provide ,\ixteen HI 2 (A, 1809 mm
) each way in the
evenly the 4 m width of the middle (spacing 250 mrn
maximum allowuble for a slab in an area of maximum moment).
(h) The column morm:nts will require 1310mm
houom which can be
provided twelve H 12 (/\, 1356 mm
) in the :.pan diMrihuted evenly
across the 2.5 m width of the column strip (spacing approx 210 mm).
2. Interior &upport
Ncg:uivc moment = - 0.063FI
0.063 X 695 X 5.65 = 247 kN m
and can also be divided into
mrddle <;trip
') 4 ., 7
). ... 5 X -
X _4
6.5 2
0.31 X 247
= 77k:"Jrn
and column lltrip = ( I - 0.31 ) x 247 = 0.69 x 247 = 170 kl\ m
tal For the middle wip
M 77 X lOt'> - OJ
4000 > :2()5Z X 25 - O. S
f-rom the lever-arm curve. rigure 4.5. /., = 0.98 ( 0.95 ). therefore
M 77 x 10
0.!\((vl:: 0.87 X 500 X 0.95 X 205
Provide evenly Ill2 burs ::1:. top steel (A
1243 mm
) l o !-.ati:.fy
400 mm maximum spacing limit.
(b) For the column strip
M 170 X 10
= 0.0
btf""iJ..l 2500 X 305
X 25
From the lever-arm curve. figure 4.5. 1. = 0.97 ( > 0 95). therefore
M 170 X 10
A = --=
' 0 X7f,l:_ 0.87 X 500 X 0.95 X 305
- 1349mm
Provrde H 12 bars a\ top steel at 200 centres. This ill cqui-.alcnt to fourteen
(A, 1582 mm
) over the full 2.5 m width of the column Mrip. The bending
reinforcement requirements arc summarhed in figure 8.14.
234 Reinforced concrete design
figure 8.14
Detail$ of bending
t Column
11H12- 400
16H12-250each way
(a) Middle stnp4.0m wide
11 H12- 400
14H12- 200 e.w

12HI2 -210
(b) Column strip 2.5 m wide
Punching shear
1. At the column hC<td
perimeter u
= 1r x diameter of column head
- ;r x 1200 = J770mm
'hear force Vw - F
7r ,
695 676.4kN
To aiiO\\ for the effects of moment tran,fcr. \ i' hy 15 per cent for an
intcmal column. thu'
\'fd rtt = l 15 676.4 778 J..N
Ma\imum permissible \hear furce.
v ()5 d[o6(1-
Rd !nO\ Ll , 25(} 1.5
= 0.5 X J770 X 305 X [().() (I
25 )] 25 0 ,
250 1.5 x I
thus Vnd,rtf is signifieun()y lc:.s than VR11, ,,," .
2. The critical section for 2.0 X effective depth from the face of
the column head. that is. a section of diameter 1.2 t 2 x 2.0 x 0.305 2.42 m.
(i.e. within the drop panel).
Thus the length of the perimeter 11
rr >< 2420 7602 mm
Uhimate shear force, \!Ed= 695- x 2.42
1< 16.4 620k'l
VU!cft = 1.15 X 620 713kN
lor the unrcinforced section
VRd.r = I'Rd cll td = I'Rd c X 7602 X 305
!()() X 1582 ?
With Pt = Py = Pz =
e 01
-1 m.
thus from table 8.2, vRd.c = 0.47 therefore
VRd c = 0.47 X 7602 X 305 X =
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 23!
VFA er1 is less than I'Rd.c the section 1s adequate. and shear reinforcement i!. not
3. At the dropped panel the critical section 2.0 x 205 = 410mm from the panel with
a perimeter given by
II = (2a + 2b 2;r X 2d)
= (4 x 2500+27:" x 410) = 12576mm
The area within the perimeter is given by
(2.5 I Jd}
( 4 - r.}(2.0 X 0.205)
(2.5 -J 3 X 0.205)
- (4- r.)(0.41Q}
9.559 m
Ultimate force.
Vrtl 695 - 9.559 X 16.4 = 538 J..N
Vw<11 = 1.15 538=6191-.N
VRd, = I'Rd.clld where u 12576mm and tl 205mm
JOQ X J582 ,
PI 'l
= 031%. thus from table 8.2 ''Rd,c ?' 0.55 N/mm
_suo -0.
\'Kd 0.55 12, 576 > 205

I Ld c11 is lcs' than VR,, , the section b adequate.
I Note in the above calculation p
has been on column \trip reinforcement at
the support. Since the critical tone will lie partially in the middle strip. value
wil l be a minor over-estirnme buL is not significam in
Span-effective depth ratios
At the centre or the
JO() x 1605 = 0.
/it/ 4(){)0 X 205
Prom ligure 6.3 the limiting basic depth ratio i., 32 for clas1- C25 concrete
and multiplictl by a K factor of 1.2 for n flat slab (!.ce table 6.1 0) giving
J2 X 1.2 384.
actual effective depth ratio 6500/ 205 = 31 7
Hence the slab effetl!\C depth acceptahle. To take care of '>tabilit} cxLra
reinforcement may be ncccs'ary in the column stnps to act as a tic hetween each pair of
columns section 6.7, and the requirement for at two bottom bar .. to
through each column will be satisfied by the spacings calculated above and sho" n in
figure 8.14.
236 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 8. 15
Sections through ribbed and
hollow block and waffle
8.7 Ribbed and hollow block floors
Cross-sections through a ribbed and holl ow block floor slab are shown in figure 8.15.
The ribbed floor is formed temporary or permanent shuttering while the hollow
block floor IS generally com.tructed with blocks made of cia> ti le or '' ith concrete
containing a lightweight aggregate. If the blocks arc suitabl y manufactured and have
adequate strength they can be considered to contribute to the strength of the slab in the
design calculations. but in many no such all owance is made.
The principal advantage of floors is the reduction in weight achieved by
removing part or the concrete below the neutral ax i), and, in the ca'e of the hollow block
lloor. replacing il with a li ghter form of construction. Ribbed and hollow block lloors
are economical for buildings where there are long spans. over about 5 m, and light or
moderate live load,, such a<; in hoi>pital wards or apartment buildings. They would not
he suitable for Slrut:turcs having a heavy loadi ng, such as warehouses and garages.
(a) Sectton through a rtbbed lloor
Supporting beam
1! I
21 I
f il l

Solid end se<tion
r - 1 r- 1 r- 1 r 1 -, r -
1 I I I I I I I I
-- -- -- -----
r - 1 r - ' r - r - 1 r - 1 r -l
r -, r - 1 r - 1 r - 1 r- 1 r -
1 '- S
light mesh
t=J; o .. M .. o .. o .. o .. n
(b) Parttal plan of Clnd section through a waffle slab
(c) Section through a hollow block floor
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 23i
:\car to the supports the hollO\\ blocks are Mopped off and the slab made solid. This
.. 1ne to achieve a greater shear and if the slab supported by a monolithic
,crete beam the solid section acts as the tlange of a T-section. The ribs should he
.ecked for shear at their junction with the solid lt is good practice to stagger the
'Ih of the hoUow blocks in adjacent rows so that. as they arc stopped off. there is no
::11pt change in cross-section extending the slab. The slabs arc usually made
hJ under partitionl> and concentrated loads.
During construction the hollow tiles should be well soaked in water prior to placing
.: concrete. otherwise shrinkage cracking of the top concrete flange liable to occur.
The thickness of tJ1e concrete flange should not be less than:
1. 40 mm or one-tenth of the clear distance between ribs. whichever is the greater. fnr
slabs with permanent blocks:
2. 50 mm or one-tenth of the clear distance between nbs. whichever ll> the greater. for
slabs without pcnnanent blocks.
these requirements are not met. than n check of longitudinal shear between web und
i ... ngc should be mude to see if additional steel il> needed
The rib width will be governed hy cover. bar-spacing ami lire (!.ection 6.1 ).
The rihs !)hould be no further apart than 1.5 m and their depth below the flange
'hould not be greater than four times their width. rihs should he provided at
'lacings no greater than ten the overall slab depth
Provided that the above dimen"onal arc met. nbbcd can he treated
or annly!>it-. as solid and the clcl>ign rcquiremt!nts can be based on of a solid
,Jab. Calculaticms of reinforcement will require evaJualion of effective llangc breadths
;.Nng the procedurel> de1-crihcd for T-bcam-. in Chapter 7.
Ribbed :-.labs will he del>igned for u-;ing the approach described previously With
?, taken us the breauth of the rib. Although no &pccific guiuance given in EC2,
previou!> practice suggests that. where hollow block!-i urc used, the rib width may be
mcrea'\ed by the wall of the block on one sitlc of the rib.
Span effective depth ratioo; \\Ill be based on the 'horter span \\ ith the ba:-.ic values
21ven 111 ligurc 6.3 multiplied by 0.8 where the ratio of the Oange width to the rih width
exceeds 3. Again, no guidance given in the Code but previous practice
'uggcsts that the thidness of the rih width may include the thickness of the two adjacent
bloc!. walls.
At least 50 per cent of the tensile reinforecmcm tn the continue to the
supports and be anchored. In some the slabs are i>llpported by steel henrm and
an! de:-.igncd as s1mply supported even though the topping i\ cominuou.:;. Reinforcement
-.hould he provtded over the suppOrt!> to prevent cracl.1ng 111 these This top !>tee!
<;hould be determtned on the basts or 25 per cent or the lllld-span moment and
extend at 0.15 of the cleur span into the adjoining span.
A light reinforcing mesh in the topping nange can give added 11 trcngth and durubility
10 the sluh, particular!> if there are concentrated or moving loads. or 1f cracking due to
or thermal movement t<; likely. The m1111mum area of reinforcement reqUired
to control shrinkage und thermal cracking can be calculated, as given in chapter 6, but
established practice suggests that an area of rnesh equivalent to 0. 13 per cent of the
topping ftangc will be adequate.
Waffle slab!. arc designed as ribbed and thetr each way arc
obtained from the moment coefficients tabulated in table 8.5 for two-way spanning
238 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 8.16
Ribbed slab
Design of a ribbed floor
The ribbed floor is coru.tructcd with permanent fibrcglasJo. moulds: it b continuous over
several spans of 5.0 m. The charJcteristic material Mrcngths are fcL = 25 Nlmm
f>l = 400 N/mm
An effective section. as shO\\ n in figure lU6. which satisfie, requirements for ..
60 minute fire resistance {see table 6.5) is to he tried. The characteri.,tic permanent load
including self-weight and 111 4.5 and the charactcriMic variable load
2.5 1..N/m

The cuJculaLions are for an end {which wi ll be most critical) for which the
moments and shears can be determined from the in tnble 8.1.
Considering a 0.4 m width of floor ns supportctl hy each rib:
Ultimate loud = + l.5qd
= 0.4( 1.35 X 4.5 I 1.5 X 2.5)
3.93 kN/m
Ultimate load on the span. F = 3.93 >< 5.0 19.65 kN
(I) At de:.ign a T-sl.!ction:
M ::: 0.086F/ = 0.086 x 19.65 x 5.0 R.45 k'l m
The dfl.'Cti brcatlth uf nange h .... + btlll + bclf'J ( \CC \CCII On 7 .... ) \\here
b,u 1 ::: belr1 0. 2b, I 0 1/u < 0.2/o b1
\\ 11h /1
( 400- 125!12 == l37 rnm antl/
O.X5 x 5000 4250 mm
h .... + brttl = 125 + 2(0.2 x 137 0.1 x 4250) 1030 mm
or 0.2 x 4250 X50 mm
which both cxccetl the rih spaci ng of 400mm, whidl
M 8.45 X 10
= O.OJ
= 40() X 1602 X 25
2 Hl 0 above each rib
span= 5.0m
Cross section at mid-span
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 239
hom the lever-ann curve. figure 4.5. la = 0.98 ( > 0.95). Thus the neutral axis
depth lies within the flange and
M 8.45 X 10
A, = - 12R
0.87i)kfad 0.87 X 5()() X 0.95 X J6Q
Pro,ide t\\0 HIO ban. in the ribs. A,=
2. At the end interior o;upport as a rectangular for the 'olid
M 0.086FI 0.086 x 19.65 x 5.0- 8.45 k:-.1 m as in ( I )
and /\, 128 mm
as at mid-span
Provide two H 10 bars in each 0.4 m width of slab. A
= 157 mm!.
3. At the section where the ribs terminate: this 0.6 m from the centreline of the
and the moment may be hogging so that 125 mm rib:. provid<.: the
concrete area in compression to resist the design moment. The maximum moment or
rei.iswnce of the concrete is
M (),

0.167 X 25 X 125 X X
= 13.36 kNm
which mu"t be greater than the moment at section. therefore I is
not rcquirctl.
Span-effective depth ratio
At the centn: of the
I = I OOA lt.9_ = I()() X 128 = 0 10%
I hd 400 160 -
f-rom figure 6.3 and table 6.10 the limiting basic "pan-effective depth ratio (p = 0.3%)
for an end 'pan 1s 32 I J 41.6.
For H T-section with ll nangc \\ idth gre<lter than three times the weh width
be multiplied by 0.8 to give a limiting rmio of 0.8 x 41.6 33.2.
actual effective depth ratio = 5000/ 160 = 31 .3
Thus d 160 mm is adequate.
Maximum in the rih O.<i m from the support centreline (end spnn)
V1 11 0.6F
0.6 X 19.65 0.6 X 3.93
125 X J60
0.6 X 3.93 9.43kN
hom tublc 1!.2. the resistance without reinforcement VRd . .: = "Rd.,bd where
I'Rd. 0.6R N/mm
and, from table 1!.3. the Mrength modification factor= 0.94. llcncc:
Vkd c 0.94 < 0.68 X 1:!5 X 160 = 12.78k
VRo, i' grcatcr than \'1:<.1 then no l>hcar n:inforccmcnt rcqutrcd pro\ided that the

in the arc located during conl>truction.

_______________________________________________ )
240 Reinforced concrete design
Design of a waffle slab
Del>ign a waffle <tlab for an internal panel of a Ooor S}stem. each panel 6.0 rn in
each direction. The characteristic material are kl - 25 :-.f/mrn
= 500 '/rnm
The !.Cction a-. in example 8.8. figure 8.16 i!. to be tried with
characteristic permanent load including of 6.0 lu'.i/m
and characteristic
variable load of 2.5 kN/m

ultimate load = ( l35gk + I .5ql)
= ( 1.35 x 6.0) f (1.5 x 2.5) = I t.RS
A:, the slab the same span in each uircction the moment coefficients . . J", arc
taken from table 8.5 with = l.O. Calculations nrc given for n single 0.4 m wide
beam section and in both of !>pan.
1. At mid-span: design a:. a T -sect ion.
Positive moment at 111"
0.024 v I I .85 < 6
I 0.24 k:'-lm/m
Moment carried by each rih 11.-l x 10.24 = 4. 10kNm
M 4. 10 X
bt/'fd = 4(XJ X X 25
where the effecth e breadth 1s 400 mm as 111 the pn!\JOU' c\nmple.
Prom the lever-arm cur\C. f1gurc t5./ 0 95. the neutral U\Jl> lie:. \\ the
flange and
M -tto
A, =----=-
0.87 X 500 X 0.95 160
62 rnrn'
Pro ville two HI 0 bars 1n cat.:h r1h at the bottom nt the beam, A, 157 mmZ to satisty
minlfllum requirement of0. 13bd% 0.0013 x 400 x 160 H3mm
/rib. Note that
the service in the wi lt be reduced, thil\ wi ll kutl to a higher spun-
effective ch.:pth ratio thus ensuring that the spon- effet.:tive depth ratio of the slab is
kept wi thin acccptubll:
2. At the support: design as a rectangular for the \Oiid slab.
Negati ve moment at support m,, !1"111; 0.01 I x I I .R5 x
= 13.22 kN m/m
Moment carried by each 0.4 m width 0.4 < I 3.22 5.29 kN m
M 5.29 X 101>
btJ2fcl. 4()() X X 25 O.Q
hom the lever-arm curve, figure 4.5 1. = 0.95. Thu.,
M 5.29 X 10
A, =--- - 80mm
0.87 y 500 0.95 ) 160
Provtde two HI 0 in each OA m v. idth of 'lab . ./\, 157 mm
Design of rei nforced concrete slabs 241
3. At the l>cttion where the ribs terminate: the maximum hogging moment of rc'istance
of the concrete ribs is 13.36 kJ.'l m. as in the prcviou!> example. b greater than
the moment at this section. therefore compression :.tecl is not required.
Span-effective depth ratio
req _ 100 x 62 =

be/ 4()() X 160
hence from tigure 6.3, limiting basic span depth ratio J2 )( 1.5 (for interior
X 0.8 (for nange > .1 X web thickness) when p < O.JCJr.
Thw. allowable ratio = 32 x 1.5 x 0.8 = 38.4
actunl - span = 6000 = 37.5
effective depth 160
Thus d = 160 mm is just adequate. It ha:-. not been necesl-tilry here to allow for the
increased tlcrth resulting from providing an incn.:ascd steel aren.
could be given to reducing the rib reinforcement to two II X bars ( I 0 I mm
which :-till sat i!>lie!. nominal rcquircml.!nts.
From Tahle 3.6 in the Desifollll!rs Guide (ref. 20) the shear force cocflicicnt for a
wntinuous edge suppol1 is 0.33. I lence, for one rib, the shear at the 'upport
1',, v /)- 0 33 )I 11 .85 X 6 X 0.4- 9.38k:--J
\hear 111 the rib 0.6m from the centre-line''
\;Ld 9.18 0.6 )I 1185 >< 0.4 = 6.5-tk:-1
Atthl\ vi(oJ' l'l!oJ., 125 X. 160 and
100 )( 157
125 X 16()
hence from table 8.2, I'Rd, = 0.68 N/mm
and from table 8.3 K 0.94
.'. VRrlr 0.68> 0.94x 125x 160 x 10
12.8 J..N
Therefore the unrcinl orccd adcqume 111 shear, and no arc rctJuircd
provided thut the bars i n the ribs arc 1->Ccurcly located during const ruction.
Reinforcement In the topping flange
Light reinforcing should he provided in the tOp of the nungc.
Area required 0.13 x b x il / 100 0. 13 x 1000 x 60/100 = 7Hmm
Providc D98 mesh (sec tahlc A.5), A, 98 mm

8.8 Stai r slabs
The U\ual form of stam. can be classified into two type:-.: ( I ) tho'c :-.pannmg horiLontall)
in the direction, and (2) those spanning longitudinall).
242 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 8.17
Stairs )pdnning horiLonlcl lly
Figure 8.18
Cantilevered SltllrS
8.8.1 Stairs spanning horizontally
Stairs of this type may be supported on both sides or they may be cantilevered from a
'iupporting wall.
Figure 8.17 shows a starr supported on one -;ide by a wall and on lhc olher b) a
'tringer beam. Each step is usually designed a<; ha\'10 n breadlh b and an effective
depth of d = D/2 as '>hown 10 the figure: a more ngorous annly&i& of lhc section i'
rarely justified. Distribution steel in the longitudinal dtrection is placed above the main
Detaill> of a cantilever stair are shown in figure R.l8. The effective depth of the
member taken as the me<ul effective depth of the M:ction and the main reinforcement
must be placed Ln the top of the stairs and anchored into the support. A light mesh ot
reinforcement is placed in the bottom face to !\hrinl.agc cracking.


- -- --- - -- ,


Light mesh

8.8.2 Stair slab spanning longitudinally
.... o
Distribution steel
Section A A

Light mesh
Section B-B
The l>tair -;lah may span into landings which <.pan at right angles to the stairs as in
11gure R.l9 or it may span between supporting beam\ as in ligure R.20 of example 8.1 0.
The permanent load is calculated along the slope length of the stain. hut the variable
load il> on the plan area. Loads common on two spans which intersect at right
angles and surround an open \\CII may he assumed to be dtvided equally between lhe
!.pan&. The effective span (/) i'> hori7ontally between the centres of Lhe
:.upports and lhe thickness of lhc wai'>t (h) taken a-; the slnb thickness.
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 243
Stair which arc continuous and constmcted monolithit:ally \\'ith their supporting
or cun oc for a bending moment of say Fl I 10. where F total
Ill mate load. llowcvcr. in many tht: .. are or after the
ma111!. with dowel!> being left in the )Upporting to retch c the
tatr .... and with no apprectablc end the moment l>hould he 1'1/R.
( EXAMPLE 8. 10
Design of a stair slab
The 'tair' arc of the type in figure 8.20 11panning longitudinally and into
pudet' in the two The effective lipan i., 3m and the of the Main ..
'' l .S m with 260 mm treads and I 50 mm ri,ers. The variable load is lO k N/m' and the
chnrncteri&lic material arc 30 and 500 N/mml.
Try a 140 mm thick waist, cffc<:tivc depth. d - 11 5 mm. Thb would give an initinl
of the &pnn-cffcctivc depth ratio of 26. 1 (3000/ II 5) whi<:h. from table 6. 10,
lies n lillie above the basic value for a 'lightly stressed' simpl y :-.uppmlctl slah.
H12- 400
l 'o
EHective depth, d = 1 I 5
Span 3.0m _
Figure 8.19
Stairs spanning into landings
Figure 8.20
Stairs supported by beams
244 Reinforced concrete design
Slope length of stairs= 5}) = 3.35 m
Consider a I m width of stairs:
Weight of waist plus step1oo = (0.14 x 3.35 + 0.26 x 1.5/ 2)25
= 16.60kl'\
Variable load 3.0 >. 3 9.0 k,
Ultimate load, F = 1.35 x 16.60 1.5 x 9.0 - 35.9li..N
With no effective end restraint:
Fl 35.91 X 3.0 _
if 8 ' - m
Bending reinforcement
M 13.46 X 10
bdlfck 1000 X 115
X 30 - O.O.
From the lever-arm curve, figure 4.5, /J = 0.95 (the maximum nonnnll y adopted in
practice). therefore
M 13.46 x 10"
A - ---- - 283 mm
- O.X7/yk<: - O.R7 X 500 X 0.95 X 115
Maximum allowable spacing is 311 3 < 140 420 mm with an uppl!r limit of 400 rum.
Provide Hl2 bars at 300 mm area 377 mm
Span-effective depth ratio
At the centre of the 'pan
1001\, '"'" = 100 " 377 - () l'\
bel I 000 x I 15
which i:.. greater than the minimum reqUirement of 0.15 for CJO concrete (sec
Table 6.8).
f'rom table 6.10 the basic span-effective depth ratio ror u simply supported span with
0.5% is 20. Allowing for the actual steel area provided:
limiting span-effective depth rati o 20 x A, pnlV I A,. rc
= 2() X 377/283 26.6
actual spun-effective depth ru1i o 3000/ 11 5 26.09
lienee the slab effective depth is acceptuhle. (Note that the allowable nuio will actually
be greater than estimated above since the required ratio is lcs., than the 0.5% used
with l!lblc 6.10.)
Secondary reinforcement
Tranwerse diStribution 2: O.::!A, nun = 0.2 'X 377 75 .-l mm 'tm
l11is very small. and adequately co,crcd by II I 0 at the maxtmum allowable
),pacing of 400 mm centres. area 174 mm 'lm.
Continuity bars at the top and bottom of the l>pan :.hould be provided and. wherea<.
about SO per cent of the main Mccl would be reasonable, the max1mum <,pacing i!> limited
to 400mm. Hence provide, II I::! bars at 400 mm cemres a' continuity Meel. )

Design of reinforced concrete slabs 245
8.9 Yield line and strip methods
r cac;cs \\hich are more complex a<, a result of sbapc. suppon condition!-.. the
ilpening<,, or loading conditionl> it rna} be worth\\ hilc adopung an ullunate
.ethod. The two pnncipal approaches are the yield line method. \\hich pantcularly
table for -.Jab\ wuh a complex shape or concentrmcd loading. and the ),lnp method
11ch ts valuable \\ohere the slab contains opening<;.
l'hese method\ have heen the subject of research. and arc \\ell documented although
C) are ol a relati\cly specwltsed nature. A tmef tntroduction is mcludl'tl here to
u'tratc the gem:ral and features of the methods. \\hkh nrc rarticularl)
uahlc in ass1Ming an understanding or failure mechanism\. In practical tlc,lgn
uatinns care must he taken to allov .. for the effect!-. of tie-down fnrcl..'s at cmnl..'t s and
'1on ut free edges of slabs.
8.9. 1 Yi eld line method
T' e capacity of reinforced concrete to sustain pla;tic tlefomlation bcl.!n in
lion 3.6. lor an under-reinforced section the capacity to develop curvature'> between
hr<.t yield of reinforcement and failure due to cntshing of concrete i' mnsiderable.
Fe .t '>lab which is suhJected to tncreasing load, c.:mcktng and reinforcement yic.:ld \\' Ill
t occur Ill the mo't highly Lone. Th1' wtll then aLt a' u pla,ttc hinge "'
''equcnt load' arc distrihutcd to other region\ oJ' the <ilah. Cruch denlop to form
pattern ol 'yield until a mechant'm i' formed and collap'c i" tndtcatcd hy
,rcastng detlecttOn\ under COtl\lant load. To CINifC that adeqlt:tte pla\llC uefonllallon
n take place the Cock -.pcciflc, thai Je,tgncd h) the yield line methou nut't h.:
rc nforccu \\ llh Cia" B or(' (medium or IHghl ducltllly Meel nnd thc ratio 1/ cl 'hould
I exceed 0.25 lor concrete up to C50/60.
hn continuou!> the mtcn11cdiate suppon moment 'hould al'o lie between hall'
1J t\.\ icc the mugllttudc of the moments.
It 1:-. a'Mnnl.!d that a pallern of yield can be on the !-. lah. which w1ll
IU'c a collupsc and that the.: regions between yield line' remain rigid anu
'lCrtld.ed. Pigurc lUI the yield line mechnnii>m which wi ll occur lor the
1'e of n lixeu endl.!u ,, lah f>panning in one direction with n uniform load. Rotation aloug
e yield li nes wi II occur at a constnnt moment equal t.o the ull i marc.: moment 111
Yield line)
Plastic hinges
Figure 8.21
Development of yield lmes
246 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 8.22
Exdmples of yield line patterns
resistance of the section. and will absorb energy. This can be equated to the energy
expended by the applied load undergoing a compatible displacement and is known as
the virtual work method.
Considerable care must be taken over the selection of likely yield line patterns. since
the method wi ll give an upper hound 1.olmion. that is. either a correct or unsafe
solution. Yield lines will form at ri ght <mglcs to bending moments which have reached
the ultimate moment of resistance of the slab. and the following rule1. may be helpful:
1. Yield li nes are usually \traight and end at a slab boundary.
2. Yield lines \\ill lie along axes of rotation. or pa'" through thelJ' points of
3. Axes t)f rotation lie along 'upportcd edges. pass over column-. or cut unsupPQrtcd
In !-impl c cases the alternative paltcms to be considered will be readi ly determined on
the of common while for more compl ex cases difTerenlial may be
used. The danger of the critical layout of yield lines, and thus obtaining an
incorrect 'olution. mean" that the method can only be used wi1h confidence b)
c\petienced dc.,igners.
A number of typical urc 'hown in figure 8.22.
Simple supports -

Fixed support
Positive yield line
_ ......
Axes or rotation
Negattve yteld line
Axe) ol rotation
A yiel d line caw;ed hy a sagging moment is generally referred to a-. a positive' yield
line and represented hy n full line, whi le a hogging momcm causing cracking on lhc
top surface of the cuuses a 'negative' yield line shown by :.1 broken line.
The basic approach of the method i:; illustrated for the case of a one-way
spanning slab in example B. II
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 247
( EXAMPLE 8 . 11 I
Simply supported, one-way spanning rectangular slab
The in figure 8.23 is to a uniformJy distributed load'' per unit area.
Longitudinal reinforcement is provided as indicated giving a uniform ultimate moment
of m per unit \\idth.
retn orc;ement


m --

Collapse mechanism
The ma"<unum moment w1ll occur at mid!>pan and a poltlll\c } ield line can thus be
'upenmpo:.ed If this ill con, idered to be subject to a 'mall di\placcmcnt ..l.
external work done area x load x average dbtanee moved for each rigid half nf
the slah

I ,

Jnternul energy absorbed by rotati on along thl; yield li ne 1s
moment x rotati on x length - mdJoL


imcmal energy 4mo
equating mtemal energy abi>orbed \\ilh external work done
I '
n / "1\'..l or m
2 '
a:. anticipated
Figure 8.23
One-way spanntng slab
248 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 8.24
Stepped yield line
Since the displacement is eliminated. this will generally be set to unity in calculations
of this type.
In the simple case of example 8.11. the yield line cro<.sed the reintorcement at right
angle" and transverse steel not imoh ed in bending calculations. Generally. a yield
line willl1e at an angle 0 to the orthogonal to the main reinforcement and will thus also
<>teel. The ultimate moment of rc developed is not easy to define.
but stepped yield criteria the popular approach. Th1s that an
inclined y1eld line of a number of Meps. each orthogonal to a reinforcing bar :b
shown in figure
Yield line
... ;


l11nH m
- /
Remforcement Stepped Yield lin<' Movem<'nt Vectors
II the ultimate moments of pro\ 1ded hy ma111 and tranwcrsc steel arc m
and unit width. it foliO\\' that for cquihhnum of the vector. :-.h0\\0. the ultimate
momcnr of normal to the } 1eld I me llln p.:r unit length is given by
In the extreme of n 0. this reduce.-. to 111
, and ''hen m
- m
- m, then
111 for any value of 0. Thh. Iauer ca:-.c oJ an orthotropically reinforced sluh
(rcin!'orcement mutually perpendicular) with equal moment' of i,-. said to be
isotrop1cally reinforced.
When applying approach to complex si tuations it often difficult to calculate the
lengths and rotations of the yield lines. and a !.imple vector notation can be used. The
total moment component mn can be resolved vectorial ly in the .\ and v :mel
since internal cncrg)' dissipation along a y1elcl line is given by moment x rotation x
length it that the energy di,s1pated hy rotation of yield bounding any rigid
area is given by
\\here m, and m, are } ield momenh 111 x Jnd 1. I, and /> art: projections of
) 1eld line!'> along each axi'>. and and ) arc about the illustrated
in example 8.12.
' of
Design of rei nforced concrete slabs 249
( EXAMPLE 8. 12 J
Slab simply supported on three sides
The !>hown in figure 8.15 supports a uniforml y distrihuted load (u.d.J.) of,,. pa umt
Internal energy absorbed (E) for unit displacement at points X and Y
Area A
EA m,l, t'J, + m) l yr:>y
\\here c:1, - 0: hence
I n
L, m1nL x JL m1 J
Area B
L'll m,l,,
\\here m} - 0: hence
21111 'JL X
hence total for all rigid an.:a)>
External work done
This can also be calculated for each region separately
I . I I ,
W" -(nLxdL)ux - wodL
2 3 6
Wa = 11'<1 3/} Jf.) II' X 1
there lore
total 21\'A + IVo
I '
= 6o(3- 23)hr
Figure 8.15
Slab supported on three sides
250 Reinforced concrete design
Hem:c equaling internal and external work, the max1mum u.d.l. that the slab can !>Ustain
is given by
.., 6 J?( J1)
- ( 1 J1) _ - llltO -1112
-mta -nh x ,- , , _,..
a i - o(3 - 2 3)1.- oL-(311- 2 1)
ltts clear that the rc!>ull will var) according to the \alue of J. The maximum value of
11 may be obtained by trial and error using se,eral values of 3. or alternatively. b)
di ftcrentiation. let m2 = Jllllt. then
12m d n
tl{ml /w) = 0 will give the aitical value of I'J

= o

,\ m:gah\e value 1mpossihlc. hence the critical \aluc of ,j for usc in the analyc;il> ''
gi' en b} the posll1ve mot.
8.9.2 Hilleborg strip method
Thi!-t is based on the 'lower hound' concept of plu-,tic theory which suggests that it J
throughout a Mructurc cnn be found "'hich sati'>fies all eqUJiibnum
t'onditions without violating yield critcriu, then the structure is safe for the
system of external loath. Although safe. the '>Lructure will not necessaril)
be or economic. hence considerable sktll is required on the part of the
engineer in selecting a suitable distribution of bending on which the ucsign
cnn be Detailed or a slab designed on is not necessary. but the
structural sense and 'feel' for tile way loads are transmi tt ed to the
are of prime i mporwncc.
Although this method for design of slabs proposed hy ll il lcborg in the 1950s.
developments by Wood and Armer in the 1960s havc pmduced currently used form.
The method can be applied to of any shape, and that at fnilure the load
will he carried by bending in either the x or y direction separately with no twisting
action. llcncc the title of strip method'.
Considering a rectangular on four and carrying a
uniformly di!.tributed load. the load may be expected to he di'itributed to the supports in
the manner shown in figure R.26.
Judgement will be required to detcnnine the nngle c\. but 11 can be !'teen that if
n 90 the slab w11l be a'>sumed to be one-way spanning and. although safe. is unlikely
to be servtceable because of cracking near the upports along the r axis. Hillcborg
'>Uggcsts that for such a !>lab. n should be 45 . The load dtagrams causing bending
moments along typical <,lrip-. spanning each direction are also shown. It will be seen that
Design of reinforced concrete slabs 251
( 8 2-
Load and B.M.O
Strip A
-o 'Q.
he ultcrnalive pallern. :-.uggcsled by Wood and Armer, in R.27 will the
design, and in this case live :-.trips in each direction may be conveniently used as
Each of these will be designed in hending for ils particular lonuing, as if it were one-way
'panning using rhe of BA. Reinforcement will he arrunged uniformly
across each strip. to produce an overall pattern of reinforcement bands in two dirct:tion-..
Suppon reactions can also be obtained very simply from each strip.
The approach 1s particularly suitable for ltlabs \\ith openings. in \\hich
'trengthcncd hamh can be provided round the opening-. with the remainder olthc \lah
divided 1nto ttlo. appropriate. A typical pattern of thi-. type I'> -;ho\\ n in hgure H.2R.
Suggl!)ted Strips

$'.:. j
::. I
! E

x, andx,
y andy,
"' etc are ldentlcal

45" .
Stiffened bands
Figure 8.26
Assumed load distributions
Figure 8.27
load distribution according to
Wood and Armer
Figure 8.28
Strong bands around

The columns in a structure carry the loads from the and slabs down to the
foundations, and therefore they are primarily compresston members, although they
may also have to resist bending forces due to the continUity of the structure. The
analysis of a section subjected to an axial load plus bend1ng 1s dealt with in chapter 4,
where it is noted that a direct solution of the equat1ons that determine the areas of
reinforcement can be very laborious and impractical. Therefore, des1gn charts or
computers are often employed to facilitate the routine des1gn of column sections.
Destgn of columns is governed by the ultimate limit state; deflecti ons and
cracking during service condit1ons are not a probl em, but neverthel ess
correct detailing of the reinforcement and adequate cover are important.
Many of the pri nci pl es
used in this chapter for the
design of a column can
also be applied in a simil ar
manner Lo other types of
members that also resist an
load plus a bending
9.1 Loading and moments
The loading arrangcmcnL'> and the analy!>is of a 'tructuml frame have been described
with in chapter 3. Tn the anal}sis it was necessal) to the mto
one of the following
1. hraced - \\here the lateral loads are resio;ted b) shear wall;., or other of bractng
capahle of transmitting all horizontal loading to the foundations. nnd
2. unbraced - where horizontal loads arc resisted h) the frame nction of rigid!)
connected beam1. and slabs.
With a braced structure the axial forces and moments in the column-; are by
the vcnicul permanent and variable actions only. whereas with an unhraced the
loading arrangements which include the effects of the lateral must also be
Both braced and unhraccd strw.:turcs can be further classilied th swuy or non-swny. ln
a sway structure sideswoy is likely to significantly increase the magnitude of the
bending moments in the columns whereas in a non-sway thil'l effect let.s
significant. This increase of moments due ro sway. known ns n \econd order' effect. is
not considered to be significant if there is less than n 10 per cent im:rcasl! in the normal
order') design moments as n result of the sidesway dbplacement ol' the
Suh,tunt1ally hraced can normally be considered to be non-:-.wny. EC'2 gives
further guidance concerning the classification of unhraeed structure'>. In thi' chapte1
only the de.,1gn of hraccd 'lructures will he considered.
For a braced \trueturc the critical arrangement of the uhnnatc loud 1s u\uall> that
which cau ... the largc ... t moment in the column. together" 1th a large axial load. \<;an
example. figure 9.1 'ohO\\' a building frame "ith the critical loading anangement for the
design of centre column lit the k\el and the left hund column at all
floor levels. When the moment!-. in are !urge und particularly "llh unbraced
columm. 11 may nbo be ncces\at) to check the of ma:-.1mum moment combmed
w11h the mmimurn axial lond.
ln the case of braced lrames. the axial column force!- due to the vertical louding may
he calculuted as though the beam11 and slabs are simply !'>upported. provitll!d that the
span!. on either s1de of the column differ by no mnre than 30 per cent and therc i:-.
cant ilever spun. In M>me it is unlikely that all the noon, ol u huilding will
carry the full imposed load ut the same instant, therefore a reduction i!-. allowed in the
tolll l impose(.) load when designing columns nr iu buildings which urc
greater than two storeys in height. Furthl!r on thi), can ht! found in
OS EN 1991 1-l (Act ion), on structurl!s)
1 .3SG, + l .SQ,
1.3SG, + 1 ,5Q,
1st t _3SG, .. 1.50\ 1 . 35G,
Floor 1----
Column design 253
Figure 9.1
A crilicatloading arrangement
254 Reinforced concrete design
9.2 Column classification and failure modes
(7) Slenderness ratio of a column
The ratio A of a column bent about an i-. given by
j(I / A)
the effective height of the column
i is the radiu5 of f:yrarion about the axis considered
l is the second moment of urea of the section about the
A is the cross-sectional area of the t:olumn
(2) Effective height 1
of a column
The effective height of a column, 1
the height of u thcoretical column of equivalent
section but pinned at both ends. depends on the degree ol' fixity at each end of the
column. which itself depends on the rdmivc of the columns and beam-.
connected to either end of the column under con:.idcration.
EC2 give' two formulae for calculating the effective height:
For braced member-;:
For unbraced members the larger of:
I /-(1 + lOk' X A2)
\ k, + k:
lu I ( I + I kJ (1 +I
In the above formulae, k
and k
arc the relative llexihilitics of the rotational restraints a1
ends 1 and '2' of the column rcl.pectively. At each end /q and k
can be taken as:
column stillness _ (/ / l), .. rumn
L beam stiffness - L 2(1
(/ / /),ulurnn
L 2(/ //)!><am
It that any column above or below the column under consideration does not
contribute anything to the rotational of the jornt and that the &tiffness of each
connecting beam is taken a:- 2/ f l to aiiO\\' for cracking effect'> in the beam.
Hence. for a typical column in a symmetrical frame with -;pans of approximate!}
equal length, as shown in figure 9.2. k
and can be calculated a<.,:
kl = =A = COlUmn Sti.ffnel>!l y / /)cCllumn - (/ / llcolumn
2:: beam str ffncss " 2 (/ / I) t.:.m 2 x 2 (/ / /) btam
I (/ / l)cnlumn
4 (//I) t-eam
13 b
non-falling column - I
End 1
failing column -
End 2
non-fatling column
Note: the effective contnbution of the non-failing
column to the JOint sttftness may be gnored
Table 9.1 Column effective lengths
1 (f / l(olvrnn)
0 0.0625 0.125 0.25 0.50 1.0 /.5 2.0
4 (Tj/btmnl
(fixed end)
lo braced
(equation 9.2) {x/} 0.5 0.56 0.61 0.68 0.76 0.84 0.88 0.91
lo unbraced
(equation 9.3(a) 1.0 1.14 1.27 1.50 1.87 2.45 2.92 3.32
and 9.3(b)). Use
greater value { x/} 1.0 1.12 1.13 1.44 1.78 2.25 2.56 2.78
Thus. for thic, '>ituat1on typical values of column efleeti\C kngth' he tahulated
using 9.2 and 9.3 a\ in table 9.1.
(3) Limiting slenderness ratio - short or slender columns
EC2 place<; an upper limit on the rauo of a single memhcr below which
second order effects may bc ignored. This limit given by:
20 X A X 8 X C / VII
II I /( I I 0.2qlel )
lJ v'Tf'2w
C 1.7 rm
'/let effective creep ratio (if not known A can be taken 0.7)
w ll,f.,.J/(IIJ"") (if not known B can be taken 1.1)
the design yield strength of the reinforcement
the compressiYe strength of lhc concrete
A, = the total area of longitudinal reinforcement
II = Nr..J /(AJ'cd)
- the ultimate axial load in the column
- M01 / Mo (if rm not known then C can be taken"" 0.7)
Mnt- Mm are the first order moments at the end of the column with IMu1 IMm
Column design 255
Figure 9.2
Effective length calculation
for a column in a
symmetrical frame
256 Reinforced concrete design
The following apply to the value of C:
(a) If the end momems. Mot and give ri'\c to on the swnc side of the
column r
should be taken as from which it follow" that C :5 1.7.
(b) If the con,erse to (a) is tn1e. i.e the column i' 111 a state of double curvature. then
rm be taken as negative from which it folio'"' that C > 1.7.
(c) For braced members in which the first order moment<. ame only from
loads or imperfections: C can be taken a<; 0.7.
(d) For unbraced members: C can he taken a' 0.7.
For an embraced column an approximation to the limiting value of A wJII be given by:
n = 20 X A X 8 X Cj [n 20 X 0.7 x I. I X 0.7/
- 10.8/
The limiti ng value of A Cor a lmtted column will depend on the relati ve value of the
column's end moments that will normally act in the clockwi'\c or anti -clockwi se
direction as in case (b) above. If these moment s :trc of arproximatcly equtll value then
- I , C 1.7 J = 2.7 and a typiml, approximate limit on A wi ll he given by:
Ahm = 20 X A X 8 X Cj[ii = 20 0.7 X I. I x 2.7/v'Nt-tt/(AJcd)
Alternatively for a bracl'd column the minirm1111 limitmg value of A will be given b) C = 1.7. Hence:
\hnl 20 A X B '( c;../ii 20 X 0.7 >. 1.1 X I 7, VNtd (AJc.J)
'26.2/ \ ' NEcJ
It the actual <.knderness milo is le'" than calculmed Htluc of \
1hcn 1he column
can be trentcd a.' l>hon. Other'" 1he column mu'it be treated a-. slender and second
order mu-;t be accoumed for 111 the de,ign nf the column.
Short or slender column
Determine il' the column in the lm1ccd frame shown in figure 9.3 i i> short or slender. The
concrete = 25 N/mm
, and the ultimate axial load 1280 kN.
It can be thm the column will have the ratio for bending
about axes YY where II mm and abo the end the stiff 300 x 500
Effective column height /
f u>t = 4()() X 300'/J:! 90()"
'"""'" - 300 ,.. 500' 1 12 - 3125 x I 0
' mm
900 >< 10
/ 3.0 10
k, =h
- "iJ11tx-.llll f ltx:...,) 2(2 3125) HY'/4.0 X 10
From table 9.1 and b) interpolation; effective column height/o 0.59 >. 3.0 = l.77 m.
:r The
length= 4.0m each \
Note: the beams are continuous I /. I
In both directions \(
Slenderness ratio ,\
Rudius of gymtion. i

Slendernc's ratio \ 1
/i = 1.77 x l0'/86.6 20.4
_ 3oo _
86.6 mm
ror a bmced column the mmimum limiting value of \ will be given hy
\h., 26.2t v Nt;J /(AJ..,J)
1280 ( 10
/(400 X 300 25 / 1.5) 0.6-t
\1uu - 26.2/ V0.64 32.7 (> 20.4)
llcncc, compurl!d with the mwinwm limiting value of,\ the column shon and
l order moment effect!> would not have to be into uccount.
(4) Failure modes
Short eolumns usually fail by crushing but a slender column b liable to foil by buckling.
The end moments on a slender column cause it to deflect and thuN bring into
play an additional moment Ne114d as illustrnted in figure 9.4. TI1e moment Nendd u
further lmeral deflection and if the axial load (N) a critical value deli eel ton,
and the additional moment become self-propagating until the column hud.les. Euler
denved the critical load for a pin-ended strut
The CfU\hing load Nu.t or a trul) axially loaded column may he taken a-.
Nu.J = 0 + 0.87AJ; ..
where Ac ill the area of the concrete and A, is the area or the longitudinal
Column design 2
Figure 9.3
Column end support detail
Load N
Moment M
Figure 9.4
Slender column with lateral
258 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 9.5 \
Column fatlure
35 70 105 175 210 I

anu I /i have been calculated and plotted in figure 9.5 for a typical
column crms-\cction.
The rutin of Ncn
/ Nud in ligurc 9.5 the type of failure of the column. With
I/ i than, '>ay. 50 the load wtll probuhly cause cntshing, Nu<J il-l much lcl>S than Nc
the load thm call'C\ huckling and therefore a budding failure will not occur. This
not true with highlr value of 1/ i nnd '>O a buckling failure is depending on such
"' curvature of the column and the actual eccentricity of the load.
When !
1 is greater than 110 then N.,
les\ than Nud and in a huckling failure
\\Ill oc<.ur for the column considered.
'I he mode of l':ulurc of a column can be one ot the foliO\\ ing:
1. Material wit h negligible lateral dcllection. wh1ch usually occurs with
column:; hut can ui'>O occur ''hen there arc large end momentf> on a column with an
intermediate \lendcrnc's ratio.
2. Material failun: inwnsificd hy the lmcral deflection anu the additional moment. Thts
type of failure is typtcal of intermediate column\,
3. l:ulure \\hich occur \\ ith l>lender and is liable to he preceded by
9.3 Reinforcement details
The rule., governing the mintmum and maximum of reinforcement in a load
hcarmg column ure as follOW\.
Longitudinal steel
1. A mini mum of four bars i'i required in a rectangular column (one bar in each corner)
and six bar., in a circul11r column. Bar diameter should not be less than 12 mm.
2. fhe minimum area of steel is given by
= O.IONEd > O OO"k
A, - . - '

o \ m .
Ilu ''

at lure
1 hon
I lh 30
3. The rnaJtimum area of steel, at laps is given by
1\, < 0.08
\\.here/\, is the total area of longitudinal steel and Ac is the cro .. s-sectional area of
the column.
. . . f I\ 0"'
t erwtse. m regtons away rom aps: --< . u-t .
1. Minimum si7e = x size of the bar hut not less than 6 mm.
2. Maximum spacing should not exceed the lesser of 20 x size of the smallest
compression bar or the least lateral dimension of the column or 400 mm. Thi&
shoul(l be reduced by a factor of 0.60.
(a) for a distance equal to the larger lateral dimension or the column above and
below n beam or slab, and
(b) at lapped joint!. of longiwdinal burs> 14 mm diameter.
3. Where the direction of the longitudinal reinforcement changes, the of' the
links should be calculated, while taking account of the lateral Involved. If' the
change 111 direction b lesl. than or equal to I in 12 no calculation is
4. Every longitudinal bar placed in a corner he held by trans\ersc
5. No compression bar should be further than 150 mm from a rcstra111ed bar.
Although links are popular in lhe United Kingdom, helical remtorcemcnt '' popular
in Mlmc part<; of the world and provides added '>trcngth 1n nddtllon to added prutecuon
load1ng. Si1ing and spacing of helical reinforcement he similar to
f-igure 9.6 shows po'isible nrrangements of reinforcing. nt the junction of two
and u floor. In figure 9.6a the reinforcement in the lower column il> cranked Ml
that it will lit within the :-.muller column above. The in the rciuforcemcnt11hould, if
po:-siblc, commence uhove the soffit of a beam so that the moment of of the
column not reduced. For the same reason, the bnrs in the upper column be the
(a) (b) (c)
Column design 25
Figure 9.6
Detdils of splices in column
260 Reinforced concrete design
one., cranked \\hen both columns are of the same si;e., a:; in figure 9.6b. Links should be
provided at the point<; ''here the bars are cranked in order to buckling due to
horizontal components of force in the inclined lengths of bar. Separate dowel bars as in
figure 9.6c may be useu to provide continuity between the two lengths of column
The column-beam junction <;bould be detailed !.ll that there is adequate space for both
the column \ted and the beam 'tee I. Care lui attention to detail on thb point \\ill great!)
the fixing of the :.teel during construction.
9.4 Short columns resisting moments and axial forces
The area of longitudinal steel for these columns is determined by:
1. u'ing design chan-. or con tructing M- N interaction diagram)> in chapter 4.
2. a or the ba!'ic dc .. ign equations. or
3. an approximate method
De'>ign cham are used for columns ha\ ing a rectangular or circular cross-
1>cction nnd a :.ymmetrical arrangement of reinforcement but internctton can
be constructed for any arrangement of cross-section us illustrated in examples 4. 10
and 4.11. The bu,ic equations or the approximate method can be when an
unsymmetrical arrangement of rcinforccmenl i<. required. or ,.,hen the i'>
1101\rectangular as ucscnbetl in 5CCllOil 9..'i.
Whichever desi gn method is used, a column should not be designed for a moment
than N1..t 1'
where 1'
the value of It / 30 or :!0 mm. Thh is to allow
fm tulerancc' tn con,tructton The dtmcn,ton h i' the o' erall '"c or the column cross-
section tn the pl<lne nf bending. Note that UK pnu.:tice is to limit design moment to
It /20 not It / 10.
9.4.1 Design charts and interaction diagrams
The design or a section !>Uhjl.!ctcd to bending plw. axinl lo<td should be in accordance
with the princtplcs de&cnbcd in section 4.R, which with the of the cro%-
secttnn. The h:l\tc equation' dcnved for u rectangular \CCtion as shm\ n in figure 9.7 and
with a rectangular stress hlod. are:
(9. 6)
NfA dc'>tgn ultimate axial load
Mr.d = destgn ultimate moment
v = the depth of the stress hlod 0.8.\
A: = the area of longitudinal reinforcement in the more highly compre:..scd race
1\, = the area of reinforcement in the other face
f,c the stress in reinforcement
J,. the in reinforcement A,. negative when tensile.
r 1
- -j


Sec lion
Stra1n Stress
1 3
e A,
1 I
1.0 A,
2 d'
b _ T
bhf, , 0.7
0 I
0 0 OS 010 0.15 0.20 0 25 0 30 0 35 0 40 045 0.50
These urc not suitable for direct solution und 1he de!tign of n column with
symmetrical n:infon.:ement in each ftH.:e is hesl curried OLll a:;
illu:-.tnlled in figure 9.8. of these chart!. can he found in the Concise Eurocode
(ref. 21 ), the Manual for the Design of' Concrete Structures (ref. and the
www ro.
Column design usi ng design charts
Figure 9.9 a frame of a heavily loaded industrial structure for whid1 the centre
along lme PQ are to be designed in t11i s example. TI1e frames at 4 m centres, arc
braced lateral forces. and <;upport the following floor
permanent actum I 0 kl\/m
vanahle action - 15 f...l\/m
CharacterilillC material are fck = :!.5 'J/mm
for the concrete and = 500
for the steel.
Column design 261
Figure 9.7
Column section
Figure 9.8
Rectangular column
(d'flt 0.20)
262 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 9.9
Columns in an industrial
1st floor
_-_-_-_=:._-.. _=:_-. _-_-.._*-. _=:_-. _-_---:
_-._=:_-. _-----==----_-_- _=-_-_3-:-:_-
1 1 I
beams 300x 700dp
300 x 400 columns
Sl'cllon through the frame
Ma\imum ultimme load at each noor t.O( i I 5qd per metre length of beam
4( U5 X 10 I 1.5 15)
- l441..N/rn
Mintmum ultimate load at each tloor 4.0 x 1.35gk
- 4.() X 1.35 X I()
- 54 I..N per metre length of beam
Consider the dc!tign or the CeJI!re column ut the llllUCr!o.idc (u.s.) of the first tloor.
The critical arrangement of load lhat wil l cause the maximum moment in the column
shown in figure 9. 10a.
Column loads
Second and third floors = 2 x 144 x I 0/ 2
first floor = 144 x 6/ 2 54 x 4/ 2
Column say :! x 14
- 1440kN
Similar arrangcmenLS of load will give the axial load in the column at the
under 1de (u.s.) and top side (t.s.) of each floor level and these of Nw arc sho\',.n
in table 9.2.
.. \\0
1.35G, + 1.5Q,
1.35Gk + 1.50..
1 35G + 1 .50..


Cntlcalload1ng arrangement for centre columns at 1st floor
Jc..oum :.0.:..
144 X 6 864kN 54 x 4 = 216kN

c A
I +432
-432 +72 -72 '
kNm B
k,o ull"'
(b) Subst1tute frame (c) Fixed end moments
Table 9.2
Nfd Mld Nrd Mfd
(kN) (kNm)
bhfck bh
3rd u.s. 540 82.6 0.18 0.07
2nd l.S. 734 68.4 0.24 0.06
+ 540
2nd u.s. 1274 68.4 0.42 0.06
1st t.s. 1468 68.4 0.49 0.06
+ 540
1st u.s. 2008 68.4 0.67 0.06
Column moments
0 240
0 240
0 240
0.10 600
0.30 1800
The loadi ng arrangement and the substitut e frame for determining lhc t;Oiumll moments
at the and second floors arc shown in figure 9.10(c).
Membc1 arc
kAB I blr' I 0.3 X I 0. 7
- X -- X 0. 71 X I 0
2 2 12/.Afl 2 12 X 6
AR( I 0.3 X 0.7' O O :1
.,x., -=1.7xl
- !_X 4
k -

x OA' = o 53 o-
12 X 3.0 . X I
2) = (0.71 + 1.07 + 2 X 0.53) 10-
= 2.8-l X 10 l
Column design 263
Figure 9.10
Substitute frame for column
design example
264 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 9.11
Column sections In design
. "b . f r th I kc<'l 0.53
1qn uuon acLOr 10r e co umn = '\' = - = 0.19
L-k 2.84
Fixed end moments at B arc
144 X 6
F.E.M BA = -, - 432 kN m
: _ 54 X 4
_ ? .
F.f. .M UC - -
- - 7 ... Ill
column moment Mf.d = 0.19(432- 72) = 68.4 m
At the Jrd tloor
'[)- (0.71 + 1.07+0.53) 1o- '
= 2.31 X 10-J
column moment MEd = (432 72) = 82.6 kN m
The area' of remforcemcnt in table 9.2 arc determined by u ... ing the chart of
figure 9.8. Section' through the column ore shO\\ll in figure 9.11.
1- 300
HS at 300
HhL 300
4H2S .H16
Ground to 1st Floor (b) 1st to 3rd Floor
NotP: thl' link spacing Is reduced to 0.60 x these values for 400mm
above dnd below each floor level and Dt laps below 1 sl floor level
('over for the reinforcement token as 50 mrn and d' /It f!0/400 0.2. The
m1n1murn area of reinforcement allowed 111 the is given hy:
,\, 0.002blt = 0.002 x 300 x .WO 240 mm
and the maximum area is
t\ , - 0.08 x 300 x 400 9600 mm'
and the reinforcement provided il> within these lirniU..
Although EC2 permits the usc of 12 mm main Meel, L6 mm bars have been to
ensure adequate rigidiry of the rdnforcing cuge. A smaller column section could have
been used nbove the first floor but thb would have involved change:- in formwork and
possibly also increa,cd areas of reinforcement.
l _________________________________________ )
d to
9.4.2 Design equations for a non-symmetrical section
The symmetrical amlJlgernent of the reinforcement with = A, ju\tifiablc for the
columns of a butldtng where the axial loads are the domtnant and where any
moment\ due to the wind can be acting in either direction. But some member\ arc
required to resist axial forces combined with large bendtng moment!-. !-.O that it is not
economical to ha\'e equal areas of steel in both faces. and 1n these the
chart!. cannot be applied. A design for a rectangular section a\ shown in
figure 9.12 the following iterative procedure:
1. Select a depth of neutral axis, .\ (for thi1-. dc1>ign method where the moments are
relatively large . . \ would generally be lesll than h).
2. Determine the "trains f-;.; and from the distributi on.
3. Determine the steel st resses .he from the equations relating to the stress-strain
curve for the reinforcing bars (see section 4. 1. 2).
4. Taking moments about the centroid of As
d2) d' )
where s = 0 K1.
This equation can he solved to give a value for
5. A, is then determined from the equilibrium of the axial forces, that
N1 <1 0.567/,lb.l / -.:A: l f. A,
6. lurther values of.\ may he selected and \tCpll {I ) to (5) repeated until a min1mum
\'alue for A' A, 1' obtained.
The term};. tn the equauons may be modified to (J"' 0 567/,-..) to allo\\ for the
ol concrete di'iplaced by the remforcement A:. Stre"" f , ha'i a negative stgn whenever 11
: Normal to the

d neutral

dz f,A,
Section Stress Block
Column section with an unsymmetrical arrangement of reinforcement
The column :-.cction shm' n in 9.13 an axial loud or 1100 a moment
of 230 I. Nm at the ultimate limit state. Determine the areal> of reinforcement required if
the material strengths are f.,l = 500 and = 25 N/mm
Column design 2t
Figure 9.12
Column with a
non-symmetrical arrangeme
of reinforcement
266 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 9.13
Unsymmetrical column design
-- r----

. I

1. Select n depth of neutral r = I 90 mm.
2. From the strain diagram
. 0.0035 ( ')
steel stnun E:,c = -- x- d
( 190 - 80) 0 00" )3
190 . -l .
. 0.0035
steel stram !, = --(d - r)
0.0035 (3
190 '
190) = 0.00276
3. hom the curve and the relevant equations of section 4. 1.2 yield strain.
0.00217 for grade 500 steel
t, > 0.002 17: therefore /.... 500/1.15 435

E..:.< 0.00217; therefore !...: ,.,, 200 x 10
x 0.00203

4. In equation 9.7
Nt::d (e + d2) = .1'/2) r d' )
MEd 230 X 10
e Nt;d 1100 x 10
= 0.8.r = 0.8 x 190 = 152 mm
To allow for the area of concrete displaced
I-.e become!> 406 0.567fck = 406 - 0 567 x 25

and from equarion 9.7
1100 X 10
(209 J40) 0.567 X 25 > 300 X 152(14()- 152/2)

392(340 RO)
5. !rom equati on 9.8
Nr..d 0.567/c .. bJ - /scA: ...L /.,As
(0.567 X 25 X 300 X 152)- (392 X 2093)- ( JJOO X 10
A, 435
= 843mm
A: +A, 2936 mm
for x = 190 mrn
6. Values of f-A, calculated for other depths of neutral axis. A. arc pl oncd in
figure 9. 14. h om this tigure the minimum area of reinforcement required occurs
with x 2 10 mm. Using thi s depth of neutral axis. 2 to 5 arc repeated giving
C:sc 0.00217. e, = 0.00217
Ji., 435 N/rnm
and f., = 435 N/nun

so that
A: = 1837 and /\, R9 1 mm
(Alternati vel y separate values of and A, as calculated for each value of x could
have have been plotted against x and their values remJ from the graph at
r 2 10mrn.) This area would be provided \\ith
A: three H25 plus two lJ20 ban.
A, one 1125 plu' l\\ o 1120 bars
- 1119mm
With n symmetrical arrangement of reinforcement the area from the design chart of
ligure 9.X would he r A, 3120 mm
or 14 per cent grl!ater than the area wi th an
unsymmetrical arrangement, and including no allowance for the area of concrete
displaced by the
180 190 200 2t0 220 230
Depth of neutral axis, x
These types of iterative ealculalionJ> arc readily programmed for solution by computer or
using that could find the oplimum l>tecl areas without the of
ploning a graph.
Column design 267
Figure 9.14
Design chart tor
unsymmetrical column
268 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 9.1S
Simplified design method
9.4.3 Simplified design method
As an alternatiYe ro rhe previous rigoroul> method of design an approximate method ma:r
be used when the eccenuiciry of loading. e ;., not lese; than {h/ 2- th).
M. = M + N(h/ 2 - d
A', A, A', A,
The moment MEd and the axial force NEd arc replaced hy an Increased moment Ma
(9.9 l
plus a compressive force NFA acting through the 'teel A shown tn figure 9.15.
Hence the destgn of the reinforcement t'> carried out 111 two pal1!-..
1. The member is designed as a douhly rcmforced :-.ectton to rc,i:-.t Mu acting hy
The equation., for calculating the area' of rctnforcement to re<,i!,t for grade:- C50
concrete (or below) arc given in 1>Cctinn 4.5
I 0.87J;v'\:(d d' )
- 0.2CJ4(dbd I
2. The area of A, calculated in the pun is reduced by the amount Nf!.d /O.'d7f)k
This preliminary design method prohahly most usc l\ 11 for non-rccttlllgulur column
sections as shown in example 9.5, hut the procedure i& hrc;t clemonstn.1ted with a
rectangular cross-section in the following example.
Column design by the simplified method
Calculate the area of steel requtrcd in 1hc 300 x .tOO column of figure 9.1.l
= II 00 k . MF.d = 230 k m. /.k = 251\/mm, and />l 500 Nlmm

. . 23() X )()
I:.cccnlncll) e = ---...,.
1100 X 10
= 209 mm > G -(/2)
9 1"
1. lncrea ed moment
Ma =MrA+NwG-d1)
= 230 + 1100(200 - 60) 10-
= 384k.J"l m
The area of <;teel to resist this moment can he calculated formulae 9.10
and 9.11 for the de:;tgn of a beam with comprel>sive reinforcement. that .,
MJ 0.167fckblP + d' )
= +
38-+ x 1 o
- 0.167 x 25 x 3oo x 340
o.s7 x ( 340 - 80}
so lhat
().!{7 J( 500 J<. 1\, = 0.204 X 25 X 3(){) X 340 + Q,g7 X 5()() ' 21 15
\, 331 I mm
2. Rcductng thi!> an:a by
I 100 " 10'
A, 311 I - ..,.-...,_--,--
0.87 x 5(Xl
- 782 mm
rhis compare' wtth = 1837 and A, 891 with the de,ign method of
example 9.1. (To give a truer comparison the WC)o\ in the reinforcement
11hould have hcen modtfied to for the an:a of concrete di,pluccd, as was done in
exurnplc 9. 3. l
9.5 Non-rectangular sections
chart\ arc not usually uvuilttble for columns of other than a rectnngular or a
circulur cross-section. Therefore the of a non-rectangular entails either
( I) un iterative solution of design equations, (2) a form of design, or
(3) of M N interaction diagrams.
9.5.1 Design equations
For a non-rectangular tt IS much simpler to consider the equivalent rectangular
block. Determination of the reinforcement areal. follow-. the same procedure a\
de.,cribcd for a rectangular column 111 section 9.4.2, namely
1. Select a depth ol nemral axis.
2. Determine the corresponding Mccl !>trains.
3. Determtne the steel stressc!>.
Column design
270 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 9.16
Non-rectangular column
Nld normal to the section
d _ _ _ _ neutral _
Section Stratns
Stress Block
4. Tnl\t: moment!> about A, so that with reference to figure 9. 16:
NEd ( e-'- d2) (d x) I (d - d')
Solve equation to give
5. For no resultant force on the sec11on
Nw - 0.567..f..kAcc +
Solve thi\ equation to give A,.
6. Repeal the previous for different values of 1 to lind a minimum (A:+ A, ).
In (..J ) and (5)
A., b the mea of concrete 111 comprcssmn shown \haded
.\ i:-. the di\tance from the centroid of '1,< to the extreme lihrc m compression
l'i the in reinforcement A" negative 11'
The calculation for a particular would be very similur to that described
111 example 9.3 except when using the design equat1ons it would he necessary to
determine A,c and x for cuch position of a neutral
9.5.2 Simplified preliminary design method
The procedure is simi lar LO that for a column with n rectangular section as
described in section 9.4.3 and figure 9. 15.
The column is designed to resist a moment M
only. where
M, MI\U I NF.d G- d2) (9. 12)
The slecl area required to resist this moment he calculalcd from
M,. 0.567/.kAcc(d- i } (d d')
where 11,. i'> the area of concrete in \\ ith 1 0.4Sd for concrete grades
CSO and below and x ill the distance from the cenLroid of A to the extreme fibre in
The area of tension reinforcement. A,, as given by equation 9.14 is then reduced by
an amount equal to
method should not be used if the eccentricity, e, is less than (h/ 2 - d
) .
9.5.3 M- N interaction diagram
These can be con!>tructcd using lhc method described in sec11on 4.8 \\ ith
example5 4.10 and 4.11. They are particularly for a column in a mult1-storey
building where the moments and associated axial forces change at each The
diagrams can be constructed after carrying out the approx1mate design procedure in
section 9.5.2 to obtain suitable arrangements of reinforcing bars.
Design of a non-rectangular column section
the rei nforcemeut for the non-rectangular section shown in figure 9. 17 given
MFd = 320 m. NEI.J = 1200 kN at the ultimate limit state and the characteristic
material are .fck = 25 N/mm
and ./) = 500 N/mm

Ml.:d 320 X 10
- '?67 (II -d)
t' - - - mm > '
Nl:.d 1200 X lQl 2 -
moment M. Mw I Nw G d2)
320 t 1200{200 80) I 0
= 464k..\lm
With ,, 0.45d 144 mm. 0.8.\ 115 mm and the width (11
) of the 'ection at the
limit of the Mrcss hlocl.
b, 300
200{400 115)

x(l> -1- "')
11 5{500 1443}
54 223 rnm
Column design 271
Figure 9.17
Non-rectangular section
272 Reinforced concrele design
The depth of the centroid of the trapezium is given by
_ s(b ...L 2bJ)
3(b T bJ)
(500 ..L 2 X 443)
= 115
) =56.3mm
Therefore ubstituting in equation 9.13
4(i.l x 10
0.567 X 25 X 54223(320 56.3) f 0.H7 x 500A:(320- 80)
A: = 2503
Prnviue three H32 plus two H 16 bars, area 2XI2 rnm

From equation 9.14
0.567 X 25 X 54 223 I 0.87 X 500 X 2503

A, = 4269 mm
A, by Ncd/0.87f,k gives
120() X 10
' 0.87 X 500

Provtde one HI 6 plus two H32 area
The total area of n:inforccmcnt prm ided
cent allowed.

4623 mm
"hich than the 8 per
An M-N mtcraction dtagram could nm' he con-;tructcd for tht'> arrangement.
1n \CCtton 4.8. to provide a more
___________________________________________ )
9.6 Biaxial bending of short columns
For mol>t columns, biaxial bending wi ll not govern the design. The loadi ng
necessary to cause biaxial bending in a building's inLernal and edge columns will not
usually cause large moments in borh directions. Corner eolumnf. muy have LO resist
signilicant bending about bmh axes, hut the axial loads are u<,ually small and a design
similar to the adjacent edge columns generally adequate.
A design for biaxial bending based on a rigorous analysts of the crol!.s-&ection and the
and would he done ro the fundamental principles of
chapter 4. For memhcrl> with a rectangular cros'>-,ecrion. \Cparate check<. in the two
principal plane<, are if the ratio of the corre,ponding eccentricities
one of the following conditions:
etther / < 0.2
or < 0.2
b b-
where ey ond e, arc the lirst-order eccentricitie:-. in the direction or the section
dimensions b nnd It respectively. Where Lhc:-.c conditions are not fuiJillcd biaxial
bending be accounted for and EC2 presents an interaction equation, relating the
ubmu the two axes to tl1e moment or resistllncc about the two axes, whlch
must he However, the given formula cannot be directly to design a
column subject to biaxinl bending hut rather to check it once desig.m:tl. In the absence of
dcstgn gutdance it would be acceptable in tl1e UK !hal the wlurnn he
using the method previously presented in BS 8110.
This approximate method specifies that a column subjected to an ultimate load N
and moment!> M, and M) in the direction of the ZL and YY axe!> (sec
figure 9.18) may be dc:-.igncd for a -;inglc axis bending but with an 111crca,ed moment
and to the follm' ing
. M, M,
(3) tl ,, h'
then the tncreased smgle axi<> desrgn moment rs
M, j b' X M)
(h) if M,
,, ll
then the increased single oxis design moment is
M; My + lj;,, X M,
The dimension.., II' a null are defined in figure 9. I 8 and the coefficient ;:J is in
table 9.3. The in table 9.3 ore obtained from the equation
Table 9.3 Values of coefficient 1 for biaxial bending
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 07
1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3
Column design 273
Figure 9.18
Section with biaxial bending
274 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 9.19
Biaxial bending example
Design of a column for biaxial bending
The column section shown in figure 9.19 is to be to res1st an ultimate axial load
of 1200 k plus moments of M, = 75 k'J m and M> - 80 kN m. The chamcteristic
material strengths are fck = 25 , and f.,k = 500 l\/mm
M, z 75kNm
t I e
Z -- --- l
75 X 10
c, = - = ()3 62.5 mm
NF.d 1200 X 1
My 80 x I if
C'y = NFd = 1200 X lO'
= 62.5/66.7
" " 350 300 o.x >
. - -- - - 1.24 > 0.2
l'y/f!( - 66.7/62.5
/1 It 300 350
lienee the column must he designed for binxiul bending.
Mz _ 75 _ O
'" (350 - 70) - -
Mv 80
b' (300 - 60)

M, My
II' < b'
therefore the increased axis design moment b
M; M) .,..JWx M
Nwfblifcl 1200 x IO't(300 350 x 25) 0.46
h om tahle 9.3, 3 = 0.54
M' X()..,.. 0.54 X - X 75 = 114.7 kt\ m
280 .
Mtd I 14.7 X 10
--- 2 = .15
bh2_{ck 350 X (300) X 25
From the de!>ign chart of figure 9.8
AJ)k = 0.47
Therefore required A, 2467 mm

Su provide four 1-1 32 bars.
9.7 Design of slender columns
As specified in section 9.2. a column is da:-.silicd as slender if the slcndemess rutio
uhout either axis exceeds the value of AJim lf A::; AJim then the column may be
shmt and the slenderness effect may be neglected.
A slender column with A > Alim must be designed for an additional moment
hy its curvature at ultimate conditions. EC2 four different to
dc!tigning slender
1. A general method based on a non-linear of the 't1111:ture and for
that the u'c of computer analy"'
2. A second-order based on nominal st1ffness values of the beam' and
column' that. agam, computer analysi" using a of Iterative analy!.i!-1.
3. The ' moment magnification method \\>here the design momenh arc obtained by
factonng the fiN-order moments.
4. The 'nominal curvature' method where second-order momentl- arc dctermmed from
an estimation of the column curvature. These second-order momentl- are added to
the first-order moment:- to give the tmal column des1gn moment.
Only the fourth method. as given above. will be detailed here ll). this method is not
greatly dissimilur to the approach in the previous Standard for concrete design,
BS R I I 0. Fur1hcr information on the other methods can be found in specialist li terature.
The expressions given in EC2 for lhc additional moments were derived hy
the moment/curvuture behaviour for a member subject to bending plus uxiul loud. The
for calr..:ulating the design moments arc only applicable w of a
rectangular or circular section with symmetricul reinfnrcemcnt.
A slcnuer column be designed for an ultimate axial load (NCd) plu1. on im:reascd
moment given by
Mr Nhll'rur
l'tor = eo + e J +
eo IS an equivalent fif).t-ordcr cccenlrieity
an accidental eccentricity which accounts for geometric Jmperfecuonl- in the
e: is the eccentricity.
Column design 275
276 Reinforced concrete design
The equtvalent eccentricity eo is given by the greater of
0.6eo2 - 0.4eoJ or
where e01 and eo:>. are the first-order eccentricities at the two ends of the column a.'
described above, and le02l is greater than Jl'ot .
The accidental eccentriciry is given by the equation
a- 2
where /
is the effective column height about the axis considered and
I l
100/i 200
where 1 is the height of the column in metres. A conservative estimate of e
can be given
/o 1 /o lo
2 200 2 400
The !.econd-order eccentricity e
is an estimate ol the deflection of the column at failure
and i::. given by the equation
15 ( C'v<J )
- Kt K2-:; --
rr 0.45d
K1 = 1 -L. ( 0.35 +

;?:: I
,.\ slendeme:-s ratio
-effective creep ratto- c1( to) Mor:,
p/ MoEAJ
( , to)= tinal creep coefficient
, = the bending moment in the quu'i permanent load combtnation at the Sl
the bending moment tn the design loud combination at the ULS
<Per may be taken as 7.ero if cb( . to )< 2 and).. < 75 and MwoJ/NPA > h
In most practical the above equation may be to
rr2 x I 03 SOOd
where r is approximnted to a value or 10.
The coefficient K
is a reduction factor to allow for the fact that the dellection
be less when there i!i a large propor1ion of the column in The value
for K
given by the equation
Nud- NFJ.l < I 0
NuoJ - Nbal .
owhere Nud the ultimate axial load such that
Nu.t = 0.567fckA..: -r
and Nrn.
i:-. the axial load at balanced failure defined in section 4.8 and may he taken 01>
approximately Nbat = 0.29/cvl, for 1->ymmetricul reinforcement.
In order to calculate the area A, of the column reinforcement must he known and
hence a trial-and-error approach is necessary. taking an initial conservative value of
1.0. Values of K2 arc also marked on the column design in
figure 9.8.
Design of a slender column
A column of 300 x 450 m the ulurn:uc limit an
axial load of 1700 k r and end moments of 70 I..N m and I 0 I..N m double
curvmure tlbour rhe minor axis YY as in figure 9.20. The cnlumn \ effective
height!> arc 6. 75 m and leL - 8.0 m and the ic material Mrengths
J,k = 25N/mm
and/yk = 500N/mm
. The effective creep ratio 0.87.
Eccentricities are
10 X
= 5.9nun t'u1
Nl!.J 1700

= - 41 ::! mm
where t'tP is negative since the column is bent in douhle curvature.
I he limiting ratio can be calculated from equauon 9.4 where:
A I /( I l ) - II( I + (0. 2 x 0.87)) O.R5
8 the default 'alue of I. I
C 1.7 M
/ M
: 1.7- (-10/70) = 1.84
.'. A lorn
::W A" lJ x C//ii
r.: J4.41
20 )c 0 85 X 1.1 X 1.84 yl/ = --r:'""
1700 X 10
(3()() X 450) X 0.567 X 25
v'o !!9
(a) Section
Nt d ,. 1700kN
(b) Ax1alload and initial moments
Column design 277
Figure 9.20
Slender column example
278 Reinforced concrete design
Actual slenderness rat1os are
,__ 6.75
\ = 7- = -() X .>.46 = 77.85 > 36.47
.. >
\ - '"
/\1- ,
X 3A6 = 61.55 > 36.47
Therefore the column b and ,.\ i<> critical.
Equivalent eccentricity = 0.6eo2 + O.kot >

0.6eo2 OAeo1 = 0.6 x 41.2 + 0.4 x ( 5.9) 22.15 mm
0.4eu: = 0.4 x 41.2 = 16.47 mm
Thcrl!fore the equivalent eccentricity ec 22.35 mm.
Taking ,. l / 200 the accidental eccentricity i!.
fry I 6750
ea = I '
x T - l6.88mm
The second-order eccentri city is

('"t= --
- 7!"
X I 03 500tl
= 1 - (oJs 1


I 03 :'iOOd
= I + ((U5
096 ( I)
I >- I X 6750' >( 5(Xl
;; " 103 500 240
92.92 111111
\\ tth K' 1.0 for the initial value.
l-or the lir:.t iteration the towl eccentrici ty
22.35 + 16.88 + 92.92 132. 15 mm
and the total moment is
NL!det(lt = 1700 x 132. 15 x 10 '- 225 kN rn
1111/..k 45() X :100 X 25
1700 X 1().1
= 225 x

= 0.
fck .f5() X 300 X _;,
From the chart of figure 9.&
Ah = 0.80 and K' = 0.78
77 !15)
This new value of K
i<; used to calculate t'2 and hence M
for the 'econd iteration. The
de,ign chart b again u<>ed to determine AJ.\k/ bhf and a new value of K2 as shown in
tahle 9.4. The iterations arc continued unti l the value of K2 in ( l ) and (5) of the
Table 9.4
(7) (2) (3)
(4) (5)
K1 M Mt
1.0 225 0.222 0.80 0.78
0.78 190 0.187
0.6 0.73
table arc in reasonable agreement. \\hich in th1s de!>ign o<.:cur,\ alter two So
lhat the area required is
_ 0.6 X 450 X X 25 _

A, --- ---- mm
and 0.7.+.
A\ a check on the final value of K
interpolated from the design chart:
0.29 X 25 X 300 X 45() X I()-
978 1-N
Nld 0. 567}; + 0.87()v\,
(0.567 X 25 X 300 X -150 0.R7 X 51Xl x 4050)10 J
1675 k"'
N.," - Nr:.d 3675 1700

Nud Nt..l 3675 - 978
Column design 279
\\hkh agrees \\ith the linal value in column 5 of table 9.-1.
___________________________________________ )
9.8 Walls
Wall11 may tul.c the form of dividing element:-. in whi ch their
will often rell cct sound insulation and fire requirement)>. Nominal
reinfon.:ement will he used to control in such t:a,\e).. More commonly,
reinforced cont:rctc will form part of a structural frame and wil l he designed rnr
vertical and horitontal forces and moments obwincd hy normal unulysis methods. In
situ:ltion a wall is dl!fi ned as being a verti cal member whose length is not
less than four timc11 its lhickncss.
Where several walls arc connected monolitlucally so that they behave a llllll, they
urc as a wall system. Sometimes horilontal f'orl:cs on a strucwrc are
hy more than one wall or \)Stem of in \vhich case the dt ... tribution of forces
hctwcen the walls or sy<.,tcms will he assumed to be in propon1nn to thctr st iffncs-;e)..
It j, normal practice to consider a wall as a 5eries of \Crtical stnps \vhen designing
vcn1cal re111forcement. Eat:h strip i-; then designed as a wlumn to the
appropriate venical load and Lranwerse momentl) at its top and honom. Slcmlcrncs<;
effects must be constdered \\here ncccl.'\ary. as for columns. If a wall 11. ).Uhjc<.:t
predominant!) to lateral bending. the design and detailing \\ill be undertaken as if it
were a 'lab, hut the wall thickness \\ill usually be governed by slenderness hmitauons.
tire resiMancc requirements and construction practicalities.
280 Reinforced concrete design
Reinforcement detailing
For a wall designed either as a senes of column' or a' a the area of \'enJca:.
reinforcement should lie between 0.002A, and O.o.t, \, and "ill normally be equ.J}
di\ ided het\\een each face. Bar -;pacing along the length of the wall should not
the lesser of 400 mm or three time'> the thickncs,,
Homontal !.hould haYe a d1ametcr of not bs than one-quarter of the \'ert , ..
bar , and w1th a total area of not les' than 25'1 of the vertical or 0.00 lAc w hiche a
" greater. The horizomal har<; should lie between the Yerllcal bars and the
surface. \\ith a spacing which i.., not greater than 400 rnm.
If the arc<l of Yertical steel exceeds 0,021\, . then the bars should he enclosed by 1mJ,;s
designed according to the rule:- for columns.
Foundations and
retaining walls
.. ..........................................
A building 1s generally composed of a superstructure c1bove the ground c1nd a
substructure which forms the foundations below ground The foundations transfer
and spread the loads from a structure's columns and walls into the ground. The safe
bearing capac1ty of the soil must not be exceeded otherwise excessive settlement may
occur, in damc1ge to the buildmg and its service facilities, such as the Welter
or gas mams Foundation failure can also affect the overall stabihty of a structure so
that 1t is liable to slide, to lift vertically or even overturn.
The earth under the foundations is the most variable of all the materials thdt are
considered in the design and construction of an engineering structure. Under one
small building the soil may vary from a sort clay to a dense rock. Also the nature
and properties of the soil will change with the seasons and the weather. For
example Keuper Marl, a relatively common soil, is hard
like rock when dry but when wet it can change into an
almost liquid stole.
It is Important to have an engineering survey made
of the soil under a proposed structure so that variations
In the strata and the soi l can be determined.
Drill holes or trial pits should be sunk, In situ tests such
as the penetration Lest performed and samples of the
soi l taken to be tested in the laboratory. From the
information gained it is possible to recommend safe
bearing pressures and, if necessary, calculate possible
settlements of the structure
The structural design of any foundation or retaining
wall will be based on the general principles outlined in
previous chapters of this book. However where the
foundation interacts w1th the ground the geotechnical
282 Reinforced concrete design
design of the foundation must be considered i.e. the ability of the ground to resist the
loading transferred by the structure.
Geotechnical design is in accordance with BS EN 1997: Eurocode 7. This code
classifies design situations into three types: (i) category 1 - small and simple
structures (ii) category 2- conventional with no difficult ground or complicated
loading conditions and (iii) category 3 all other types of structures where there
may be a high risk of geotechnical failure. The expectation is that structural
engineers will be responsible for the design of category 1 structures, geotechnical
engineers for category 3 and e1ther type of engineer could be responsible for
category 2.
This chapter will only consider foundation types that are likely to fal l within the
first two categories.
General design approach
Although EC7 presents three ahernativc t.bign approaches the UK National Annex
a for only the hN ol thC\C. In this UC'-1gn approach, two \CI<. of load combination'
(referred to as comhinat1on' I and 2 111 table 10.1) nuN be at the ultimate
linut -.t.lte. Thc'c two w11l he u'ed for of hoth structural
fa1lure. S I"R (e\cc"ivc deformation. crackmg or fmlure of the 'tructun.:). and
geotechnical fa1lurc. GEO (exces'>IVe deformation or complete failure ot the i>Upponing
ma'' of earth).
A th1rd combination must be taken when considenng po\\lhlc lo-,, of equilibrium
(f'QL J of the l-tructure !\UCh as overturning. I he partial safct) factori> to be used for
these three combinations are g1ven 1n mole I 0.1.
Table 10. 1 Partial safety factors at the ultimate limit state
Per\istent or transient Permanent actions Leading variable action Accomponymg variable action
design situation (Gk) (Qk ,) (Qk I)
Unfavourable Favourable Unfavourable Favourable Unfavourable Favourable
(a) lor consideration of
structural or geotechnical
1.35 1 .00* 1.50 0 1.50 0
failure: combination 1
(STR) & (GEO)
(b) for consideration of
structural or geotechnK,ll
1.00 1.oo 1.30 0 1 30 0
failure: combination 2
(STR) & (GEO)
(c) for checking
1.1 0.9 1.50 0 1.50 0
equilibrium (EQU)
To to be.mng, sliding dnd earth resistance fort6
Foundations and retaining walls 28;
ln determining lhe design values of actions to be used at the ultimate limit state the
characteristic loads should he multiplied by a partial safety factor. Appropriate values of
p<utial safety factors can be obtained fiom tuhle 10. I. fn the case of the accompanying
variable actions they should be further multiplied by the factor where appropriate
values of t1o can be obtained from table 2.-t in chapter 2.
In table I 0. L it should he noted lhat combination I will usually be relevant to the
structural design of tl1e foundutron, whilst combination 2 will be most likely to govern
the sizing of the foundation to ensure lhat settlement is nor excessive. but this will
depend on the circumst:lnces of the particular situation.
The third combination of actions :-.hown in the finul row of table 10.1 i:-. relevant to the
design of structure!> such as the type shown in figure l 0. l. where it ma) he necessary to
check the possibility of uplift to the foundations and the stability of the structure when it
is suhjcctcd to lateral loads. The critical loading lUTangement is usually the cmnbinallon
of maximum lateral load with minimum permanent load and no variable load, that
l .5Wk I 0.9Gk. Minimum permanent load can sometimes occur during crcclion when
many of the imerior finishes and fixtures may not have heen installed.
At the same time us the dc:-ign values of actions urc determined. u:. above. the soil
parameters in the geotechnical a!>pccts of the design are rnuliiplied by the parual
factors of -;afety, appropn:ue to the load comh1nat1on under considcratton. <h gi,cn 111
table J0.2. The detailed of the!>e factors will not be developed further 111 lim text hut
are g1vcn for
For spread foundation<; such U\ and rnu footings i:.C7 gives three
altcmativc methods ol design:
1. The 'Direct Method' where calculation'> arc required for each It mit state u-;ing the
partial factor:. of appropriate from 10. I and 10.2
2. The 'Indirect Method' which allows for a simultaneou.; hlending of ullimatc limit
slate and <;erviceability limit state procedures
3. The 'Prescriptive Method' where an bearing prc:.sure is used to si7.c
the foundations based on the serviceability limit followed by dctuiled structural
based on the ultimate limit Mate
In the Prtlcriptite Mt>rlwtlthe traditional UK approach to the sinng ol t!\
effectively retained thnt a suitable base may he determined based on the
:.crviceability limit slate values for nnd an assumed ullowuble bearing
pressure (see tnble IOJ). In !his way settlement will he controlled. with the exception
that for foundations on soft clay full sculemcnt calculutions mw.t he t:arried out.
Table 10.2 Partial safely factors applied to geotechnical material properties
Angle of Undrained
shearing Effective shear Unconfined Bulk
resistance cohesion strength strength density
,\U .'IJU
Combination 1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Combination 2 1.25 1.25 1.4 1.4 1.0
Figure 10.1
Uplift on footing
284 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 10.2
under foolings
Table 10.3 Typical allowable bearing values
Rock or soil
Massive igneous bedrock
Shales and mudstone
Gravel, sand and gravel, compact
Medium dense sand
Loose fine sand
Very st1ff clay
Stiff clay
Firm clay
Soft clay
Typical bearing value (kN/mz)
2000 to 4000
600 to 2000
100 to 300
less than 1 00
300 to 600
150 to 300
75 to 150
Less than 75
When.: the arc to hoth vertical and hori7.ontal the followine
rule can be applied:
I the vertical load
H the horizontal load
/'_ the allowable vertical loud
the allowable hori;ontal loud.
The ullownblc hnri7ontul lo:1d would take account of the resistance of the
ground in contact with the vertical or the foundation plu' the friction and cohesion
along bal'>e.
The to detcmune the 'tructural of the that the
of the ba,cs and the of reinforcement, should he on the
;md the rc,ultant ground prcs'iurc' to the ulumate ltmit \late and
con,idenng the \\ON of the cnmhinution' I and 2 for the action' <mblc I 0.1) although.
p1cviou\ly noted. combina11on I \\til usually govern the 'itructural tbign.
For most designs a linear distribution or prC!>SUre the of the rooting 1\
:t'iMtllled :11, shown in figure 10.2(a). This assumption must be on the soil acting as
an material and the foming having infinite rigidity. In fact. not only do most soi ls
exhibit some bchmiour and all footings have a finite but also the
t.hstributton of 'ioil pre!>surc varies with time. ' I he aclltal diwibution of hearing
many moment may take the form shown in ligure 10.2(b) or (c), depending on the type
of and the of the ha'ic and the structure. But as the behaviour ol
foundation\ mvolves many regarding the actton ol the ground and the
loadmg. 11 " unrealbtic to con\ldcr an analys1<; that ts too soplusticated.
(a) Un1form distribution (b) Cohesive soil (c) Sandy soil
ting j,
' \Oib
'o the
c type
1our of
and the

Foundations and retaining walls 2f
should be constructed so that the undersides of the bases are below
level. A'l. the concrete is subjected to more severe exposure conditions a larger nominal
cover to the reinforcement required. Despite the values -.uggested in tables 6.1 and 6.2
Cl\tabli.,hed practice in the UK would be to recommend that the mintmum cover should
be not than 75 mm \\hen the concrete is cast against the ground. or less than 50 mm
when the concrete is against a layer of blinding concrete. A concrete class of at least
C30/37 is required to meet durability requirement<;.
10.1 Pad footings
The tooting for a single column may be made square in plan. but \\hen. there is a large
moment acting about one axis it may be more economical to hnvc a base.
Assuming there is a linear distribution the bearing pressure\ across the base will take
one of lhe three forms shown in figure 10.3, according to the relative magnitudes of lhc
axia l load N and the moment M acting on the base.
1. In figure 10.3(u) there is no moment the pressure is uniform
( 10. 1)*
2. With a moment M acting as the are given by the equation for axial
load plus bending. provided there is positive contact hetwccn the and
the gmund along the complete length D of the footing, a' 111 figure 10.3(b) that
N M\'
p IJIJ i I
where Its the second moment area of the about the nxt), of bendtng and .1 i' the
dtstance from the ax1 to \\here the pres ure il) being calculated.
Breadth of footing 8 Eccentricity (e) ,. MIN
r r r
6 8
t t t f t t t
e < 0, 6 t > D 6
N N 6M
p ., 2N
P BD P- BD B[)l
Y = 3(1 e)
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 10.3
Pnd-foot1ng pressure
286 Reinforced concrete design
Substituting for I 13D
/ 12 and y D /2, the maximum pressure is
N 6M
and the minimum pressure is
N 6M
= BD BD1
( 10.3)*
There tS positi\c contact along the base if p
from equation 10.3 is positive.
When pressure just equals zero
N 6M
/JD - BD1 -
N =(;
So that for Pl alway!. to be positive. M /N or the effective eccentricity, I'- must
never he greater than D/ 6. In thc\e cases the eccentrtCilY of loading is to lie
within the 'middle third of the hasc.
3. When the eccentricity, e is greater than D/6 there is no longer a po!>iuve
along the length D and the diagram is triungulur ns shown in ligure I OJ( c).
Bulancing the downward load and the upward prcs!-.urcs
.,pLJ} = N
maximum I'
''here Y "the length of positive conwct. The cemroid of the diagram must
coinc1de with the eccentricity of loading in order for the load and reaction to he
equul tmd opposi re. J'hus
y f)
therefore 1n the case of c > D/ 6
maximum pressure I'
_ c7}
( 10.4)*
A typ1cal arrangement ol the reinforcement in a pad footing i!-1 shown in figure 10.4.
With a 'quare base the n!tnlorcemcnt to resist hcnding he distnhuted uniformly
across the full wtdth of the footing. For n rectangular base the reinforcement in the shon
direction he with a closer in the region under near the
t:nlumn. to allow for the fact that the transvcr!-.C momems must be greater nearer the
column. It recommended that at least two-thirds of the reinforcement in the short
dtrection !-.hould be concentrated in a band \\idlh of (r
3d) \\here c is the column
dimension Ill the long d1rection and d i'i the effecuve depth. Lf the footing be
Foundations and retaining walls 287
A, t
'- L----------'
lap length
bubj ectc<.lto u l arge overturning moment so that there is onl y par1ial hearing, or i f there
a re:.ultant uplift for(;c. then reinforcement may :l111o he require<.! in the top face.
Do\\eb or !'.tarter exten<.l from the looting into the column in order to
provtde continutty to the reinforcement. The'e dowel\ should be cmheddec.J into the
footmg and extend tnto the n fulll<tp length. Sometimes a 75 mm length of the
column is constructed into the same concrete pour the footing so as to form a 'kicker'
nr support for the In the dowel'" lup length be
from the top of the kicker
The critical !>Cctions through the ha.,e for chcckmg '>henr. punchmg and bending
arc shown in figure 1 0.5. The shcan ng force and hcndmg an.: hy the
ultimute from the column 1111d the wetght of 1he base not he included in
thc:-c cal culati ons.
The thtcknes' of the base oflcn governed h) the requirement' tor 'hear
Following the Prescriptiw! Ml!tlwd the princqxll in the dc:.tgn calculation' arc
a!> follows:
1. Calculate 1he plan size of the footing using the permi&sible hcming pressure amlthe
critical loading arrangement for the serviceability limit state.
2. Calculate the heanng prcs'>urc., a<;sociatcd \\ith the critical loadtng arrangement at
the ultimate l im1t state.
3. Assume u suitable value for rhe thi ckness (II) and efi'cctive depth (d). Check thnt the
shear force at the column fuce is less thun 0.5,
ifcl/ 1. 5)ud where
11 is the pcnrneter of the column and ,., is the reduction factor
0.6( I - .f,l( l50).
4. Carry out u preliminary check for pum:hing shear w that the footrng
thi ckness gi ves a punching shear whil.:h is within the likely range of
acceptable pctfonnance.
5. Detenninc the reinforcement reqUired to re!-.1).1 bending.
6. Make a final check for the punching \hear.
7. Check the force at the critical
8. Where upplicablc, both foundations and the <; truct ure should be checked for overall
stabi lity at the ultimate li mit state.
9. Reinforcement to bendtng in the bottom of the should extend at lea:.t a
full tension anchorage length beyond the crttJcal !\CCtion of bending.
Figure 10.4
Pad footing rerntorcemenl
288 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 10.5
Critical sectiom for design
Figure 10.6
Pad foot1ng example
- Punching shear penmeter
_ 2.0d _ column perimeter + 4n:d
I ;
\ I i"" - Shear
Design of a pad footing
I he fooung t figure I O.(l) required to resist characterii.ttc ax tal of 1 ()()() 1-N
.u1d 350 1-.N 'ariahk from a 400 mm column. The sate bearing
prcs\urc un the 1' 200 kN/m: and the charactemt ie material wcngths are
JO N/mm' and },
a l'ooti11g weight or 150 1-.N so that the total permanent load i:. 11 50 kN and
ha-.c the dcstgn on the Pn1cnpt11'l' Method.
1. l-or the limit 'tate
TotuJ dc..,ign axinl load + I.OQk 11 50 ..1... 350 = 1500 kN
. 1500 '
Rcqwcd nrea - :wo 7.5 m
Provide u ba-.e 2.8 m square = 7.8 m

2. lor the ultimate limtt l>tatl:
From table 10.1 it j.., apparent load combination I wi ll give the largest set of al:lions
for simple wucturc. Hence, u ... ing the partial c;afety factor:. for load
combination I:
Column design axial lotld. Nht + 1.5Qk
= 1.15 x 1000 1.5 ll 350- 1875 kN
Eanh pre,sure
- 119 kN/m
2.1F -
400 sq
8 .- ,.-----......l!dl-----,
! J
12H16@ 225 e.w.

Foundations and retaining walls 289
3. Assume a 600 mm thick footing and with the footing on a hl1nding layer
of concrete the minimum cover is taken as 50 mm. Therefore take mean effecuve
depth = d = 520 mm.
At the column face
Ma\imum I'Rd m;u
0.5ud [o.6(J - f , L ) ] hl
250 1.5
[ (
30 ) ] 30 J
= 0.5(4 X 400) X 520 X 0.6 l - ? _ X 10-
-50 I.::J
= 43931-..N ( > I X75 kN)
4. Punching
The criti cal for checking pum:hing shear is at a 2d a::. shown in
li gurc 10.5
Critical perimeter = column perimeter+ 41rd
4 x 400 1 4?rx 520 - X134mm
Area within perimeter (400 + 4d)
- (4 -
= (400 + :!080J
- \4 - rrJ w .. m'
= 5.22 !d' mm!
Punchmg 'hear Ioree \'rd = 5 22) = 6261u'\
Punch1ng 'hear l':d = -::---:-.
Pcnmcter d
626 X 10' - N '
8134 x 520 -
Tim, ultimate !.hear -.trc11s i' not (sec table 8.2) therefore It 6(XJ mm will
he u suiwhle e-.t imate.
5. Bending rclnforccmenr see figure 10. 7(a)
At the columu face which i' the cri tical section

Mr:.<l (2J9 >< 2.8 X 1.2) X
482 kN m
(a) Bend1ng
1 .. ...
(b) Shear
Figure 10.7
Cntical sections
290 Reinforced concrete design
For lhe concrete
Mhal 0.167.f.:lbd
= 0.167 >< 30 X 2800 X X J0-1> 3793 kN m ( >
A-= --
, 0.87/yk.:
From lhe lever-arm curve. figure 4.5. /., = 0.95. Therefore:
- 482 )( 10'' - .,.,
A, - 0.87 500 x (0.95 x 520) - --
Pro\idl! twehe lll6 bar:. at 225mm centres. A, 2412mm
100 X 2412
28()() X 520
0.165 ( > 0.15 sec table 6.X)
that is. the minimum steel area requi rement is satil'fied.
Maximum bar size
The stress should be calculated unde1 the action of the quasi-permanent loading
which can he from equation 6.1
t;kl Gk + IUQd
1.15( 1.35Gl I 1.5Qd
5001 )()()() i () 3 ' '50)
t !51 1.35 .< 1000- 1.5 350)
256 '1/mm'
Theretore lrom table 6.1) the ll1<1\lmum .llltmablc bar j-, 16mm. lienee.
mtntmum area ami bar 'llC rcqutrcmcnt' "' :.pccthcd h} the code for the purpo!>e:> of
crack control arc met.
6. Fuwl check of punching :.hear
The 'hear of the concrete without 'hear reinforcement can he obtained
fwm table 8.2 where
/'1 cnn he taken as the average of the steel 111 both direction-,
A, 2412
= bd = 2800 X 520
0.0017 ( (), t <
hcm:c from table 8.2 I' Rd,, = 0.4 N/mm
Therefore the shear resistance of the concrete, VRd. il'> given by:
I'Rd clld 0.40 x 8134 x 520 x I 0
169 I kN ( .-. Vud = 626 kN)
7. Maximum Shear Force - sec figure 10.7!b)
AI the critical section for shear. I.Od from the column face:
shear """ 239 x 2.8 x 0.68
= 455kN
A' before. I'Kd., =
.', \'KJ r = I'Rd. cbd
= 0.40 X 2800 " 520 X 10-
- 582 kN ( \'hi 455 kf':)
Therefore no shear reinforcement b required.
Foundations and retaining walls 291
Instead of a footing weight of 150kN at the stan of this example it
possible to allow for the weight of the footing by using a net safe bearing prc:-.surc
flnct where
P.wt = 200 II x unit \\eight of concrete
= 200 0.6 >< 25 = I85.0kN/m
Required base area
1.0 x column load
1000 + 350

It should be noted that the self-weight of the footing or ih effect be included
in the calculations at serviceability for determining the area of the base hut at the
ultimate limit stme the self-weight should not he included.
_______________________________________ )
Example 10.1 shows how w design a pad footing with a centrally located set of
actions. If the arc eccentric.: to the c.:entroidal axis or the base then in the chccking
of punching shcor the maximum shear stress. ' '&J. i!- multirlied by an enhancement
factor ,1i ( l ). This factor for the non-linear tli:-.lrihution of strc'" urnund the
critical perimeter due to the eccentricity of loading. Refcrcncc should he mudc to EC!
Clause 6.4.3 for the details of this dcs1gn approach.
Combined footings
Where two column-; are clo'e together it sometime!> necessnl) or convement to
combine thetr footing1> to form a continuous base. The uimen,ions of the l'oottng
he chosen so that the resultant loud through the centroid of the ha'e area. This
may be to gne a uniform bearing pres:o.urc under the foming and help to
prevent differential settlement. For most the ratios of permanent wtd variable
loads carried hy each column arc 11imilar so that if the through the
centroid lor the serviceability limit then this will also he true or very neurly at
the ultimate limit and hence in these u uniform prc:-.sure dt.,tribution may be
considered for both limit
The of the footing may be rectangular or trapezoidal in figure I O.R.
The trape:wi(lol base has the of tlt:t<tiling and cutting vurying lengths of
reinforcing it is used where there is a Jnrgc variation in the lo:1ds carried by the two
columns and there are limitations 011 the length of the footing. Sometimes in order to
the hase and on concrete a beam is incorporated bctweeu the two
columns :-;o that the bose designed as an inverted T-scction.
Centroid of base and
resultant load coincide
+' o-.- 1--
Figure 10.8
Combined bases
292 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 10.9
Combined footing cx.1mple
The proportions of lhe footing depend on many factors. u it i!> too long. there will be
large longitudinal moments on the projecting beyond the column!>, 'Whereas a
base ''ill ha-.e a larger span moment between the column<, and the greater width
''ill cau-;e large transverse moments. The thickness of the footing be such that the
c.,hear stres-;es arc not excessive.
Design of a combined footing
The footing supports two columns 300 mm squurc ami 400 mm square with permanent and variable loads shown in figure 10.9. The safe bearing
pres sun: is 300 and the churacteri stic material = 30 N/mm
- 500 N/mm
Asstune a thickne.,s II X50 mm.
1. Base area (calculated at servicenhility limit basi ng the design on the
/Jrt' scriptil'l' Method 1
Net safe bearing Pne
= 300 '2511 300 25 x O.H5
= 27H.!l kN/m
Total load = 1000 + 200 1400 + 300
- 2900kN
Area of ha'c reqtmed
Pro' ide a ba,e. 4.() m x 2J 111. area 10 5R m'
Q, 200kN
H16 150
G, 1400kN
Q, 300kN
Foundations and retaining walls 293
2. Resultant of column loads and centroid of base: taking about the centre
line of the 400 mm column
1200 ). 3 - 1 ., f
x= 1200-1700-
The base is centred on thrs position of the resultant of the column load sho'' n in
figure 10.9.
3. Bearing at the ultimate limit qare (Load combination I):
Column load:. = 1.35 x 1000- 1.5 x 200 1.35 1400 + 1.5 x 300
1650 I 2340 = 3990 k;\1
3990 1
earth = = 377 k.N/nr
4.6 X 2.3
4. A1>suming d 790 mm fur longitudinal harl' und with a mean d 7RO mm for
punching calcul ations:
J\t the column fuw
Maximum shear I'Ru ma' - 0.5wl fo.o (I
l-or 300 mm square column
VRu "'"' o )ud (o.6 (I
o s 1200 1so [o.6 ( 1 - ;o ) l
5 _so 1 .
4942lN (Nf.AJ = 1650 l: )
I or 400 mm square column
1 [o 6 ( ) ]
\IRd """ 0.5ttt . I -
0.5 >. 160() X 780 [0.6 ( 1 - X [()
- 6589 kN (Nr,t - 2140
5. Longitudinal moments and 1\heilr forces: the shcnr-force and bending-moment
diagrnms at the ultimate limit state and for a net upward of 377 are
shown in fi gure 10. 10 overleal.
6. Longi luuinal bending
Maximum moment is at mid-span between the columns
Mw 679 x 10
A, = = - ----- 2080 mm
0.87 x 500 X 0.95 X 790
From tahle 6.8
- O. l
bad - 0 00 I - .,1()() 790 -
t\, nun -10()'" - . ) x - >< - mm
Pmvidc nine 1120 at 270 rum centres. area = 2830 mm
top and bouorn to meet the
minimum area requirements.
294 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 10.10
Shear-force and bending-
moment diagrams
3.0m 1.06m

t t f t
w: 377 x 2.3 = 867kN/ m

""'J 470 1
679 1420
<:::J126 \7
7. Transverse bencling
Mnd = 377 Y
= 2491-Nm/m
M&l 249 >< 10
A, - 0.87/.k:: = 0.87 X 50() X 0 95 X 770
783mm' /m
0 15bd 0. 15 " I()()() X 770 ,
IVtmtmum A,= --wo- =
= 1155 mm /m
Provide 1116 bar:. at 150 mm areu 1140 mm
per metre.
The tran!>ver::.c reinforcement should be Jllm:ed a1 under the columns
to allow for greater in those regions. For the of crack control.
the ma"imum bar site or maximum bar 11pacing be checked as in
example I 0. I.
8. Shear
Punching shear cannot be checked. si nce the cri tical peri meier 2.0d from the column
lace lies outside the base area. The criti cal sec1ion for shear is I.Od from the
column face. Therefore with d 780 mm.
Design Vr:d = 1420 - 377 x 2.3(0.7K 1 0.2) 570 kN
The resistance of the concrete without shear reinforcement can be obtained
from tabll: 8.2 where
can be talcn as the average of thl: steel ratio' in hmh
"""" As [ 2830 I 340 ]

2300 x 790 + 1000 <770

hence from table 8.2 ' 'Rd , = 0.36 N/mm

Therefore 1he shear resistance ot the concrete. VRd 1s g1\Cn by:
VR<l I'Rd.o;bd = 0.36 X 2300 X 780 'I< 10 645 kN ( > 570 kN)
Therefore shear reinforcement is not required.

Foundations and retaining walls 295
10.3 Strap footings
Strap footings, as shown in figure I 0.11. are used where the base for an exterior column
must nor project beyond the property line. A strap beam is constructed between the
exterior footing ami the adjacent interior footing - the purpose of the strap is to restrain
the overturning force due to the eccentric load on the exterior footing.
The base areas of the footings are proportioned ~ o thai the bearing pressures are
uniform and equal under both ba1.cs. Thus it is necessury that the resultant of the loads
-::>n the two footing!'! should pass through the cemrotd of the areas of the two bases. The
'trap beam between the footings should not bear agatnst the soil, hence the ground
directly under the beam \hould be IOO!.cncd and lefl uncompacted. As well as the
loadings indicated in figure 10.11 EC2 recommend& that. where the action of
compaction machinery could affect the lie beam. the beam should he designed for a
minimum downward load <.lf 10 kN/m.
Centroid of bases
lo coincide with
r 1
resultant of N,
and N2
'- L---...J
L., ____ ...,;;._
N, Loads at the ult. limit state
1.3S W,
0/2 R,
~ -
Shear Forces
N,(r- f) - p.Brl S
I, 2 (NI+l.35W1-RJ)-
c ~ 2
Pu = n:l upward pre?ssura at the ultimate ""(?'
limit state
kndmg Moments
Figure 10. 11
Strap fooling with sheanng
force and bending moments
for the strap beam
296 Reinforced concrete design
To achieve suitable sizes for the footings sc\craltrial designs may be necessary. With
reference to figure 10.11 the principal steps in the de$ign are as follows.
1. Ch<x>sc a trial width D for the rectangular outer footing and a.-,sume W
for the footings and Ws for the <;trap beam.
2. Take moments about the centre hne of the inner column in order to determine the
reaction R
under the outer footing. Tile loadings -.hould be thmc required for the
limit state. Thus
(RI - WJl( L---f- -NIL- w, 0 (10.5}
and solve for R
The width 8 of the outer footing is then given by
8 =!!.:.._
where Jl the safe heari ng pressure.
3. Equate the vertical loads and reaction!. to determine; the re<tction R
under the inner
footing. Thus
R1 +R2- (N1 +N1 + W1 + W2 + W,) 0 (10.6)
und solve for R:_. The \ite S of lhe square inner fooung is then given by
\ p
4. Check that the rcl'lultant of all the loads on the flx>tmg!-. pas-;es through the cemro1d
of the area., of the two If the rc!-.ultant too far away from the centrotd then
\LCps (I) to (4) mu<;t be repeated until there " adequate agreement.
5. Appl) the load111g as.,ocmtcd with the ultunatc limn \tate. Accordingly. reqse
equation\ 10.5 and 10.6 to determine the new value., for R
and R. Hence calculate
the beanng pre!)sure Pu for thts lun1t l!tate. It lllll) he a!-.sumed that the bearing
pressures for thil> Cal>e are abo equal and uniform, prov1ded the ratios of dead load to
1mpo!led load are similar for both columns.
6. Design the inner footing ns a :-quare base with bending in both directions.
7. Design the outer footing ns a base with bending in one direction und .... upported b)
the strap beam.
8. Design the strap beam. The maximum hcnding moment on the hcam occurs nt the
point of t.ero shear as shown in figure 10. 11. The !o.hcar on the beam is virtuall)
constnnt, the slight decrea!>e being cau!lcd by the beam's self-weight. The stirrup'
should be placed at a con&tant but they should extend into the footings over
the supports so as to give a monolithic foundation. The main tension steel i.,
required at the top of the beam but reinforcement \hould al1.o be provided in the
bottom of the beam so as to cater for any differential settlement or downward load-;
on the beam.
10.4 Strip footings
Strip footings arc under \\all, or under a line of clo,cly spaced columns. l:.ven
\\here it i' possible to have indi .. idual bases, it is often 'iimpler and more economic to
excavate and construct the formwork for a continuou' ha\c.
Foundations and retaining walls 297
lap< 2h
r r
fTt ;ttfftt

Uniform pressure
Non-unllorm pressure
On a sloping site the foundations be c.;onstructed on n horitontal hearing and
where At the the footings 'hould he lapped as shm\n 111
figure I 0 12.
The footings arc analysed and destgned 3!. an im crted continuous beam '>uhjcctcd to
the ground hcanng With a thick rigid footing and 3 hrm -.oil. J linear
dtstributmn of bearing is considered. If the column' are equally '>paced and
equally loaded the prcso;ure IS distributed but if the loading t)> not ')mmctrical
then the base i' !'.Uhjectcd to Wl eccentric loau and the bearing pres.,ure \'ancs a' shown
10 figure I O.ll
The bearing pre"urcs will not be linear when the footing i' not very ngid and the soil
" soft and compressible. In these cases the bending-moment diagram would be quite
unlike that tor a continuous beam with lirmly held support' and the cuuld be
qutte large. particularly if the loading is unl.ymmetrical. For a large foundation it may be
necessary to have 11 more dctai lctl inveqigution of the soil pressures under the base in
order to determine the bending moments and forces.
Reinforcement is required in the b01tom of the base to the transverse hencling
moments in addition to the reinforcement required for the longitudinal bending.
Footings which support heavily loaded columns often require !>lirrups and bent-up bars
to resist the shearing forcet-.
Design of a strip footing
Design a 'tnp fooung to carry 400 mm square column-. equally at '3.5 m
centre .... On each column the characteristic are I 000 k:-.1 permanent and J50 kN
\Uriable. The safe beanng preso;ure is 200 k;\/m
and the characteristic material
aref.L and};,= 500 tmm
. Bal>c the dcl-tgn on the Prtlcriptil'l'
Stepped footing on a sloping
Figure 10.13
linear pressure distribution
under a rigid strip footing
298 Reinforced concrete design
1. Try a thickness of footing - 800 with d 740mm for the longitudinal
Net bearing pressure. p,.,
= 200 - 2511 200 25 x 0.8
- 180.0 k '/m
' dlh f .. . . d 1000 -l 350
1 o tooung rcqui!C =
80 0 3 1 . X .4
Provide a footing 2.2 m wide.
At the ultimate limit state
column load, Nb.J 1.35 x 1000 1.5 x 350 1875 kN
. 1875
bcanng pressure=
= 244k.N/m
2. Punching .\'hear at the C()lumn face
Maximum shear resistance. VKd,m.l\
= o.swt [o.6 ( 1 - J
0.5(4 X 400) "740 X [o.6( I
6251 k:'-l
30 )130 \
250 1 '\ (
8} in-.pection, the normal 'hear on a at the column face will be
\C\'crc than thi' value.
3. umxiTtulmal
L -;ing the moment and shear coeflicients for an equal-1.pan continuous beam
(figure 3.9). for an interior pan
moment at the column1-. 244 x 2.2 x 1.5] x 0. 10
= 605 k Ill
665 X 10
A 2175mm
= 0.87 X 5()() X 0.95 X 740
From table 6.8
A, m'" O. = 0.0015 X 2200 X 740
- 2442mm
Provide eight H20 at 300 mm area 2510 mm,. boltom steel.
In the <,pan
MFd 244 X 2.2 X 3.5
X 0.07
Therefore. in the bottom face, provide eight H20 bars at 100 mm centre!..
area= 2510mm
top steel (figure 10.14).
Foundations and retaining walls 299
3.Sm centres

H20 @ 2SOctrs I
2.2m _
4. Tran\Tene reinforcemenl
In the direction the max.imum moment can he calculmcd on the
assumption that the 2.2 m wide rooting is acting a I.! m long cantilever for the
purposes or calcutaLing lhe design moment:
1.] 2
Mt!d 244 x T = 148 kNm/m
148 X L0
= 0.87 X 500 X 0.95 X 720
j m
. . 0. 15hlt/ 720 '
MtmmumA$=1oo 0.15 x iOOO x
1080mm / m
Provtde 1120 at 250mm area 1260mm!/m. bottom 'lecl.
5. Normal111ear will govern the punching perimeter i' ouhttlc the looting.
The crttical '>CCtton for tS taken I J)d from the column face. Therefore wrth
d 740mm
Vrtt 244 > 2.2(3.5 x 0.55 0.74 - 0.2}
= 529kN
(The cnefftcient of 0.55 is from figure 3.9.)
The shear resistance of the concrete without shear reinforcement can be obtained
from tahle 8.2 where
p1 can he taken as the average ot the ratio., in hmh directions
s[ 25 10 _ _
O .. 2200 X 740 I 1000 X 720 - '
( ()

hcnt:e from table 8.2 "Rd, c = 0.36 N/mmz.
Therefore the shear resistance of the concrete. VRd. c is gi ven hy:
VKd.c VRd cbd 0.36 X 2200 X 740 X 10 586 kN ( '> VE.t 52() kN)
Figure 10.14
Strip fooling with bending
Therefore shear reinforcement is not required.
l _________________________________________ )
10.5 Raft foundations
A raft foundmion the loads to the ground hy means of a reinforced concrete
-.Jab that tS conttnuous O\'Cr the base of the stmcturc. The raft is able to span any area\ of
weaker sotl and it the loado; O\'er a wide area. Heavily loaded structures are often
pro\ idcd with one base in preference to many closely-:.paccd. separate
fomings. Also where settlement is a problem. of mining sub\itlence. It is
300 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 10.15
Raft foundations
Figure 10.16
Raft foundation subject to


. l



(a) flat slab (b) Downstand beam (c) Upstand beam
t ! + + + t ! + + + ! ! table
Upward pressure
common practice to use a raft foundation in conjunction with a more flexible
The simplest type of raft is a nat slah of uniform thickncs' supporting the
Where punching arc large the may be provided with a pedestal at the
base ns shown in figure I 0.15. The pedestal ),Crves a similar function to the drop panel in
:1 flat slab Aoor. Other, more heavily loaded require the l'oundmion to be
by hcrun:- to form a ribbed consu-uction. The beams may be dowostnnding.
projecting hclow the slab or they may be shown in figure 10.15
Down standing bcaml> have the dJ&advantage of tilsturbu1g the ground below the slab and
the excavated trenches are often a musance dunng conc;tructlon. while upManding
hcams interrupt the clear floor area ahove the To overcome th1'\. a o;econd <;lah 1'
l>omctimes cast on top of the so formmg a cellular raft.
Rafts ha' ing a unifonn slab. and without strengthen mg. bemm. arc generally anal) sed
and as an mverted flat slah floor l.uhjected to earth hearing prc:.sure\. With
regular column spacmg and equal column loading, the coefficients tahulatcd in
section 8.6 for ftat slab floors are used to calculate the hending in lhc raft. The
'>lab muM be checked for punchmg shear around the column' and urountl pedestals. rf
they are used.
A raft with strengthening beams is un inverted beam and slab lloor. The
slab w span in t\\O directions where there arc supporting beams on all four
side!). The arc often subjected to high shearing forces which need to be resisted
hy u combination or stirrups and bent-up bars.
Raft foundations which arc below the level of the water table. as in Rgure I 0.16.
should he checked to ensure that they are able to res1st the uplift forces clue to the
hydrostatic pressure. This mny be criticnl during before the weight of the
superstructure is in place, and it may be necessary to provide exltlt weight to the raft and
lower the water table by pumping. An ullernutivc method is to anchor the slab dov. n
with tension piles.
10.6 Piled foundations
Pilcl> arc used where the soil conditions arc poor and it is uneconomical. or not posc;rble.
to provide adequate spread foundation\. The piles mul.t extend do\\ n to firm sotl so lh ..
the load is carried by either (I) end bearing, (2) friction. or (3) a combination of bott
end bearing and friction. Concrete piles rna) be precast and driven rnto the ground. ur
they may be the cast-in-situ type which are bored or excavated.
Foundations and retaining walls 301
Pile group
Bulb of
Gravel , _
....., T!!::;w.
Soft clay
Single ptle
A soils survey of a proposed site should be carried out to determine the depth to lim1
and the properties of the 1-.oil. This information will provide a guide to the lengths of
pile required and the probable load capacity of the pile!.. On a large contract the
loads are often determined from load tests on typical piles or groups of
piles. With driven piles the safe load cun he calculated l'rom which relate the
of the pile to the measured :-et per biO\\ and the dri\ ing force.
The loud-carr}tng capacity of a group of piles 1<. not nccessanl} a multiple of that for
a single ptle it is often le!-.s. For a I:Jrgt: group of clmely spaced fricttoJJ
piles the rcc.luerion can be of the order of one-third. In contrast. the load capacity of a
group of cnd hearing pilcs on a thicl- stratum of rod. or compact sand gravel is
suh)>tantially the :-urn total of the of each 1ndl\ idual ptle. Figure I 0. I 7 shows
the bulbs or pressure under piles and IllUstrates why the settlement of a group ol piles is
th.:pcndent on the soil propl:T'lie:- at a greater depth.
The minimum :-pacing or pilel>. centre to l:Cilli'C, not be lhan (I) the pile
perimeter for friction 01 (2) tw1ce the lca!>t \\idth of the pilc for end hearing pilel>.
Bored piles 3rc enlarged at the btl\e that they have a larger bearing area or
u greater resistance to uplift.
A pile is designed as a column unle% it and the :-urrounding :-oil is too
weak to provide rcstra1nt. Prcca\t pile<, muM also he del>igncd to the bending
moments cau<>ed hy lifting and nnd the hcud of the pile must be reinforced to
withstand the impact of the driving hammer.
Jt very difficult, if not impOSSible. to determine the true distribution of lond of ll pile
group. Therefore. in general. it is more reali'>IIC to u-.c method-. that are Mmplc but
log1cal. A \erucal load on a group of vcnical p1b wnh an ax1' of '>ymmetry is
considered to he distributed according to the following equation, which is similar in
form to that for an eccentric load on a pad foundation:
N Ne" Ne
n = - Yn \n
11 '" In
Pn is the axial load on an individual p1le
N IS the vertical load on the pile group
n the number of piles
e .. and e,y arc the eccentricities of the load N about the centroitlul axes XX and YY
of the pile group
fu and In arc the second moment\ of area of the pile group about axes XX anti YY
and .l'n arc the distances of the pile [rom axes YY und XX,

Figure 10.17
Bulbs of pressure
302 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 10.18
Pile loading example
Loads in a pile group
Determine the distribution between the individual of a 1000 kN vertical load acting
at the position of the group of vertical piles shown in figure 10.18. To determine
the centroid of the pile group take moments about line T- T.
- LY 2.0 - 2.0 .L 3.0 + 3.0 l 67
''=-= = . m
. f/ 6
where 11 IS the number of piles. Therefore the of the load about the XX and
YY centro1dal axis are
e._ - 2.0 - 1.67 = 0.33 m
- 0.2m
= with respect to the centroidal axis XX
= 2 X 1.67
+ 2 X 0.33
+ 2 X
1,\ = = 3 X 1.0! + 3 X 1.0'
: t
= ..
N Nl'n Ne,,
- I Yn = I . tn
II " t)
1000 1000 X 0.33 JOQO 0.2
= -6- J: 9.33 _In 6.0
166.7 35.4yn 33.3.\n
... l .Om + l.Om _

X- -
- ---
-@3 \

O.Sm e,., ... 0.2m
- -
Foundations and retaining walls 303
Therefore. for Yn and Xn
P1 166.7 - 35.4 X 1.67 t- 33.3 X 1.0 = 140.9!w'l
P2 = 166.7-35.4 X 1.67-33.3 X 1.0 = 74Jk'
P1 166.7 35.4 X 0.33 r33.3 X 1.0 = 211.7 k.'l
= 166.7-35.4 X 0.33-33.3 X 1.0 = 145. 1 k:\l
P5 - 166.7- 35.4 X 1.33- 33.3 X 1.0 = 247.1 k.\f
Pt. 166.7 35.4 x 1.33 33.3 x 1.0 = 180.5 kN
Total = 999.6::::: IOOOkN
When a pile group is unsymmetrical about both co-ordinate axes it is nece&sary to
consider the theory of bending about the principal axes which is dealt with in mo11t
on strength of materials. Ln thjs case the formulae for the pile are
f>u .L 1\ \'n .L IJ ru
N <')) L.An.\'n)

(l: \'n,l'n)
N kn L I'" L .\n."n)
L L (L 1n,ln}
l\ote that t'n 1s the eccentricity about the XX a\IS, while is the eccentricity about the
YY a\is. a\ 111 figure I 0.18.
Piled foundnllons are somet1mes required to res1st homontal force!. 10 addition to the
vertical loads. II the horizontal forces are small they can often be resi'ited by the pass1ve
pressure of the soil against verucal piles. otherwise if the forces are not then
ra"-ing piles mu:>l be provided as shown in figure IO.l9(a).
To determine the load in each pi le either a \latic method or an method i!,
avai lable. The static method b a graphical analysis U\ing notation as .
illu:-.trated in Hgure IO.l9(h). This method assumes that the piles arc pinned at their ends
so that the induced lire axial. The dustic method takes into account the
displtu.:cments und rotations of the piles which may be considered pinned or fixed ut
their The pile foundation is analysed in a si milar manner to a plane frame or
fntmc and available cumputcr p)'()grams arc commonly used.
(a) (b)
Figure 10.19
Forces in raking piles
304 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 10.20
Truss model lor a two-p1le cap
Figure 10.21
Four-pile cap
10.7 Design of pile caps
The pile cap must he rigid and capable of transferring the column loads to the piles. It
l>hould ha"c sufficient thicknes<; for anchorage of the column dowels and rhe pile
reinforcement. and it must be checked for punching shear. diagonal shear. bending and
bond. Pile!, are rarely positioned at the exact shov.n on the drawings. therefore
thi'i mu:-.t be allowed for when designtng and tlctailing the p1le cap.
Two method.<. of design are common: des1gn using beam theory or design using J
truss analog) approach. In the former case the pile cap i:-. treated a!> an invcned beam
and is designed for the conditions of bending and shear. The tru:-.s analogy method
is used w determine the reinforcement requirements where the span-to-tlepth rati o I'
less than 2 such that beam Lheory is nul approprimc.
10.7.1 The truss analogy method
In the truss analogy the force from the suproncu column is asllumed to be transmitted
hy a triangular trus), action with concrete proviuing the members of the
I russ and steel reinforcement providing the tensile tie force as 'hown in the two-pile cap
in figure I 0.20(al. The upper node of the ln1ss is locatctl ut the centre of the loaded are ..
and the lower nodes at the of the ten:.ile reinforcement with the centreline'
of the Where the piles arc .,paced at a distance greater than three times the p1le
diameter only the reinforcement within u of 1.5 the pile diameter fror-
the centre ol the pile should he effecuve 111 prov1ding the tcn.,ilc
\\ 11hin the trtl\:o..
Prom the geometry of the force diagram in rigurc I 0.20h:
N/2 d
required area of reinforcement =


Where the pile cap is supported on a four-pile group. a.-. n in Hgun: I 0.21. the
load cun be considered to be tranl>mtrted equall> by pnrallel pairs of such .. ,
Foundations and retaining walls
Table 10.4
Number of piles Group arrangement Tensile farce

T _ Nl
A8 2d
TAB- Tsc- TAc;

c 0
r ; 8
4 A B
TAs - Tac - Teo TAo --


AB and C'D. and equation 10.7 can be modified to gi\c
. d f . r . h T / 2
requ1re area o reJn.orccment m eac truss = O.SJ./)k ( 10.8)
and thi., rcinforcemem should be provided in both di rections 111 the bottom face of the
The tru'' theory may be extended to give the force 111 pile caps \\ ith other
of pile Table 10.4 the force for common
10.7.2 Design for shear
The !.hear capac.:ity of a pile cap should be checked m the crilicul tnken w be
20 per cent or the pile ditlmetcr inside the face of the pile, as in ligure 10.22. In
determining the shear resi:-.luncc, shear enhnncemenl may he considered such that the
shear force, VEJ, mny be ckcreascd hy a,.j2d where a, the distance from the face of
the column to the critical scc.:l ion. Where the of the pile' is bs than or equal to
Figure 10.22
Critical sections for shear
306 Reinforced concrete design
three times the pile diameter, enhancement may be applied across the whole of the
critical !.ection; otherwise it may only be applied to strips of width three time!. the pile
diameter located central to each pi I e.
10.7.3 Design for punching shear
Where the spacing of the pilel> cxcec<J... three times the pile diameter then the pile cap
be checked for punching shear using the method outlined in section 8.1.2. for
slabs. The critical perimeter for punching shear i11 all !>hown in figure I 0.22. The shear
force at the column face should be checked LO ensure that it is less than
0.51'l/cdlui = 0.5,
l.5}ud where u is the perimeter of the column and the strength
reduction factor. 1
= 0.6( I -
1 0.7.4 Reinforcement detailing
As for al l normal dct:Jiling requirements must be checked. These include
maximum and minimum steel areas. har spucings, cover to reinforcement and anchorage
lengths of the tension steel. The main tension reinforcement should eontimre past each
pi le and be bent up vertically to provide u full anchorage length beyond the
centreline of each pi le. In orthogonal directions in the top and bottom faces of the pile
cap a minimum steel area of 0.26(f..
n/f)dhd ( > 0.0013/}(/) be provided. It I'
normal to provide fully lapped horiL.ontal links of si1.c not than 12 mm and a
of no greater than 250 mm. sho" n in figure I 0.2:\(b). The piles ),hould be cu
otl that they do not extend Ulto the pile cap beyond lower mat of reinforcing bar.
otherwise the punching shear strength may be reduced.
10.7.5 Sizing of the pile cap
In determrntng a suitable depth of pile cap table I 0.5 may be used as a guide ''hen thert
are up to six piles in the pile group.
Table 10.5 Depth of pile cap
Pile size (mm) 300
Cap depth (mm) 700
Design of a pile cap
A group of four piles supports a 500 mm '<Juarc column which an ultimate
axial load of 5000 kN. The are 450 mm diameter and arc 'paced at 1350 mm
n. Design the pile cap for = 30 l'\/mm
(a) Dimensions of pile cap
Try an O\erall depth of HXX> mm and an a\erugc etfecu,e depth of 875 mm. Allow t11e
pile cap to c.xtend 375 mm either to give a 2100 mm .,quare cap.
Foundations and retaining walls 307
(a) Plan
./' \
\.. )
column starter bars 9H20e.w.
0 01)

(b) Relnrorcement details
(b) Design of main tension reinforcement
1-rom equation 10.8, the required area of reinforcement in each truss
T/2 N x I
0.87/yk 4tf X 0.87.f;k
5000 X I 0
X ( 1350/2)
4 I( 875 X O.ll7 X 500
The total area of reinforcement required in each direction 2 x A, 2 x 22 16
4432 mm
. As the pllec; are l>paced at three the pile diameter thi' retnforcement
rna) he dt<.tributed uniformly the secuon. Hence prm ide fifteen 1120 bars.
area 4710mm'. at 140mm centre!> in bnth directions:
100 x4710
(c) Check for shear
> = 0. 15)

Shear force, Vt::LI along criti cal section 5000/2 = 2500 and 10 allow for shear
enhancement may be reduced 10:
2500 X
2500 X
= 414kN
VRd L 0.121.( IOOf!fck)'/.1

where: k I -t jWojd = I -t /: = 1.49 (< 2} and fl = 0.0026
l'tld =

I '1 '
= 0.12 X 1.49 X ( 100 X 0.0026 X 30) . = 0.35 N/mm-
and I Rchfmin\ = 0.0351.

= 0.035 X 1.49
X 30 s = 0.35 N/mm'
therefore the 'hear resistance of the concrete. VRd c il> given by:
\ ' lld c l'Rcl .hd
- 0.35 "2100 x 875 X 10)- 643kN (> 414k:-.i)
Figure 10.23
Pile-cap design example
308 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 10.24
Gravity wall
(d) Check for punching shear
the pile spacing is at three times the pile diameter no punching shear check
necessary. The shear at the column face should he checked:
Maximum shear resistance. VRd,mn'
= 0.5ud[o.6(1-

= 0.5(4 X 500) X 875 " [o.6(1
= 9240 kN ( > N'Ell 5000 kN)
10.8 Retaining walls
3() ) ] 30 X lO
250 15
ore usually required to u combination of earth and hydrostatic loadings.
The fundamental requirement is that the wall is capable of holding the retained material
in plnce without undue movement arising from deflection, overturning or ).liding.
1 0.8.1 Types of retaining wall
Conc.;rctc retaining walb ma) be constdered in terms of three categories:
(I) gruvity. (2) counterfort, and (3) cantilever. Within these many common
variations extsl. for C\ample cantilever may have additional surporting tiel> into
the rctnined material.
The suuctural action or each type 11-. fundamentally different, but the techniques used
in analysis, design and detailing nrc those normally for concrew structures.
(i) Gravity walls
arc uwall) con,tructcd of nw .. concrete. with reinforcement mcluded tn the
to rc-.trict thermal and cracktng. A\ tlluarated in figure 10.24. reliance b
placed on 'cll-\\etght to'f) l>tUblhty requirements. both in respect of overturning
and \lldmg.
It 111 generally taken <l requirement thm under working conditton:-. the of
the and overturning forces lie within the middle third at the interface of
the busc and soil. This en,ures lhnt uplift is avoided Ht this inte1fac:c, us described in
!>Ccti on I 0.1. Friction effects which 'liding are thus maintained across the entire
Foundations and retaining walls 309
Bending, and of such walls are insignificant in view of the
large effective depth of the section. Distribution steel to conrrol them1al cracking i:.
necessary. however, and great care mullt be taken to reduce hydration temperatures by
mix destgn. construction procedures and curing
(ii) Counterlort walls
This type of cot1\lructinn will probably be u:.ed where the overall height of the wall is
too large to be economically either in mass concrete or as a cantilevct.
The basis of design of counterfort walls is that the earth act on a thin wall
which hmizontally between the massive counterforts (tlgure 10.25). These
be large to provide the necessary permanent load for !>Lability requirements.
pussibly with the aid of the weight of backfill on an enlarged hase. The
muM he designed with rcinforl'cment to act as cantil evers to resist the considerable
bending moments tiH\1 arc concentrated at these points.
l Span
The i>paclllg of countcrfort'i \\til be go\cmcd by the abO\c factor:-.. coupled with the
need to rnatntatn a l>atisfactory span-depth ratio on the wull "lab. \\ hich mu'it he
del>tgned for bending us a slab. The athalllage ol Lhtll form of i'i
thut the volume of concrete involved is con.,idcrahly reduced. thereby removmg many
of the problems of large pours. and reducing the quuntJfles of cxcavatton. Bulanc.:d
aguin'it thi.s mu)t be con11idcrcd the generally increased -;htHtering complication anti the
probable need for increased reinforcement.
(iii) Cantilever walls
These arc tlc.signetl as vert ical cantilevers !'rom a large ngicl which often
t'Ci les on the weight of backfill on the hato.c to provide Two foll11l> of thito.

-- Heel beam
Figure I 0.25
Countcrfort wall
rlgure 10.26
Cant1lever walls
31 0 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 10.27
Forces and on a
grav1ty wall
con.,Lruction arc illustrated tn figure 10.26. In both ca.c,es. stability calculations foliO\\
similar procedures to those for gravity walls to ensure that the re1-oultant force lie within
the middle third of the base and that overturning and sliding requirements are met.
10.8.2 Analysis and design
The design of retaining walls may be split into three fundamental !>tttges: ( I) Stability
analysis- ult1mtlle limit \tate (EQU and GEO), (2) Bearing pressure analysis - ultimate
lunll '>tate (GEO). and (3) Member design and detmling - ultimate limit state (STR) and
c,erviceability limit states.
(i) Stability analysis
the action of the loads corresponding to the ultimate limit state (EQU). a
retaining must be stable in term!-- of resistance to Ol'errurning. This is
hy the simple case of a gravity wall as shown in figure 10.27.
TI1e critical condition' for overtummg are when a maximum horilOntal force
with a minimum verucal load. To guard again\! fmlure by overturning, it ic, to
upply conservative of safety to the forces and loads. Tahle IO.I(c) gives the
factors that arc relevant to these calculation1..
A panjal factor of safety of = 0 9 i' applied to the permanent load Gl if 11<; effect
" favourahle'. and the unfavourable' effect- of the permanent earth prel>Sure lmtding at
the n:ar laL'c or the wall arc multiplied hy a partial !'actor or safety of 'Yt 1.1. The
' unfti\'Ottrahk' et'fects of the variable loading, if any, arc multiplied by a
partial facto1 of ,afety of
h1r resi.,tance to overturning. moments would normally he taken ahout the toe of the
point A on figure 10.27. Thus the requirement is that

Resistance to .1/irlinf: i' provided by friction between the unders1de of the ba-;c and the
ground. ami thus is also related to total self-weight Gk. Resiswncc providi.!d by the
passive earth pressure on the.: front face of lhc base may make some contrihution. but
\lllCe thi-. material is often backfilled against the face, th1s re)>istanee cannot hi!
guaranteed and i-. usually ignored.
Failure by \ licl ing is considered under the acuon of the load), corresponding to the
ultimate limit swte of GEO. Tahlc lO.I gives the factors that are relevant to these
Fnction force

Foundations and retaining walls 311
A partial factor of safety of

= 1.0 is applied to the permanent load Gk 1f its effect

is favourable' (i.e. contrihutes to the sliding resistance) and the 'unfavourable' effects
of the permanent earth pressure loading at the rear face of the wall arc multiplied by a
partial factor of safety of I t = 1.35. The unfavourable' effecu, of the variable
surcharge loading are multiplied by a partial factor of safety of I t I .5.
Thus, if the coefficient of friction between base and :-oil IS JL, the total friction force
will be given by JLGk for the length of the wall of weight GL: and the requirement is that
l.o,,ck ?: 1r Hk
where H1. is the hori7onwl force on this length of wall.
If this criterion not met. a heel bc<ml may be used, and the force due to the passive
eanh pressure over the face area of the heel may he included in resiMing the
force. The partial load factor / ron the heel beam force be taken 1.0 to give the
condition. To ensure the proper action of a heel hcam. the front face must be cnst
directly against sound, undisturbed material. and it is important thrn this is not
overlooked during construction.
In considering cantilever wall s. a considcrnble amount of backfill is often plnccd on
top ol' the base. a11d Lhi!> is laken into account in the stahility The a(;ting
in this are shown in figure 10.28. In addition to Gk and Hk there is an additional
vertical load Vk due to the material above the base actmg a distance q from the toe. The
worst condition for stability will be when thi<> is at a minimum; therefore u partial loa<.l
fnctor ") r 0.9 b used for consideration of O\Crturnmg and 1.0 for of
The '>t:thility then become
0.9GL.\ t 0.9Vllf ")rlh\'
11( t.OGL t 1.0\'L) ?: / r Hl
for overturning
( 10.9)
( 10. 10)
When a heel hcam is prov1<.lcd the additional pa,s1ve rcsisl<lnce of the earth must be
included in equation I 0. I 0.
Stability analysis. a' described here. will normally suffice. rtowcver. if there 11- doubt
ahour the foundation material in the region of the wall or the rei inbility of loadu1g
values, it may he necessary to perform a full slip-circle analy:-.i1-, wchniques
common to f>oil mechanics. or to usc factorl> of sufety.

Re;ul tant force Hk

D/2 D/ 2
Figure 10.28
Forces on a cantilever wall
312 Reinforced concrete design
(ii) Bearing pressure analysis
The bearing pressures underneath ret:Hntng walls arc a:-.sessed on the basis of the
ultimate limit state (GEO) when determining the size of base that is required. The
anaJy,is will be 'imilar tc> thai dJscussed in 10.1 with the foundation being
subject to the combined effects of an eccentric verucal load, coupled with an
overturning moment.
Considering a unit length of the cantilever wall (figure 10.28) the resultant moment
about the centroidal axis of the base i'>
( 10.11 )
and the vertical load is
( 10.12)
where in ca:-.c ol the STRand GEO ultimute limit the part ial factors of safely
are gi\'cn in Tahlc 10.1:
l-or load comhinmion I "
- 1.35 and 'irz 'i n = 1.0
For load comhinm ion 2: 1r1 = l 'r:! ")' f' = l.O
as,uming that. for load comh1nat10n I. the effect of the moment due to the hori7ontal
load on the maxtmum hcanng pressure ut the toe ot the wall at A 1s unfavourahlc'
whi lst the moments of the of the wall and the earth acting on the heel or the
wall act in the opposite sense and are thus ravourahle'. This assumption may need
chcck1ng in mdi\1dual and the appropriate partwl applied depending on
whether the cllccl of the load can be con:,1dcrcd to be or unfavourahlc.
The distribution of bearing prcssure11 wi II be os in tigurc 1 0.28. provided the
cl'fcctive eccentricity lies within the 'middle third' of 1hc base. that
N 6
The ma'\imum hcanng 1s then 1\en by
D+ I "2
N 6M
PI D -t 1)2
N 6M
= o
( 10.13)
( 10.14)
Foundations and retaining walls 31
(iii) Member design and detailing
A<> with foundations, the design of bending and remforccment " ba\ed on an
analyst<; of the for the ultimate limit ">Late (STR) . wtth the corrc\pondmg beanng
Gra' ity will o;eldom require bending or shear :.tccl, \\hile the ''alb m
counterfort and cantile,er constmction "ill he designed all lllabs. 1l1e de\ign or
counterfons "ill generally be similar to that of a cantiJe,er beam unles:. they arc
With a cantile\cr-typc retaining wall the stem ill designed to re1:1iM the moment caused
by the force It H
with lr value!> taken for load combination I tf this load combinatton
is deemed to be critical. For preliminary si1ing, the of the wall may be taken
as 80 mm per metre depth of bacl..lill.
The of the base b of the same order that of the The heel
and toe mullt be designed to resist the moments due to the upward earth hearing
and the downwmd weight or soil and base. The soil bearing ure
CHJcuJalctl from lO.lJ 10 l 0.14, provided the resultant of the horitontaJ and
vertical lies within the 'middle third'. Should the resultant lie outside the 'middle
third', then the bearing pressures should be calculated using equation I 0.4. The partial
factors or "'til it:! and In sbould be taken to provide a combtnation which
the critical condition (the worst of combinations I and ::!).
Reinforcement detailing follow the gLnera l ntle' for und
uppropriate. Particular care must be given to the <.letading of relllforcement to hmit
and thermal Gravity wall<. are particular!) vulncr.thle bccau'c of the
large concrete th<tt arc generally tnvolved.
Rc,tramt., to them1al and movement :o.hould he reduced to a minunum.
llowe\cr. this IS counteracte<.l in the of hy the need lot good frictton
between the base and !>Oil: a llliding layer 1' not po"ihlc. Re111lorccment tn the
mu't therefore be adequate to control the cau,ed hy a !ugh degree of
re.,lraint. Long re.,traincd by rigid ha'e" are parucularly to crading
during thermul mo,ement due to lo.,ll of hydranon heat, und detailing mu\t attempt to
<.lbtnbutc these crncf..s to en ... ure ueceptable Complete vct1tcal movement jointr-.
must be provided. '11tcse jomts will often incorporate a f..ey to prevem differential
movcmem of udjaccnt r-.ections of wall. and and scaler' should he used.
The bucf.. races of retaining walls will usually be to hydrostutic forces l'mm
groundwater. These may be reduced by the provision of n drninage path at the J'ncc of
the wall. lt is usual practice to provide such a dntin hy a layer of rubble or porous blocks
as shown ln ligurc l 0.29. with pipes to remove the wuter. often through the front of the
wall. In addition to n:ducing the hydrostatic on the wnll, the likelihood of
leakage through the wall is reduced, and warer abo likely tn reach and damage
the henemh the of the wall.

mto wall

' "
Porous pipe
la1d to fall
Figure 10.29
Dra1nage layer
314 Reinforced concrete design
Flgure 10.30
Retain1ng wdll design example
Design of a retaining wall
The cantilever retaining wall shown in figure 10.30 a granul ar material of
density L700kg/m
It is required to:
1. check the stability of the waU
2. determine the bcanng pressure:. at the ultimate limit and
3. de!>ign the bending reinforcement high-yield fvk = 500 kN/mm
concrete cia's C30/.l7.
(1) Stability
Horizontal force
It b a:>sumed that the coefficient of active pressure K
= 0.33. \\hich i<; a typical value
for a gr:Jnular material. So the earth pressure is gi vcn by
Pu Kupgh
where p j, the density of the backfill and h the depth con ... idered. Thu\. at the base
[1u = 0.33x 1700x 10
x9.81 x 4.9
= "7.0 kNim'
Allowing for the minimum required surcharge of 10

an additional hori7.<mtal
p = A a I 0 '.J \J/m'
liCll' uni lmmly over the wholl: depth h.

Ground level I
A '
... I
165.1 .. 22.0
16 2kN
H12-200 t
39.4kN 34.0kN passive
_ 3.4m _
active earth
p. 27.0kN/m'
_.,.1 IJ 3.3kN/ml
Foundations and retaining walls 315
Therefore the horit.ontal force on I m length of wall g1ven by:
Hklcanh = 0.5pah = 0.5 x 27.0 x 4.9 = 66.1 kN from the active earth
,ur) p)r 3.3 x 4. 9 = 16.2 k.:-1 from the surcharge
Vertical loads
(a) permanent load:.
wall {0.4 + 0.3) x 4.5 x 25
= 39.4
base 0.4 x 3.4 x 25 = 34.0
earth = 2.2 X 4.5 X 1700 X 10
X 9.81 165.1
Total = 238.5 kN
(h) vnriahle loads
Nurchargc 2.2 x 10
= 22.0J...N
The paninl of safety a1> given in table 10.1 will be usctl.
(i) 01ertrtminR: taking moments about point A at the edge of the toe.:. at th1.: ultimate
limit state (l!QU).
lor the overturning (unfavourable) moment a factor of 1.1 is applied to the earth
pn.:\surc.: and a factor of 1.5 to the pressure
overturning moment A
+ A
1 ,ur/r/2
={ l.l ><66.1 x 4.9t3)+{1.5x 16.2 x 4.9/2)
178 J...l\ m
ror the rc\tratning (favourable) moment a factor of 0.9 is applied to the pcnnancnt
loads and () to the vnriahle load
rcsmun1ng moment - -;
(.39.4 x 1.0 + 34.0 x 1.7 + 165.1 x 2.3)
= 0.9 X 476.9
429kN m
Thus the criterion for overtuming is sntisfied.
(ii) from equat ion 10.10 it necessary that
I'( I -t I.OVk) >'''II Hk for no heel heam
For the sliding (unfavourable) effect a factor of 1.35 i1> upplicd Lo the cunh pressure
and a factor of 1.5 to the pressure
sliding force 1.35 x 66.1 + 1.50 x 16.2
113.5 kN
For the re.,traming (favourable) effect a factor of 1.0 applied to the permanent
loads and 0 to the variable surcharge load. a value of coefficient of
friction Jt 0.45
frictional rcl>istmg force 0.45 x 1.0 x 238.5
= 107.3kN
316 Reinforced concrete design
Since the sliding forte the frictional force, resistam:c mu\t aho be
provided by the passive earth acting against the heel beam antltht!> Ioree
given by
lip - /1 X 0.5Kppgt?
when! Kp 11- the coefficient of a<;!'tumetlto be 1.5 for granular
material and a b the depth of the heel below the 0.5 m 'trench' allowance tn fmnt
of lbe ba..,e. Therefore
/lp 1.0 X 0.5 >< 3 5 X 1700 X 10
X X = 7.3 kN
Then.:fore total rcsiqiog forte i'
107.3.,. 7.3 - 114.6kN
marginally cxteeds the force.
(2) Bearing pressures al ultimate limit state (STR & GEO)
Consider load combination l a" the criti cal combinati on that will gtvc the max1murn
bearing prc.:s,ure at thc.: toe of the wall bee whle 10.1 ), although in practice lo .. u.i
combtnallon 2 ma) to he chcdcd to determine if 11 gives a \\Orse effect. Note that
thL ''c.:ight ot the earth and the 'un:hargt loa<.ling exert s a moment about
ccntrd111e that" ill r<'diiC<' the maximum p1cs<.urc ut the toe of the wall. lienee the cfteL
ot the weight ol the ca1th talo..en us a fttt'Ottrnbh effect (/
= I) and the weight of the
'un:hargc loud al,o tab.en as a jalourablt ellect ("1
0) within the calculation'
hl'lm' The tmjmourablc effect!. of the luteral earth and the lateral
an: mullipl1cd hy factors of r
1.35 and 1
= 1.50. rcspccthel)
from equall(li1S 10. 13 and 10.14 the bearing. are given by
N J 61\1
' 0 D'
''here H the moment about the base centreline. Thc.:refore
M (66 1 X 4 9/3) + ... , ( 16.2 X 4.9/2) +")I X 19.4(1 .7 1.0)
-')r X 165. 1 X (2.3 - 1.7)
1.35 X 107 9 I 1.5 x 39.7 + 1.35 X 27.6 1.0 X 99.1
= 145.7 -f 59.6 + 37.3 - '.19. 1 143.5 b.N m
Thcrc!nrc. hearing pres,ure tiL tm: and heel of wall
( 1 JS X {39.4 -f 34.()) I 1.0
----- --
165. 1) 6x l43.5
77.7- 74.5
- I 52 2, 3.2 kN/m' (a\ 'hO\\ n in figure I 0.1 1)
Figure 10.31 __.11.
''ffi""'""'" ... '"' m? : : : : : Ul
_... _2200 bearing
p, 152.2 __.;
6 1
P1 = 3.2
Foundations and retaining walls 317
(3) Bending reinforcement
(i ) Wall
Honzontal force
= 11 0.5Kopgl,Z + -.,p,h
= 1.35 X 0.5 X 0.33 X 1700 X X 9.81 X 4.5
+ 1.50 X 3.3 X 4.5
75.2 I 22.3 97.5 kN
the effective 1>pan. the maximum moment

75.2 X (0.2 + 4.5/ 3) I 22.3 X (0.2 4.5/ 2)
l !l2.5 X 10
JO()() X 33()
X 30 O.
for whi ch 1., - 0.95 (figure 4.5). Therefore
= 182.5 X 10
0.95 X 330 X 0.87 X 500
= 1338 mm
Provide 1120 bars at 200 mm centres (A, - 1570 mm' ).
(i i) Base
182.5 kN m
The hearing at the ultimate limit \late arc obtai ned from part (2) of
calculation\ . Using the figurclt from part ( 2):
Pt - 152.2 kN/m
fh = 3.2 J..N/m
and 111 fi gure 1Cl.31 :
p1 3.2 - ( 152.2 - 3.2)2.2/ 3.4 = 99.6 J..N/m'
/feel: tal- ing moments about the qcm centreline for the vertical and the
3.4 )
l't X 34.0 )I T - 1.0 + "Yt X 165. 1 X IJ
1.35 X 23.8 + 1.0 X 214.6 9.2 9<!.0
139 kNm
Mw = 139 x 10
= 0.04
j;k 1()()(.) X 330
X 30
for which Ia 0.95 (figure 4.5). Therefore
139 X IOh
() 95 X 33() X 0.87 X 5()()
J.2 X 2.2 X l.J
') ') ("' ')
3.2) X X
Pro\'ide H20 bars at 250mm centres (A, 1260mm
/m). top steel.
318 Reinforced concrete design
Toe: taking moments about the stem centreline
MFA X 34.0 X 0.6 X -
- 152.2 X 0.8 X 0.6
1.35 X 4.8-73.1
-67k. m
MFd 67 X 10
- 1000 x X 30 - O.(L I
for which Ia = 0.95 (figure 4.5). Therefore:
67 X 10
As= 0.95 x :no x 0.87 x 500 =
The minimum area for this, and for longitudinal dblribution steel which is also
required in the wall and the base. is given from wblc 6.8:
0. 15/Jtd 2
A,, min = loO = 0.0015 x 1000 X 330 495 mm
Thus. provide H 12 bars at 200 rnm )()6 mm
/m) bottom and
dbtribution steel.
Also should be provided in the compres,ion face of the wall in order to
prevent cracking - IUO bars at 200 mm centres each way.
Bendtng reinforcement i& requtred 111 the heel heum to the moment due to
the earth pressure. Tht<. reinforcement would probabl) be in the form of
... .......... . .......... ..................
The analysis and design of prestressed concrete is a specialised field wh1ch cannot
possibly be covered comprehensively in one chapter This chapter concentrates
therefore on the basic principles of prestressmg, and the n l y ~ i s and des1gn of
statically determinate members in bending for the serviceability and ultimate limit
A fundamental aim of prestressed concrete is to limit tensile stres,es, .:md hence
flexural cracking, in the concrete under working conditions. Design is therefore
based initially on the requirements of the
serviceability limit state. Subsequently
considered are ult1mate limit state criteria
for bending and shear. In add1lion to the
concrete stresses under working loads,
deflections must be checked, and atten-
tion must also be paid to the construction
stage when the prestress force is first
applied to the immature concrete. This
stage is known as the transfer condition.
The stages fn the design of prestressed
concrete may therefore be summarised
1. design for serviceability- cracking
2. check stresses at transfer
3. check deflections
4. check ultimate limit state - bending
5. des1gn shear reinforcement for ultimate
l1 mit state.
They are illustrated by the flow chart in figure 11.1.
320 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 11.1
Prestressed concrete destgn
flow chart
When considering the basic design of a concrete section subject to prestress.
the stress distribution due to lhe prestress must be combined with the stresses
from the loading conditions to ensure lhat permissible stress limits are satisfted
Many analytical approaches have been developed to deaf with this problem
however, it is considered that the method presented offers many advantages of
simplicity and ease of mampulat1on in design.
EC2 Section
2.3 1 Cdlculate moment Vdltdtion
(non-permilnenl actions & finishes) Mv
5. 10.2 Slr(.')S limits
Min, section moduli
,.. _{
Shap!'. cover,
Trial !<'Ction
IO)) allowance
2.3 1 Self-weight t
actton momPnt

Total momt>nt

Draw McJgnel dtagram lor cnucal section

Select prestress force Jnd ecccrllrtetly
DPtPrmlnl' tendon proftle
5. 1 0.4-5.1 0.9 Ccllculate
Check nnal stresses and wesst>s
7.'1 Check delle(
8.10.3 Design end block lystem
6.1. 5.10.8 Ultimate moment of reslsta11ce

Untenstoned reinforcement ,.._ Ultimate moment

6.2 Shear remforcPmPnl ,.._ Ultimate shear



8.10.3 Check end-block (unbonded)
Prestressed concrete 321
11.1 Principles of prestressing
In the dei>ign of a retnforced concrete beam subjected to bending it i1- accepted that the
concrete Ill the .tone !!> cracked, and that all the ten!>ilc rc-.i'>tancc " prov1ded hy
the reinforcement. The '>trel>i> that rna) be pcrmiued in the reinforcement i-. limited by
the need to keep the cracls in the concrete to acceptable '' under working
condillons. thus there is no advamage to be gained from the of the very high Mrength
steels wh1ch are available. The design is therefore uneconomic in two rc)!pccts: (I) dead
\\eight includes 'uselesl> concrete in the tensile 7one. and (2) economic uM: of Mccl
is nm
Prestressing' mean:- the artificial creation of Mres.,es in a structure before loading, l>O
that the which then exist under load arc more favour<Lble than would otherwbc
he the case. Since concrete i:-. :-,trong in cumpres:-.ion the material in a beam will be used
most erliciently if it can he maintained in a :.tate of compression throughout. Provision
of a longitudinal acting <ln a concrete beam may lherefore overcome
both of the disadvantages of reinforceu concrete cited above. Not only Is the concrete
fully utilised. but also the need for conventional tension rcinl'orccment is removed. The
rorcc is u:-.ually provided by tensioned steel wires or which arc
anchored against the concrete nnd, since the stress in thi<. Meet is not an imrortant factor
in the behaviour of the beam but merely a means of apply1ng the appropriate fwce. full
advantage may be taken of very high strength
The way in wh1ch the c;tresc;es due 10 bending and an applied compre"IH' force may
be comb1ned I\ demonstrated 111 figure 11 . .2 for the ot an a\Wll> applied force
acting over the length of a beam. The stres!-. & .. tributiun at any \\Ill equal the
'um of the compression and bcndmg ..,trcsse\ if it i., avmmcd that the concrete behave-.
elastically. 'I hu., 11 is poss1hle to determine the applied force 'o that the combmed
stresses arc alway!> comprel>SI\e.
By appl) ing the compre11-.ive force eccentrically on the concrete cross-section. a
funhe1 Mrc"s distribution. due to the bending effects of the couple thu' created, 1s added
lC) lho\e 'hown in figure 11.2. rhi'l effect i:-, illu<,trated in figure 11.1 and otters further
udvuntages when aucmpting to produce W< \\ ith1n required limm.
2-+ 1
c c c
! 0![7
Bending strain
Seclion 8-B
c T c
Prestress Bending Total
Stress distribution - Section 8-8
Figure 11.2
Elfecls of axial
322 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 11.3
Effects of eccentric prestress

t t
+ t '
Of\ [7
Axial Bending Eccentricity or Total
prestress prestress
Stress distribution- Section B B
Early to achieve this effect were hampcn:d both by the limited steel
availahk and by shrJllJ..agc and acep ol the concrete under sustained
romprcs.1on. cnuplco with rela\atmn of the '>tccl. This meant that the steel a large
part nl Its innial ano as a were so small to be
t"cle". It is no\\ posSible. howc\er. to produce stronger conere::tes which have good
cn:ep propcrttcs, and \er} htgh stn.:ngth '>teclc. whtch can he stressed up to a lugh
pcn.:cntage of their 0.2 per cent prool -.tres'> arc al-;o avatlable. lor example. hard-drawn
''ires m.l) c:arr) stre:-.seo.; up to ahout three tunes tho-.e fXl''-ihle in grade 500 remforcmg
\tccl. This nut onl} result\ in saving-. Oll>tcel quantity. hut al'o the cfli!ct!) ot shnnkage
and creep become relamcly and rna) t}ptcally amount til the loss of only about
25 per cent of the tmtial applied force. Thu,, modern material-, mean that the
pn:strcssing of concrete i' a pracllcal with the force' being provided b}
'teel p<ts,ing through the heam and nnchored at each end while under high tensile load.
11.2 Methods of prestressing
l'wo hn,ic techniques arc commonly employed in the of prcstrusscd
concn:te. their chief difference being whether the !-tleel tCIISlOtllng is performed
before or niter the hardening of the concrete. The choice of method will be governed
largely by the type ano size of member coupled w1th the need for prcc:ust or in situ

11 .2.1 Pretensioning
In tlw method the steel or are '>!retched tn the required ten'>ion and
anchored 10 the ends of the moulds for the concrete. l'hc concrete is cast around the
Lc!n,toned \lee!. and \\hen it ha' reached o;;uffictent 'trength. the anchors are released and
the force in the c;teel ts tmn,ferred 10 the concrete hy hond. In addition to long-term
lo,ses due to creep. -,hrinl-uge and relaxation. an 1mmediate drop 111 pre,tress force
occurs due to elastic shortening of the concrete. TheM! features are illustrated in
figure II A.
Prestressed concrete 323
Beam with pretensioned
bond -I
and losses
Becau))e or the dependence on bond. Lhe for this form of
generall y conflisl of small diameter wires or small strands which have good bond
characteristi cs. Anchorage near the ends of these wires is often enhanced by the
provision of small indentations in the surface of the wire.
The melhml is ideally suited for factory production where large number\ or identical
can he economkal ly made under comrolled a development of thi'>
being the 'long line' where several unit\ can be cast at once end to end - and
the merely cut between each unit after rclea\e of the An adv:mtage
of factory production of units that curing
stenm curing cnn he employed to increase the rate of hardening of the concrete nnd to
enable earlier 'transfer' or the stress to the concrete. is particularly important where
re-use of mould!. t\ reqtured. but 11 essential that under no circum:,tancc., rnu.,l cnlcium
chloride be U'>ed ac; an ncceleraLOr becnuse of its severe corrosi' c acuon on small
diameter wtres.
One maJor hmlfallon of this approach is that tendons be straight. whtch may
when attempting to produce acceptable final !.lre:,:, level\ throughout
the length of a member. It may therefore be necessary 10 reduce either the or
eccentnctty of force nenr the ends of a member. in which tcntlon-; muM either be
'dcbondcd' or 'denccted'.
1. Deboncling of applying a wrapping or coating to the Mcel to prevent bond
developing with the surrounding concrete. Treating some of the wires in way
over pun of their length all ows the magnitude of effective force to be
varied along the length of a member.
2. Dellecting tendons is a more complex operation and U)..Ulllly restricted to lurge
member!'., such as bridge benms. where the individual member:- may he required to
form purl of a continuous structure in conjunction with in .1it11 concrete and
beam!.. A typicnl arrangement for det1ecting tendons is shown in figure I 1.5, but it
must be appreciated that substantial ancillary equipment is rc4uircd w provide the
Deflection supports
(cut off after tr.1nsfer)
Prestressed tendons
Concrete l l

Y"" 7 I
- \;.., .

Figure 11.4
Tendon -
Figure 11.5
Tendon deflection
324 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 11.6
11.2.2 Post-tensioning
This method. wtuch is the most suitable for in .1i111 involves the stressing
the hardened concrete of or steel bar\ which are not bonded 10 the
concrete. The tendons are passed through a flexible wh1ch is cast into the
concrete in the correct position. They arc tcm.ioncd by Jacking against the concrete. and
anchored mecharucally by mean\ of \tccl thrust plate:. or anchorage blocks at each end
of the member. Alternatively. steel bar!> threaded at their ends may be tensioned against
hearing plates by means of tightening nms. It of cour e usually necessary to wait a
time between casting and to permit the concrete to gain sufficient
strength under in siw conditions.
The use of tendons cons1sting of u number of through tlexible
sheathing considerable in that curvet.! tcnt.lon protiles may be
obtarned. A post-tensioned strucruml member may be constructed from an of
pre-cast units which [Ire constrained to act LOgcther by means of tensioned
which often curved as in figure 11 .6. Alternntively, the member
may he cast a:-. one uni1 in rJ1e normal way but a lighl cage of untensioned reinforcing
steel nl:ccssary to hold the ducts in their correcl position during concreting.
A f1er the remaining in the ducts may be left empty ( ' unbondcd
or more usually will be filled with grout under high ("bonded"
Although this grout 111 tmnsm1l1111g forces between the steel and
eom:rcte under live loads, and improves the ultrmate of the member. the
principal use rs to protect the highly stres-;ed from The quality of
of grouting i!> thu!:. criucal to avoid air pocl..cts which may permit
The honding of the highly stressed o;tecl \\llh the 'urrount.ling concrete beam
al'o greatly a''ist-. demolition. since the hcam may \afcly be 'chopped-up into
'mall length' wrthout rclea!)rng the energy 111 -.tccl.
Precast segments
11.3 Analysis of concrete section under working loads
the object of prestressing is to marntain favourable conditions 111 a concrete
member under load. the worJ,.ing load' for the mcmhl:r must be considered 111 terms of
hmh maximum and minimum values. rhu' at any ... ection. the produced by the
prcl>tress force mu:-.t he considered in conjunction with the by maximum
and rmnimum values of applied moment.
Unlike rernforccd concrete, the primary analysi\ of pre'>tressed concrete is b:t\ed on
serv1ce condition'>. and on the U\)..Umption thai in the concrete are limited to
values which will correspond to behaviour. ln this l>Cction. the following
assumption-. arc made in
t a

) of
Prestressed concrete 325
lo= -
rr ___ b---, - Top fibre
- - - -T - f- - - - - axis
I Q t+ve
lb =-;;;:
, . _.__ _ _,__ L------' __ Bottom fibre
Compressive stresses +Ve Prestressing tendon
Tensile stresses - ve
1. Plane remain plane.
2. Stress strain rclation1>hip1. arc linear.
3. Bending occurs ahout a principal axb.
4. The prc1-trcssing force is the value remaining al'tcr all have occurred.
5. Changes in tendon stress due to applied on the member have negligible effect
on the behaviour of the member.
6. Section properlies are generally based on the wncrete
The in the is unimportant in the analy'>i'> of the concrete under
it being the force provided by the 'tccl that i., con.,tdered 111 the

The sign convention!> and used for the analy'' are indicated in ligurc 11.7.
11 .3. 1 Member subjected to axial prestress force
If secuon BB ol the member shown in figure II.X i\ subjected to moment' ranging
between Mm
, and M
the net at the outer fibres of the beam urc given hy
{! P at the top , ---+---
(II. I)
A ;:,
fo p Mrnu'
ut the bottom
( 11.2)
under M,,;n
-- I at the top
at the bottom
( 11 .4)
where Zh nnd ::
are the ela&tic section moduli and P b the final force.
The critical condition for tension in the beam is g1ven by equation J 1.2 which for no
tens ton, that is fh = 0, becomes
Mm;,,i\ . . r . d
- -= mmtmum prestress orce requtre
Figure 11.7
Sign convention and notation
326 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 11.8
Stresses in member with axial
prestress force
PIA Ml z, f,
PIA Mlzb f.,
Prestress Bending Total
Stress distribution- Section B-B
For value of pre!>trcs!> force. subl>titution in the other wi ll yield the
in the beam undt:r maximum load and also under minimum load. Similarly the
immediately after prestressing, before losses have occurred, may be calculated if the
value or i!. known.
For example. the maximum stress in the top of the member is given by equation I l.J
Mma\ A


A ;\ <:t
p cb
;\ q
lt cun be seen from the stress in figure 11 .8 that the top tlbre is general I) n
consiucrnble compression. while the bottom f1hrc is generall y at lower Muc
better of the concrete could be made if the at both top and bottom can
caused to vary over the ful l range of permissible for the two extreme loadm;
conditions. This may be achieved by providing the force at an eccentricity e from 1 te
11.3.2 Member to eccentric prestress force
The distri butions will be similar to those in section 1 I .3.1 but with the add1tion
the term Pe/<. due to the eccentricity e of the prestressmg force. For the (Xl'-lt. ,
shO\\ n in figure 11.9. e will have a positive value. So that
Prestressed concrete 327
at the top
( 11 .5)
under Mm ... ,
a1 the bottom
( 11.6)
at the lop
( 11.7)
under Mm
at the bottom
( 11.8)
' ote that. as the prestressing force lies bel(lW the neutral axil-., it the effect of
caul>ing hogging moments in the section.
The critical condition for no tension in the hottom of the heam il. again given by
equation 11 .6, which becomes
P Mm.,, Pe
A ::b Zb
'-b )
minimum force required for no tension in bottom ntm:
1\ +<'
Thus for a given value of force P. the beam may cany a maximum moment of
::h )
Mll\ii\ - p A + l'
When compared with Mm.u = P::b/A for an axwl force it md1catel> an
increase in moment carrymg capacity of Pe.
The maxunum stress 1n the Lop of the beam b gi\'en hy equat1on 11.5 a\
!. t
A ::, :;,
1 1 n
l .... B
Pelz, 1
D! \ . [}
PIA Ml zb Ptl lo '
Axial Bending Eccentricity of Total
prestress prestress
Stress diStribution - Section 8-B
Figure 11.9
Stresses in member with
eccentric prestress force
328 Reinforced concrete design
which is the same lhat obtained in l.ection l I .3. I for an axially prestressed member.
Thus lhe advantages of an eccentric prestre s force with rcl-pect to the maximum
moment.carrying capacity of a beam are apparent.
If the stress distributions of figure 11.9 are further examined. it can be that lhe
differences in the net stress diagrams for the extreme loading cases are solely due to the
differences between lhe applied moment terms Mm
u and Mm.n It follow!; that by
increasing the range of the by the usc of an eccentric prestres' force the range of
applied moments that the hcam can carry is also increased. The mtnimum moment Mmm
that can be resisted is generally governed by the need to avoid tension in the top ot the
beam, as indicated in equati on 11.7.
In lhc design of prestressed beams it i' important that the minimum moment
condition not merlooked. \\hen \tr:ught tendon' arc employed. a' streJ..!>C!>
ncar the ends of beams \\here momenb are may often exceed lho'>e at
nearer mid-span. fcmure i11 illustrated 11y the obtained in example II. I.
EXAMPLE 11 . 1
Calculation of prestress force and stresses
A rectangular heam 300 x 150 mm is simpl y ovcr :1 4 rn und supports a
live load of 10 t..N/m. I f a strai ght tendon is provided at un eccentricity of 65 mrn below
the centroid uf the section. find the minimum prc,tre ... :. force for no tension
under li\'e load at Calculate the under self-weight only
at mid-span and at the endl> of the member.
(a) Beam properties
Self-weight = 0.15 > 0.3 < 25 = 1.12t..N/m
Area = 45 x 10' mm
Section moduli Z1 = Zh = :.
(b) Loadings (mid-span)
( 1 () 1.12) X 4
Mm .. , =-
22.2L m
1.12 X 4
= . m
(c) Calculate minimum prestress force
For no tcnston ut the bonom under Mnn,
_ Mmox -1 Pt! = O
A .: =:
p _ Mm
, _ 22.2 X 10
X 10
(5;_ +e) - :1.25 x 10
\A 45 X 10
= 1931<1\
(d) Calculate stresses at mid-span under Mlliill
P Mmon Pe
Stresc; at top}; = - + - _- -
A , '

193 x 10
4.3 N/mm
45 X 10
2.2 x 10
1.0 N/mm
2.25 X 101>
l 93 X X 65 _
5 6
'> 25 Q6 . mm
- X 1
Stres1. nt top}; = 4.3 + 1.0 - 5.6 = - 0.3 l\lmm
P Mnun Pe
stri!Sl> at hottom ft> = - - --+ -
. A :: ::
::: 4 10 - I 0 .._ 5.6 = - 8.9 N/mmz
Prestressed concrete 329
The calcula11on that '"ith minimum load it is for the benm to hog with
ten-.1le Ill the top TI1is is paniculatl) li kely at the iniunl transfer of the
prestress force to the unloaded beam.
(e) Calculate stresses at ends
In this situati on M 0. Hence
4.3 5.6 - - 1.3 N/mm
I' 1'1'
jj, - A+
= 4.3 + 5.6 = 9.9N/mm
11.4 Design for the serviceability limit state
The destgn of a pre:.tressed concrete member is based on maintaining the concrete
'>tresses within specified limits at all stages of the life of the member. Hence the primary
design ,., bac;ed on the serviceabilicy limit state. with the concrete limits based on
the acceptnble degree of flexural cracki ng. the necessity to pre\ ent creep and
the need to eno,ure that excessive compressiOn does not resuh in longitudinal and micro
330 Reinforced concrete design
Guidance regarding rhe allowable concrete compressive stress in bending is given in
EC2 as limited to:
(i) under the action of characteristic loads
and (ii) 0.45/ck under the action of the
The qzwJi-permwzemloads are the permanent and load. Gl + Pm.t plus
a proportion of the characteristic variable impo ed load. This proportion is taken as 0.3
for dwellings. offices and stores. 0.6 for parking areas and 0.0 for snow and wind
Jf the tensile stress in the concrete is limited to the values offc
m given in table 6.11
then all stresses can be calculated on the that the is uncracked nnd
the gross concrete section is bending. If th11> is not the case then
may have to be based on a cracked section. Limited cracking is permissible depending
on whether the beam is pre- or pol>t tensioned and the appmpriate exposure class.
Generally for prestressed members with bonded tendons crack witlths shoultl be limited
to 0.2 mm under the action of the frequent loading combination taken as the permanent
characteristic and load. Gk Pm I plus a rroportion of the characteristic
variable imrosed load as given by equation 2.3 and table 2.4. ln some, more aggre!.sive
exposure contlitions, the of under the quasi pemument load
conditions may need to be consitlered.
At initial tran1.fer of prestrest. to the concrete. the pre,tress force will be considembly
higher than the 'long-term value a' a result of losses which are due to a
number of causes including elastic shortening, creep and shrinkage of the concrete
member. Esumation of losses is dc).cribed in section II .4. 7. Since these lossc'
commence unmedtately. the condition at tran.,fcr represent\ a trunsitory stage in the life
of a member and further con<;ideration 'hould be given to limiting ooth compre,sive and
tensile stresses at this stage. In adtlition. the concrete, at thll- \tage. i' usually rclativcl)
immature and not at fulll.trength and hence tran1>fer i). u critical stage which 'hould be
considered carefully. The comprcs\ive stress at transfer \hould be limited to
wherefc is based on the Mrcngth on the concrete at transfer. The tcn1.ile stress should be
limited to I N/mm
for sections designed not to be in tension in service. Where limited
Aexural 'tress under service loads h. permillcd, some limited tensile stress is permitted
at transfer.
The choice of whether to permit cracking 1.0 take place or not wil l depend on a
number of factors which include condllions of exposure nnd the nature of loading. Ira
member consists of precast segments with monnr or if it is essential that cracking
not occur. then it will be designed to he in under ulllond
However a more efficient use of materials can be made if the tensile strength of the
concrete. given in table 6.11 is utilised. Provided thet--c arc not exceeded
then the section can be designed, ba! on the gm1>s uncrad.ctl section.
Unless the section is designed to be fully in untlcr the characteristic
loads. a minimum amount of bontlcd reinforcement be provided to conrrol
cracking. Thio; j., calculated in an identical manner to the minimum reqULrement for
reinforced concrete (sec 6.1.5) with the allowance that a percentage of the
prestressing tendons can be counted tO\\ ards this m111imum area.
The de\ign of prestressing requirements ts based on the manipulation of the four
basic exprc!.1>ions given in section 11.3.2 descnbing the stress distribution the
Prestressed concrete 3 31
concrete section. These are used in conjunction with permissible appropriate to
the type of memher and covering the following conditions:
1. Initial of prestress force with the associated loading (often JUSt the beam's
sel f-weight);
2. At after prestress losses. with minimum and maximum
3. At !>ervice with the quasi-permanent loading.
The loadings encompass the full range that the member will encounter dunng its
life, and the minimum values will thus be governed by the construction techniques
The partial factors of safety applied to these loadl> will he those for serviceability limit
that is 1.0 for both permanent and variable load!-.. The qunsi-permancnt loading
situation is considerc<.l with only a proportion of the characteristic variable load acting.
For a beam with a cantilever span or a continuous beam it is necessnry to the
loading patterns of the li ve loads at service in order to determine the minimum and
maximum moments. For a singlc-:-.pan, simpl y beam it is the
minimum moment at and the maximum moment at f>Cf\ 1cc that wil l govern. as
shown in fi gure I 1.1 0. From tigure 11.1 0 the govcmi ng for a nglc-span
beam arc:
Po Pue
Mmon = f' > J.'
... 1 mm
Po Po<' Mmon

A ;:h ;:h
KPoe Mmnx -; <f,
-r --- I onux

KPo KPoe
A t Zh
- ji >J,.
h - mon
( 11.9)
( II 10)
( I 1.1 I)*
(11 . 12)*

nnd };nln arc the appropriate permissible ut tram, fer anti
conditi ons. Po is the prc:-.tressing force at transfer and K is a loss factor
that for the prestress losses - for example, K = 0.8 for 20 per cent loss.
f f f
+ +
r, > r;...,.
w"' ...
I' I'm.,
f f f f f f
Figure 11.10
Prestressed beam al lransfer
and servoce
332 Reinforced concrete design
11.4.1 Determination of minimum section properties
The two pairs of can be combined as follows:
11.9 and 11. I I
II.!Oand 11.12
KMnun ) :::; (Kfm:tx - .fmm):Oh
Hence. tf (Mmal KMmm ) is written as M,. the moment variation
.. - ifrru,
Zb> ----
. - };mn)
( 11.13)
( 11.1 5)
( ll. J 6)
In equations 11.15 and 11.16, and ::
1t can be assumed with accuracy,
for preliminary siting that M
., will depenu on both the imposed and dead (self-weight)
load ami Mnun will depend on the dead (self-weight) load only. that in effect the
c.:n lculations for Mv bec.:ome independent of the self-weight of the beam.
These minimum \ulues of section moduli muM be by the cho,cn section in
order that a prestress force and eccentricity exist which will permit the stress limits to be
met; but to ensure that practical arc met the chosen section must have a
margin above the minimum values calculated above. The equations for minimum
moduli depend on the difference between maximum and minimum values of moment.
The ma\imum moment on the section has not directly been included in these figure ...
it i!. possible that the rc:-.ulttng prestresl> force may not he economic or practicable.
However. it is found in the majority of cases that if a section is cho,en which satislles
thel>c minimum requirements. coupled wtth any other speci fied requirement!. regarding
rhc shape or the section, then a snw;fuctory is usually possible. The ratio of
acceptable '>pan to depth for a beam cannot he categorised on the haiotis of
dcnccttons as as for reinforced concrete. In the of any other criteria, the
following formulae may be used as a guide und will generally produce reusonabl y
con sen ative de,ignc; for post-tensioned
span< 16m
span > 36m
0 1= .,-+ .lrn
I :::.-- m
In the case of :-.hort-span members it may be possible to use very much greater span-
depth ratios quite satisfactorily. although the resulting prestress forces may become ver)
OU1er factors which must he consic.lcred at this stage include the ratio or
beams. where the same criteria apply as for reinforced concrete. and the possibility of
web and flange splitting 111 tlanged members.
I 1.5
0 I
Prestressed concrete 3:
(EXAMPLE 11 . 2
Selection of cross-section
Select a rectangular <,ection for a posHensioncd beam to carry. in addition to 1ts 0\\11
eight. a uniformly di:.lributed load of 3 k:-.f/m O\'er a simply l.upponed span of
I 0 m. The memher is to be designed with a concrete strength C40/50 and i:.
restrained torsion at the ends and at mid-span. Asc;ume 20 per cent of
(K O.M).
Design concrete stresses
At service:
= 0.6 x 40 = 24 N/mm
};n,n = 0.0 \1/111111
At transfer:
16 N/mm
0.6 strength at tranr.l'er;
1.0 N/mm
M, 1.0 X 10
/8 = 37.5 kN 111
rrom equation, 11.1 5 and 11.1 o:
M, :n.5 x 10
,, ,
:l (J, _ Kj'' ) = (">
S{-l}) =- 1.50 > 10 mm
mtn -
M, 37.5 X 10" ., ft \
> -- (O
_ O) = - .93 X 10 111111'
(KJ;:,., .f.n
) . 16 0.
Take b 21X) mm. I Jcnce
/ 6 2 93 )' 10(>
h ' /(2.93 x 10
x 6/200) - 297 mm
The minimum depth ol' beam b therefore 2'->7 mm and 10 allow a mnrgw 111 subsequent
det<\i lcd design u depth of 350 mm would be appropriate 11s ll first attempt.
To pn:vl.!lll lateml buckling 8C2 a maximum 'pan/hrcadth rat111 rcquin.: mcnt:
lm 50
/) (11/1>)
with h / b 2.5
where /.,
the diswncc between torsional = 5.0 Ill in this
!,., 5000
Actual -- = '?5
b 200 -
rna\imum -- --=41.5
b (350/ 200) I J
hence the cho\cn dimension), arc satisfactory an initial of the required beam
334 Reinforced concrete design
11.4.2 Design of prestress force
The inequalities of equation\ 11.9 to 11.12 may be rearranged to give expression)> for
the minimum required force for a given eccentricity:
p < (-.Jma' - .Mill;J, )
- K(<.t/ A e)
p > Mmao)
- e)
p > {;:.hfrniu + Mrnax)
o_ K(<.t. / A+e)
P <
-1 Mmin )
0 -- - -
( 11.17)
( 11.18)
( 11.19)
( 11.20)
:'\ote that in 11.17 and 11.18 it is pos),ible that the denominator term,
/A e). might be negative if e > ::
/A. Tn this the sense ol the tncquality would
have to change as the cl'fect of dividing an inequality by a negative number is to change
lh sense.
These equations give a range wi thin which the prestress force must lie to that
the allowable stre's conditions arc met at all stages in the life of the member. ln the case
of a :.imply supported beam, the design preareso; force generally be based on the
minimum value which these equations at the critical section for bendi ng in the
Although a range of value\ of permisstble prestress force can be found, this no
all owatH.:c for the fact that the cccentricity must lie within the beam. It is
therefore neceso.;ary to con\ider the effect of limiting the eccentricity to u maximum
practical value for the 'ectton under con)>ideratton. Such limitil include
consideration of lhc required minimum cover to the prcsLressing tendons which wil l
depend on the and assumed for the design. The ciTect of this
limitation will he moM severe when considcnng the maximum moment' acti11g on the
:-.cction. thnt is, the inequalities of equations II . II and 11.12.
If the !uniting value for maximum eccentricity e""''' on cover requirements.
equation I 1.11 becomes
Mma' $ };nax:.l KPoC
nnd equation 11.12 becomes
Mm." $ KPo t <'m') fmm'-h
( 11.21)
( 11.22)
These reptesent linear relutionshipl- between MrTWJo. ond P
. Por the case of n beam
suhjcct to sagging moments enux will generally be positive in value, thu\ equation 11 .22
is of positive slope and represents a lower limit tO P
. It can al..,o be shown that for moM
practical cases !(;:
/ A) - I < 0, thus equation 11 .21 is similarly a lower limit of
positive. though 'imaller c,lopc.
Figure 11.11 represents the general form of these cllpresston:-., and it can be seen
clearly that providing a force in excess of Y' produces only benelits of
additional moment capacity. The value of )' ' is given by the intersection of the'>C two
expressions, when
+ ema,) fmm:.t> =fma,:.l KPoC elll3,)
Prestressed concrete 335
22 21
Max. moment
lnequahttes satisfied
In thts zone
'--'+---___;___; _____ Po
p _};nax";t + };n.n;.h
()- (- +-)
K b
( 11.23)
Thus the value of prestress force Po Y' may he conveni ently considered a
maximum economic value beyond any incrca:--c in prestress force would be
matched hy a diminishing rule of increase in moment-carrying capacity. If a force larger
than limit required for a given section il may be more economic to increase the
siLc of this section.
Calculation of prestress force
The 10 metre heam in example 11.2 was determtned to have a breadth of :!IXlmm
and a depth ot 150 mm 4.0!! x 10
). Determine the min1mum 1nit1al
prestress force requtred for an assumed maximum ccccntnclt) of 75 mm
From example 11.2:
Self-weight of heam 0. 2 x 0.35 x 25 - 1.75 kN/m
Mmm 1.75 X 10
/ H 21.9kNm
, "" 3.0 X 10
/8 + 21.9- 59.4 kN m
(a) lrom equation 11 . 17:
p < Mmux)
- K(:.,/A l.'max)
< (4.08 X 10
X 24 59.4 X 10'') X lO 3
- 0.8(4.08 X I<Y>/ 70000- 75)
and allowing for the division b) the negative denominator
- 2881 kN
Figure 11.11
Maximum moment and
prestress force relationship
336 Reinforced concrete design
Similarly from equations 11.18 to 11.20:
Pn s; +1555kN
Po;::: +557kN
Po s;
The minimum 'alue of force i!> therefore 557 kl'\ '' ith an upper limit of
654 kN.
( h) Check the upper economic limit to force
From equation
p < fma,'l.t -1 /min:.h = 24z;\
- Kc:b; ::,)
s; 12A/ K
s; 12 X (350 X 200) X 10
<;,. 1050kN
Sinc.:e b greater than the urpcr limit already from c.:quatiun 1 I .20 a
design with an initial force between 557 lN and 654 kN will be
11.4.3 Stresses under the quasi-permanent loading
The calculauon in example 11.3 " balled on the characteristiC load\. Once a value of
force lying between the minimum and upper limit value '' cho en. the
cornpre.,.,ive at the top of the '>ection under the load' should also
be calculnted and compared \\ith the les'ier allowahle value of 0.45!.:
If thi' proves to
be critical then the section may have to be redesigned the quasi-permanent load
conditiOn more critical than the charactcmtic load condition.
Stress under quasi-permanent loads
ror the previous example. using minimum preMress force or 557 kN. check the
condition under the quasi-permanent loading c.:ondition. Assume thtll the 3 kN/m
imposed of a permanent load ol'2kN/m as and I.OkN!tn variable
load. Tale 30 per cent of the variable load comributing to the quasi-pcnnancnt load.
From the example:
Moment due to -= :! 1.9 kN m
Moment due to finishes = 2 >.. 10'/8
= 25.0\.:N m
Moment due to variublc load I < I 0'
Quas1-pennanent moment 21.9 I 25.0 I (0.3 x 12.5)
= 5065kNm
Prestressed concrete 337
Strcs'> at the top of is given by:
j; = KP0 _ KPoe + M
0.8 J( 557 J( 10
0.8 J( 557 X 10' X 75 50.65 X 10
4.08 X 1()6 + 4.08 1<f'
6.37 8.19 12.41
I 0.59
Allowahlc compres,ive 0.45/cl. - 0.45 x 40 - I H "'/mrn
lienee the maxrmum compre,sive stress is Jess than the allowahle figure.

11 .4.4 Magnel diagram construction
Equmlor1s l J . 17 to 11 .20 can be used ro determine u mnge or possihlc vulucs of
prestress force for n given or nssumed eccentricity. For different ussumcu value'> of
eccentricity further limit& on the prestress force cnn be determined in an iucntknl
manner although the would he tedimt' and repetitive. In uddition. it is
to U\sumc values of eccentricity for which there is no '\olution for the prestreso;
force the upper und lower wuld overlap.
A much more u,cful approach to design can be developed if the equations arc treated
graphicully Equal ron-. 11.9 to II. I 2 can be rearranged into the following
K( I
A - t/':.
{ equauon 11.1 I } ( 11.24)
(fmJ\ -
( 1/A- tf:.,)
{ equauon I 1.9} ( 11.25)

K( 1/ A e/':..h)
{equation 11.12} ( 11.26)
Po (/;,"' I Mmu\ /":.t>)
I ( l /A +e/:.h)
{equntion 11.10} ( I I .27)
Pn I M1111n/ /.h)
These equati ons now express li near rel ationships hctwcen 1/Pu and'' Note that in
equation 11 .25 the or the inequality has been reversed to account for the fact that
the dcnnminutor is negative

negative according 10 the chosen !.ign convention).
The relationships can he ploued as shown in figure I 1.12(a) and (b) and the area of the
graph to one or each line. as deli ned by the inequality. can be climtnated, resulting
in an area of graph withtn which any combination of force and eccentricity will
'>imultaneously all four inequalities and hence will provide a satisfnctory destgn.
The ltncs marked I to 4 correspond to equations to 11.27 This form
of is known as a Magnet Diagram.
The additional line (5) on the diagram correspond-; to :.1 physical
limitauon of the max1mum eccenmcicy allowing for the over.tll depth of secuon. cover
10 the tendons. provision of shear link:- and so on. Tv.o 11cparutc ligures are
shown :t\ tt "po'>!.tble for line I. derived from equation to have either a
or a negative '>lope depending on whether fm.t, is greater or less than Mm., /:.

338 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 11.12
Magnel diagram construction

z.IA zJA
r I I
The Magnel diagram is a powerful design tool as it cover<; all possible solutions of the
inequality equ:11ions and enables a range of prestress force and eccentricity values to be
investigated. Values of minimum und maximum prestress force can be readi ly reutl from
the diagram as can intermediate values where the range of possible eccentricities for a
chosen force can he easily determined. The dwgram also that the minimum
prcstrcl>s force (largest value of 1/ Po) corresponds to the maximum eccentricit). and as
the eccentricity is reduced the prestress force mu11t be increased to compensate.
Construct ion of Magnel di agram
Construct the Magnel diagram for the beam given in example 11.2 and determi ne the
m1nunum and maximum valuct:. of force. Assume a maximum po!>sible
eccentricity of 125 mm allo'' mg for co' er etc. to the tendon,.
From the previou' examples:
= 16 N/mm
24 N/mm
= - I .0 N/mm
/m1n 0 0 N/mm
n - 21.9 k\1 m Mm." 59.4 kN m
K 0.8 Zb = 4.08 x 10
!\ = 70 000 mm
From equation 11 .24:
which can be re-arranged to give:
> 1210 20.77e
Po -
59.4 X 10
4.08 X 1()6
Prestres5ed concrete
and similarl y from the other three inequalities. 11.25 ro 11.27:
> 2243 + 38.50e
Pu -
- < 785 -r l3.5e
- > 669 +- 1l.5e
These inequalities arc plotted on the Magnet diagram in figure 11.13 and the zone
bounded by the four lincll defines an area in which all possible de!\ign solutions lie. The
line of maKimum possible cccemricity is also plotted but, as it lies outside the .wne
hounded by the four inequalities, does not place any restriction on the possible
From fi gure l 1.13 it can he that the maximum and minimum values of prestn.:ss
force tire given by:
Maximum 10
/Po = 2415: hence minimum P
414 kN (e 121 mm)
Minimum IOh/Po = 862; hence ma,ximum P
11 60kN (e 17mm)
TI1e intersection of the two lines at position A on the diagram to a value
of Po I 050 kN. established in example II '\ a' the max1mum econnm1cal value of
force for this section (sec equation 11 23). Hence the inter,ection of the'e tWtl
'ihould he taken as the maximum pre,tres' force and. <h can he seen. this
mformatHm can be readily determined from the diagram wnhout the need for further
Thl' Magnet d1agram can now be used to other po'i\lhle \Olullons for the
force and eccentncity. For a fixed value of force (and hence
fi\ed Hlluc of I j Po) the range of permissible eccentncity can he read
directly from the dwgram. Ahemauvely. if the eccentricity is tixed. the diagram can he
u\ed to mvesugatc the range of pos ible preSLrCSl> force for the g1ven eccentricity.
Maximum economtc
prestress Ioree
- 60 --40 -20
Minimum Po " 414kN
Permissible zone
20 40 60


80 100 120
Figure 11. 13
Magnet diagram for
example 11.5
340 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 11.14
Cable zone limili
11.4.5 Design of tendon profiles
Having obtained a value of prcstres)> force which will permit all stress conditions to be
at the critical section, it is necessary to determine the eccentricity at which this
force must be provided. not only at the critical section but also throughout the length of
the member.
At any section along the member. e is the only unknown term 111 the four equations
11.9 to 11.12 and these will yield rwo upper and two 10\\er limits '' hich all be
simultaneously satisfied. This reqturemenr must be met at all sections throughout the
member and \\ill reflect both \'ariations of moment. force and section
properties along the member.
The design expressions can be rewritten as:
At transfer
( 11.28)
( 11.29)
At service
e >
fmJ,:t] -r- NJ_ma\
KPu !\Po
( 11.30)

fmm::t>] + Mm3.\
(11.3 1)
Equauons 11.28-11.31 can be C\'aluated at any 'cct1on to dctcrmmc the range of
ccccntncltles "11h111 which the resultant force Po mu't lie. The moment-.

and Mmm
arc those relating to the secuon be111g con\ldcrcd.
For a memher of constant if minor change., in force along the
length are neglected. the terms in in the uhovc expre:.s10ns are constant
Therefore the LOne within which the centroid mu:-.t lie is governed by the :.hape of the
bending moment envelopes. in ligure 11.14.
In the case of uniform loading the bending moment envelopes arc p<trubolic, hence
the practice i1. to provide paruholic tendon profiles il a stnught prolilc will not lit
within the zone. At the critical section. the tone is generally narrow and reduces to zero
if the v:1 lue of the force taken ns the minimum value from the Magnet
diagram. At secti ons away from the critical section. the zone
greater than the minimum requi red.
,_ -
--- .- ----
Equation 31
Centroidal axis
Equat1on 28
z, f._z, 1 L---------....----__;
+A - -;;;;- M,...
115 o be
lngth of
all be
lou the
II 2S)
II 29)
Prestressed concrete J
(EXAMPLE 11 . 6
Calculation of cable zone
Determine the cable zone limits at mid-span and ends of the member designed in
examples 11.2 to ll.5 for a constant initial force of 700 kN. Data for this
question arc given in the previous
(a) Ends of beam
Limits to cable eccentricity are given by equation 11 .29. which at 1he end sec1ion can be
readily shown, for this example. to be more cri1ical than equation 11 .28:
(' < [

-1 Mmin
- A Po Pu
and equation 11.31:
, > [- + /,ninZh] I MnM'
- A !\Po KPn
As there are no moment\ due to c.xtcrnalloadmg at the end of a 'unpl} 'upported hcam
equation 11 .29
< [- 4.0H X 4.08 10"] t ()
(!. (350 X 200) 7()() X 10
-58.2!i 93.25
c. 35 111111
Similarly equation 11.31 become:.
4.08 v 10
I' > (350 200) I O I ()
>-58 29mm
At the ends of the beam whcre the moments are lero. and for :
;:h. the im:quality
can apply with the tendon eccentri citi es above or below the neutrul axis
(e po, iti ve or negative). So that e must lie within the range 35 mm.
(b) Mid-span
11 .2H hecomcs:
4.08 X 10
(- I )4.0X )' 21.lJ y
(! (350 200) -]()() + 700 X JO'
< 64. 1 i 31
< 95. 1mm
Equation 11.29 mighl be more critical than cquauon ll.2X -.hould be ubo
checked. From equation 11 .29:
4.0!-l x 10
16 x 4.08 x 10
C' - (35() X 2()()) +-700 )I 103
58.3 + 93.3 + 31
66 mm
2J.9 X 1()
f 700 10
Hence equation 11 .29 is critical and the eccentricity mu-;t be less than 66 mm.
342 Reinforced concrete design
Equation 11.31 gives
e > - -0
4.0H X JW ]
- (350 X 200) 0.8 X 700 X 1()
-58.3 + 106.1
Hence at mid--.pan Lbe resultant of Lbe tendon force mu!>t lie at an eccentricity in the
range of 47.H to 66 rnm.
Provided that the tendons can be arranged Ml that their resultant force lies within the
calculated then the dc11ign will be acceptable.
If a Magnet diagram for the conuition at mid-span had been drawn. a:. in
example 11.5. then the eccentncity range could have t>een determined directly from the
dtagram without further calculation. For tendon<, , .. ith a combined prestrcs\ force at
transfer of Po= 700kN (10t./ Pn = 1428). plotting this value on the diagram of
figure 11.13 will give the range ol possible eccentricity between 48 mm and 66mm. )
l ______________________________________________ .
11 .4.6 Width of cable zone
rrom the Magncl diagram of ligure 11 . 13 it Cllll be seen that for any chosen value of
fon.:c there an ccccntncity range within which the resultant tendon force
must lie. 1\' the Ioree approache' a value corresponding to the top and bottom limits of
the diagram the width of the available cahlc ;.one until at the very
extremitic11 the upper and lower limits of eccentricity coincide. giving :!ero width of
cable zone.
Practically. therefore. a prestre's force will he chosen which ha' a value in between
the upper and lower limits of permissible force v.hil\t. at the same time.
ensuring that. for the cho,en force, a rea.onahlc width of cuhlc lOne The
must also sati,fy requirements of cover. minimum spacing hctwccn
tcn<.lon:.. avnilahle size of tendons and so 0 11. A number of alternative<.lon
combination' and configurations are to be tried so that all are
'imultaneou,ly met. Tile athantage of the Magnet dtagram i-. that a range of alternatives
can be quid I) con ... idercd wtthoutthe tor any further calculation. as tllustrated
at the end ol example I 1.6.
11.4.7 Prestress losses
From the tune that the prestre-..,ing force ts fir.,t applied to the concrete member. los<,cs
olthi' force will take place bct:aU'.c of the following cause':
1. Elastic shortening of the concrete.
2. Creep of the concrete under compression.
3. Rclaxauon of the steel under !.U\truned ten,ion
4. Shrinkage of the concrete.
These los!.es will occur whichever fonn or construction is used, although the effccLs
of elastic 'hortening will generally he much reduced when post-tensioning i!;
is becaU' .. e stresc;mg i<> a <;equential procedure. and not tn<;tantancous as with pre-
tensioning. Creep and shrinkage losses depend to a large extent on the of the
Prestressed concrete 343
concrete wirb particular reference to the maturity at the time of stressing. ln pre-
tensioning, where the concrete is usually relatively immature at transfer. these los<;es
may therefore be expected to be higher than in post-tensioning.
[n addition to lo&ses from these causes. which will generally total between 20 and
30 per cent of the initial prestress force at transfer. further losses occur in post-tensioned
concrete during the procedure. These are due to friction between the :.trands
and the duct. especially where curved profiles arc used. and to mechanical anchorage
slip during the stressing operation. Both these factors depend on the actual ystem of
ducts. anchorages and stressing equipment that are used.
Thus although the basic losses are generall y highest in pre-tensioned members. 10
ovcrull losses in post-tensioned members may he of magnitude.
Elastic shortening
The concrete will immediately shorten elasticall y when subjected to and
the steel wi ll generall y shorten by a similar amount (as in pre-tensioning) with u
corrcsp1mding Joss of prestress force. To calculate thi s it is to obtain the
compre!>sive nt the level or the steel.
If the transfer force is Pu and the force after is P' then
P' Po - loss in
and the stress in the concrete at the level ol the tendon
P' (P'r) x ('
A + I + ITcg
where <1,, ts the !.tress due to self-we1ght which \\ill he relatively small \\hen averaged
over the length of the mcmher and may thus be neglected. lienee
P' (I '2'\)
l1cp 1\ t I
and concrete <.train ITer / t;cm reduction in steel strain ac
/ unci
reduction in steel stress = , (l-c<Tcp
rhus with A
area of tendons
loss in prestress force =
P' - Po
so that
Ap '(
A, e-A
' )
rlcA p' I +-
344 Reinforced concrete design
detailed calculation could be undertaken it is normally adequate to 50 per cent
of the abo,e losses. In case the remaimng presrres<; force is
P' = Pu ,
1-0.5c.l/: (1 +
and it is this \'alue which applies to loss calculation-;. In calculating Oe,
may be taken from table 6.ll where /. be taken a.-. the strength of
the concrete.
Creep of concrete
The compressive stress on the com;n:te will abo a long-term shortening
due to creep. which will similarly reduce the force. As above, it is the stress in
the concrete at the level of the steel which il> important. that i'i
of steel stress E,rrq, specdic nccp .,tr:un
L' Ap p'(l
, A

x ... pcc.:if1c creep '>tratn
1l1c \aluc of creep used m calculation \\' Ill be mflucnced by the
m 6.3.2. and ma) he ohtaincd from the \uluc'> of the final creep
coefficient o( :x.. tn) given in table 6.12 in chapter 6 ll'-lng the rclation,hip
1."1( ,In)/ ,
Spec1ftc creep Mram = -
r: N/mm
1. c.:m
Tobie 6.12 may be used where the concrete MI'C'>'> not exceed 0.45/.: m transfer.
where ro the concrete strength at tran.,rer.
Relaxation of steel
Despite developments in steel manufacture. rclaxutl on of the wire or strand
under tension may Mill be expected to he a signilicant factor. The precise
value w11l dcpe11d upon whether or i!-. used and the
of the steel type. Equntions allowing for method of construction are given
in EC:! section 3.3.2(7) which should he applied to 1000-hour relaxation values
provided hy the manufacturer. The amount of rclaxmion will also depend upon the
initial tendon load relative to ib breaking load. In most practical situations the transfer
-.tee! stre\'> about 70 per cent of the characteristic -.trength und relaxation los\cs are
hkely to be approximately 4-10 per cent of the tendon load remainmg after ti".Ul'ifer.
Shrinkage of concrete
Thi'> I'> based on cmptrical figures tor hnnkugc/unit length of concrete (C>) for
particular curing condjuono; and transfer malllrity a ... ed 1n chapter 6. Typical
values range from 230 x 10
for UK outdoor (SOtq relative humidil}) to
346 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 11.15
Post-tensioned bec1m
EXAMPLE 11 . 7
Estimation of prestress losses at mid-span
A beam shown in figure 11 . 15 IS stressed by two tendons\\ ith a parabolic
proille and having a total cross-<;ectional area Ar = 7500 mm
. The total initial prestress
force IS Po= 10500kN and the tom! charactensllc strength l'i Pp.._ =
-1. Cenltoidal axis
-- - e. =640 -- --
CrosHeclional area A= 1.05m
Second moment of area I = 0. 36m
the following data for los'>c':
of friction 11 = 0.19
\\Ohhle factor J.. 0.0
!:.'.em (transfer) 32
, = 205 k\J/mm
Creep cocflicient o( .to) = 1.6
!,, = 330 < 10
1>41 1200 --1
Cross-section at

The tendon supplier specifics clas.., 2 strands \\ ith a I 000 hour relaxation of 2.5 per
cent at 70 per cent of the l>Lrength.
(1) Friction
The equation of the pnrabola is I'= and with the ongin at mid-span when
15000. y = 640. so that C = 640/15(}()(!
2.844 x 10
The gradient (J at the ends given hy
0 dy/ dt 2Cr 2 X 2.84-t X 10
X 15000
= 0.0853 radians
At mid-span
los!> = Po ( 1 - e_,,(OH))
= Po (
_ e - o111 x 15))
0.0-MPo = = 4.-t per Cl!nt
(2) Elastic shortening for post-tensioned construction
P' = ----.,.----- -
l -0.5nc (I y)
lht: 3\erage eccentriClly for the parabolic tendon a:o. 5/8e, 5/8 x 640 = 400 mm
und Oe = E-/ E,m = 205/32 = 6.41.

Prestressed concrete 34;
- 7.5 X 10
( , 1.05 X IOIJ )-
1 + 0.5 X 6.41 X 1.05 X 1Q6 I + ..f()() 0.36 X JOI2
= 10 160kN
Los = 10500 lO 160 340kN = 3.2 per cent
Total l)hort-term = 460 -'- 340 = 800
p' P
- short-term losses
= 10500 - 800 9700kN
(3) Creep
Los!. t:.P
m F.,Ap (I+ P'
' ( 1.05.m)A I
6 205 X 10
7.5 X 10] ( ' 1.05 X IO'')
- I , l ( 1.05 x 32) x I 0
x 1.05 X 1()1> I + ..JOO OJ6 Xi(iTi
992 kN ( = 9.-1 per cent of Pn)
(4) Shrinkage
.:::,p = c, c',Ar
- JJ() J0
' X 2()5 X 7.5 X 10'
507 kN ( = ..J .8 per cent of Pu)
(5) Relaxation
Long-tc.:nn rda\atJOn IO\S !actor = 2.5 for cia<;, 2 \trand estimated rrom equation 3.29
of EC2
(2.5 X 2.5/ IOO)P' = 0.0625 X 9700
606 k.N ( = 5.8 per cent of flo)
Total losse!. 800 + 992 ,.. 507 l 606 = 2905 !..N
= 28 pt.:r cent of Po
11.4.8 Calculation of deflections
The anticipated <.lcncction of a prestressed member mu<;t alway'> be checked since <;pan-
dfeetive depth rutios arc not specified in the code for prestrc.:ssed concrete
The deflection due to the eccentnc prestress force must be evaluated and aducd to that
from the normal pennunent and variable load on the member. In the maJonty of
particularly where the member is designed to hi! uncracked under full load. a simple
linear elastic ha,ed on the gross concrete \Cction ''ill be to gi'e a
reasonable and realilltJC of deflections.
Where the member ic; de<;igncd that, under the characten ... uc loads. the tensi le
'ltrength c\ceeds the cracking \trength of the concrete, /.
m. it may be necessary to base
the calculation of detlecLion on the cracked concrete section and reference o;hould be
made to the Code tor the method of dealing with th1s
348 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 11.16
Parabolic tendon profile
The basic requirements which should generally be sausfied in respect of deflections
arc to of a reinforced concrete beam 6.3) which are:
1. Deflection under the action of the qumi-permanent load span/250 measured
bekl\\ the level of the ),Upports:
2. Span/500 maximum movement after other element'>, \vhich are susceptible to
damage by movement, are applied.
The evaluation of dellections due to loadtng can be obtained by double
integration of the expresston

over the length of lhe member, although this calculation can prove tedious for complex
tendon profiles.
The simple case of straight tendons in a uniform member however, yields
M = - Pe a wnstant. which is the situation evaluated in 5CCtion 6.3J to yield a
rna xi mum pan dellection of ML
fHHI Pe/.
/81:.'1. H the cables lie below the
centroidal axi'>. I! is and the dellection due to pn.:we!>s is then negative. that is
Another common of a pambolic tendon pronlc in a beam of
coll\tant can also be evaluated quite simply by considering the bending-moment
di'>lrihution in terms of an equivalent uniformly distributed load.
Fm the beam in fi gure 11.16 the moment due to prestre-., loading 31 any section is
A1, -Pe, but 'Iince t puroholic, the prestre'l-. loading may be IJkened to a
umfonnly dt<;trihutcd load lie on a 'tmpl} -.upponed beam; then mtd-span moment

--= -Pe,
= --,
Bul since the mid-span deflection Juc 10 a uniformly dimihutcd load w over a span L i&
given by
5 wL
384 !:..'/
the deflection due w H'e i::.
5 (Pec) L
-+8 1
11 '
Prestressed concrete
Jf the prel>tress force does not lie at the centroid of the section at the end' of the beam.
but at an eccentricity eo as shown in figure 11.17, the expression for deflection mu:.t be
modified. ll can be shown that the deflection is the same as thm cau,ed by a force P
acting at a constant eccentricity eo throughout the lengt.h of the member, plu' n force P
following n pnrabolic profile with mld-span eccentricity t< as shown in figure 11.17.
The mid-::.p<Hl detlection thus becomes
5 (P<)L
, .. --- -----
. Rt:t 4R 1
DcHcctions due to more complex tendon are most conveniently estimatcu on
the basis of coeftic1ents wh1ch can be evaluated for commonly occurnng arrangements.
These are on the ba i' y = ( Kt})j El where K the varwtion'> of curvature
due to along the memher length.
There arc three pnncipal 'otages in the life of a prestrcs\Cd member m whtch
deflections may he critical and may need to be as\e:o..,ed.
1. At tranllfcr - a chcd. of actual dcnection a1 for compari,on "ith estimated
values i-. a useful guide that a pre. tres. ed beam hal> been correctly wnstructcd.
2. Under dead load, before application of lini!>he!-. - dcOecuons muo;t he evaluated to
permit :-.ubscqucnt movement and possible damage to he csumated.
3. Long-term under full quasi-permanent action:-. deOect1ons are reqlllrcd. both to
determine the movement and al!lo to the arpearuncc of the final
Short-term dellections will be based on materials rroperrie!> u!.socimcd with
characteristic strengths hm = I ) and wi th actual loading ("}
I ). Long-term
however must not only take intn account loss in force, but al!.o
the effects of creep both on the applied louding and the prestress loading of
the Creep is all owed for hy using an cffectivl! mmJulus of elusticity for the
concrete, us discussed in section 6.3.2.
is the value. the effective vnlue after creep is given by
where the value of {-x:.r
) , the creep coefficient can be obtained from table 6. 12
It can be in -.omc instances that when net upward deflections occur, often
increa.,c of creep. thus the most criucal downward deftectton mny well be
before creep occur. while the most critical upward dcftecuon may he long-term.
This further complicates a procedure which alread) ha:-. many uncertainties as
in chapter 6: thus deflection!. must always he regarded as only.
Figure 11.17
Parabolic tendon profile
eccentric at ends of beam
350 Reinforced concrete design
EXAMPLE 11 . 8
Calculation of deflection
Estimate transfer and long-term deflections for a 200 x 350 mm beam of I 0 m span. The
pre,tressing tendon has a parabolic profile with mid--.pan eccentricity 75 mm and the
end eccentricity = 0 at both ends. The initial prestre:,-. force at traru.fer. Po. 560 kl
and there arc 20 per cent losses. The imposed load consbts of 2.0 1-N/m finishes and
L.O kN/m 'ariable load. Ecm = 35 and the creep factor oo.t
) = 2.0.
Self-\\ eight= 0.2 x 0.35 x 25 = 1.75 kN/m
2()() X 35()3
1 =-= 715x 10
12 12
(a) At transfer
. 5

5 (Poer)L
DeflccLtOn Yn = 384 Ecml -48 E,.ml
5 1.75 X X 10
5 560 X 10
X 75 X 10
X 10
- 384 35 X l 03 X 715 X I 06 48 35 X I 0
X 715 X l 06
9.1 17.5
= -8 mm
(h) At application of
that only a small proportion of pn:strcss lo .. sc-. have occurred:
Weight of - 2 0 kN/m
5 2.0 :

-.a 384 x 35x 10
x 715 x I(J<'
- R 1 IOmm 2mm (downwards)
(c) In the long term due to the quasi-permanent action plus force after losses
Assuming 30 per cent of the variable load contribute), to the
Quasi-permanent action self-weight I finishes I OJ x vuriablc load
= 1.75 + 2.0 + 0.3 x 1.0 4.05 kN/m
forces after losses = 0.8Po 0.8 x 560 44l'l kN
, Ecm 35 ,
Ecetf=( ( )) =- (
- .,
) = 11.7kN/mm
l + cJ> oo. ru i -
5 4.05 X 10
X 10
5 448 X 10
Y 75 X 10
X (()
."c = 38411.7 X 10
X 715 X !Qfl 48 11.3 X t01 X 715
63.0- 43.3 = 20mm (downwards) < span/ 250 40 mm
1l1eretore sat.J\factory.
(d) \t1ovement after application of finishes
)'d y., - )'b = 20- 2 = 18 mm $ spnn/ 500 = 20 mm ('>allsfactory).
Prestressed concrete 35
11.4.9 End blocks
In pre-tensioned members. the prestress force is transferred to the concrete by bond over
a definite length at each end of the member. The transfer of to rhe concrete is thus
gradual. In post-tensioned members however, the force is concentrated over a small area
at the end faces of the member. 11nd this leads to high-tensile forces at light angles to the
direction of the compression force. This effect wi ll extend some distance from the end
of the member until the compression has distributed itself aero:.' the full concrete cross-
region is known as the 'end block' and muo;t be heavily reinforced by steel
to resist the bursting tension forces. End block reinforcement will generally wnsist oJ
closed links which surround the anchorages. and the quantities provided arc
obtained from empirical methods.
Typical 'How of compressive arc sho\\n in figure 11.18. from \\hich it
can be seen that type of anchorage il> the required di:.tribuuon can be
expected to have been attained at a distnnce from the loaded face equal to the lateral
dimension of the member. Thil> is relatively independent of the anchorage type.
In dc:.igning the end block it to check that the bearing strcsl-. behind the
anchorage plate due to the force not e'\cecd the limiting ,\Ires\. /ll.du
given by
/Rdu = 0.67f._k(Ad/Aco)
"' 2.Qf:k
A<"<l b the loaded urea of the anchorage plate
A.t is the maximum aren. having the a<. Ad
wh1ch can be
in the total area A., as in figure 11.19(a)
The lateral bursting fmces can be established hy the usc of a
dcterminnte strut and tie model where it is that the load is carried by a truss
consisting of concrete !>truts and linJ..s of reinforcement acting a' steel tics. In carrying
out these calculations a part1al factor of safet> of ') p = 1.2 i:-. applied to the
Flat plate anchorage
(a) Anchorage LOne
(end vtew)
Contcal anchordge
(b) Strut and tie model
of load dtspersion
_l _
Figure 11.18
Stress dtstributton In end
Figure 11.19
Sursttng tensile force In
end blocks
352 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 11.20
End block reinforcement
force. EC2 suggests that in determining the geometry of thi!> truss the prestressing force
can be a!>sumed to disperse at an angle of 33.7 to the longitudinal axis of the beam as
shown in figure 11.19(b). The comprelosivc in the assumed struts should not
exceed 0.4 ( 1 - and the rei nforcement is designed to act at a design strength of
OJn(yk ltowever if the in the reinforcement is limited to 300 N/nm1
then no
checks on crack widths are necessary. This reinforcement, in the form of closed links, is
then distributed over a length of the end-hlock equal to the greater lateral dimension of
the block. this length being the length over which it is assumed that the lateral tensile
strel.sel. are actmg.
Design of end block reinforcement
The hcum in ligure 11 .20 is by four identical 100 mm diameter conical
anch(lrage<, located :lS shown. wi th a jacking force of 250 kN applied to each. The area
may he ),Ubdivided into four equal end tones of 200 x 150 mm each. Determine the
reinforcement required around the = 40 N/mm
J,. 500 N/mm
Consider one anchor.
(a) Ched: hearing Lress under the anchor
Actual bearing strl!ss
l.oadcd urea
l.2 X 25() X 1()
---;. >( 100
/ 4-
= 38.2 N/mm
\llowable bean ng 'lrc" 0.6 7 .f..k (A.t /

End section. four anchorages

7TX !()()1j4
-10.2 N/mm
( > 38.2)
l lOOOkN

Area for combined anchorage
Prestressed concrete 353
(b) Reinforcement
Front figure ll.l9b. the tensile force in the tie of the equivalent trUl>S is given by
T = 0.33 X 1.2 X 250 lOOk'
Area of tensile steel required (assuming in the \tee I is limi ted to 300 !'\/nun')
I()() X 10
A, - 300
330 mrn
Thi), can he provided by Lhrcc 10 mm closed links (471 mm
) at, say. 50. 125 ami
200 mm from the end race: that djstrihuted over a length equal to the largest
uimcnsion of the anchorage (200 mrn). Note that in each direction there arc
two legs of each link acting to the tensile force.
(c) Check cornpres!>ivc stress in the stmts
Allowable compressive stress 0.4( 1
0.4( I - 40/250}40 13.44 N/mm
. Force in strut
Actual 1n strut = -C .
0.60 X 1.2 X 25() X
(200 X 150 X CO\ 33.7 )
= 1.21 m11D
'J he effect ol the combi ned anchorage can he con'>Jdered by con\idcnng the total
pre'> tress Ioree of I 000 k acting on an cffecuve end block of 400 400 mm.
The ten,Jie force in the tic of the equivalent tru'\s i\ given by
O.B x 1.2 I()(X) = 4001..N
Area of tensile \tccl rc4uircd
4()0 X )() I
1333 mm
This can be provided by six 12 mm closed links (1358 mm
J distributed over ll length
cqual to the largest dimension of the anchorage block, thm k 400 mm.
- ___________________________________________ )
11 .5
Analysi s and design at the ultimat e limit state
After a member has been designed to \crviceability a
check must be carried out to ensure that the ultimate moment of resistance and shear
arc adequate to satisfy the of the ultimate I unit '>tate. The partial
factors of l>afct) on loads and materials for this analysis arc the normal values for the
ulumme limit state which are given in chapter 2. However. in con:-.iderauon of the effect
of the prestress force this force should be multtplled by a partial factor of safety. ir
of 0.9 (UK l\ational Annex) when the prestress force is considered to be, as '' usual. a
favourable effect.
354 Reinforced concrete design
Figure 11.21
Stress-strain curve for
11.5.1 Analysis of the section
the on a prestressed member increase above the working values. cracking
occurs and the pre.,trcssing steel to behave as conventional reinforcement. The
behaviour of the member at the ultimate limit state is exactly as that of an or<.linary
reinforced concrete member except that the initial strain in the steel must be taken into
w::cuunt in the cak:ulations. The 'ection may easily be by the of the
equi\'alent rectangular stress hlock <.lescribed m chapter 4.
Allhough by a simple example thi., method rna) be applied to a cross-
section of any which may have an arrangement of prestressing wires or tendons.
Use is ma<.lc of the curve for the pn:stressing steel shown in figure l 1.21 to
calculate tension forces in each layer of steel. The total steel <;train is that due to bendi ng
added to the mitial in the steel from prestress. For a series ol al.sumed
neutral posn1on". the total tension capac1ty 1s compared with the compressive force
developed by a unifonn of 0.567f<k and when reasonable agreement is obtained.
the moment of can be evaluated.
Calculation of ultimate moment of resistance
The section of n pn.:tcnsioned beam shown in ligure I 1.22 is by ten 5 mm wires
of 0.1% proof fPJ
, 1600l'\/mm
If these wires are initiall y to
I 120 and 30 per cent are anticipated. estimate the ultimate moment of
n.:l>istance of thl! it C35/45 concrete used. The curve lor
wirc in tlgure 11.23.
Area of 5mm wire rr x 5
/4 19.6 mm
Stress in 'tccl after los.,cs )p :>-. 1120 x 0.7 = 0.9 x 11 20 x 0.7 = 705 N/mm
. . . (, 705 () {) ) 4
rra111 111 'tcel alter = - .,
= < 3
., - X I
wh1ch is les' than _ , the yield l>train.
Prestressed concrete 355
b= 120 lee= 0.0035
- 1
_ __ l

Section Bending Strains Stress Block
: '1600 :: 1390
Ym 1.15
0.00678 Stram
A depth 1 ot neutral axis must be found for which the compre-;,tve force in the
conm:te halanced b) the tensile force r: in lhe steel. Then the ultimate moment or
i' given by
( 11.33)
where :: is the lever ann between Fe and F,.
As a first attempt try x = 130 mm, approximmely cqmtl to 0.5tl.
(a) Steel strains
Final steel strain,!\ prc!.lrcss strain -t bending srrain,
(I n cnlculating <the initial concn.:te strai n due w cnn be ignored without undut:
Top layer
- 0.0034 I
( 175- r)
= 0.0034 + .._ ec-c
( I 1.34)
0 003
1 ( 175 130)0
= . ., 130 . .)
Figure 11.22
Ultimate moment of resistance
Figure 11.23
Stress-stra!11 curve For
prestressing wire
356 Reinforced concrete design
Bottom layer
!:,IJ = 0.0034,..
(275 -x)
= 0.0034 -r
- 0 0034 (
) ) 0035
- . I 130 (. .
- 0.()()73
(b) Steel stresses
hom the curve the corresponding \tccl are:
Top layer
J..3 = . 3 )( ,
= 0.0046 )I 205 )I 10
- 943N/mm
f..b 1390 ;-.Jfmm
as the str;Hn in boll om \tee I the yield strum (c 0.00678).
(c) Forces in steel and concrete
Stcd tensile force (f,a -l f,h)5 x 19.6
+ I WO} X 9X
229 1< 10'
W1th a rectangular stre's block
Concrete compressive force = 0.567f.b x 0.8x
0.567 > 35 ')( 120 X 0.8 X 130
= 248 < 10' N
( 11.35)
( 11.36)
( 11.37)
The force f c in the lurge1 than the lnrt:e F, in the steel. therefore a :.mallcr
depth of neutral axis hi! tried.
Tahlc ll.l shows the re),ults of t:lllculation11 for further trial of neutral ax' For
.\ II 0. F, became 'mallcr than F , therefore \ 120 and 123 were tried and it wa<,
then found that / = I c.
Table 11.1
X Strains Stresses Forces
f ...

Fe ,.
( >< I 0
) (N/mm
) (kN)
130 4.6 7.3 943 1390 229 248
110 5.5 86 1121 1390 246 210
120 5.0 79 1026 1390 237 229
123 4.9 7.7 1000 1390 234 234
Prestressed concrete 357
In terms of the tensile force in the steel. the ultimate moment of resi tance of the
::.cction is given by
Mu = F,:. = L lf-A, (d- 0.4x).
5 Y 19.6[1000( 175 - 0A x 123)+ 1390(275-0A x 123)
= 43. 1 x IOfl 'mm
( I 1.39)
H x had been incorrectly chosen as 130mm then u&ing equation I 1.39 M. would equal
42.0 kN m, or in terms of the concrete
Mu X
0.567 X 35 X 120 X 0.8 X 130(225 -0.4 X 130) X 10 I>
Comparing the average of these two