Celeste Radelet Alicia Poston Kim Briggs

APA Definition
According to the American Psychological Association (APA)‘s Division of Psychological Hypnosis, hypnosis is a procedure during which a health professional or researcher suggests while treating someone that he or she experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behavior. Although some hypnosis is used to make people more alert, most hypnosis includes suggestions for relaxation, calmness, and well-being. Instructions to imagine or think about pleasant experiences are also commonly included during hypnosis. People respond to hypnosis in different ways. Some describe hypnosis as a state of focused attention, in which they feel very calm and relaxed. Most people describe the experience as pleasant.

Contents            APA Definition of Hypnosis “Father of Hypnosis”--Mesmer History of Hypnosis Suggestibility/Susceptibility Hypnosis and Emotional Health Hypnosis and Physical Health Facts and Fiction False memory/Confabulation Self Hypnosis Hypnosis vs. Sleep and Dreams Brain Activity • Delta • Theta • Alpha • Beta Sources  .

In 1777. and as a conductor of animal magnetism he was able to help restore the natural process. Mesmer was unsuccessful in curing the blindness of a young musician. Mesmer had a patient swallow iron. Born in Swabia. In 1775. and used magnets to ―heal‖ her.       . Although his abilities have since been discredited. scandal and embarrassment caused him to leave Vienna. Germany 1734 In 1774. The evolution of Mesmer's ideas and practices led James Braid to develop hypnosis in 1842. The Austrian physician referred to his ability as a type of animal magnetism.“Father of Hypnosis” Franz Anton Mesmer  Mesmer used the power of suggestion to ‗cure‘ illnesses in the 18th century. Mesmer believed that illness was caused by obstruction of the free-flow of life processes. he is immortalized in the verb ―to mesmerize‖.

looking fixedly into the patient's eyes. A glass armonica is a type of musical instrument that uses a series of glass bowls or goblets graduated in size to produce musical tones by means of friction. moving his hands from patients' shoulders down along their arms. Many patients felt peculiar sensations or had convulsions that were regarded as crises and supposed to bring about the cure. sometimes holding his hands there for hours. He then pressed his fingers on the patient's hypochondriac region (the area below the diaphragm). Mesmer made "passes". pressing the patient's thumbs in his hands. . Mesmer would often conclude his treatments by playing some music on a glass armonica. With individuals he would sit in front of his patient with his knees touching the patient's knees.Mesmer‘s Treatment Mesmer treated patients both individually and in groups.

1843: James Braid coined the term hypnosis.   World War II: Small group of hypnosis clinicians were able to provide pain relief and alleviation of suffering to their severely injured patients through the use of hypnosis. First three decade of 20th century: Interest in hypnosis declined until Clark L.         Marquis de Puysegur renamed what we now know as hypnosis. alert with eyes closed and sleep‘s EEG that consists of four distinct polygraph-defined stages. 1950‘s: Invention of the electroencephalogram (EEG) which measured differences between hypnosis‘ pattern that is indistinguishable from being relaxed.A. Today.History of Hypnosis   18th Century Paris: Franz Anton Mesmer gained popularity for what he termed ―Animal Magnetism‖ 1784: The Royal Commission of Inquiry into Animal magnetism was established. During this time. End of the 19th Century: Two ―schools― of hypnosis were formed in France. – They concluded that Animal Magnetism did not exist and therefore had no curative powers. The Abbe Jose Custodia di Faria called it lucid sleep. three major hypnosis laboratories for the research of hypnosis were formed. one still remains in Philadelphia at the University of Pennsylvania. artificial somnamulbism. Late 19th Century: A. . 19th Century: Hypnosis was viewed as a matter of the degree of a person‘s suggestibility. ―hypnos‖. Hypnosis and Suggestibility: An Experimental Approach. Liebeault reconciled the sleep metaphor with suggestibility theory. Hull‘s book. which comes from the Greek work for sleep. This group of clinicians banded together after the war and formed the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis and later on the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis. 1960-1990: ―Halcyon Days‖ of hypnosis.

Dialogue is directly related to how the hypnotist directly or indirectly gives suggestions. It is possible to induce alterations in the following areas: – Memory – Perception – Sensation – Emotions – Feeling – Attitudes – Beliefs – Muscular states   .Suggestibility and Susceptibility   Highly susceptible subjects show significantly more brain activity in the left side of the prefrontal cortex. Under hypnosis the subject becomes more susceptible to suggestion than in his or her normal state.

such as memories not being recalled at present. maybe recalled by "directing attention to them". which although not presently in the conscious.   Subconscious: information contained in the mind. and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environment. but still available to be recalled at will. Unconscious: is the aspect (or alleged aspect) of the mind of which we are not directly conscious or aware. . selfawareness. Conscious: is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity.

Hypnosis and Emotional Health Emotions and imagination. and has tied certain emotions to that event. are the underlining factors responsible for most of our behavior. Accessing the subconscious through hypnosis can help to alleviate some or all symptoms associated with following difficulties people experience:           Anxiety Depression Sleep difficulty Social anxiety Panic Phobias PTSD Self-esteem Abusive relationships Addiction . both part of the subconscious. Our present behaviors are usually linked to how our imagination has perceived a past event.

including migraines Treat and ease symptoms of asthma Hasten the healing of some skin diseases including warts. results in an alteration of how the brain communicates with the rest of your body through nerve impulses. it appears that the effect that hypnosis has. hormones and body chemicals. This alteration is useful in helping control some of the physiological processes that occur within the body. such as neuropeptides. psoriasis and atopic dermatitis       .Hypnosis and Physical Health Although the exact mechanism by which hypnosis works is still unknown. The following list are examples of how hypnosis can be used to do this in order to help a person gain control of their physical well-being:   Treat pain during childbirth and reduce labor time Control pain during dental and surgical procedures Relieve symptoms associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Lower blood pressure Control nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy Reduce the frequency and intensity of headaches.

free-will. FACT: You do hypnotherapy only FOR YOURSELF. FACT: Successful hypnosis depends on your willingness to experience it—even with voluntary hypnosis. FACT: Hypnosis is a heighten state of concentration and focus. experience spontaneous amnesia. A hypnotherapist serves only as a guide or facilitator.       FICTION: You can be put under hypnosis without your consent. . or personal strength. FICTION: Under hypnosis you lose consciousness. When your under hypnosis you DO NOT lose your personality. or suffer from amnesia.Facts and Fiction about Hypnosis   FICTION: When your under hypnosis you surrender your free will. not everyone can be led into a hypnotic state. However MOST people remember everything that occurs under hypnosis. FICTION: When your under hypnosis the therapist controls you. FACT: A small number of people who go into a very hypnotic state.

emotions. . the implied beliefs of others. and it can be disturbing to have those challenged. of who we are and what we have done.  Our sense of identity.  Memory is a complicated process. and so it can often be strongly influenced by expectation (one's own or other people's). but research suggests that the qualities of a memory do not provide a reliable way to determine accuracy. or desired outcome.False Memory/Confabulation  It is common experience that human memory may be unreliable to some degree.  Memory is believed to be a reconstructed phenomenon. a vivid and detailed memory may be based upon inaccurate reconstruction of facts. whether by failing to remember at all or by remembering incorrectly.  Continuity of memory is no guarantee of truth. or largely self-created impressions that appear to have actually occurred. and disruption of memory is no guarantee of falsity. inappropriate interpretation. is tied to our memories. only partly understood. For example.

you will ACTUALLY start to believe it. constructive and beneficial! Otherwise. or ugly or unworthy… You should always remain positive.Self Hypnosis The subconscious mind is like an obedient servant—it doesn‘t think or reason—and herein lies the power of self-hypnosis… YOU have the power! Your subconscious mind will accept your suggestions and make them a part of your reality! It tells your unconscious that will act on these suggestions and your on your way to a more healthy lifestyle! ***It is important to remember that your subconscious mind does not know the difference between good or bad suggestion—so BE POSITIVE! Don‘t tell yourself that you are fat. and you will project this out in your personality! .

the subconscious mind is open for suggestive input. . Then it cycles back up into alpha where you spend most of your time sleeping and dreaming. Sleep and Dreams  SLEEP: While asleep.  HYPNOSIS: A hypnotist takes advantage of the above natural phenomena. and briefly into theta and delta. your brain automatically cycles down from the beta range into alpha. In alpha. Hypnosis is a technique that causes the brain to cycle down into alpha without going to sleep.Hypnosis vs.

The EEG is a brain function test. but rather voltage differences between different parts of the brain.Brain Activity  Electroencephalography is the neurophysiologic measurement of the electrical activity of the brain by recording from electrodes placed on the scalp or. but in clinical use it is a "gross correlate of brain activity.  The resulting traces are known as an electroencephalogram (EEG) and represent an electrical signal (postsynaptic potentials) from a large number of neurons. Electrical currents are not measured. within the subdural or the cerebral cortex. in special cases. .

The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves. analyze and organize information and other activities where mental alertness and high levels of concentration are key to your success. Your mind is sharp. neurons fire abundantly. focused.Beta: Alertness/ Concentration/ Cognition 12-40 Hz EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample.   . heightened alertness. helping you achieve peak performance. The Beta state is associated with peak concentration. Beta training is one of the frequencies that biofeedback therapists use to treat Attention Deficit Disorder. You are wide-awake. Beta-centered programs help you prepare to take an exam. In the Beta state.  It makes connections quickly. in rapid succession. alert. hand-eye coordination and visual acuity. and you're primed to do work that requires your full attention. New ideas and solutions to problems flash like lightning into your mind. give a presentation. easily. Beta waves range between 13-40 HZ. play sports.

the resonant frequency of the earth's electromagnetic field.  In Alpha.  Alpha waves range between 7-12 HZ. the entry point that leads into deeper states of consciousness. your brain activity slows from the rapid patterns of Beta into the more gentle waves of Alpha. In biofeedback. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves. Fears vanish. we begin to access the wealth of creativity that lies just below our conscious awareness . Alpha is also the home of the window frequency known as the Schuman Resonance .Alpha: Relaxation/ Visualization/ Creativity 6-12 Hz EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. You experience a liberating sense of peace and well-being. but not quite meditation. When you are truly relaxed.  Fresh creative energy begins to flow.it is the gateway. Your awareness expands. This is a place of deep relaxation. . Alpha training is most commonly recommended for the treatment of stress.

Theta is one of the more elusive and extraordinary realms we can explore. you enter the elusive and mysterious Theta state where brain activity slows almost to the point of sleep. In biofeedback. you may feel your mind expand beyond the boundaries of your body. Theta waves range between 4-7 HZ. dream recall. Theta can bring you deep states of meditation. Finally. but not quite. reduces stress and awakens intuition and other extrasensory perception skills. vivid imagery flashes before the mind's eye and we are receptive to information beyond our normal conscious awareness. flashes of dreamlike imagery. Theta rests directly on the threshold of your subconscious. Theta brings forward heightened receptivity. Going deeper into relaxation. In Theta.  Theta is the brain state where magic happens in the crucible of your own neurological activity. enhances learning. and self-hypnosis.    . or drifting off to sleep. in Theta. and your longforgotten memories." And. re-programming your mind. Theta also plays an important part in behavior modification programs and has been used in the treatment of drug and alcohol addiction. we are in a waking dream. it is most commonly associated with the deepest levels of meditation. Theta has also been identified as the gateway to learning and memory. It is also known as the twilight state which we normally only experience fleetingly as we rise up out of the depths of delta upon waking. inspiration. Theta meditation increases creativity. A sensation of "floating.Theta: Meditation/ Intuition/ Memory 4-7 Hz EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. Theta is an ideal state for super-learning. because it is an expansive state. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves.

The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves.the kind that Delta frequencies help induce is so essential to the healing process. Delta is not only ideal for sleep and deep regeneration potential.deep restorative sleep . slow.Delta: Detached Awareness/ Healing/ Sleep 1-4 Hz EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. certain frequencies in the Delta range also trigger the release of Human Growth Hormone so beneficial for healing and regeneration. . the seat from which intuition arises. Delta waves range between 0-4 HZ. Most commonly associated with deep sleep. Long. This is why sleep .  Delta is the slowest of all four brain wave frequencies. undulating. but also when you want to access your unconscious activity and help that wellspring of information flow to your conscious mind for clearing and for empowerment.  Delta is the brain wave signal of the subconscious.

The Gamma brain wave state corresponds to frequencies of 40Hz or higher. By one definition. associated with perception and consciousness. though researchers have recognized that higher level cognitive activities occur when lower frequency gamma waves suddenly double into the 40 Hz range.  A gamma wave is a pattern of brain waves. Gamma brainwaves are the most rapid in frequency. but can often be between 26 and upwards of 70 Hz. your brainwaves reach the Gamma state. Research has shown gamma waves are continuously present during low voltage fast neocortical activity (LVFA). The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves. Until recently gamma brain waves have received the least attention and research.   . gamma waves are manifest at 24 Hz and higher. which occurs during the process of awakening and during active rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Some researchers do not distinguish gamma waves as a distinct class but include them in beta brain waves. Gamma waves are produced when masses of neurons emit electrical signals at the rate of around 40 times a second (40 hertz or Hz). although more attention is currently being paid to them than in years past.Gamma: Precognition/ Clarity/ Perception 40 Hz + EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. During moments when bursts of precognition or high-level information processing occur.

per second corresponds to the trance-like state of theta brain wave activity. Theta. unique to you. You have your very own signature brain wave activity. It has a rhythm and pattern and it incorporates Beta. or cycles.5 beats. .Vibrations from rhythmic sounds have a profound effect on our brain activity. Alpha. It is no coincidence that 4. and Delta frequencies at varying levels over the course of a day as your brain modulates them to match your activities.

institute-shot.com/whatishypnosis_history.aspx .html  http://www.com/hypnosis_and_health.org/hypnosis.wikipedia.com  www.com/falsememory.com  http://en.htm  http://www.Sources  www.mayoclinic.html  science.com/health/hypnosis/SA00084  http://www.howstuffworks.htm  http://hypnosis.com/hypnosis.toolsforwellness.fmsfonline.brainsync.org  http://skepdic.

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