This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRO-INDUSTRY
INPUTS FOR HIGHER AGROPRODUCTIVITY
• Quality seeds • Irrigation and drainage • Fertilizer
• Protect against insects, pests, diseases:
Sixteen elements are required by the crops:
• Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, [from water and air], • Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, [macro], • Calcium, Magnesium, Sulphur, Chlorine,[micro], • Iron, Manganese, Silicon, Boron, Zinc, Copper, Nickel, Molybdenum and Selenium [Traces]
The amount and relative proportion of these nutrients will depend on a number of factors. The most important factors are: (i) nutrient status of soil and (ii) nutrient requirement of the crop.
TYPES OF FERTILIZERS
• Organic fertilizer or manure
Bio-fertilizer Composted manure
Vermi - composted manure
• Organic manure not only provides plant nutrients but also improves soil physical, chemical and biological properties. • In addition to fertilizers, the use or organic manure is essential for sustaining crop productivity. • Preparation of good quality manure
Fill the mixture of dung, urine and other materials layer by layer ; moistening it each time. Add suitable inoculum to hasten the rate of decomposition of manure. Enrich the mixture with 100 kg of rock phosphate/bone meal/ superphosphate to improve the nutrient content of manure. Seal the pit with mud plaster after it is filled. The manure ready for use after 4-6 months.
• Nitrogen: Ammonia or nitrate salts • Phosphorus: Water soluble phosphates of calcium, Di-ammonium phosphate • Potassium: Potassium chloride
Integrated Plant Nutrient Management (IPNM)
It aims at maintaining soil fertility and plant nutrient supply
for sustainable crop productivity by adjusting
• chemical fertilizer,
• organic manure,
• biofertilizer and • crop residues.
Different proportions of these components are to be used based upon crop requirements and availability of materials
IPNM will be the means through which the longterm fertility of the soil will be assured and
contamination of the environment minimized.
Yet, IPNM alone will not be sufficient to bring this
about; farmers need to adopt effective and
efficient crop, pest, soil, and water management
techniques as well. Governments have an
important role to play to promote effective and
environmentally sound management of plant
Institutions have to promote effective and
environmentally sound management of
o plant nutrients,
o improve research, o monitoring,
o participation, and
of effective plant nutrient management.
Governments have to support complementary
measures to lower costs, recycle urban waste,
secure land tenure. Also it is necessary to
increase production capacity, to improve
transport and communication infrastructure, and
to establish an effective institutional environment
conducive to the efficient functioning of nutrient,
other input and output markets.
The cropping system rather than the individual crop
and the farming system rather than the individual field are the focus of this approach for developing IPNM systems for major agro-ecological zones and for various categories of farms. Control of pests and diseases in agriculture is very important. Earlier approaches of insecticides
applications to contain pests is no longer desirable
because of their increasing costs and the adverse effects on the environment. Therefore, the concept of IPM all over the world has assumed great importance.
General nutrient recommendation for some important crops
Bio fertilizers (BF) (microbial inoculants) are the
products containing living cells of different types of micro organisms (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, etc.) which have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and mobilize phosphorus in the soil from unavailable form to plant usable form. Use of Rhizobium culture in legumes is most promising among different kinds of biofertilizers
Vermi-composting uses earthworms to produce compost from organic residues.
Earthworms can practically eat all kinds of
organic matter. The guidelines for
preparing a good quality vermi - compost
should be adopted.
EXPENSIVE, TO PRODUCE THOUGH NEEDED INPUT FOR HIGH YIELDING FOOD CROPS, EXCESS CAN CAUSE ENVIRONMENTAL ADVERSE IMPACT
Total P content in soil is usually high, but most of this soil P pool is not in forms available for plant uptake (insoluble in water). Bacteria that can mobilize P from unavailable soil pools and increase
P availability to plants are of great importance. Most
predominant phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria (PSB)
belong to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas.
Field experiments highlight the potential importance
phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria (PSB)
o Sundara et al. (2002) applied rock phosphate
with a PSB (Bacillus megaterium var.
phosphaticum) in lignite-based culture medium in a field experiment. o They found that PSB amendment could increase sugarcane yield by 12.6 percent. o PSB and P fertilizer together reduced the P requirement by 25 percent.
Furthermore, 50 percent of the costly superphosphate could be replaced with inexpensive rock phosphate. PSB also improved the sugar yield and juice quality (Sundara et al., 2002). In conclusion, biofertilizer based on PSB may be of greatest value in allowing use of cheaper P sources.
Indo Maroc Phosphore S A (IMACID), Chambal's
world-class joint venture phosphoric acid plant in Morocco, commenced production in November 1999. The US$ 204 million joint venture project, in equal participation with Office Cherifien Des Phosphates (OCP) of Morocco, produces 3,30,000 tonnes per annum of merchant grade phosphoric acid (54% of P2O5). OCP is the largest producer of phosphoric acid in the world.
Phosphoric acid is a raw material for production
of DAP and other complex fertilizer grades. Zuari
Industries Limited buys its entire phosphoric acid
requirements from IMACID. This arrangement
ensures an uninterrupted supply of phosphoric
acid to the Company to produce DAP and also
helps bridge the gap between demand and
supply of phosphoric acid, since India imports over 80% of its phosphoric acid requirement.
Fertilizers are basic nutrients supplied to soil,
which replenish the depletion or original deficiency
of nutrients in the soil. India is third largest
producer and consumer of chemical fertilizers in the world, and accounts for 12% of the world consumption. The consumption of chemical fertilizers in 1999 was 75.26 kg/hectare. The net sown area in India for food grains production is about 141 million hectares.
Raw materials like phosphate rock, sulphur and potassium salts are imported. Indigenously produced
fertilizer meets only about eighty per cent of the country’s
Indian fertilizer industry has played a significant role in
increasing food grains production along with high yielding varieties of seeds and enhanced irrigation facilities, during the green revolution of last thirty years. Growth in fertilizer application took place from 78.4 lakh tonnes in 1965-66 to about 140 lakh tonnes in 1995-96.
The estimated food grain consumption in 2011-12 is 298
million tonnes. To achieve this target an increase in
consumption of fertilizers to185.8 kg/ hectare is needed
The development of chemical fertilizer industry in India took place in three phases. From 1950-65, the awareness of the usefulness of chemical fertilizers in enhancing the crop yield increased along with due consideration for the practice of application of organic manures and green manures. During this period
manufacturing facilities increased gradually.
From the year 1965, increase in farm productivity
was given more importance and growth in fertilizer production and application was enhanced significantly. To provide fertilizers to farmers at reasonable price, the Government of India from 1977 operated the retention price cum subsidy scheme. The producers were provided compensation by the Govt. for supplying fertilizers at the controlled price.
In the mid-seventies prices of hydrocarbon raw materials increased, followed by the mid-eighties finding the increase in yield per mass of fertilizer applied reaching a saturated stage. Over the years, the cost of production has increased and subsidy amount provided to industry greatly increased. In 1992, decontrol of the prices of phosphatic and potassic fertilizers were introduced. This was done as a part of a
policy, which was meant to bring the fertilizer industry in
line with the liberalized and. Pro-market economic policies.
The synergy between the application of inorganic
fertilizer and the development of nutrientresponsive seed varieties was responsible for the phenomenal growth in crop yields and food supplies in developed countries over the past
thirty-five years. The ability of agriculture to
provide for food needs to the year 2020 and beyond is increasingly difficult however.
In developed countries, over-application of
inorganic and organic fertilizers has led to
environmental damage, while
in developing countries, population pressures, land constraints, and the decline of traditional soil management practices have led to a decline in the fertility of the soil.
The over-supply of nutrients from inorganic and
organic sources in excess of plant needs and in the
absence of a mechanism to bind the nutrients to
the soil, can lead to environmental contamination.
Soil nitrate concentrations in excess of plant
absorption needs, for example, allow the soluble
nitrate to be carried away in ground water to
contaminate surface waters and underground
Consumption of water high in nitrate (and nitrite)
has been linked to
“blue baby syndrome,”
• birth defects and
• heart disease,
and may be involved in the creation of carcinogenic
compds within the body that can cause stomach or
Leaching and run-off of nitrogen and phosphorus
into rivers, lakes, and inlets, can cause
eutrophication--an excess accumulation of
nutrients in water that promotes algal over-
production. Heavy application of inorganic NPK
fertilizers does not replace secondary and other
micro-nutrients removed by harvested crops,
crop residue and erosion, nor do they directly
improve soil organic matter content and structure.
Lastly, genetic engineering offers the potential in the future for the plants themselves to meet some of their nutrient requirements. Together, these nutrient conservation and replenishment methods need to be managed - reflecting the farmer's
particular bio-physical and socio-economic situations, in
such a way as to provide a cost effective and appropriate level of nutrients to maximize yields and sustain agriculture, without polluting the environment.