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ARTICLE TITLE: Conservation for the People AUTHOR/SOURCE: Peter Kareiva and Michelle Marvier MAIN POINTS

:   World Conservation Union placed three vultures long-billed, slender-billed and Oriental whitebacked. Reasons for saving the vultures from extinction could be framed in familiar terms: we have an ethical obligation to save the world's biodiversity for its own sake. Reasons could be outlined in a less familiar way. Researchers found that birds were being killed by anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac. It is administered to cows. In bovines and humans, it reduces pain. In vultures it causes renal failure. As vultures disappeared, hundreds of thousands of cow carcasses left for the birds have festered in the sun, where they incubate anthrax and are consumed by dogs. Because of the ready food supply, dog population has exploded and with it is also the threat of rabies Saving vultures from extinction would protect people from a dangerous disease. Ecosystems like the wetlands and mangroves protect us from lethal storms. Forest and coral reefs provide food and income Public and governments view efforts to preserve biological diversity as elevating the needs of plants and animals above those of humans. 1988 Norman Myers of University of Oxford developed idea of biodiversity hotspots, small areas that harbor a great variety of endemic plant species. Scientists aren't keen on hotspots. Some point out that it might be false advertising. Places with a lot of native plant species do not have butterfly or vertebrate species as well. Floral hotspots are not those most vulnerable to extinction. Conservation needs additional principles to guide it. People value nature as a source of food, fuel, building materials, recreation and inspiration. Ecologists began to quantify this natural capital under "ecosystem services" These services include products like medicine and timber. Other processes that are unconsidered are water filtration, pollination, climate regulation, flood and disease control and soil formation. Putting prices on these services, they found that yearly value outstripped the gross domestic product of all countries combined. Study by an international team of more than 1,300 scientists found that ecosystem services are declining and are being used unsustainably. Indian Ocean Tsunami and Hurricane Katrina brought focus on the relation between ecosystems and human living conditions. In both cases, damage was amplified by loss of natural vegetation. Destruction over the past 70 years of marshlands and eelgrass beds in Louisiana greatly exacerbated the storm surge generated by Katrina.

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In S.E Asia, widespread conservation of coastal mangrove forests into shrimp ponds meant that there was no wave buffer to protect from the tsunami. Post tsunami studies found that shorelines with intact mangrove forests suffered from almost no damage. Overgrazing and unsustainable farming practices fuel poverty, famine and malnutrition regionally. Dust, pollutants and microorganisms accompany the sand in wiping out coral reefs--reducing tourism and fisheries. Economic benefits afforded by ecosystem services are needed most by developing nations. 2005 U.N report explains that maintaining the environment is key to alleviating poverty Human health is threatened when ecosystems and natural cycles break down. 2 million die each year from inadequate or unclean water supply. Saving forest and grasslands could reduce plumes of dust that have been linked to a rise in U.S asthma cases. Subtler connection between ecosystem degradation and human health can be seen in diseasecausing organisms that move wildlife to humans. 2/3 of world diseases are caused by pathogens that infect nonhuman animal hosts and make contact with people because of changes in land use. Attempts to eradicate predators jeopardized human health. Focus on ecosystem services advocated is a repackaging of traditional conservation ideas that emphasize interconnectedness. Approach differs in many ways. Conservationists are in denial about the state of world and must stop clinging to vision of pristine wilderness. With more population comes with more forests and wetlands cleared which leads to the decline of biodiversity. Biodiversity protection must be pursued in the context of landscapes. Protected areas will most likely need to be intensely supervised to retain their wildness. Conservationists focus on regions where degradation of ecosystem services threatens well-being of people. Conservationists should collab closely with development experts. By combining and coordinating the energy and capital of conservation forces and human welfare projects, could enhance efficiency and impact of both efforts. Without connection between conservation and social issues, policies that protect biodiversity are unlikely to find public support. Environmental groups need to move beyond their tendency to put the environment in an airtight container away from the concerns of others. Conservation efforts will be assessed not just by number of species protected, but by improvements to people's wellbeing. Second source of anxiety is that plants and animals central to ecosystem services and human economy are abundant.

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Must be sure to first conserve ecosystems in places where biodiversity delivers services to people in need. Future ecosystem services as a conservation strategy may depend on collab of ecologists and finance experts. Conservationists need to hear and communicate the message that "our fight against poverty, inequality and disease is directly linked to the health of the earth itself". Conservation will only become truly global and widely supported when people are central to the mission.

AUTHOR'S POINT: Ecosystem services provide us with food, medicine, income and many other services. Human health is threatened when ecosystems and natural cycles break down. Grasslands and forests that have been destroyed cannot stop dust, which is what caused a rise in U.S asthma. Conserving ecosystems can also prevent humans from disease. We can help save ecosystems and biodiversity in many ways. One way is by providing clean water, reducing soil erosion and preventing overfishing. Conservationists and people need to hear that preventing poverty, inequality and disease starts with taking care of earth. MY THOUGHTS: The article says that helping the ecosystem and preserving biodiversity can benefit us in many ways. Before reading this article I didn’t know how much this earth can benefit us in so many ways. Ecosystems are the first step to help prevent poverty, inequality and disease. Services like the wetlands can provide us clean water, which can reduce death from inadequate water. The amounts of Ecosystems are decreasing. So What? We need to save ecosystems and biodiversity which can benefit humans by providing food, medicine, income, etc. What if..? Biodiversity and ecosystems were never threatened? Say’s Who? Peter Kareiva and Michelle Marvier

What does this remind you of? Services such as the police department that provide us with help