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Copyright © 2007 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. p. cm. ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 1. Test of English as a Foreign Language—Study guides. 2. English language— Examinations—Study guides. 3. Vocabulary—Examinations—Study guides. 4. English language—Ability testing. I. LearningExpress (Organization) PE1128.V63 2007 428.0076—dc22 2007026015 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 For information on LearningExpress, other LearningExpress products, or bulk sales, please write to us at: LearningExpress 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com
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About TOEFL iBT Vocabulary in Context Using Preﬁxes and Sufﬁxes Word Roots Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms Idioms and Vocabulary Variations Practice Test 1 Practice Test 2 Appendix A: Word List Appendix B: Preﬁxes, Sufﬁxes, and Word Roots
look at the words around it. As you discover several such islands and gradually enlarge each one. a listening vocabulary. Here’s how to start. Find a word or a phrase you understand and start adding a word or two on either side. You’ve read words you have never heard. you can learn to take unknown words in stride.Introduction E veryone has three vocabularies in every language he or she speaks: a reading vocabulary. 3. and then you will understand the dynamics of the whole sentence. There are several techniques for breaking sentences into smaller units. Don’t tackle the whole sentence at once. Is it describing something? Then it’s an adjective or adverb. Your speaking vocabulary may ignore many words you have either read or heard but do not use. As you explore the vocabulary in this book. Is it the subject—the person. though. The words something and whatever work well v . Start small. Use the surrounding context to help you guess the meaning or at least the part of speech of an unfamiliar word. place or thing performing the action in the sentence? It’s a noun or pronoun. As you are reading a sentence with blanks or with words you don’t know. it can ease your anxiety to substitute words or sounds of your choosing in place of the unknown words. and a speaking vocabulary. If the vocabulary in a sentence is a problem. Discovering words you don’t know may send your anxiety level soaring. Usually you can ﬁgure out what function a word is serving in the sentence. you will eventually see how they ﬁt together. it’s a verb. Ask yourself if it’s an action word. You can also use trial and error to ﬁnd islands of meaning in a sentence. and heard words you’ve never read. 1. With practice. One way you can do this is to ﬁnd a verb (an action word that tells you what’s happening) and gradually incorporate the words around it into an increasingly longer phrase as you decipher its meaning. The verb provides an anchor for the meaning because it tells you what is being done. If so. 2. think about bringing these three large sets of words together into a rich and useful database that will serve you well. and nobody does their best work when they’re anxious.
Share them with your coworkers. Always keep your end goal in mind. the better your basic vocabulary skills are. this book will help you prepare. Whenever the time is right. the better you will do on the entire TOEFL iBT. chances are you will not have to take this exam again—ever! . friends. Obtaining a better vocabulary doesn’t have to be hard work. and spelling. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT will help nonnative speakers build or renew vital vocabulary skills. you’ll still possess a wealthy vocabulary of English words! HOW TO USE THIS BOOK If you are trying to gain admission into universities where instruction is in English and this is not your native language. For the TOEFL iBT. It mostly takes curiosity. The reason for this is simple: Academic institutions want to be sure that you can read. Remember those unfamiliar words you encounter in conversations or while reading. Once you establish a study plan for yourself. or other reference tool to help you with unfamiliar words. thesaurus. You may ﬁnd you prefer nonsense words instead. and certiﬁcation agencies. Whether your exam is months away or coming up in a few weeks. Think about when would be the best time for you. and comprehend spoken English so that you can succeed in the college classroom. With Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. and it forms the foundation for reading comprehension. As the meaning of the sentence gradually becomes clear. licensing. you will not be allowed to use a dictionary. Take them apart.vi VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT in many situations. you can start substituting words that might work in the sentence. this test will also be used to evaluate you by many government. Begin getting ready for the TOEFL iBT by creating a study plan for yourself. In general. we suggest that you choose a time each day to improve your vocabulary. or family. It may be first thing in the morning. just make sure you do it regularly—at least five days a week for a month. Determine how much time you have until the test day. you should stick as closely as you can to your plan. Vocabulary is a broad topic. or before you go to bed at night. and then decide how much time you can devote to studying each week. Welcome them to your world. You’ll be greatly rewarded for your efforts— because long after you have ﬁnished this book and taken the TOEFL iBT. grammar. If you study hard the first time. write. or exchange and scholarship programs. you will have to pass the TOEFL iBT (Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based test). Sometimes. during your commute to work.
I NTR O D U CTI O N
Now, once you have set a study plan for yourself, look at the table of contents to see the types of vocabulary topics covered in this book. You may want to tackle the chapters in sequence, or you may decide to study the sections that give you the most difﬁculty early on in your test preparation. Each chapter is ﬁlled with practice questions to test the new skill you just read about. As you work through the practice questions, you may want to have a dictionary or thesaurus handy. This can help expand your bank of vocabulary words. After you answer the practice questions, you will undoubtedly want to check your answers against the answer explanation section at the end of each chapter. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT contains two practice tests at the end of the book. These tests will give you the chance to measure what you have learned and review any problem areas that you ﬁnd. If after answering all the questions you feel like you need more practice, reread the questions and try responding one more time. Repetition is often the key to success and studies show that most repetitive tasks become part of a person’s inventory of skills over time. The book ﬁnishes with a helpful word list of more than 650 commonly tested vocabulary words (Appendix A). It will be very beneﬁcial for you to add these words to your current vocabulary. We advise tackling the words on the list as you move through Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT, not waiting until the end of the book. Another helpful list—entitled Preﬁxes, Sufﬁxes, and Word Roots—is included in Appendix B. Understanding the parts that make up a word can give you a clue about a word’s deﬁnition, and this can help you make educated guesses when taking the TOEFL iBT.
About TOEFL iBT
he Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is used to measure your ability to use English in an academic setting. The TOEFL is designed to indicate your ability to communicate by measuring the impact of reading, listening, speaking, and writing on effective communication. Strong ability in each of these four areas will be necessary as you continue learning in English.
WHO SHOULD TAKE THE TEST
Proﬁciency in English is essential if you are to follow class discussions and complete the reading and writing assignments in most college classes. In many courses, you may also be required to deliver oral presentations. And if you are applying to a graduate program, you may be given a position as a teaching assistant, which means you will be expected to help undergraduate students with their schoolwork, instruct them, and grade their assignments. In order to ensure that you can succeed even though you are not studying in your native language, and that you will be a competent teaching assistant if you are applying to graduate school, colleges and other institutions may require you to take the TOEFL. To determine if you need to take the TOEFL, you should contact each institution to which you are applying for admission.
There will be a ten-minute break after the Listening section. The ﬁrst test section is Reading. After completing a section of the test. each followed by 12–14 questions. READING SECTION (approximately 60–100 minutes) 30 total points This section contains 3–5 reading passages. Speaking. The test is worth a total of 120 points. Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Factual information • 3–6 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Negative factual information • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Inference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Rhetorical purpose • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Vocabulary • 3–5 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Topics Identify information from text Reading Identify information in the text that is not true Reading passage Reading Identify information that is strongly suggested but not stated Reading passage Reading Identify why author makes a statement Reading passage Reading Identify the meaning of a word in the text Reading passage .2 OVERVIEW OF THE TEST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The entire TOEFL iBT will take approximately four hours to complete and all test sections will be completed in one day. followed by Listening. The test is not computer-adaptive. and Writing. In other words. you will not be able to return to that section to ﬁnish or change your answers. each test taker receives the same range of questions.
AB O UT TO E F L iBT 3 Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Reference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Sentence simpliﬁcation • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Insert text • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Prose summary • 1 per set at most • 6 answer choices each • worth 2 points each Fill in a table • 1 per set at most • multiple answer choices • worth 3–4 points each Topics Identify the grammatical relationship between two words in the text Reading Identify the choice that restates the sentence indicated Reading passage Reading Insert a sentence in the most appropriate place in a passage Reading passage Reading Choose the three most important ideas in the passage Reading passage Reading Complete a table organizing the main ideas Reading passage As you begin the Reading section of the TOEFL iBT. a passage will appear on the computer screen. Clicking on the View Text button will let you view the entire passage when answering questions. At the top of the computer screen is a navigational toolbar.) The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Reading. Above the clock function are six navigation buttons. The center of the toolbar will state the question you are working on as well as the number of questions in the section. A Help button will provide some additional assistance for you. A scrollbar on the right side of the screen will allow you to move to the end of a passage. You can adjust the volume by clicking the Volume button. . On the right will be a clock. (You should note that your time does not stop when you are using the toolbar feature. indicating your remaining time. The Review button will allow you to review the questions that you have answered and make changes. You may choose to hide the clock by clicking the Hide Time button located next to the clock.
each followed by 6 questions Language Skills Used Listening Topics Arts. the number of questions in the section. Like the toolbar for the Reading section. In the Listening section. SPEAKING SECTION (approximately 20 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (independent) Task 2 (independent) Speaking Language Skills Used Speaking Topics Familiar things Choose a side Opinion 15 seconds 45 seconds Source for Response Opinion Preparation Time 15 seconds Response Time 45 seconds . you are asked to click the OK button to conﬁrm that you want to move to the next question. Above the clock are four navigation buttons. which allow you to move back and forth between questions. The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Listening. You may choose to use the Hide Time button located to the left of the clock. Difﬁcult words or phrases in the passage may be deﬁned for you. a Help button that will provide some additional assistance. you may not go back and review questions. A toolbar will appear at the top of the screen. When the listening passage is complete. physical sciences. there are Back and Next buttons. you will listen to the lectures and conversations through a headset. LISTENING SECTION (approximately 60–90 minutes) 30 total points Stimulus 4–6 lectures.4 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Finally. the Listening section toolbar will state which question you are working on. and your remaining time. life sciences. There is a Volume button that allows you to adjust the volume. An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen. This picture is designed to help you imagine the situation. each followed by 5 questions Listening Nonacademic situation on campus Details from conversation Source for Response Details from lecture For the Listening section of the TOEFL iBT. a question will appear on the screen. and a Next button that allows you to move to the next question. After selecting Next. and social science 2–3 conversations.
. For four of the speaking tasks. and Speaking Topics Nonacademic situation on campus Academic topic Task 4 (integrated) Reading. Listening.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 5 Source for Response Details from materials given Details from materials given School-related problem with two possible solutions Opinion about materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds 30 seconds 60 seconds Preparation Time 30 seconds Response Time 60 seconds Tasks Task 3 (integrated) Language Skills Used Reading. you will type your response to two tasks. you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset. and Writing Writing Choose a side Topics Academic topic Source for Response Details from materials given Opinion 30 minutes Response Time 20 minutes For the Writing section of the TOEFL iBT. WRITING SECTION (approximately 50 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (integrated) Task 2 (independent) Language Skills Used Reading. and Speaking Task 5 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Task 6 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Academic topic Details from materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds To take the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT. you will be required to wear a headset with a microphone. Listening. Listening. Human raters rate writing responses through the ETS Online Scoring Network. For the integrated writing task. you will speak into the microphone to record your responses. An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen. which will be digitally recorded and sent to the ETS Online Scoring Network. you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset. For all of the speaking tasks.
To register by mail.S. To schedule a test date elsewhere. ﬁll out the registration form in the Information and Registration Bulletin. call 1-443-751-4862. and other information you will ﬁnd useful. If you do not. 24 hours a day. If you live outside the United States and want to test in the United States. institution codes. you should obtain the Information and Registration Bulletin. reporting time.org • by calling the ETS at 1-609-771-7100 You can register online at the TOEFL website. seven days a week. It includes a list of test sites in all countries. Canada. you must call at least seven days before the test date and pay using a valid credit card. territories. such as sample questions. which you must bring to the test center on test day. A list of RRCs is printed in the Information and Registration Bulletin.toeﬂ. J HERE’S A HINT THE INFORMATION AND REGISTRATION BULLETIN Before you register for the TOEFL. call the Regional Registration Center (RRC) for your area or country. and a list of writing topics. test instructions. test center address. you should begin the TOEFL registration process right away. mail your completed registration form and payment to the ETS at the following address: . You can pick up or request a bulletin: • from admissions or international student ofﬁces at most colleges and universities • from ETS representative ofﬁces • from the TOEFL website. or U. To schedule a test date in the United States. call 1-800-GO-TOEFL (1-800-468-6335). To schedule a test date in the United States. After completing the registration form. and a registration number. To register by phone. Request a bulletin as soon as possible if you have not already done so. or U.6 REGISTRATION VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Because test centers ﬁll up quickly. You should receive a registration conﬁrmation. you will receive an instant e-mail conﬁrmation. Canada. territories. which you will need to report your scores to the colleges and universities you would like to attend. Payment methods include a valid credit card or an electronic check (if you have a bank account in the United States or its territories).S. www. you must call the location where you mailed your registration at least three full business days before the registration deadline for your earliest test choice. You will be given a test date. The ETS created this document to provide you with all the important information you will need to know before you take the TOEFL iBT.
online and phone registrations are quicker processes. NJ 08541–6152. USA To schedule a test date elsewhere. (local test center time) on the day prior to your test date. Reports requested online are mailed about four working days after your request. You can have ofﬁcial score reports sent to institutions other than those you indicate when you register. Requests must be made online. Fifteen business days after completing your TOEFL iBT. This includes an examinee score report and four score reports sent to institutions that you designate when you register for the test. The printed score report that is mailed to you will contain all of the ﬁnal section scores as well as your total score. TOEFL test scores are kept on ﬁle for two years after the test date. Box 6152 Princeton.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 7 ETS-TOEFL iBT Registration Ofﬁce P.M. HOW MUCH DOES THE TOEFL IBT COST? The fee for the TOEFL iBT is $140. If you reschedule. while mailed registrations must be received at least four weeks before the test. by mail. or by fax.O. Reports requested by mail or fax are mailed about two weeks after receipt of your request. you will be . call the RRC for your area or country. the examinee score report will be sent to you and ofﬁcial score reports will be sent to your selected institutions. you may view your scores online. Scores more than two years old can’t be reported. you can either reschedule or cancel your test date. Online and phone registrations must be completed one week before the test. You may choose those institutions up until 10 P. The cost is $17 for each report ordered. CANCELING OR RESCHEDULING YOUR EXAM If your schedule changes and you can’t make it to the test you have registered for. Fifteen days after you take the test. Although the ETS makes it possible to register by mail. OFFICIAL SCORE REPORTS At no cost. you can get one examinee score report and up to four ofﬁcial score reports sent to the institutions of your choice.
some colleges provide ESOL (English as a Second or Other Language) classes. you feel that you didn’t perform to the best of your ability and that your score is not high enough to get you into the program of your choice. you can cancel your score at the test center. In the United States. CANCELING AND REINSTATING YOUR SCORES If. you may be able to register for ESOL classes your ﬁrst semester and continue on to other classes when you successfully complete the ESOL course. After canceling your scores. For each test section. But one of the goals of this book is to prepare you to do your best and succeed the ﬁrst time around. This means that there is not one correct answer to these questions. The Speaking and Writing sections are subjective. The institutions to which you are applying determine the minimum acceptable score.8 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT charged a $40 rescheduling fee. If you call to cancel at least three business days before your appointment. If you do cancel your scores. and you will not receive a refund. meaning each question has a correct answer(s). call 1-800-468-6335 to cancel or reschedule. For testing elsewhere. However. Alternatively. Each of the six speaking tasks is awarded between 0 and 4 points based on a rubric. HOW THE TOEFL IBT IS SCORED You will earn between 0 and 30 points for each of the four test areas. Your total score is calculated by adding the four skill area scores together. PASSING THE TOEFL There is no single passing score on the TOEFL iBT. If you score below what is required by the institution of your choice. territories. contact your RRC. . Canada. you will be able to reinstate them provided that your request is received within ten days of your test date. after taking the exam. the points are converted to a 0. you will receive a refund of $65. The Reading and Listening sections of the test consist of objective test items. the total score will range from 0 to 120.S. So. or U.to 30-point scale. they will not be reported to you or any institutions. Each of the two writing tasks is awarded between 0 and 5 points based on a rubric. All tasks are graded by trained human raters. you can take the TOEFL iBT again.
Canada. WRITING AND SPEAKING RESCORING If you disagree with your score on the Writing and Speaking sections. and payment of the $20 reinstatement fee. These revised scores will become your ofﬁcial scores. NJ 08541-6151 USA Your request should include your name. If there is a change in your score. and U. The reinstatement will take approximately two weeks to be reported online. Territories) 1-609-771-7100 (all other locations) Fax 1-609-771-7500 Mail TOEFL Services Educational Testing Service P.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 9 You may reinstate your scores by: Phone 1-877-863-3546 (United States. which is found on the TOEFL website. daytime phone number. you can request that your answers be rescored up to three months after your test date. If the rescoring conﬁrms your original score.O. registration number. The institutions that you selected as score recipients will receive new ofﬁcial score reports. you will receive a revised examinee score report. You will be charged $60 for a Writing or a Speaking section rescore by scoring specialists. Box 6151 Princeton. .S. Rescoring results will be available about three weeks after the receipt of your rescoring request. Complete the TOEFL iBT Rescoring Request Form. you will be notiﬁed via mail. and the score report will be mailed shortly thereafter. date of birth.
you will be required to write your signature and sign a conﬁdentiality statement. DON’T: • bring cellular phones. To receive an ofﬁcial score report. All testing sessions are subject to videotaping. raise your hand. you believe you have a problem with your computer or need the administrator for any reason. Failure to comply with these rules may result in your dismissal from the test center and canceling of your scores without a refund. AGAINST THE RULES Here is a list of things you are not allowed to do during the exam or exam breaks. To make sure your hard work and studying don’t go to waste because you forgot a piece of paper. • eat. drink. you will most likely not be admitted to the test center. or electronic or photographic devices of any kind to the test session.10 ON TEST DAY VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The ETS is very strict about identiﬁcation for TOEFL test takers. watch alarms. except as permitted in designated areas of the testing center during breaks. at any time during the test. smoke. raise your hand. beepers. arrive at the test center at least 30 minutes early to allow time for registration and identiﬁcation. or chew gum. collect all the items you are taking to the test in advance and put them in a safe place. pagers. If you fail to provide proper registration and identiﬁcation documents on the day of the test. a passport that has your photograph and signature will do. TOEFL TEST CENTER PROCEDURES AND REGULATIONS On the day of your exam. . If. If. Your picture will be taken and reproduced on your score report and the computer monitor you are using. Your identiﬁcation will be checked before you are admitted. Timing of the section will not stop during an unscheduled break. you have to leave your seat at any time other than the break. You will also need your registration number. Read the identiﬁcation requirements in the Information and Registration Bulletin. Before the test session. for some reason. you must answer at least one question in each section. In most cases.
calculators. translators. dictionaries. • exceed the time permitted for the break. notes. • attempt to take the test for someone else or fail to provide acceptable identiﬁcation. highlighter pens. or any other electronic or photographic devices or keyboards. • attempt to tamper with the computer. books. . • attempt to remove test questions (in any format) from the testing room. • create a disturbance or behave inappropriately. The following are considered testing aids: pencils or pens. • give or receive unauthorized help. Follow these guidelines. rulers. pamphlets. and be sure to comply with the test administrator’s directions at all times. watch calculators.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 11 • refer to or use any testing materials or aids at any time during the testing session or break. • leave the test center during the test session and break.
For example. But if you’re in a testing situation and you are not allowed to use one. or details that lead you to identify the vocabulary word in question. . sometimes you’ll find synonyms (words that mean the same thing) or antonyms (words that mean the opposite). you must rely on the context clues in the sentence. The term context clues means that other words in the sentence “give away” or “give clues” to the definition. Context refers to the words and sentences that surround a particular word and help convey its meaning. Using a dictionary is. you’ll find a group of words set off by commas (called an appositive). you have been determining meaning from context. which gives you a very clear definition of the word. of course. O DEFINITION context: the words and sentences that surround a word or phrase and help convey its meaning 12 Ever since you learned your ﬁrst English words.2 Vocabulary in Context O ne of the most fundamental vocabulary skills is how to use context to determine meaning. Once in a while. the best way to deﬁne a word. You can use the context of a sentence—or context clues—to help you detect the meaning of a word. Simply put. this means that you can look for clues in and around the vocabulary word.
because the speaker admires Arun’s candor. notice how the context of the sentence below helps give the word candor its meaning: ➥ I admire Arun’s candor. Based on the context of the sentence. 2. only b can be the correct answer. thus signifying that candor means frank. Write new words down on a vocabulary list. you will soon forget what it means. The speaker tells you that Arun is sometimes too honest. .VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 13 J HERE’S A HINT USE IT OR LOSE IT There’s really only one rule for building your vocabulary: Use it or lose it. Introduce them to members of your family. b. if you don’t use it. There a four types of context clues that can help you: 1. sincere speech. irritability. Even if you can’t ﬁgure out exactly what candor means. c. readiness to judge or criticize others. Now. When you are learning a new word. d. but sometimes. Use them in e-mails or letters to friends. 4. comfort with speaking in front of people. In this case. and this can help you narrow down your answer choices on an exam. Candor means a. frank. you can assume that candor is a positive thing. he can be a bit too honest. You can therefore eliminate choices a and c. Use the words you learn in your everyday communications as much as possible so they become a permanent part of your vocabulary. Restatement Positive/Negative Contrast Speciﬁc Detail This sentence uses two types of context clues: restatement and positive/negative. sincere speech—Arun tells people exactly what he thinks. The ﬁrst part of the sentence tells you that candor is a good thing (positive/negative). 3. you can tell from the context whether it is something positive or negative.
The context also restates the meaning of destitute. reading and watching television. and left the dishes in the sink. so that you can tell exactly what destitute means—extremely poor. Saturday.14 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT while the second part essentially restates the meaning of the word. Besides. she was back to her old assiduous self. Read the following paragraph as an example (but don’t look up the italicized words!): Sarah had worked so hard for the past few weeks that she decided she owed herself a day of complete indolence. You know that the assiduous Sarah of . There’s no mention of sleep in the paragraph. Again. it is not a good thing to be so poor one can barely afford to eat. you know the other answers are incorrect because Sarah didn’t do anything luxurious (choice a) and she didn’t do any work or chores (choice b). Now let’s look at the context in which assiduous is used. and by noon. But on Sunday. laziness The correct answer is d. How do you know what indolence means? From two more types of context clues: contrast and speciﬁc detail. Let’s say you were given the choices below: a. she slept until noon. Here’s another example of a sentence that uses these two types of context clues: ➥ Hani suddenly found himself destitute. so choice c is also incorrect. hard labor c. luxurious b. The ﬁrst sentence suggests that indolence is in contrast to working hard. she had already cleaned her whole apartment. She left her chores for another day and spent the afternoon lying on the couch. The context clearly reveals that destitute is not a positive word. you have two kinds of context clues: contrast and speciﬁc detail. There are two other types of context clues to watch for. and paid her bills. laziness. so poor that he could barely afford to eat. essentially deﬁning the word within the sentence. while the second and third sentences conﬁrm this with speciﬁc details. done her grocery shopping. The speciﬁc details tell you that Sarah did her best to laze around the house all day. ordered take-out so she wouldn’t have to cook. Thus you can determine what indolence means. deep sleep d.
Other times the connotation can be unfavorable or negative. But all three of these words have different connotations and bring to mind different feelings. have more than one meaning. look at the dictionary deﬁnitions of the following words. the context will often reveal a great deal about the connotation of that word. Each word also has a connotation—an implied meaning or emotional impact. the connotations of the surrounding words will usually tell you whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. cleaning and working around the house (speciﬁc detail). DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION The denotation of a word is simply its dictionary deﬁnition. A quack. For instance. At a minimum. if you were to look up the word playful in the dictionary. Then again. . or persevering. You also know what the assiduous Sarah does: She is very. make sure you look at the surrounding words carefully and consider their denotations and connotations. Therefore. not functioning or operating Some English words. while playful is neutral in tone. Words also have another meaning beyond their denotation. but a quack is also an untrained or unqualiﬁed person who pretends to be a doctor. Sometimes. the connotation can be favorable or positive.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 15 Sunday was very different from the indolent Sarah of Saturday (contrast). For example. you might get a deﬁnition similar to that of two of its synonyms. however. for example. even if it does not provide enough information for you to determine its denotation. spirited and mischievous. slow moving or sluggish inactive: not active or not tending to be active. unremitting. O DEFINITIONS denotation: a word’s exact meaning or dictionary deﬁnition connotation: a word’s implied meaning or emotional impact When you come across an unfamiliar word. some words do not arouse any emotion at all and have a neutral connotation. ➥ ➥ ➥ procrastination: to postpone or delay needlessly lazy: to be resistant to work or exertion. Spirited has a positive connotation and mischievous a negative connotation. Assiduous means diligent. when you are looking for context clues. very busy on Sunday. is the sound a duck makes. hardworking.
conveying a sense of compactness or tightness in how an idea has been expressed. It is important to know that there are often many synonyms for one word. ample. a glut of food is an excessive amount of food that suggests there will be waste involved. While you can have a bountiful. Succinct is more neutral. though. Thus. For example. Laconic. you can’t even ﬁgure out if it is something positive or negative. Terse. terse. you should choose your words carefully. or plentiful supply of food on the table for a dinner party. on the other hand. Is Sabina a graceful dancer? An awkward dancer? Or an accomplished dancer? You simply cannot tell from the context. Although some synonyms are interchangeable. and succinct. for example. has the most positive connotation of these three words. However. plentiful. they are rarely identical. the words bountiful. HOW MUCH CONTEXT DO YOU NEED? In the passage about Sarah. you would still be able to understand the main idea of the passage even if you did not know—or could not ﬁgure out—the meanings of indolence and assiduous. because the sentence provides almost no context at all: ➥ Sabina is an utterly inept dancer. ample. one of these words suggests an overabundance.16 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT ALL SYNONYMS ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL Synonyms are words that share the same meaning or nearly the same meaning as other words. In some cases. although these words are effectively synonymous. While some synonyms can be similar. your understanding of a sentence or paragraph depends on your understanding of a particular word or phrase. It is important to choose your words carefully and to be as clear as possible when choosing synonyms. most words have their own unique connotation. In fact. conveys the same basic idea but with the suggestion of brusqueness or abruptness. But you could ﬁgure out what inept means by . suggesting brevity with a sense of polish or elegance. For instance. each word carries its own speciﬁc connotation and leaves a slightly different impression. and glut suggest abundance. when it comes to your own communications. So while test questions will often ask you to identify synonyms such as laconic. you can’t understand what inept means from the following example sentence—it simply does not provide sufﬁcient context.
one of the units will express a complete thought. ◗ Sentence Structure The single most important key to the meaning of a sentence is its structure. More often than not. but like everything else worth doing. including the many complex sentences you will encounter in your college reading. Once you have the key to the code. though. you must look at the passage for clues that will uncover the deﬁnition of the word. Sentence completion questions always have one or more commas or semicolons. Like detectives looking for clues at a crime scene. here’s a sentence that does give you the context you need to determine the meaning of the word: ➥ Despite years of lessons. The best and easiest way to determine sentence structure is to look at its punctuation. SENTENCE DETECTIVE Deciphering some sentences can seem like an impossible mission. The great thing is that these are master keys that can unlock any and all sentences. Sabina remains an utterly inept dancer who simply stumbles across the dance ﬂoor. Meanwhile. though. it’s easy to decipher the message. Think of yourself as a detective trying to decode a secret message. That’s the subject of Chapters 2 and 3. The unit that expresses a complete thought will . There are some basic skills you need to acquire. By looking for the way the words are used in the paragraph. you can ﬁgure out what these words mean.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 17 breaking down the word into its preﬁx (in-) and word root (ept). Now we can tell through context that inept means awkward or clumsy. Sometimes you will ﬁnd unfamiliar words whose meanings are indecipherable without a dictionary. Being able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words from their context is an essential vocabulary skill. you can still tell something about the word by how it is used—by examining the words and ideas surrounding it. The basic strategy is to separate the sentence into units divided by punctuation. a careful look at the context will give you enough clues to interpret the deﬁnition. Even if you have no idea what a word means. The following sections will give you the keys you need to unlock the meanings of even the most complex sentences. then at least one unit will have one or two blanks. however. it’s hard at ﬁrst and gets easier as you practice. Often.
is the best answer choice. namely what kind of function archaeologists used to think the caves were exclusively used for. you have: After ﬁnding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. religious d. tells you that the second unit has something to do with what happened 1) after finding sacred objects and 2) in Mayan caves. theological c. secular When you divide this sentence into punctuation-deﬁned units. Your ﬁnal step is to look at the answer choices to ﬁnd the one that matches the idea you have formed about what needs to be in the blank(s). This question has a blank in each of its two units. tells you that 1) archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion and 2) their opinion (before being revised) was that Mayan caves were used only (solely) for some kind of function. or secular. ➥ After ﬁnding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions. the unit without the blank. The first unit. secular. the one with the blank. Now you know you need to ﬁll in the blank with a word that means “not sacred. Here’s an example of a sample question that doesn’t divide neatly into a complete unit and an incomplete unit. If scientists used to think one thing until they found sacred objects. and archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions. consider this sample question: Select the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. For example. a. Choice d. . reverent b.” a word such as civic. Now you’re ready to use the ﬁrst unit to illuminate the second.18 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tell you what the unit(s) with blank(s) need to say. The second unit. it means they used to think the caves were not used for sacred purposes. Your mission is to figure out what goes in the blank.
adventurous . or move about on one’s own. to let us know that the word that goes in the blank should complete the idea of the daredevil’s having a temperament that is not bold. Among the most useful of these are the words that enable you to identify the logical relationship between the complete unit(s) of the sentence and the incomplete unit(s). If actually were to be removed from the sentence.” Put it in the ﬁrst blank. Think of something that. Even if you didn’t know that to perambulate is to walk. bold. . daring . reckless . . . one that points you toward the meaning of the sentence. There are three types of logical relationships commonly expressed in sentence completion questions: contrast. as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. scuttle The ﬁrst unit is The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. Now read the sentence using your word in the ﬁrst blank. . as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. The word actually tells us that there is something unexpected going on. Think of a synonym for “not bold. . Actually is a clue word. a. . rest d. . careful . What kind of temperament would you expect a famous daredevil to have? Adventurous. Mastering these three relationships will help you succeed on sentence completion questions. The best answer to this question is choice b. would indicate that kind of temperament. uses a phrase of comparison. there’d be no way you could know what kind of words go in the blanks. As in the preceding example. Think of them as clues to a mystery. and cause and effect. The famous daredevil actually had an unexpected kind of temperament. comparison. sometimes you have to complete one portion of a two-blank sentence before you can work on the logical relationship of another unit. . as illustrated by. perambulate. you could be fairly conﬁdent that you had the right answer because careful is such a good choice. if not done before age two. . The next thing you do is look at the answer choices for words that are similar to the ones you chose. careful . right? So the word that goes in the ﬁrst blank will be one that has a contrasting relationship to that expected temperament. amble b. These are the words that most help you decode the sentence. The second unit of the sentence. daring. ◗ A Clue for You The second important skill you must master for sentence completion questions is the ability to identify key words and phrases.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 19 Select the words that best ﬁll in the blanks: ➥ The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. perambulate c. .
Words that signal comparison include likewise. as shown. First divide the sentence into two units. as well as. for example. The idea expressed in the complete unit of the sentence is similar to or the same as . but. you will know you’re looking at a sentence that expresses one thought in its complete unit and a contrasting thought in the incomplete unit. in other words. gregarious. Friendly. as the second unit. when you see one of these words or phrases. You might choose the word social. despite. and and. or sociable are other options. such as on the other hand. then ﬁll in the blank in the incomplete unit with a word that expresses a contrasting thought. similarly. Phrases that introduce comparisons are just as. The ﬁrst unit tells you by the use of the word although that the second unit will express a relationship of opposition or contrast. and yet. See how the two parts of your sentence oppose each other. What is an antonym of solitary? Solitary means alone. For example: ➥ Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast. No matter how complex a sentence completion question seems at ﬁrst glance.20 CONTRAST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Some words that logically signal a relationship of contrast are: though. however. or opposition. You can see that tigers and lions are being contrasted. although. using the punctuation to guide you. despite. Relationships of logical comparison are straightforward. and that is. First you decipher the thought in the complete unit.” Then you look for the word in the answer choices that is a synonym of the word you chose. Words and phrases that precede restatement are namely. and. or on the contrary. however. its cousin the lion is a ________ animal. Now you have as the ﬁrst unit. COMPARISON There are two kinds of comparison relationships: comparison by similarity and comparison by restatement. in fact. Try making a sentence using these words and phrases. The word that goes in the blank has to be an adjective that describes animal in the way that solitary describes beast. and as illustrated by. but. This is the logical relationship of contrast. Therefore the word that will contrast with the idea in the ﬁrst unit is in opposition to solitary. Can you think of others? There are also phrases that signal a contrast between the units of the sentence. all meaning “not solitary. its cousin the lion is a ________ animal. Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast.
or very nearly so. a. Vocabulary CDs and tapes are available in libraries and bookstores. therefore. Foster slouched. In other words. as a result. irrelevant . ➥ Scientiﬁc knowledge is usually _______. This sentence has three units. two complete and one incomplete. Foster never stood up straight. the sentence states that one thing is a result of something else. you know what the incomplete unit needs to say—the same thing. therefore. consequently. or its synonym. as illustrated by his ________ in this photograph. One of the ways you most often encounter vocabulary is by listening. decreasing d. U ON YOUR OWN PRACTICE REALLY LISTENING Some of the best resources for nonnative English speakers trying to increase their vocabularies are CDs or audiotapes. Words such as thus. The ﬁrst two units tell you that before military school.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 21 the idea that needs to be expressed in the incomplete unit. Select the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators. illogical c. When you know what the complete unit says. English is a difﬁcult language because it is so visually confusing. needs to be ﬁlled by a word that will illustrate his slouching. and phrases such as due to. You may also ﬁnd it helpful to use a nonﬁction or ﬁction book and the same book in audio form (CD or audiotape). Here’s an example of a cause and effect sample question. cumulative b. This will help you match the word to its written form. The correct answer will be posture. you can rely on key words to point you in the right direction. Again. CAUSE AND EFFECT A third kind of logical relationship often expressed in sentence completion questions is the cause and effect relationship. and because. The blank in the third unit. Try making some cause and effect sentences to see how they work. Play the audio version of the book as you read along in the book. and leads to signal a cause and effect relationship. Here’s an example of a comparison sentence: ➥ Until he went to military school.
J HERE’S A HINT MIX AND MATCH SENTENCES To help you remember some important verbs and adjectives.22 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The complete unit of the sentence. the one with the blank. vocabulary in context questions ask you to determine the meanings of particular words. You can also mix and match words to create synonym and antonym pairs. using key words and phrases. cumulative. tells you that the other unit results from numerous investigators working hard for years. The incomplete unit. You know that whatever word the test makers are looking for. and then you understand what the sentence is saying. it must have something to do with lots of stuff. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators. ACTIVE READING As you might expect. • You won’t be daunted if you are intrepid. Here are several examples: • You abhor what is odious. Abate and ebb. have nearly the same meaning. Once you learn how to identify the complete and incomplete units of a sentence using punctuation to guide you. match verbs and adjectives together in pairs that will help you recall their meaning. tells you that you are looking for a word to describe scientiﬁc knowledge as a result of those years of hard work. Next you determine the logical relationship of the units. you’ve made a good start. • You might grovel if you are servile. To prepare for these types of questions on the . • You might vacillate if you are timid or difﬁdent. • You might disdain something that is banal. you will be daunted if you are timid. even if there’s some vocabulary you don’t understand. while disdain and revere are opposites. The best answer choice for this question is choice a. because years of hard work by numerous investigators would produce a lot of something. chances are you will understand the crucial words. for example. of course. • You might tout something about which you are fervent. applies to lots of stuff. But if you keep working on building your vocabulary. which.
contrast. you will continually expand your bank of vocabulary words—and the bigger your word base. the more you will comprehend. there will be some kind of context clue to help you determine meaning.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 23 TOEFL iBT. To help you eliminate answers. . like the TOEFL iBT. For example. you can eliminate negative choices if the context suggests the word is positive. By reading actively. but if you make a habit of taking the time to read carefully and actively. Look for introductory words and phrases such as unfortunately. If you have heard the vocabulary word before but aren’t sure what it means. By reading carefully. This is a skill you can practice every day. putting the word in the context of the sentence can help you determine whether an answer is right or wrong. Look for speciﬁc details that provide clues to meaning. Often. At a minimum. From the start. read the sentence with each answer choice substituted for the vocabulary word. you will actually spend less time learning the meaning of new vocabulary words. you can usually eliminate one or two answers that you know are incorrect. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Vocabulary-in-context questions are common on standardized tests. As you read an English-language newspaper or magazine. it is a good idea to become an active reader. and speciﬁc detail. This may help you better use the context as it is presented on the exam. try to remember the context in which you heard it used before. and the less time you will spend looking up words. Consider the tone and connotation of the other words in the sentence. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to use while preparing for and taking the exam: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● On any vocabulary-in-context question on an exam. These words often tell you whether the word is positive or negative and/or set up contrast clues. have a dictionary handy. This may sound like a contradiction. surprisingly. however. Look up as many unfamiliar words as you can so that your bank of vocabulary words becomes as large as possible. Read carefully. you will often be able to determine meaning from context. Remember the four types: restatement. positive/negative. this can often help you determine whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. Remember that you have a very powerful tool on a multiple-choice exam: the process of elimination.
revenue d. assessment 4. The _____________ president differs from the past president on healthcare reform issues. but secretly she was very excited. blasé . receptive c. accomplished c. candid d. remainder c. 1.24 PRACTICE QUESTIONS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Choose the best vocabulary word to ﬁll the blank. talkative b. The _____________ collected from real estate taxes helped to balance the town budget. dedicated b. She pretended to be _____________ about the new job opportunity. a. a. a. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. nominal b. practical d. nocturnal 3. domain b. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. artiﬁcial d. The _____________ data supports the belief that there has been an increase in population in the county. incumbent 2. demographic c. a.
as if it had been stored in a trunk for a long time. scented c. summit c. We were tired when we reached the _____________. receptive c. accessible b. a. decrepit 7. he longed most of all for _____________. unnecessary d. loneliness d. a. a. a. irrelevancy 8. ambiguous 9. My computer was state-of-the-art when I bought it three years ago. association c. solitude b. current b. Because his workplace was so busy and noisy. The suit had a(n) _____________ odor. but the spectacular view of the valley below was worth the hike. The teacher put the crayons on the bottom shelf to make them _____________ to the young children. circumference b. fulcrum d. musty d. aged b. outmoded . dedicated c. eloquent d. but now it is _____________. a. nadir 6.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 25 5.
harmless. d. . insane. c. cadence 11. d. complex. chronologically ordered. Make sure the directions are very explicit so that no one makes a mistake. Jensen applied for the job anyway because it was his dream position. fruitful. intricate. Benign means a. nearly overﬂowing. d. 14. clearly and fully stated. Visiting all the tea shops in the city. Teem means a. surge b. to lose business due to circumstances beyond one’s control. b. to be under close scrutiny. a. radical. Futile means a. natural. ambiguous or implied. Karen was relieved to learn that the chemicals in her well water were all benign. b. b. they were on a _____________ to ﬁnd the perfect cup of tea. discovery d. 12. of local origin. 13.26 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10. The hotel is teeming with security personnel because the leaders of several countries are here for a summit meeting. c. Explicit means a. b. dangerous. c. Although it was futile because he didn’t meet half of the requirements. quest c. to close down temporarily. useless. to be full of. c. d.
descriptive. Elusive means a. revert. concise. The senator evaded the question by changing the subject and accusing his opponent of misconduct. to refuse to answer directly. to regress. b. stray. to refuse. b. preferring a more terse writing style. to escape or elude. to answer indirectly. Victor Frankenstein spent the last years of his life chasing his elusive monster. factual. b. d. c. 17. to deviate. to intensify. cut 500 words from the 2. I completely lost track of Tula’s point because she kept digressing to unrelated topics.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 27 15. difﬁcult to capture.000-word article. difﬁcult to forget. elegant. difﬁcult to compare. b. d. to create. Evade means a. Terse means a. . Diffuse means a. d. c. to express concisely. Digress means a. d. c. to soften. c. Xiu’s timely joke served to diffuse the tension in the room. who was always one step of his creator. to deceive. c. 18. to change the tone. 16. The editor. difﬁcult to avoid. b. 19. d. and the rest of the meeting was highly productive.
banter c. and it would be something a person who works in a busy ofﬁce would crave. The summit means the highest point.28 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 20. 5. Their conversation was considered playful _______ between two old friends. bolster d. Accessible means capable of being reached or being within easy reach. Solitude. where the hikers would have a good view. Samantha hasn’t said why she’s been so withdrawn lately. behavior d. to believe. a. unlike loneliness. Demographic data is the branch of research that deals with human populations. sustain b. a. to conﬁrm. a. A musty odor is one that is stale or moldy. d. nourish ANSWERS How did you do on identifying context clues? Check your answers here. 2. 21. 1. antics b. activities 22. but I would surmise that it is because she is still upset about not being able to go to camp. 8. Surmise means a. can be a desirable thing. c. c. to guess. 7. Blasé means bored or unimpressed by things after having seen or experienced them too often. d. 4. Incumbent means holding any post or position. a. to surprise. c. . Revenue is the income of a government. He tried to ______________ the sinking morale of his friend in the hospital. 3. foster c. b. d. b. 6. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. b.
eluding the grasp. To evade means to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. If there is a meeting of several foreign leaders. Benign means not harmful or malignant. vain. producing no result. Explicit means clearly and fully stated. The senator avoids answering the question by changing the subject. straightforward. Jensen’s application is useless because he does not meet the minimum requirements for the job. d. The sentence tells you that Dr. If the directions are clearly and fully stated.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 29 9. 21. 17. deviate. 10. Choices c and d are incorrect because their deﬁnitions are too broad and do not focus on conversation. The speaker loses track of the point because Tula keeps shifting from the main topic to unrelated subjects. 11. Frankenstein was never able to catch the creature. 20. having a beneﬁcial effect. Terse means concise. it will help ensure that no one makes a mistake. The narrator is guessing that Samantha has been withdrawn because she is upset about not being able to go to camp. exact. b. 15. mild. Outmoded means no longer in style or no longer usable. answering. b. hopeless. A quest is a search or pursuit of something. To diffuse means to spread throughout. to avoid fulﬁlling. Numerous security personnel typically surround the leader of a country. who constantly escaped his grasp. there is likely to be a great number of security ofﬁcers in the hotel. 12. Choice a is incorrect because antics are unpredictable behavior or actions. The context tells you that the directions need to be clear to prevent an error. a. a. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. to be present in large numbers. Banter is deﬁned as remarks or talk that is playful and teasing. b. d. to soften or make less brilliant. Karen would logically be worried about chemicals in her water and relieved if she learned those chemicals were harmless. Xiu’s joke softened the tension so that the meeting could be more productive. using no unnecessary words. 13. b. difﬁcult to capture. . gentle. 18. Futile means useless. To surmise means to form a notion from scanty evidence. or doing. disperse. c. 14. Elusive means evasive. Choice d is the only answer that makes sense in the context of the sentence. To teem means to be full of. d. 19. in this case for the perfect cup of tea. d. dramatically reducing its wordiness. 16. a. The main clue is that the editor cut the article by 25%. To digress means to turn aside. d.
30 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 22. c. and d are all incorrect. thus.” this means that the friend’s feelings or attitude are overwhelmed or defeated. The speaker would. The speaker would not want his friend’s morale to continue to sink. b. Choice a. want to raise or bolster this morale. If the friend has a “sinking morale. .
but the job may be easier than you think. breaking those words into their parts can help you determine their meaning. changes: 31 . the word preﬁx itself uses the preﬁx pre-. There are dozens of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes in the English language. ﬁx. The more familiar you are with these fundamental word parts. Though preﬁxes and sufﬁxes often appear in books like this with sophisticated vocabulary words. A good knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes is essential to building an effective vocabulary. meaning before. the easier it will be to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. For example. Thus the meaning of the root word. This chapter reviews preﬁxes and sufﬁxes and how you can use them to add new words to your vocabulary—and better understand words you already know. PREFIXES Preﬁxes are syllables attached to the beginning of words to change or add to the meaning of the root word in some way.3 Using Preﬁxes and Sufﬁxes W hen you come across unfamiliar words without context. you are already using the same preﬁxes and sufﬁxes with simple words that you already know well. Learning preﬁxes and sufﬁxes in another language may seem like a daunting task.
O DEFINITIONS root: the main part of a word. you can eliminate all but the correct answer in the following question: ➥ A polyglot is someone who a. Choice d is the only answer that includes the idea of many or multiple. speaks many languages. Thus. U ON YOUR OWN IMMERSE YOURSELF IN WORDS Get in the habit of noticing words all the time. c. is an expert in global issues. Don’t know how to spell a word you hear? It doesn’t matter—write it down just as it sounds to you and look it up later. For example. but even eliminating two or three will be a great help. and to provide partial context for the meaning of the word.32 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ﬁx: to place securely or ﬁrmly preﬁx: something placed at the beginning of a word Several of the vocabulary words you studied in Chapter 2 used preﬁxes. meaning not—not suitable or competent. including inept. Knowledge of preﬁxes can help you in many ways as you build your vocabulary and as you prepare for the TOEFL iBT. Although you can’t determine meaning based on a preﬁx alone—you also need to know the root of the word—you can often use a preﬁx to determine whether a word is positive or negative. which uses the preﬁx in-. For example. to eliminate incorrect answers. is easily frightened. If you know that the preﬁx poly. knowing that the .means many. take the word polyglot. d. administers lie detector tests. Carry a small notebook with you and write down interesting words as you encounter them in your daily life. the base upon which preﬁxes and sufﬁxes are added preﬁx: syllable(s) attached to the beginning of a word to change or add to its meaning sufﬁx: syllable(s) attached to the end of a word to change or add to its meaning You will not always be so lucky as to eliminate all of the incorrect answers. it is the only possible correct answer. b.
monotonous. those that can tell something about the number represented by the word. triple) quad-. evil. traditionally in three orders of priority). With a few exceptions. quartet) deci-: ten (decade. If you recall any context in which you have heard the word malign before. quart. bicameral. J HERE’S A HINT NUMERICAL PREFIXES Probably among the most easily recognized of the preﬁxes are the numerical preﬁxes. or wrong can help you signiﬁcantly narrow down your choices in the following question: ➥ To malign means a. and often untrue things about someone. you can eliminate choices a and c.means bad. . mono-: one (unique. This will help you remember the meaning of each preﬁx—and show you just how well you already know them. leaving you with a 50–50 chance of choosing the correct answer. To malign is to say evil. that is. b. centennial) mil-: thousand (millipede. trident. b. quar-: four (quadrant. decathlon. unity. millimeter) Following is a list of the preﬁxes. decimal. these examples are not test-prep words. trinity. quarter. d. rather. you may be able to choose the correct answer. and trilogy (a series of three plays). c. Among the most common number related preﬁxes are: un-. monopoly) bi-: two (bigamy. to charm. enchant. to speak ill of. they are basic words that are probably already a part of your vocabulary. triage (responding to the needs in order of priority. With your knowledge of preﬁxes. to cast an evil spell. Take a look at some words that contain numerical preﬁxes: bipartisan (two parties). bicycle) tri-: three (trivial.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 33 preﬁx mal. bilateral. millennium. centipede. decibel) cent-: hundred (century. we have provided two examples of words that use that preﬁx. to speak badly about. to arrange. For each preﬁx. harmful.
together. on all sides circumference (the outer boundary of a circle). or an occurrence) co-. circumstance (the conditions or state of affairs surrounding or affecting an event. com-. or lie between two points of time or things) . out of. con-: with. a particular incident. abnormal (away from or apart from the standard) ante-: prior to. come before) anti-. jointly cooperate (to work together. away. among. expel (to drive out or away) in-: not inaccurate (not accurate). appear. eject). in front of. disobedient (not obedient) ex-: out. an-: not. within intercept (to stop someone or something between its starting point and destination). atypical (not typical) ab-.34 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ◗ Common Prefixes a-. antedate (to proceed in time. about. without amoral (not moral). before anterior (placed before). opposing. reversal. connect (to bind or fasten together) dis-: away from. away from exit (go out). against antibiotic (substance that kills microorganisms). occur. informal (not formal) inter-: between. off abduct (to take by force). antidote (remedy for counteracting the effects of a poison) circ-. circum-: around. abs-: from. ant-: opposite. apart. intervene (to come. not dismiss (to send away from. comply).
opposite or lack of misbehave (to behave badly). abnormal. of unusually high quality. malpractice (wrongdoing. misspell (to spell incorrectly) multi-: many. predict (to forecast. replace (to put back in its former position. multiple multimedia (the combined use of several media). to take the place of) sub-: under. bring under control). over. magniﬁcent. beneath. superman (a man with powers exceeding ordinary human capacity) . neologism (a new word or phrase) non-: not nonﬁction (the genre of literature that includes all types of books other than ﬁction). submarine (a ship that can operate under water) super-: above. a new form of neonatal (of or relating to a newborn child). wrong malfunction (to fail to function properly). wrong. especially improper or negligent treatment of a patient by a physician) mis-: bad. ill. multiple (having several or many parts or elements) neo-: new.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 35 mal-: bad. exceeding superb (grand. nonsmoker (someone who does not smoke) poly-: many. excellent). again rebuild (to build again after destruction). below subdue (to overcome. recent. make known in advance) re-: back. polysyllabic (having three or more syllables) pre-: before precaution (something done in advance to avoid risk). much polygamy (the system of having more than one wife at a time). evil.
or rent a ﬁlm in your native language and watch it with English subtitles. After you have completed this chapter. For example. Go to the movie theater to see a ﬁlm in English. For example. the more you will understand. and il. As you use your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to determine meaning. not a verb. Other preﬁxes only remotely affect word meaning. . Some preﬁxes immediately change the entire meaning of a word. you may realize that agrarian sounds like it shares a root word with agriculture—and it does.” Historically. Even if you don’t know exactly what agriculture means. make sure you review the list carefully and study any preﬁxes that are unfamiliar to you. U ON YOUR OWN GO TO PLACES WHERE ENGLISH IS SPOKEN The more you listen to English being spoken.36 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A more comprehensive list of the most common English preﬁxes is located in Appendix B. Try watching the evening news. Now we hardly recognize that meaning in the present deﬁnition. see if you can recall hearing or using any words with similar roots or sounds. displeasing. J HERE’S A HINT SOUNDS LIKE . You may also realize that the sufﬁx -ian calls for an adjective. there is only a distant hint of the preﬁx deci-. but to recognize familiar examples that you can apply to new words when you encounter them. you are not looking to memorize a long list of disconnected word parts. The point of learning about preﬁxes is to be able to notice how they can change word meanings in recognizable ways.immediately signal that the word is the opposite of its root. . . the preﬁxes un-.” in the word decimate. which means “to completely destroy. in-. inconsiderate. as in unhappy. Listening well will improve your English vocabulary. The important point to remember is that in learning preﬁxes. you might know that it has something to do with land and its cultivation. and illegible. which means “ten. For example. the word decimate meant to destroy a tenth of someone’s property. dis-. Visit a local park or museum where you will hear English around you.
valor go. an action or state of being (a verb). jump.. very. tells where. opponent opposing. exhilarating that (e. or thing (a noun). Sufﬁxes tell you whether a word is a person. that dog) several (e. how many. thereby also changing how the word functions in a sentence. Elm Court. thing. They often change a word’s part of speech. an adversary. imagine. place. soon Examples cloud. combating. adversarial to oppose actively. place. brush. several dogs) slowly. adjectives. can also identify or quantify. when.g. feel. other adverbs. J HERE’S A HINT PARTS OF SPEECH The following table offers a quick reference guide for the main parts of speech. to provoke the hostility of . Part of Speech noun Function names a person. or entire clauses. or concept verb shows an action. ant-). Helen. ancient.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 37 SUFFIXES Sufﬁxes are syllables added to the end of words to change or add to their meaning. contend. tells what kind. how and to what extent white. occurrence. clumsily. never. here. or state of being adjective describes nouns and pronouns.. Part of Word antagonist antagonistic antagonize Speech noun adjective verb Deﬁnition one who opposes or contends with another. oblong. which is a word that describes (an adjective or adverb). car. how much adverb describes verbs. interrupt For example. look how the sufﬁxes in the following table change the word antagonist from a noun to an adjective to a verb (and don’t forget to notice the preﬁx. which one. or a modiﬁer.g.
such as equality (state of being equal). but look for other clues to meaning as well. For example. or shocked. it’s important to remember that they are tools to use in conjunction with other vocabulary skills. extremely shy. d. if you know that -ish is a common sufﬁx for adjectives. recurring illness. Squeamish means easily sickened. vanquish and varnish both end in -ish. to honor with a sense of awe. and eliminate incorrect answers on an exam. Thus. Similarly. zero in on its meaning. including context (see Chapter 2) and word roots (see Chapter 4 and Appendix B) to be sure you are on the right track. if you know that the sufﬁx -ity means state of being. as you come across vocabulary words with common preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. However. and only choice d is correct. to scream or squeal. deserving of honor and respect. b. easily disgusted.38 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Likewise. BUT NOT ALWAYS While preﬁxes and sufﬁxes are fundamental components of your vocabulary. respectively. Part of Word venerate venerable venerator Speech verb adjective noun Deﬁnition to regard with deep respect or reverence. not adjectives. disgusted. one who shows deep respect or reverence Again. Only choices c and d deﬁne adjectives. . most words that end in -ish are adjectives describing a characteristic. Select the best answer to the question. Choices a and b are deﬁnitions for other parts of speech—a verb and a noun. revere worthy of deep respect or reverence. ➥ Squeamish means a. use your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. For example. c. J HERE’S A HINT MOST OF THE TIME. you know that a word with this ending is probably a noun describing a state of being. but it can help you determine the function of the word. the word venerate changes from a verb to an adjective to a noun. you can eliminate answer choices that do not match that part of speech. but they are both verbs. depending upon its sufﬁx. just knowing sufﬁxes won’t enable you to determine the full meaning of an unfamiliar word. nauseated.
failure (something that has failed to perform as expected or requested). makes. and economic equality of the sexes). . process. ﬁdelity (the quality of being faithful) -sis: process or action diagnosis (the process of identifying the nature or cause of a disease or injury). produces. process. believes. state. etc.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 39 The following is a list of the sufﬁxes you need to know for the practice questions at the end of the chapter. dependence (the state of being dependent) -ian: one who is or does comedian (one who creates comedy). we have again provided two examples of words that use that sufﬁx. or process. political. -ence: action. and again. practice. ◗ Noun Suffixes -ance. election (the act or power of electing) -ism: act. For each sufﬁx. dentist (one who is trained and licensed to practice dentistry). these examples are basic words that are part of your everyday vocabulary. pianist (one who plays the piano) -ity: quality. materialism (the belief that the acquisition of material possessions is the highest good) -ist: one who performs. paralysis (loss of sensation or ability to move or function) -ure: act. function enclosure (an area or thing that is enclosed). politician (one who seeks or holds a political ofﬁce) -ion: act or process. or state of adolescence (the state of growing up from childhood to adulthood. state or doctrine of feminism (belief in the social. the transitional period between youth and maturity). or degree equality (the state or quality of being equal). state or condition detection (the act of detecting).
improbable) -al. in the manner of a fool) . or characteristic of a humanitarian). slavish) -ish: having the character of childish (characteristic of. -ian: related to. servile (pertaining to or beﬁtting a slave. you don’t have to worry about forgetting their meaning and you will be able to recall them easily even while under the pressure of an exam. trustworthy). However. vegetarian (relating to vegetarianism) -ic: pertaining or relating to. relating to. frail). unable to be believed. such as cooperate and dismiss. having the quality of dramatic (of or relating to drama. Because the words are already so familiar to you. you can quickly and accurately learn the most common preﬁxes and sufﬁxes by remembering examples of words you already know.40 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT MEMORIZING PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES You may try to save time by memorizing a difﬁcult vocabulary word for each preﬁx or sufﬁx. -ible: capable or worthy of. damaged. or characterized by practical (of or relating to practice or action. useful). tending or liable to dependable (worthy of being depended on. characteristic of humanitarian (relating to. realistic (of or relating to the representation of things as they really are) -ile: having the qualities of fragile (easily broken. or destroyed. incredible (not credible. foolish (devoid of good sense or judgment. or resembling a child). theatrical). -ial. pertaining to. -ical: having the quality of. exhibiting folly. abjectly submissive. ◗ Adjective Suffixes -able. ethical (of or relating to ethics or morals) -an.
g. -ose: full of.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 41 -ive: performing or tending towards (an action). famous). relating to glorious (having or deserving glory. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B. to make impatient. You already know much of this material. impair. Remember that you use preﬁxes and sufﬁxes every day. nauseous (causing nausea. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. form into beautify (to make beautiful). to make inferior in quality or character). to bring about colonize (to establish a colony). the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the preﬁx or sufﬁx. The more familiar the word is to you (e. Remember that preﬁxes and sufﬁxes alone do not create meaning. angry. specify (to state explicitly or in detail) -ize: to cause to be or become. they change or add to the meaning of the root word. ● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize the most common preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. Use as many . cooperate). all the time. By memorizing these essential word parts. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to use as you develop this skill and prepare for your test. annoyed) -ify. irritate (to cause annoyance or disturbance in. having the quality of. rather. Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study preﬁxes and sufﬁxes.. defensive (serving to defend or protect) -ous. cause to be or become deteriorate (to make worse. sickening) ◗ Verb Suffixes -ate: to make. democratize (to make or become democratic) TIPS AND STRATEGIES A good knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes is an invaluable asset when you are building your vocabulary and studying for the TOEFL iBT. done with or working with others for a common purpose). having the nature of cooperative (marked by a willingness to cooperate. -fy: to make.
d. Multifaceted means a. cut into parts. d.42 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● vocabulary skills as you can to determine meaning. Elitist is an example of an adjective with this ending. c. Allow for exceptions. word roots. b. two-faced. Does it match the part of speech of the deﬁnition according to the sufﬁx? If you know the preﬁx or sufﬁx but still aren’t sure of a word’s meaning. Although most words ending in -ist are nouns deﬁning a kind of person (one who does). ﬁghting against. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Directions: Choose the best answer to each question using your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. looking after. word roots (covered in the next chapter). Plug in that meaning with the preﬁx or sufﬁx and see if it makes sense. 2. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. d. looking around carefully. relating to the circus. b. many sided. . determine the part of speech of each remaining choice. to examine thoroughly. under the authority of. put forth in writing. and context if possible to conﬁrm meaning. Antecedent means a. Circumspect means a. uniform. and context. 3. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. Check preﬁxes. not every -ist word is only a noun. coming before. including preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. Use your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to eliminate incorrect answers. The more you narrow down your choices. b. Once you have narrowed down your answer choices. c. try to recall another word with a similar root. c. 1.
To presage means a. to cultivate. incapable of making a decision. exactly as expected. relating to land or land ownership. disappointing. exact tone. b. to be out of date. to pressure. to issue a warning. amount. with an air of superiority. amount. to send a message. Supercilious means a. 7. amount. Parity means a. 8. amount. c. questionable. c. b. less than the norm. speaking in a measured. d. a nonbeliever. to make equal in status. c. b. to doubt or question. the state of being equal in status. b. d.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 43 4. c. d. Dubious means a. 5. doubtful. d. d. Agrarian means a. a counting of individuals. the act of making someone or something equal in status. haughty. one who doubts. or degree. 6. b. 9. c. or degree. b. . to warn in advance. an individual opinion. one who is equal in status. general agreement by a group. to age gracefully. d. or degree. or degree. Consensus means a. c. to be uncertain.
The preﬁx multi. 9. The preﬁx non. c. The preﬁx ante. 3. over. together.means many. not showing anxiety or excitement. complex. watchful. Parity means having equality in status.means not. ANSWERS How did you do on remembering preﬁxes and sufﬁxes? Check your answers here. on all sides. 4. b. 2. done with the intent of harming another. foretell. or exceeding. to cause to become active or aware. challenging. .means above. d. fraught with uncertainty. Supercilious means with an air of superiority (as if one is above or better than another). The noun sufﬁx -ity means state of being. wary. to predict. d. scornful. amount. 11. Nonchalant means a. b. circumstance. 1. c. Galvanize means a. wavering.means before. 8. Nonchalant means indifferent or cool. Antecedent means that which precedes. c. to be active or aware. 5. indifferent. Multifaceted means having many facets or aspects. haughty.44 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10. not showing anxiety or excitement. 7. Circumspect means cautious. c. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of. b. equivalence. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering these topics. to bring about. 10. b.means around. Agrarian means relating to or concerning land and its ownership or cultivation. Consensus means general agreement or accord.means before. The adjective sufﬁx -ian means related to.means with. or event that came before. The preﬁx circum. To presage means to indicate or warn of in advance. an opinion or position reached by a group. d. a. The preﬁx con. relating to. The preﬁx pre. d. one who becomes active or aware. Dubious means doubtful. d. The verb sufﬁx -ize means to cause. the thing. the state of becoming active or aware. 11. d. a. To galvanize means to stimulate or rouse into awareness or action. reversing a previous opinion or decision. 6. questionable. value or degree. The preﬁx super. disdainful. c.
In fact. you can also better understand words and more effectively build your vocabulary by learning about the history of words. the more roots you know. As you break down unfamiliar words into their parts. most English words have been borrowed from other languages throughout the centuries. too. This chapter examines some common Latin and Greek word roots. The two most important categories of roots to learn are Latin and Greek roots because so many English words are built upon Latin and Greek word bases. anonymous and synonym share the Greek root nom/nym. Just as you can better understand a person by learning about that person’s past. Just as many Americans have their roots in other countries. Needless to say. the stronger your vocabulary will be. For example. the more you will be able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and the better you will understand words you already know. meaning hand. The more word roots you know. meaning name. manual and manufacture share the Latin root man. do many of the words in the English language. You will also have a better understanding of the words you already know. The study of word origins and development 45 . and English is composed largely of words built upon root words from other cultures. so.Word Roots 4 P reﬁxes and sufﬁxes attach to word roots—the base parts of words that typically convey the bulk of their meaning. you will be more likely to recognize the roots and therefore more accurately determine meaning.
the focus of this chapter remains on learning some of the most common roots so that you can better determine meaning and succeed on the TOEFL iBT. green. O DEFINITION etymology: the history of a word. My mother plants herbs in her garden. Simple mnemonics can be created from rhymes. or acronyms (words that are made up of the ﬁrst letters of a group of words or phrases. yellow. however. and a detailed etymological study will show you not only where a word comes from but also how its meaning has changed over time. He will write the information on a graph. For example. the study of its origin and development Many words have a rich history. you are tracing the etymology or history of that word. The idea behind mnemonics is that people remember best when more than one function of the brain is used to process information. Biv is a mnemonic used when learning the colors of the spectrum (red. you can use the following sentences to remember these roots: Root nomen herb graph pan phil Meaning name plants write all love Sentence My name is Nom. For now. Here’s a trick to remember the difference between hetero (different) and homo (same): homo has the same number of letters as same. Meaning “memory aid.46 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT is called etymology. . For example. tunes. Mental pictures and stories are also useful mnemonics. or spelling. orange. Phil loves to help others. Use mnemonic devices to remember the meaning of word roots. J HERE’S A HINT MNEMONICS Don’t let the spelling of this word scare you! Mnemonics is a simple concept. the acronym Roy G. indigo. meaning. All the eggs are in the pan. When you break down a word and identify a root word from another language. violet).” mnemonics can be handy for helping you remember a word’s root word. blue.
useful: • Use rhymes. a thing yielded. antecedent: that which precedes or comes before cessation: a stopping. kind ous: sufﬁx meaning having the quality of. a bringing to an end concede: to acknowledge or admit as true. for example. roots are the base to which preﬁxes and sufﬁxes (and sometimes other roots) are attached to create a rich variety of meaning. meaning to go. place. The Latin roots err and pug. Look at the etymology of the word homogeneous: homo: Greek root meaning same gen: Latin root meaning birth. But most of the time. Latin and Greek roots are themselves words.WO R D R O OTS 47 Here are some tips on creating mnemonics that will be easy to remember and. take the Latin root ced/ceed/cess. a course of action or conduct. an acknowledgement or admission exceed: to extend beyond or outside of. respectively. Notice how many different words can be created by adding different preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to this root and how the different preﬁxes and sufﬁxes change meaning. On occasion. yield. stop. homogeneous (also spelled homogenous) means of the same or similar nature or kind. • Make your mnemonics personally meaningful. proper. • Try humorous or odd sayings that will stick in your mind. mean to make a mistake and a boxer. • Exaggerate features or images to make them vivid. (often with reluctance). having a uniform structure or composition throughout. Now. process . advance procedure: the act or manner of proceeding. or tunes. especially after an interruption. therefore. surpass precede: to come or go before in time. rhythmic patterns. to yield. etc. surrender concession: the act of conceding or yielding. move on. rank. related to Thus. or importance predecessor: one who precedes or comes before another in time (as in holding an ofﬁce or position) proceed: to go forward or onward.
cess means to go. stop. going between. and the sufﬁx -ant means being in a state or condition of.means not. ced means to go. meaning the act or state of. harmless substance of no medicinal value given to patients to reassure them or to members of a control group in experiments testing the efﬁcacy of a drug . or among.means back. withdraw. retreat. to move back. Now add the noun sufﬁx -sion. subliminal. to go forward blindly b. b. continuing without interruption. to allay the anger of. especially by making concessions implacable: incapable of being placated or appeased. c. stop.48 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Now. Re. to move or go below the surface. not direct. performing or causing an action. yield. continuous. ceaseless. inexorable placid: calm and peaceful. not stopping. to move or go back. ➥ Incessant means a. Again. Recede means c. self-satisﬁed. Here are several words formed from another Latin root. plac. unconcerned placebo: an inactive. incessant means continuing without interruption. to go together with others Remember your preﬁxes from Chapter 3. try determining what the word recede means: a. free from disturbance or tumult complacent: contented to a fault. retreat d. to stop or abandon before completion c. or yield. The correct answer is b. pacify. The preﬁx in. placate: to appease. yielding readily under pressure. and you get: ➥ recession: the act of withdrawing or going back With your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. through. again. notice the rich variety of meaning created by adding different preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to the root word. you can also answer the following question. d. Thus. meaning to please.
you can picture the letters EU on a well. on-going. habitual. look at the number of words and the rich variety of meaning that comes from the Greek root chron. For example. or a yield sign with cess instead of yield. which is the state or fact of being synchronous. to occur at the same time. You could also picture a trafﬁc light for the root ced/ceed/cess. If you are a visual learner. you might picture a stop sign with the root ced written on it instead of stop. meaning time. a precise instrument for measuring time synchronize: to cause to occur at the same time or agree in time. especially visual learners. .WO R D R O OTS 49 J HERE’S A HINT MAKE THE MOST OF YOUR LEARNING STYLE For many people. we can turn it into the noun synchronicity. long-lasting or recurrent chronology: the arrangement of events in time. to record in chronological order. To remember that eu means good or well. For example. Many different words can be built from a single root. an adjective that means occurring or existing at the same time. arranged in order of time of occurrence chronometer: an exceptionally accurate clock. again. because the colors of the trafﬁc light correspond with the three meanings of this root: go. stop. chronic: continuing for a long time. to remember the root pug. I love ham. yield. you could try one of these sentences for the root am. For example. make a historical record chronological: relating to chronology. For example. you might picture a pug dog in a boxing ring. meaning love: I am love. we can create even more words. If you are an auditory learner. I love Amy. Similarly. you can come up with rhymes or short sentences to help you remember root meanings. be simultaneous By changing the sufﬁx of synchronize. use pictures to help you remember words. or a boxer with a pug nose. the sequence in which events occurred chronicle: a detailed record or narrative description of past events. the best way to memorize words is to create a picture in the mind associated with that word.
keenly perceptive) am: love amorous (inclined to love. yield. acute (extremely sharp or severe. equidistant (equally distant) . romantic. to issue orders or commands). profession. affectionate). as with a beating. even equate (to make or consider two things as equal). chastise (to punish severely. rebel (to resist or defy authority) cast. After you have completed this lesson. dict. A more comprehensive list of the most common Latin and Greek word roots is located in Appendix B. sour. tell. use words dictate (to say or read aloud. make known in advance) equ: equal. to rebuke) ced. etc. “my fault”) dic. surpass) culp: blame culprit (person accused or guilty of a crime). Review the list carefully. COMMON LATIN WORD ROOTS ac. which once again are mostly everyday words. especially the American Civil War). enamored (inﬂamed or inspired by love. cess: to go. stop antecedent (that which precedes). make sure you review the list carefully and study any roots that are unfamiliar to you. dit: to say. taking note of the examples. acr: sharp. or ill natured). exceed (to extend beyond or outside of.). captivated) bel: war antebellum (before the war.50 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT What follows is a list of some of the most common Latin and Greek word roots. mea culpa (Latin. bitter acid (something that is sharp. ceed. predict (to foretell. chast: cut caste (a social class separated from others by hereditary rank.
free from guilt. not dangerous or harmful). hang over prominent (standing out. obnoxious (offensive. speech dialogue (a conversation between two or more people). log. vehement). lut. high spirited. burning. nic. max: big magnify (to increase in size. burn fervid (very hot. as a carbonated liquid. distinguished) nas. luv: to wash dilute (to make thinner or weaker by adding a liquid such as water. allowing light to pass through diffusely) lug. to amplify).WO R D R O OTS 51 err: to wander err (to make a mistake). eminent (towering above or more prominent that others. effervescent (bubbling up. an incorrect or wrong action) ferv: to boil. to lessen the force or purity of). manufacture (to make by hand or machinery) min: to project. innate (possessed at birth. ardent. error (a mistake. maj. nai: to be born native (a person born in a particular country). conspicuous. hateful) . nat. inborn. lofty. nox: harm. bubble. enlighten). lum. maximum (the greatest possible quantity or degree) man: hand manual (operated by hand). to make unﬁt or harmful to living things) mag. lus: light illuminate (to brighten with light. neologism (a new word or phrase) luc. inherent) nec. pollute (to make impure or unclean. animated) loc. translucent (almost transparent. death innocent (uncorrupted by evil. loqu: word. noc. volume or signiﬁcance. projecting or jutting beyond the line or surface).
pound: to put. forceful. still). placate (to appease or pacify) pon. outspoken). pos. science (knowledge. brilliant. aware). anxiety. withdraw) . reserved) ver: truth verdict (the ﬁndings of a jury in a trial. omnipotent (all powerful) plac: to please placid (calm and peaceful). calm. or tension) rog: to ask interrogate (to examine by asking a series of questions). strong) voc. tic: to be silent tacit (not spoken. prerogative (an exclusive privilege or right belonging to a person or group) sci: to know conscious (knowing and perceiving. call back. hostile. tranquil (free from disturbance. disposed to ﬁght) qui: quiet quiet (making little or no noise. place deposit (to put or set down. especially that gained through systematic study) tac. true to life.52 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omni: all omnipresent (everywhere at once). decision or judgment). interchange) pug: to ﬁght pug (a boxer). place). vok: to call vocal (of or pertaining to the voice. reverse. verify (to conﬁrm the truth of) vi: life vivid (evoking lifelike images in the mind. tending to express oneself often and freely. active. implied). transpose (to reverse or transfer the order or place of. repugnant (highly offensive or distasteful. bright. revoke (to cancel. distinct). vigorous (energetic. taciturn (habitually untalkative.
Let what you know about those words help you ﬁnd the meaning of words that are less familiar. Either of these elements can carry meaning or change the use of a word in a sentence. or try to remember a context where you have seen the word before. Questions that ask for synonyms and antonyms can be difﬁcult because they require you to have a relatively large vocabulary. but you may be faced with four choices that are unfamiliar to you. you have to ﬁgure out what the word means without any help from context clues. synonyms will be included as answer choices for antonym questions. If you are completing practice exercises like those in this book. but the test question could list just a synonym or antonym and four answer choices. . and sufﬁxes are found at the end of a word. sacred. Looking for related words that have the same root as the word in question can help you choose the correct answer—even if it is by process of elimination. circle the word antonym or opposite in the directions to help you remember. Not only do you need to know the word in question. the word will be surrounded by a sentence that helps you guess what the word means (this is vocabulary in context). Another way to dissect meaning is to look for preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. In this case. too. A sufﬁx like -less can change the meaning of a noun: pain to painless. the same tactics that work for synonym questions work for antonyms as well. or sufﬁx—the best strategy is to think of words you already know that carry the same root. Often you will be able to determine the meaning of a word within the root. which means to trust or believe. the preﬁx can change the meaning of a root word to its opposite: necessary. Knowing this. unnecessary. preﬁx. Try to determine the meaning of part of the word. To identify most word parts—word root. If you are lucky. you will be able to understand the meaning of incredible. Preﬁxes come before the word root. or preﬁx. Usually the best strategy is to look at the structure of the word. For instance. The secret is to keep your mind on the fact that you are looking for the opposite of the word given in the question. Very often.WO R D R O OTS 53 J HERE’S A HINT SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS Some TOEFL test questions ask you to ﬁnd the synonym or antonym of a word. See if a part of the word—the root—looks familiar. sufﬁx. Antonym questions can be problematic because you can easily forget that you are looking for opposites and mistakenly choose the synonym. the root of credible is cred. and credit. Otherwise. For instance.
bend incline (to lean. archy: chief. epidemic (a widespread outbreak of a disease affecting many people at the same time) . recline (to lie back or down) cryp: hidden crypt (an underground vault or chamber. cryptography (secret writing. archi. ongoing. to give support. the process or skill of communicating in or deciphering coded messages) dem: people democracy (government by the people through elected representatives). ruler architect (one who plans or devises. or conﬁdence. or cause to do so. hearten) chron: time chronic (continuing for a long time. having inherent power of action or motion). the sequence in which events occurred) cli. human android (a very humanlike machine or robot. to have a tendency or disposition toward something). slope. chronology (the arrangement of events in time. seeing with one’s own eyes) card. principal. especially one made of biological materials). courage. anthropology (the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings) arch. monarchy (a state ruled by a monarch—a sole and absolute ruler. cour: heart cardiac (of or relating to the heart). one who creates plans for buildings).54 COMMON GREEK WORD ROOTS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT anthro. long-lasting or recurrent). habitual. autopsy (examination of a dead body to determine cause of death. clin: to lean toward. cord. especially one used as a burial place). such as a king) auto: self automatic (operating without external inﬂuence or control. andro: man. encourage (to inspire with hope. slant.
euthanasia (the act of painlessly ending the life of someone suffering from a terminal illness) (h)etero: different. or swerve. dogma (a system of principles or beliefs. or function). having a uniform structure or composition throughout). dyslexia (an impaired ability to read) eu: good. especially one praising someone who has died). synonym (a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another) . polymorphous (having or assuming a variety of forms) nom. width). dox: opinion dogged (stubbornly unyielding. obstinate).WO R D R O OTS 55 di. dia: apart. other heterosexual (a person sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex). well eulogy (a verbal or written tribute. a marked change of form. hyperventilate (to breathe excessively and abnormally fast) morph: shape metamorphosis (a transformation. nym: name nominate (to name as a candidate). excessive hyperactive (highly or excessively active). to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking) dog. through diameter (a straight line passing through the center of a circle. homophone (a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning) hyper: over. deviate. heterodox (disagreeing with or departing from accepted beliefs) (h)omo: same homogeneous (of the same or similar nature or kind. abnormal dysfunctional (impaired or abnormal in function). a prescribed doctrine) dys: faulty. digress (to turn aside. character. thickness.
and sufﬁxes. agreement between two people) ped: education. and ethics) phone: sound phonics (a method of teaching reading by training beginners to associate letters with their sound values). disease compassion (deep awareness of and sympathy for another’s suffering). pediatrician (a physician specializing in the care of infants and children) peri: around perimeter (the outer limits or boundary of an area). You might. pat. a large orchestra) theo: god. child encyclopedia (a comprehensive reference work on a wide range of subjects). You will be surprised to see how quickly learning these will increase the size of your vocabulary. preﬁxes. remember to focus ﬁrst on roots. path: feeling. religion atheist (one who denies the existence of a god or supreme being). a systematic investigation of questions about knowledge. pantheon (a temple dedicated to all the gods. existence. theology (the study of god(s) and religion) When working on your vocabulary. everyone panorama (a complete view in every direction). Another person reading that same word might recognize a structural clue in the . philosophy (love and pursuit of wisdom. sympathy (sharing another person’s feelings. suffering. symphony (a long and complex sonata for an orchestra. respond to a visual clue in a word. feeling pity or tenderness toward another’s pain or suffering. for example. J HERE’S A HINT TRY DIFFERENT APPROACHES Not everyone “sees” words in the same way. harmony.56 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT pan: all. periscope (an optical instrument that provides a view of an otherwise obstructed ﬁeld) phil: love bibliophile (a lover of books). all the gods of a people or region) pas. or you might instead hear a familiar sound in that word.
you can at least determine that amiable is probably a positive thing and that it probably has something to do with love or friendship. the root ac means sharp. For example. Here are some speciﬁc strategies for sharpening this skill and using it in a test situation. J HERE’S A HINT USE WORD PARTS Remember to use word parts to help you determine and remember meaning. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Many words in the English language come from Latin or Greek word roots. burn. bubble. for example. The bottom line is that because you can’t be sure which strategy will work for you or when. if you don’t know the meaning of amiable but you do know what enamored means. The prefix im. A rebel. as you are learning roots and trying to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. Similarly. for instance. When you are faced with an unfamiliar word in your reading or on an exam. The acute pain you felt in your ankle when you sprained it was very sharp. which means to boil. think of other words that sound like they might share a root word. sufﬁxes. the meaning of the root bel is war. By memorizing common preﬁxes. and this will both dramatically expand your vocabulary and signiﬁcantly improve your score on the TOEFL iBT.WO R D R O OTS 57 word. . you will be able to accurately guess the meaning of many unfamiliar words. and word roots. and this tells you that impervious means not pervious. ﬁghts in a war.in impervious means not. bitter. your best strategy is to break it down into its parts and look for a familiar word root. fervent has the root ferv. try them all! THE POWER OF ASSOCIATION Need more help memorizing word roots? Use the power of association. she might grasp its meaning by associating the word’s preﬁx with that same preﬁx on another word she knows. For example. Here again are some speciﬁc strategies for using your knowledge of word roots to build your vocabulary and improve your vocabulary skills. Now you have the tools to really break down words and work out their meanings. especially on an exam like the TOEFL iBT.
try to recall the meaning of another word with a similar root. good natured. Use your knowledge of word roots to eliminate incorrect answers. honest. tenuous. Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study word roots. predict. Remember that word roots work with preﬁxes and sufﬁxes—and sometimes other root words—to create meaning. If you don’t know or can’t remember the root word. A lucid argument a. By memorizing these word bases. An amiable person is a. . use the word root to determine the meaning of the italicized word. Or use words that create a vivid picture in your imagination. 1. The more familiar the word is to you (e. loud. often without realizing it.. talkative. The more you narrow down your choices. highly educated. d. d. if possible. truthful. 2. is very clear and intelligible. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. errs repeatedly in its logic. friendly.58 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize as many Latin and Greek roots as you can. Use the power of association. is loosely held together. Remember the power of elimination on an exam. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B. frequently digresses. b. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. You already know much of this material.g. c. to determine meaning. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end or the chapter. b. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. PRACTICE QUESTIONS For each question. Look at all parts of the word and the context. the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the root word. c. Remember that you use common word roots every day. equate).
expressed in a powerful and effective manner. to lessen it. pick a ﬁght with that person. to worsen it. 6. Something that is eloquent is a. 7. value or worth. to solve it. c. 8. d. circumference. dull. 4. to analyze it. hackneyed. is contented to a fault. stop or block that person from doing something. b. d. inedible. chaotic. frequently makes mistakes. very isolated. embellish the truth. likes to pick ﬁghts. . d. c. charge that person with a crime. 5. b. c.WO R D R O OTS 59 3. at rest. c. c. A complacent person a. still. is known to tell lies. d. b. not ﬁt for consumption. d. truthfulness. tumultuous. To measure the veracity of something is to measure its a. To exacerbate a problem means a. To indict someone is to a. d. but does not accept responsibility. b. dangerous. b. harmful. very old. self-satisﬁed. harm that person. trite. weight. b. antiquated. c. A quiescent place is a.
5. d. Noxious means unpleasant and harmful. bitter. intelligible. 2. self-satisﬁed (pleased with oneself). to increase the severity. has a violent temper. quiet. 7. refreshing. . Eloquent means expressed in a powerful. death. unwholesome.60 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 9. use words. d. or bitterness of. Amiable means friendly and agreeable. Complacent means contented to a fault. is very stubborn. The root ac means sharp. enjoys the company of others. tantalizing. Lucid means very clear. The root luc/lum/lus means light. The root am means love. The root plac means to please. 6. d. easy to understand. b. c. b. harmful. a. 9. The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. 3. patience and composure. d. Equanimity means calmness of temperament. a. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. speech. d. c. To exacerbate means to make worse. 10. b. d. A noxious odor is a. tell. good natured. ANSWERS How did you do on identifying word roots? Check your answers here. To indict means to formally accuse of or charge with a crime. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. The root loc/log/loqu means word. d. b. The root ver means truth. at rest. is even-tempered and composed. 8. truthfulness. even-temperedness. especially under stress. Quiescent means inactive. and persuasive manner. ﬂuent. 10. likeable. c. Veracity means truth. pleasing. The root equ means equal. even. unscented. violence. A person with equanimity a. 1. The root qui means quiet. 4.
fall. the word season has several meanings: a part of the year (n): spring.5 Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms D ➥ ➥ ➥ o you know when nail means something used with a hammer and when it means a part of your ﬁnger? When to use ensure instead of assure? Incredulous instead of incredible? Using the right word can make the difference between confusion and clarity—and have a huge impact on your TOEFL iBT score. summer. The term homonym comes from Greek roots meaning: homo (same) nym (name) 61 . he will learn something new about his craft. They are called homonyms. For example. One thing to watch for are words that sound the same and may look alike but mean different things. This chapter reviews commonly confused words that you might encounter on your TOEFL iBT. to make experienced (v): Several months touring with a jazz band will season a young trumpet player because every night. or winter to ﬂavor food (v): I will season the sauce with some curry.
you may confuse your readers with sentences that are at best incorrect and at worst unintelligible. for example. are homophones. will often test you on the correct homonym for a given context—whether you should use whether or weather in a sentence. O DEFINITION homonyms: a group of words that share the same spelling or pronunciation (or both) but have different meanings Standardized tests.62 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A speciﬁc type of homonyms are called homographs—words that look alike but that sound different and mean different things. like TOEFL iBT. for example. KON-dukt (n) means behavior. Notice that the different sound in these words can come from the accent. this chapter will help you get them straight. . or stress. I will conduct the orchestra for the last song. Night and knight. His conduct in school was terrible. conduct has two distinct meanings and pronunciations: ➥ ➥ kun-DUKT (v) means to lead or direct. and bear and bare. The term for these words. If so. So take some time to review the following list of frequently confused words carefully. homophone. but have different spellings and meanings. For example. It is very important to know your homonyms and use them correctly. or piece or peace. as are slay and sleigh. on one part of the word. Another type of homonyms are pronounced the same way. while others that you may still ﬁnd confusing. Otherwise. is exactly what its two Greek roots suggest: homo (same) phone (sound) It is a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning. There are dozens of homophones. great and grate. many of which you may already know.
CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION accept except access (verb) access (noun) excess adapt adopt affect effect (noun) effect (verb) all ready already all ways always among between assure ensure insure beside besides bibliography biography to recognize excluding to gain entry to means of approaching extra to adjust to take as one’s own to inﬂuence result to bring about totally prepared by this time every method forever in the middle of several in an interval separating (two) to make certain (assure someone) to make certain (to check for yourself) to make certain (ﬁnancial value) next to in addition to list of writings a life story .C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 63 FREQUENTLY CONFUSED WORDS The following table lists some of the most frequently confused word pairs along with a brief deﬁnition of each word.
having no interest in to surround paper wrapping for a letter beyond additional to enter a new country to leave a country to hint. suggest to assume. verb) compliment (noun.64 CONFUSING WORDS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT QUICK DEFINITION breath (noun) breathe (verb) breadth capital (noun) capital (adjective) capitol complement (noun. verb) disinterested uninterested envelop envelope farther further immigrate emigrate imply infer its it’s loose lose may be maybe overdo overdue respiration to inhale and exhale width money most important government building match praise no strong opinion either way unengaged. deduce belonging to it it is not tight unable to ﬁnd something may possibly be perhaps to do too much late .
she. not moving writing material in contrast to next in time belonging to them in a place they are climate if substitute for he.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 65 CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION personal personnel precede proceed proceeds principal (adjective) principal (noun) principle stationary stationery than then their there they’re weather whether who whom whose who’s your you’re individual employees to go before to continue proﬁts main person in charge. her. or they substitute for him. sum of interest-earning money standard still. or them belonging to whom who is belonging to you you are .
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
Another important reason to review homonyms like team/teem and waive/wave is to avoid a “trap” sometimes set by the test developers. That is, you might encounter questions that use the deﬁnition of a familiar homonym as a distracter. Here’s an example: To waive means a. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement. b. to return to the original starting point. c. to relinquish a right or claim. d. to swell up or rise to the surface. The correct answer is c. Waive means to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily, relinquish; to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule, penalty, standard procedure, etc.). If you don’t know the meaning of waive, however, you might be tempted to choose a, which is the deﬁnition of its homophone wave, or d, which is related to the deﬁnition of a wave. These answer choices are tempting because they sound familiar. You need to be able to recognize the familiar homophone and recall its deﬁnition. Not all commonly confused words are homonyms. Take disinterested and uninterested as an example. They don’t sound the same because they have very distinct preﬁxes. But the preﬁxes are attached to the same root, and the preﬁxes seem to have essentially the same meaning: dis- means away from, apart, reversal, not; unmeans not, against. Thus many people assume that both words mean the same thing: not interested. However, only uninterested has this meaning. Disinterested means impartial or unbiased, free of selﬁsh motives or interests—a different word entirely. Some commonly confused words are particularly puzzling because the words not only sound similar, but they also have similar meanings. Take the homophones cue and queue, for example. Both mean a line of waiting people or vehicles, although queue is used far more often than cue for this meaning. However, cue also means a signal, such as a word or action, given to prompt or remind someone of something—and this is its most common usage. And queue can also mean an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing on a computer.
C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S
HERE’S A HINT TRICKY VERBS
These verbs confuse even native speakers of English. To keep them straight, think about which verb in a pair needs an object (a noun or pronoun that’s acted on by a verb). Practice using these verbs in context and you will become more comfortable with them. Lie Lie means to rest, to recline. (subject) past tense: lay, had lain Don’t just lie there, do something! Sit Sit means to rest. (subject) She always sits in the third row. Rise Rise means to go up. (subject) After it is ﬁlled with helium, the balloon rises. Set Set means to put or place. (needs an object) He set the newspaper on the desk. Raise Raise means to move something up. (needs an object) The state is raising taxes this year. Lay Lay means to place, to set down. (needs an object) I always lay my purse on the table.
You already know many homophones and commonly confused words inside and out. The ones you don’t know, you simply need to memorize. The question is, how do you remember these differences in meaning, especially when the words seem so much alike? The key is to capitalize on the differences in the words. And when it comes to frequently confused words, mnemonic devices come in especially handy. Take the commonly confused pair ingenious and ingenuous, for example:
ingenious: marked by inventive skill or creativity; showing inventiveness and skill, remarkably clever ingenuous: 1. not cunning or deceitful, unable to mask feelings; artless, frank, sincere. 2. lacking sophistication or worldliness
The only difference in the spelling of these words is the i/u. You can use this difference to remember key words in the deﬁnition of each word.
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
ingenious: inventive ingenuous: unable to mask feelings
Similarly, the difference between disinterested and uninterested is the preﬁx. Use this to help you remember the meaning: a disinterested person is distanced from the situation and is therefore impartial. Here is a list of more commonly confused word sets that include important vocabulary words for your TOEFL iBT test preparation.
a·'lood) v. to make an indirect reference to allude (˘ elude (i·'lood) v. 1. to escape from or evade, especially by cleverness, daring, or skill. 2. to be incomprehensible to, escape the understanding of a·'prayz) v. 1. to evaluate. 2. to establish value or estimate the worth of appraise (˘ ˘·'pr¯z) v. to give notice or information to; to make aware of, inform apprise (a
ascent (a ˘·'sent) n. 1. an upward slope. 2. a movement upward, advancement ˘·'sent) n. agreement; concurrence; consent assent (a censor ('sen·so ˘r) v. to forbid the publication, distribution, or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. n. an ofﬁcial who reviews books, ﬁlms, etc. to remove what is considered morally, politically, or otherwise objectionable ˘r) n. expression of strong criticism or disapproval; a rebuke censure ('sen·shu or condemnation. v. to criticize strongly, rebuke, condemn ˘r) n. a device that receives and responds to a stimulus such as sensor ('sen·so light, smoke, etc. cue (kyoo) n. 1. a signal, such as a word or action, given to prompt or remind someone of something; a hint or suggestion. 2. a line of waiting people or vehicles; a queue queue (kyoo) n. 1. a line of waiting people or vehicles. 2. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing
to think or speak of as being of little worth. n. to separate and scatter in different directions. or opponent hoard (hohrd) n. 1. reputation. to deduce or derive by reasoning illicit (i·'lis·it) adj. 1. to distribute widely. a wide and open space or area fain (fayn) adv. contrary to accepted morality or convention ent) adj. 1. 1. 2. illegal. gladly feign (fayn) v. to call forth or draw out. or degree to which something reaches or extends. an enemy. cache. to give the false appearance of faux (foh) adj. etc. 1. a large group or crowd. a hidden store or stock. towering above or more prominent than others. distinguished ˘nt) adj. 2. to express disapproval of. to come or issue forth. 2. to belittle disburse (dis·'burs) v. to pretend. to diminish in price or value. not genuine or real foe (foh) n. with joy. destroyed or lost extent (ik·'stent) n. hereditary derivation. 2. 1. disseminate elicit (i·'lis·it) v. to pay out disperse (dis·'spurs) v. v. 1. 2. distance. eminent ('em·˘·n˘ standing above others in quality. nonconformity ˘·kayt) v. a vast multitude . 2. the act of descending or moving downward. adequate descent (di·'sent) n. 2. to belittle. impending imminent ('im·˘·ne ˘·nayt) v. a downward slope or movement. conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or correct.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 69 decent ('dee·se ˘nt) adj. a difference of opinion. 2. to cause to do so. disagree. still in existence. the range. character. about to occur. lineage dissent (di·'sent) v. lofty. sufﬁcient. depreciate deprecate ('dep·re depreciate (di·'pree·shi·ayt) v.. to lessen the worth of. fake. artiﬁcial. to provoke. to collect and lay up. adversary. to amass and store in secret horde (hohrd) n. to withhold approval or assent. meeting acceptable standards. to differ in opinion. forbidden by law. not extinct. as from a source emanate ('em·a extant ('ek·sta ˘nt) adj.
1. dictate. the pointed top of a mountain. to issue commands. n. interfere meddle ('med·e ˘l) n. practice prescribe (pri·'skr¯b) v. quantity. implausible. to reach its highest point or maximum development. to bring a criminal action against. to carry prosecute ('pros·e on. to glance quickly or peer at furtively. continue. 2. to be present in large numbers . or sexual orientation ˘·kyoot) v. 1. lacking sophistication or worldliness ˘l) v. make higher. to lift. fortitude. put in an upright position 2. intensity. n. unwilling to believe incredulous (in·'krej·u ingenious (in·'jeen·yu ˘s) adj. especially because persecute ('pur·se of race. 1. or mistreat. n. 1. or strength. 1. a cooperative unit teem (teem) v. 2. spirit mettle ('met·e peak (peek) v. 1. or intensity. beyond belief. a brief or furtive look. an increase in salary raze (rayz) v. 3. degree. forbid by law raise (rayz) v. n. to order a medicine or other treatment proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v. order something to be done. a group organized to work together. to erase. obliterate team (teem) v. unable to mask ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·u feelings. to be full of. harass. the highest possible point of development. 2. 2. 1. activity. to intrude in other people’s affairs. 2. marked by inventive skill or creativity. courage. demolish completely. the act of raising or increasing. to oppress. artless. sincere. not cunning or deceitful. to cause annoyance or irritation. 2. 1. 1. activity. 2. to increase in size. to vex or create resentment. showing inventiveness and skill. pique (peek) v. to join together so as to form a team. frank. skeptical. to level to the ground. to provoke or arouse ˘·kyoot) v. the sharp end of something tapering to a point. remarkably clever ˘s) adj. religious or political beliefs. 2. or intensity peek (peek) v. to prohibit. astonishing ˘·lu ˘s) adj. summit.70 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT incredible (in·'kred·˘·be ˘l) adj.
especially when you have a limited amount of time to prepare for an exam. create pictures that will help you remember word meanings. The more carefully you read each deﬁnition and the closer you look at the spelling of each word. 1. 1. For example. appraise has the word praise in it. rush. relinquish. a ridge or swell on the surface of a body of water. Teaching something to another person is one of the most effective ways to master that material. 2. you might remember that meddle with a d is something you don’t want to do unless you want to annoy others. a back-and-forth or upand-down movement. and appraise means to evaluate. you will remember which word has which meaning. Use whatever study or memorization techniques work best for you. and use them to help you remember the words and their meanings. If you are an auditory learner. Use ﬂash cards or other study strategies to review these commonly confused words until you have them memorized. Use these words. to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. Or teach them to someone else. 2. the more likely you are to ﬁnd a “key” for you to remember the differences between them. 2. to move up and down or back and forth. 3. etc. or sudden great rise TIPS AND STRATEGIES Homonyms and other frequently confused words can be particularly challenging. For example. 1. rhymes will be more effective. dispense with wave (wayv) v. if you are a visual learner. Pay attention to details. And then review them again. for example. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement of the hand. Meddle. penalty.). differs from mettle only because it contains the letter d instead of t. Review. review. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. ● ● ● ● ● Spelling is often the key to distinguishing between commonly confused words. You can associate praise with a good evaluation. a surge. Use this key difference to help you remember the difference in meaning as well. review. Remember to make the most of your learning style. standard procedure. For example. . n. If you use these words in your everyday writing and conversations. especially of the hand.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 71 waive (wayv) v. undulate. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to help you make the most of your study time.
meaning to write. 9. Xiu is coming this afternoon to determine the (extant/extent) of the problem. The checks were (disbursed/dispersed) this morning. 8. Reina is in (eminent/imminent/emanate) danger and needs our help right away. 10. 3. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. for example. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Choose the correct word in the parenthesis to complete each sentence. Both prescribe and proscribe. 1. Please (precede/proceed) with caution through the construction zone. Don’t forget to use word parts to remember meaning. have the root scrib/script. Lilin (alluded/eluded) to problems with her boss. 2. and use the difference in pronunciation to help you further differentiate between the words. Here is a list of the books the school librarian would like to (censor/censure/sensor) because she feels they are inappropriate for children. 4.72 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● Use your ears for the commonly confused words that aren’t homophones. Luna has come up with an (ingenious/ingenuous) solution to the problem. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. Then you can remember that proscribe is a (written) law that prohibits something. Once again. but she didn’t say anything directly. Jillian met with a lawyer to see if her landlord could be (persecuted/prosecuted) for his negligence of her building. 6. It was a grueling six-hour (ascent/assent) from our camp to the top of the mountain. 5. 7. We will (waive/wave) the late fee because of your extenuating circumstances. .
Imminent means about to occur. or degree to which something reaches or extends. 6. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. To censor is to forbid the publication. disbursed. especially after an interruption. a movement upward. 8. impending. move on. distribution. remarkably clever. 2. penalty. . To disburse means to pay out.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 73 ANSWERS How did you do on identifying the correct word? Check your answers here. standard procedure. waive. To prosecute is to bring a criminal action against someone. Ingenious means marked by inventive skill or creativity. imminent. etc. advance. 5. extent. 7. 10. To waive is to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. showing inventiveness and skill. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. 9. Extent means the range. 3. censor. To allude means to make an indirect reference to. relinquish. ascent. proceed. ingenious. advancement. 1. 4. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. alluded. To proceed means to go forward or onward. prosecuted.). An ascent is an upward slope. distance.
6 Idioms and Vocabulary Variations S ➥ ➥ ➥ ometimes you will hear English expressions that sound familiar but are hard to deﬁne outside of the context in which they are used. All of these expressions are idioms. You will get a better idea of what idioms are by looking at these examples: I was tied up at the ofﬁce until late last night. that there were people able to interpret a political ofﬁce seeker’s actions in a favorable light. they are an integral part of any language and are important for you to know. the second. Although they don’t always follow the general rules of word usage. They’re called idioms. however. In its simplest form. and the third. An idiom can sometimes mean one of a number of things. He was on the phone when I got to his house. perched on top of telephones. 74 Taken literally. an idiom is an everyday term or expression whose meaning evolved over time as it was used in conversation and informal writing. these sentences bring to mind peculiar pictures of people roped to their ofﬁce chairs. or whirling through hospitals! When you look at them in context. . depending on how it’s used within a sentence. you know that the ﬁrst means that someone was delayed at work. that a man was talking on the phone. The candidate’s spin doctors were on hand to offer comment on the campaign.
. for example. Some of the words you’ll ﬁnd in the world of academia. colloquialisms. try and locate the deﬁnitions of the following words. The word idiom is from the Latin word idio. the word (sometimes shortened to prereq) refers to the course or courses that you must take in order to qualify for an advanced course.” and “selling like hotcakes” are examples of clichés. or the world of education. Here are some things to keep in mind about idioms: ➥ Idioms can be confused with clichés. These include: • tenure: protected employment for professors who have reached a certain level of rank or experience. A related term is tenure track. In college. “Pretty as a picture. An idiom is peculiar not to an individual person but to an individual culture’s use of language. An idiosyncrasy.” “right as rain. and slang. or even ask a university representative. which means that the position carries with it the possibility of tenure. Through overuse.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 75 U ON YOUR OWN CAMPUS-SPEAK You are likely to encounter certain words on a college campus or in any post-highschool program. • Clichés are overused phrases that have remained in the language for a long time. referring to the self. syllabus practicum alumni registrar transcript core curriculum liberal arts elective master’s degree credit sabbatical dormitory You might want to use the Internet to locate these deﬁnitions. • prerequisite: requirements needed before a promotion or the granting of a job. is a habit or custom peculiar to one’s self. which are frequently heard around campus. • semester: one of two terms in an academic year • bursar: the ﬁnancial ofﬁcer of a college • tuition: the cost of attending courses On your own. their impact is lessened. An idiom is seen as any kind of language use that has gained wide usage in that particular language. might also appear on the TOEFL iBT. They are too well known to English speakers.
Watching out for (being alert to) something is different than watching over (attending to) something. hot heels result from running hard. The use of “should of” for “should have” and “plan on going” instead of “planning to go” are examples of colloquialisms.76 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ➥ ➥ • Colloquialisms are expressions that may be appropriate in informal speech but are incorrect in formal writing. Then there are idioms that have evolved over a long period of time and have no particular logic or origin: for example. Even different cultures that speak the same language can have trouble understanding each other’s idioms. it makes sense that cool heels would refer to excessive waiting because. Somewhere in between are idioms whose meanings made sense once upon a time but are now lost. What people in the United States call an “apartment building.” O DEFINITION cliché: an overused word or phrase that has lost its impact in the language. which can make translation from one language to another a bit difﬁcult. • Slang is informal language that is often peculiar to a particular age or occupational group. give it a shot: try for the ﬁrst time watch out: be careful take a stab at: attempt laugh off: ignore with good humor . For instance. You could see that laughing off something would have to do with not taking it very seriously. up to the job. You might get up early one morning so you can get away on a vacation to France. Spitting image has nothing to do with saliva. people in the United Kingdom use idioms that are different from those used in the United States. where you hope to get by with your high school French so you can get along with the locals.” the British call a “block of ﬂats. It’s a corruption of “spit and image. Examples of slang are “tellin’ it like it is” or “What’s up?” Idiomatic phrases in English include hundreds of verbs paired with smaller words (prepositions) that change the meaning of the verb.” and spit simply meant “exact likeness. it is a French word used in English Some idioms are derived from images rooted in experience. presumably.” Here are some idioms with their deﬁnitions. All languages have their own idioms.
. but not in the present J HERE’S A HINT NEW AND EMERGING VOCABULARY All words have some point of origin. occur used to + verb: something accomplished in the past. amount catch up: to complete something belatedly drop off: deposit or deliver ﬁnd out: discover.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 77 hold off: delay burnout: a point of physical or emotional exhaustion ﬂy off the handle: to get angry life of the party: a person who makes things enjoyable for a group of people cool his heels: wait a long time be a wash: even out spitting image: exact likeness up to the job: capable of doing the work by and large: as a general rule give the slip to: escape once in a blue moon: very seldom keep your ears open: to stay attuned all of a sudden: suddenly boil down: summarize. Some of the ways new words are made include: • shortening longer words—for example. Reaganomics. decide put off: to hold back to a later time show up: arrive. from Reagan and economics. all fouled up. which means “an error” and derives from the phrase “situation normal. from gymnasium to gym • making up acronyms—such as snafu.” • blending two words together—as in camcorder from camera and recorder • adapting people’s names to ideas that are associated with them—for example. learn have on: wear keep + -ing verb: continue without interruption jump in: begin or enter eagerly make up your mind: settle. appear sleep on it: delay making a decision until the next day take place: happen. Words that gain sudden popularity in the language often do so because they’ve grown out of a common new experience or observation.
on the basis of your knowledge of the idioms. Answer yes or no to the following sentences. Pronounce these words each time you go over their meaning. it happens rarely. _____ 5. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to use as you add these words to your vocabulary and prepare for your exam. PRACTICE QUESTIONS On the lines provided or on a separate piece of paper. The more you hear how they sound. 2. Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. use the power of mnemonic devices and associations to help you remember meaning. If you burn out at something. Solidify these words and phrases in your memory by teaching them to someone else. Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. and the easier it will be to remember them. textbooks. If it happens once in a blue moon. 4. it means that you need the services of an electrician. or a cliché. and other dayto-day communications. “She may of gone to the movies” is an example of __________. Once again. Hang a right at the next corner” is an example of __________. 1. a colloquialism. indicate whether each of the following expressions represents slang. the more familiar they will feel to you. ● ● ● ● Use the context of the sentences provided with the deﬁnitions to help you understand these words and memorize their meanings. 3.78 TIPS AND STRATEGIES VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Idioms and vocabulary variations are likely to appear on standardized tests like TOEFL iBT and occur regularly in newspaper articles. _____ . “The car battery was dead as a doornail” is an example of __________.
you hand over your undergarment. If you give something a shot. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. 1. 7. 8.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 79 6. you are willing to try. 2. _____ 8. colloquialism cliché slang no yes no no yes . 6. _____ 7. 5. If you give the slip to someone. 4. _____ ANSWERS How did you do on identifying idioms and word variations? Check your answers here. You have to stand near a window if you are going to watch out for something. 3.
favorably 81 . It might be a good idea to write down the deﬁnition beside the word. adversely b. When you are ﬁnished. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. We knew everything about the newest member of our group. look up the deﬁnitions for the words on your list.) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary. Take your time when answering each question. I have always liked your positive attitude. Directions: For questions 1 through 20. Then. (We suggest not timing yourself. aloof d. secretive c. a. ingenious 2. shamelessly c. she was very _____________. if you come across words that you are unsure of. George developed an _____________ plan to earn the extra money he needed to start his own business. make a list of these words. elitist b.Practice Test 1 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. choose the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. it has _____________ affected our working relationship. a. 1. candidly d. expressive b. irrational c. reserved d. however. artistic 3. a. After you complete the test.
explicit d. a. and I had no trouble ﬁnding it in time for work. he is a _____________ and obedient pet. Rachel _____________ a plan to become a millionaire by age 30. a. encompassed b. arduous c. potable 7. quenchable c. embodied 6. docile 5. condoned . it could cause serious health problems. impure d. meddlesome d. priceless b. devised c. decreased d. valid b. delectable b. a. The directions to the new ofﬁce were _____________. released c. Dog-sitting for Buddy is easy to do. dispersed 8. a. The new board member said she would vote in favor of the proposed city ordinance because it _____________ many of the points discussed earlier this year. commonplace c. a. reminisced d. If your drinking water is not _____________. conformed b.82 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4.
Because Mark needed to pass the exam.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 83 9. deﬁcit 10. presumed d. a. resolved . a. To get the promotion she wanted. eminently b. conformity c. Tim dressed _____________ with bright red suspenders and a purple tie. he found himself in a _____________ about the right tie to wear to the business meeting. vital 13. obscurely 12. perplexity d. Muhammad fell asleep during the movie because it had a very _____________ plot. a. monotonous b. Hoping to win a prize for the best costume. he made studying a _____________ over watching his favorite television show. prestige b. ample d. supposed b. virtuously c. surmised c. a. priority b. a. redundancy c. she _____________ that it was best to go back to school to get her master’s degree as soon as she could. conspicuously d. Wanting to make a good impression. quandary d. torrid c. concept 11.
84 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 14. dissented b. approvingly b. symbolically d. Due to slippery road conditions and the slope of the narrow. portrayal b. signiﬁcantly c. The car rental company considered the scratches on the driver’s door to be caused by a minor _____________. careened d. duplicate . council c. generously d. audibly 17. agitated 16. dynamically b. a. disguise d. attraction c. a. a. the car _____________ down the steep mountainous road. Simone _____________ devoured a hearty breakfast. winding highway. The narrator’s description was an accurate _____________ of a true southern family. a. ventilated c. After running an early 5K race. beneﬁcially 18. mishap b. a. voraciously c. reunion 15. The ﬁre alarm _____________ beckoned the volunteer ﬁreﬁghters of the small community to come to action. reﬂex d.
d. no one seems to know anything about who she is or where she came from. c. b. very high. cutting edge. c. 23. newcomer. luxuriously c. d. Sandra is truly an enigma. stranger. Aswad has such a caustic sense of humor that most people ﬁnd his jokes upsetting rather than humorous. d. far beyond what is normal or reasonable. 21. b. narrowly Directions: For questions 21 through 45. disperse 20. b. the recent graduates spoke _____________ about job prospects for the future. original. enemy. bitingly sarcastic. warily b. belonging to a group. a. . mystery. Enigma means a. in a new location. although she’s lived here for years and everyone knows her. rendezvous b. to orbit. Exorbitant means a.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 85 19. The participants in the road rally agreed to _____________ near the village commons at 5:00. refreshingly honest. Caustic means a. relentlessly funny. c. Understanding the world economic conditions. a. ﬁlibuster d. scatter c. choose the best deﬁnition for the word in italics. 22. measurably d.
one who denounces or openly condemns another. d. 28. c. c. 29. a transformation. c. b. to surpass. under someone else’s authority or control. b. c. to transform. b. one who has changed. b. 27. tending to change frequently. 25. one-sided. c. .86 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 24. c. a teacher or instructor. Unilateral means a. organized according to rank. something ordinary or average. understated. moralize. 26. to preach. the process of instructing. literal. d. critical. moralizing. Subordinate means a. d. to undermine. b. Didactic means a. To reconcile means a. of or like a condemnation. outdo. to denounce or openly condemn. Denunciation means a. b. to move away from. d. to multiply. without distinction. d. hierarchical. Metamorphosis means a. to reestablish a close relationship between. the act of denouncing or openly condemning. d. repeated frequently to aid memorization. intended to instruct.
33. c. someone who is unconventional. c. rest quietly. 35. insight. villain. the process of encoding a message. an empire built by acquiring other territories. 32. revoke. to establish contact. b. 31. c. b. c. d. one who plants a garden. b. abolish. lasting a very long time. a number between one and ten. a very naïve person. b. constant. 34. d. relating to the acquisition of territories. worthy of consideration. d. d. Incisive means a. Perennial means a. someone who lacks creativity. c. quarrel. greatly varied. c. to act forcefully. occurring at intervals between two times or points. know intimately. an evil person. . To abrogate is to a. Intermittent means a. Imperialism means a. the policy of extending an empire by acquiring other territories. biting in nature. d. one who acquires items from other empires.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 87 30. ﬁght. b. badly handled. Miscreant means a. b. d. penetrating.
39. To acquiesce is to a. . d. c. c. A vicarious action is one that a. c. rambling speech. war. has existed for a long time. equality. mask the truth. there is a. c. enables a guilty person to be set free. a wanderer. b. is extremely friendly. d. generous. has a pleasing and lasting effect on others. An edict is a. extremely talkative. the act of seeing or shining. a formal proclamation or command. An acrimonious relationship is one that a. give in to. exists only in the imagination. d. b. b. d. bitterness.88 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36. highly noble. call attention to. b. peace. 37. is bitter or resentful. If there is amity between two nations. 40. 38. b. is experienced through the life or action of another. surrenders the rights of others. d. hobo. speak in a whisper. b. 41. given to wordy. A magnanimous person is a. comply with another’s wishes. c. c. a place to stop. a place to rest. d.
is not discerning. Anita’s (faux/foe) mink coat looked so real that a group of teenagers accused her of cruelty to animals. 48. Jackson may act as if he is totally (disinterested/uninterested) in you. b. but often ends up doing things that end up hurting others. d. A pugnacious person is best described as a. c. has good intentions. b.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 89 42. I am having the jewelry I inherited from my grandmother (appraised/apprised) to ﬁnd out how much it is worth. c. is unpredictable. b. calmness. 45. in its proper place. tends to talk a great deal. c. b. but believe me. ruthless. intense. burdened. straying from the norm. seems to be harmless but is actually very dangerous. is properly ordered. 44. peace. . appropriate. moves at a constant. as with guilt. 47. tends to like everyone. d. The pond was (teaming/teeming) with tadpoles after the frog eggs hatched. steady pace. talented. d. c. often has difﬁculty ﬁnding things. he is very anxious to learn more about you. light-hearted. nosy. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. d. 43. A loquacious person a. 49. Something that is erratic a. Directions: For questions 46 through 59. 46. meandering. carefree. ﬁery emotion. combative. To feel fervor is to feel a.
52. identiﬁable b. The documentary really (peaked/peeked/piqued) my interest in the Civil War. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. preﬁxes. With just a few hours to go before the big ceremony. or sufﬁxes. even though she did not entirely agree with the plan. visible d.90 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 50. A (hoard/horde) of angry parents attended the school board meeting and demanded that the superintendent step down. Adele rushed around (prescribing/proscribing) orders left and right. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. 59. 56. I think he’s telling the truth. 58. Helen entered the room right on (cue/queue). 53. let’s eat here. Although Oscar’s story sounds (incredible/incredulous). You are sure to be (censored/censured/sensored) if you make such wild accusations about your colleagues. a partial report a. enhanced . This looks like a (decent/descent/dissent) restaurant. 57. incomplete c. Huang decided to (raise/raze) the stakes by increasing the reward. 55. he seems to be afraid of no one and nothing. 54. 60. 51. I have always admired Don’s (meddle/mettle). Jing-Mae gave her (ascent/assent) to the proposal. Directions: In questions 60 through 63.
transgressed c. choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word. negate c. slack c. deny d. inconclusive b. slow b. punctual b. tardy d. regressed d. rain delay a. alleged 62. original b. hasten c. pause d. desist 66. regular 65. reverted b. weighty c.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 91 61. prompt payment a. moderate work ﬂow a. conﬁrm b. ﬁnal d. average c. processed Directions: In questions 64 through 67. a substantial report a. excessive . 64. challenge 63. manufactured goods a. proven d. corroborate the statement a.
“work like a dog. savoir faire d. aﬁcionado . oeuvre 70. blasé b. avant-garde d. imbroglio 69. ﬁrst b. an innovative play that uses an experimental style a. cliché b. mélange d.92 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. right Directions: For questions 68 through 72. apropos b. gestalt b. 68. rendezvous c. mélange c. the complete works of Shakespeare a. insouciant d. milieu c. bourgeois c. hiatus c. choose the word whose deﬁnition best matches the description. par excellence b. façade 71.” and other such overused sayings a. initial impression a. crisis c.” “sleep like a baby. gauche 72. ﬁnal d. zeitgeist d. an avid sports fan a. a meeting at 7:00 at La Grange restaurant a.
. eager. ﬂatter. c. b. mediocre. entertain. immense. A synonym for vast is a. average. attentive. adamant. see c. forward c. inscribe a.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 93 Directions: For questions 73 and 74. slight. c. 76. available. 77. steady. b. obey. write 75. cheerful. d. d. A synonym for comply is a. after b. sufﬁcient. conﬁne b. b. b. proﬁcient. subdue. c. behind 74. A synonym for adequate is a. c. d. 78. perform d. choose the word that best describes the section of the word in bold type. A synonym for enthusiastic is a. 73. toward d. proactive a. d.
Explicit means clearly deﬁned. dissembling. 12. inconsistent. 14. 13. Ingenious means marked by originality. a. to plan to obtain or bring about. 10. thrilled. d. Voraciously means having a huge appetite. attracting attention. a. d. or obliging. 6. Resolved means having reached a ﬁrm decision about something. 16. Encompassed in this context means included. 7. 15. and cleverness in conception. 5. b. d. Docile means easily led or managed. Priority means the right to receive attention before others. A rendezvous is a meeting or assembly that is by appointment or arrangement. Audibly means heard or the manner of being heard. to lurch or swerve while in motion. d. c. 9. ANSWERS 1. diverse.94 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 79. Favorably means gracious. 80. slovenly. c. a. 11. Careen means to rush headlong or carelessly. Portrayal means a representation or portrait. kindly. A mishap is an unfortunate accident. a. 19. 3. d. Quandary means a state of perplexity or doubt. 8. A synonym for ecstatic is a. b. Conspicuously means obvious to the eye or mind. positive. b. resourcefulness. Monotonous means having a tedious sameness. d. d. Devised means to form—in the mind—new combinations or applications of ideas or principles. ravenously. . b. c. a. An expressive person would be one who is open or emphatic when revealing opinions or feelings. 2. c. wild. a. Potable means ﬁt for drinking. 17. An antonym for uniform is a. c. bizarre. c. a. 18. 4. d.
c. or function. a. sharp. 31. c. again. 28. wrong.means bad. but no one knows anything about her. a marked change of form. The main context clue is that people ﬁnd Aswad’s jokes upsetting rather than humorous. periodic. d. secondary. 22. The noun sufﬁx -tion means the act or state of. b.means between or among. character. and as a verb (notice the -ate sufﬁx) it means (1) to put in a lower or inferior rank or class. Intermittent means occurring at intervals. 26. not continuous. To reconcile means to reestablish a close relationship between. especially in public. constantly recurring. forever. d. Exorbitant means greatly exceeding (far away from) the bounds of what is normal or reasonable. The context tells you that people know who Sandra is. d. out of. The preﬁx ex. The preﬁx sub. Denunciation means the act of denouncing. Enigma means something that is puzzling or difﬁcult to understand.means back. 24. Choices b and c are both nouns. The adjective sufﬁx -ic means pertaining or relating to. d. it would require the sufﬁx -ist. beneath. 27. suitable for. Miscreant means a villain. tending to be excessively instructive or moralizing. d. The noun sufﬁx -sis means the process of. 25. cutting. The preﬁx mis. (2) subject to the authority or control of another. Didactic means intended to instruct. having the quality of. 29. but for choice b to be correct. and watchful prudence. Unilateral means one-sided. able to burn or dissolve by chemical action. Only choice b deﬁnes a quality. The adjective sufﬁx -ive means having the nature of. 32. 33. happening again and again or year after year. an evil person. a. The preﬁx inter. thus choice a is the only option that makes sense. a. 23.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 95 20. related to. The adjective subordinate means (1) of a lower or inferior class or rank. (2) to make subservient. As a noun it means one that is subordinate to another.means under. The adjective sufﬁx -ial means having the quality of. Incisive means penetrating and clear. cunning. acute. The preﬁx uni. a. 30.means one. thus.means out. Metamorphosis means a transformation. Choice a is the only adjective deﬁnition. b. 21. subdue. The preﬁx re. meaning action or process. she remains a mystery. away from. below. a. alternate. biting. evil. to bring back to harmony. Perennial means lasting an indeﬁnitely long time. . Notice also the adjective sufﬁx -al. Warily is a manner marked by keen caution. criminal. to openly condemn or accuse of evil. Caustic means bitingly sarcastic. a bafﬂing problem or riddle.
Acrimonious means bitter and sharp in language or tone. 38. 43. To appraise means to evaluate. a. Fervor means zeal. 46. The root qui means quiet. bubble. etc. The noun sufﬁx -ity means state of being. 35. 42. b. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. a state of friendly or peaceful relations. The root am means love. speech. cause to be. combative. the sufﬁx -ate means to make. 49. d. away from. deviating (wandering) from the normal or typical course of action. Magnanimous means very noble and generous. 39. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. down. Uninterested means not interested. The root ferv means to boil. use words. Loquacious means very talkative. Pugnacious means quarrelsome. a formal proclamation or command issued by someone in authority. 40. burn. a. 47. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. a. The noun sufﬁx -ism means state or doctrine of. acting or suffering for another. The root err means to wander. The sufﬁx -or means a condition or activity. An edict is an ofﬁcial order or decree. The root ac/acr means sharp. The adjective sufﬁx -ic means pertaining or relating to. fake. 44. formally revoke. Amity means friendship. do away with. not genuine or real. b. having no care or interest in knowing. d. or inconsistent manner. tell. d. Imperialism means the policy of extending rule of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories. Vicarious means felt through imaging what another has experienced. 48. give in. d. to be present in large numbers. d. The root loc/log/loqu means word. The root rog means to ask. faux. inclined to ﬁght. away. appraised.96 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 34. To acquiesce means to comply. bitter. d. uneven. 45. 36. Faux means artiﬁcial.means off. opinion. The preﬁx ab. teeming. ardor. understanding and forgiving of others. consent without protest—thereby “quieting” the other to whom one gives in. To teem means to be full of. having the quality of. The root vi means life. c. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. 37. intense emotion. to establish value or estimate the worth of. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. To abrogate means to abolish. Erratic means moving or behaving in an irregular. . The root pug means to ﬁght. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. The root mag/maj/max means big. 41. garrulous. uninterested.
To raise is to lift. concurrence. raise. you may be reminded of a rain delay at a sporting event. horde. A delay is a postponement in time. censured. b. Incredible means implausible. Substance means something that has signiﬁcance. Avant-garde means using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. to vex. Oeuvre means (1) a work of art. or strength. To pique is (1) to cause annoyance or irritation. (2) the total lifework of a writer. incredible. 53. Manufactured goods are those that are made or processed from raw material into a ﬁnished product. to increase in size. composer. 56. Something that is moderate is not subject to extremes. decent. prescribing. An initial impression is one that comes ﬁrst. Partial means incomplete. 57. To delay is to slow. 68. tardy means late. You may have seen this sentence on one of your bills: Prompt payment is appreciated. (2) to provoke or arouse. Context clues are important as well. intensity. 55. beyond belief. especially in the arts or literature. such as a word or action. This sentence uses the second meaning. 66. piqued. A substantial report is extensive. 51. consent. Decent means (1) conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or correct. Prompt means punctual. rebuke. 54. assent. 67. A partial report is only part of the whole. A cue is a signal. adequate. c. The key part of the word substantial is substance. 59. It also means to order a medicine or other treatment. degree. and collide. a. cutting-edge. The key here is to remember not to choose the synonym. 63. 69. given to prompt or remind someone of something. d. d. Notice the preﬁx co-. spirit. which means with or together. a hint or suggestion. To corroborate is conﬁrm. artist. sufﬁcient. 58. . b. Initial means ﬁrst. coworker. 60. 65. To censure is to criticize strongly. mettle. c. astonishing. ﬁnal means last. 52. etc.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 97 50. The root of the word here is part. This sentence uses the second meaning. make higher. c. to hasten is to hurry. 61. A horde is a large group or crowd. condemn. innovative. 64. Mettle means courage. b. Corroboration means that one statement ﬁts with another. order something to be done. excessive means extreme. fortitude. Moderate means average. Some related words are cooperate. cue. (2) meeting acceptable standards. a vast multitude. Assent means agreement. 62. To prescribe is to issue commands. d. dictate. If you rely on context clues to help you answer this question. Facer—the word root—means to make or do. quantity.
The word root scribe means to write. 77. a. d. d.98 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 70. a. . d. 79. to engrave on a surface. b. d. b. especially of a sport or pastime. 72. (2) a place where people meet. 76. to be diverse is to have variety. The verb rendezvous means to bring or come together at a certain place. b. If someone is proactive. it is sufﬁcient. A person who is ecstatic is thrilled. Enthusiastic means eager. To be uniform is be consistent or the same as others. Comply is synonymous with obey. d. to meet at a rendezvous. An aﬁcionado is a fan or devotee. 78. 73. 75. The preﬁx pro means for. 80. Vast means very great in size. A cliché is a trite or overused expression or idea. 74. especially a popular gathering place. If something is adequate. they are forward thinking and take action or initiative to make things happen. The noun rendezvous means (1) a prearranged meeting at a certain time and place. immense. 71. b.
confound b. vicious c. Directions: For questions 1 through 18. pummeled c. The Earth Day committee leader placed large garbage bins in the park to _____________ Saturday’s cleanup. belittled b. pacify c. you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. facilitate 99 . legitimate 2. make a list of these words. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. choose the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. 1. rebuked d. It might be a good idea to write down the deﬁnition beside the word. optional b. prominent d. After you complete the test.Practice Test 2 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. commended 3. her claim to the estate was _____________. Then. Being a direct relative of the deceased. When you are ﬁnished. however. integrate d. if you come across words that you are unsure of. The hail _____________ the cornﬁeld until the entire crop was lost. a. Take your time when answering each question. (We suggest not timing yourself. a.) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary. look up the deﬁnitions for the words on your list. a.
conﬂuence c. The _____________ of the two rivers provided the perfect place to build a new state park. Do you have the _____________ paperwork you need to register for the class? a. treatise 6. requisite 7. you must pass the last exam of the semester to graduate. a. relinquish d. depreciate c. Her rapport with everyone in the ofﬁce _____________ the kind of interpersonal skills that all of the employees appreciated. delude b. When you address the members of the committee. diverged c. restorative d. exempliﬁed d. prohibit 8. determined c. Do not _____________ yourself. a. massive .100 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4. principled b. prevailed b. punitive b. grandiose c. assumption b. a. be sure to give a _____________ description of the new ofﬁce procedures. comprehensive d. varied 5. seclusion d. a.
superﬁcial c. repulsively b. a. customary b. a. a. After an hour of heavy rain. the thunderstorm _____________. ample . voluntary 10. Although Hunter was _____________ about revealing information to us when we ﬁrst met him. precursor c. Florin became a _____________ veterinarian who could treat and operate on many different kinds of animals. a. and we were able to continue our golf game. he soon began to talk more than anyone. animated d. reticent c. abated b. Martin Kemp _____________ told the press that he had accepted the nomination as board chairperson. evoked 13. perpetually d. The news was no longer secret. principally 12. After years of experience. tedium b.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 101 9. reputedly c. consummate d. acute b. The darkening skies in the west were a _____________ to the dangerous thunderstorm that summer afternoon. preference d. constricted d. momentum 11. a. germinated c.
diligently d. comical c. a.102 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 14. The two cats could be _____________ only by the number of rings on their tails. reconnoiter 18. they were exactly alike. separated b. differentiated 17. divided c. a. criminal d. terminally b. haphazardly 15. Provoking d. a. clairvoyant . Irritating b. On each slick curve in the road. a. a. Anthony. submerge d. perpendicularly c. evidently she was right because she always seemed to know what would happen in the future. Smuggling 16. operate b. I was afraid we would _____________ and have an accident. a meticulous young man. dreamlike b. disconnected d. _____________ elephants from the wild not only endangers the species but upsets the balance of nature. Poaching c. hydroplane c. otherwise. _____________ watered his neighbors’ plants once a week while they were on vacation. My cousin claimed to be _____________.
To emulate means a. to support wholeheartedly. to demonstrate. 22. 19. Although the plot of the ﬁlm is admittedly trite. overused. c. c. or outdo. To garner means a. to injure seriously. exciting. d. to prevent from accomplishing. Ilka has always emulated her older brother. . to be excessively competitive. b. d. to propose. to be the subject of a sentence or conversation. to withhold. Cy’s attempt to ﬁnally complete the marathon was thwarted when he twisted his ankle in the 23rd mile. to be more successful than. c. to support actively. b. to be surrounded on all sides. to strive to equal. b. so it is no surprise that she is also pursuing a career as a neuroscientist. the characters are so endearing that the movie is highly entertaining despite the old storyline. d. to create. Everyone loved Ilona’s idea. c. To subjugate means a. Trite means a. d. To thwart means a. and she quickly garnered enough support for her proposal to present it to the committee. original. c. choose the best deﬁnition for the word in italics. b. to regard as inferior. 23. 20. d. to be wrongly or unevenly distributed. to conquer. b. bring under control.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 103 Directions: For questions 19 through 45. 21. imitate. complex.
d. b. c. to carry out an ill-conceived or poorly planned course of action. a surprising collaboration. c. the management of domestic affairs. b. 28. c. 26. unfortunate. . Anomaly means a. b. to go away secretly and hide. generosity. an unfortunate occurrence. something that is irregular. kind. To coalesce means a. giving charitably. c. one who domesticates animals. to be generous with one’s time or money. to do something ahead of deadline. d. b. Lamentable means a. 29. easily managed or taught. generous ruler. d. discontent among a speciﬁc group within a larger population. To abscond means a. d. a kind. to dig up. 25. Benevolence means a. to create a secret hiding place. or deviates from the usual form. consistency. regrettable. to do something without telling anyone. regularity. c. b. Docile means a. c. to do something regrettable. d. b. especially in shame. d. abnormal. to regret. to combine and form a whole. mine. obedience. kindness. 27.104 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 24. to withdraw silently. willing to obey. the cooperation of unlikely individuals. join together.
unique. b. or apart from others. to correct. eager to help. loving. chosen from within. Antipathy means a. having little or no impact. a beginner or novice. kind. 33. c. c. A belligerent person is a. something that comes from multiple sources. kept between or within members of a family. d. Inscrutable means a. Neophyte means a. an examination of all aspects of an issue. a surprising error. d. distinct. c. incapable of being understood. someone who lives with another. devoted. the act of separating from the source. exceeding expectations. c. eager to ﬁght. 32. a strong aversion or dislike. c. b. not fathomable. fundamentally different.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 105 30. d. an editor. d. 35. . Rectify means a. 34. d. a roommate. b. teaching a lesson. from the same origin. original. c. that which occurred previously. 31. from another country. b. b. hostile. foreign. a correction. b. Disparate means a. d.
b. c. c. d. c. c. newborn. a rebirth. everywhere. Something that is luminous is a. d. put something in its proper place. To equivocate is to a. c. d. receives the maximum beneﬁt. guilty. full of knowledge. 38. 40. obvious. b. A person who is culpable is a. energetic. a punishment. speak in a way that conceals the truth. vocal. is eager to please. d. shining. blames others for his or her own faults. capable. equal. A renaissance is a. 37. deadly. b. a mistake. 39. even. c. b. calm or quiet. bright. d. b. often speaks without thinking. a lie. 41. .106 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36. burn or sting. excessive. Someone who is omniscient a. b. full of life. d. Something that is manifest is a.
c. harmless. 44. Someone who is reticent is a. Directions: For questions 46 through 59. judging equally. c. place side by side. bubbling over with enthusiasm. thoroughly washed. overwhelm. Tomorrow the city is going to (raise/raze) the building that I grew up in. reserved. fair. d. 50.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 107 42. 49. but the dollar is up. . clean. To juxtapose is to a. d. c. Something that is innocuous is a. irrelevant. ﬂood. A veritable autograph is a. very valuable. but nothing would (elicit/illicit) a response from the child. speak in a round-about manner. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. d. an autograph by a famous person. wandering from the main path or point. genuine. 43. silent. 46. b. b. 45. inoffensive. c. I will (appraise/apprise) you of the situation. d. I tried everything. 47. Stop (persecuting/prosecuting) me just because I often disagree with you. 48. As soon as I get off the phone. b. be born again. b. deeply in love. a forgery or fake. The Euro has (deprecated/depreciated). dangerous or deadly.
but they ﬁnally caught up with him in Reno. Georgio had to (fain/feign) excitement when he opened his presents so his parents wouldn’t know he’d already searched their room to ﬁnd out what he was getting. Although you all seem to agree. The (cue/queue) for the movies was all the way to the end of the block and around the corner. and soon it was no longer even noticeable. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. The odor quickly (disbursed/dispersed) through the room. A strange odor is (eminenting/imminenting/emanating) from Professor Van Buren’s laboratory. I don’t like Igor because he is constantly (meddling/mettling) in things that are none of his business. 58. 59. 57. challenging .108 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 51. 53. 52. Directions: In questions 60 through 63. undeniable d. 60. or sufﬁxes. The thief managed to (allude/elude) the police for several days. I think this is a bad decision. not likely c. an incoherent answer a. I’m just going to (peak/peek/pique) in the baby’s room to make sure she’s okay. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. 55. not understandable b. 54. preﬁxes. 56. I must (decent/descent/dissent). Dixie is so (ingenious/ingenuous) I don’t think she could lie if her life depended on it.
unskilled b. cautiously d. expensive b. exorbitant prices a. competitive c. harmonious d. covered with debris a. 64. transparent material c. compatible workers a. reasonable d. zealous pursuit a. able 65. apt d. experienced Directions: In questions 64 through 67. scattered rubble d. protective material 62. mistakenly b. eager c. good excuses b. inadvertently left a. choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 109 61. idle d. gifted b. envious b. capable employee a. unexpected c. purposely c. comical 66. carefully 63. absurd c. outrageous .
milieu d. appeasing c. façade 72. ad hoc b. imbroglio c. incognito b.110 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. choose the word whose deﬁnition best matches the description. hiatus d. wearing a disguise a. pretending not to be hurt by an insulting remark a. gauche c. blasé b. a temporary separation in a relationship a. ungracious Directions: For questions 68 through 72. vis-à-vis . hostile b. imbroglio c. parvenu d. aﬁcionado b. cliché d. debut 69. belligerent attitude a. 68. parvenu d. quid pro quo c. malaise 70. oeuvre 71. someone who reports students’ questions and concerns to the dean a. instinctive d. ennui b. an artist’s ﬁrst gallery showing a. liaison c.
accomplish. unsettled. c. b. leery. dangerous. 76. adjacent. 77. choose the word or phrase that best describes the section of the word in bold type. old. uninterrupted. congregation a. 73. c. with b. sicken. inﬂuence. worried. An antonym for wary is a. d. b. alert. intermittent. b. d. c. b. c. a relationship c. suitable d. 78. a state of being b. apart d. over c.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 111 Directions: For questions 73 and 74. time 74. wisdom a. A synonym for affect is a. cause. d. contiguous. An antonym for novel is a. . an action 75. a property d. careless. A synonym for continuous is a.
Consummate means extremely skilled and experienced. blessing. An antonym for fallacy is a. b. to deceive. d. A clairvoyant is someone who can perceive matters beyond the range of ordinary perception. Reputedly means according to general belief. . To differentiate between two things is to establish the distinction between them. reserved. c. Delude means to mislead the mind. Comprehensive means covering completely or broadly. ANSWERS 1. a. a meeting. Precursor means something that comes before. d. conviviality. rudeness. 9. Reticent means inclined to be silent or uncommunicative. c. congruity. When a car goes out of control and skims along the surface of a wet road. Facilitate means to make easier or help bring about. b. Exemplify means to be an instance of or serve as an example. b. d. civility. 3. Diligently means to do something with careful attention and great effort. d. 5. 6. c. Conﬂuence means a coming or ﬂowing together. or a gathering at one point. 80. c. it is called hydroplaning. A synonym for courtesy is a.112 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 79. b. 13. truth. 10. b. d. b. d. 7. weakness. To poach is to trespass on another’s property in order to steal ﬁsh or game. Pummeled means to pound or beat. d. 4. 14. Legitimate means in a manner conforming to recognized principles or accepted rules or standards. c. b. a. fable. 17. Requisite means essential or necessary. 12. d. 18. c. Abated means to decrease in force or intensity. 15. b. 11. 16. 2. 8.
Inscrutable means bafﬂing. The adjective sufﬁx -ile means having the qualities of. d. The preﬁx in. 30. b. 23. promotes. The noun sufﬁx -ence means state of. Disparate means fundamentally different or distinct. Cy’s twisted ankle kept him from realizing his attempt to complete the marathon. subdue. d. To garner means to gather. bring under control.means away from. Anomaly means something that deviates from the general rule or usual form. b. c. 25. Notice also the verb sufﬁx -ate. The preﬁx dis. being in a speciﬁed state or condition. overly familiar through overuse. or easily managed.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 113 19. especially after wrongdoing. amass. ready and willing to be taught. 28.means against. a new form of. The preﬁx anti. The verb sufﬁx -ify means to make. 20. incapable of being understood. varied. opposed to. b. correct. without. especially by imitation. d. a. meaning one that performs. or acquire. or causes an action. 33. not. 34. c. The sentence tells you that Ilona quickly found the support she needed to present her idea to the committee. to join together. unfortunate. Coalesce means to combine and form a whole. unfathomable. a. To thwart means to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. 27. a. To emulate means to try to equal or excel. 24. one that is irregular or abnormal. To rectify means to make right. inspiring grief or mourning. away from. recent. b. apart.means off. 26. it is logical to conclude that she would gather their support.means with. fuse. To abscond means to go away secretly and hide oneself. Notice also the adjective sufﬁx -able. 31. Antipathy means a strong aversion or dislike. dissimilar. b.means new. The preﬁx neo. which indicates that she is trying to equal or outdo him through imitation. d. 32. apart. The preﬁx co. Neophyte means a beginner or novice. To subjugate means to conquer. reversal.” which indicates that the plot of the movie is overused. d. The sentence tells you that Ilka is pursuing the same career as her brother. 21. Trite means repeated too often. Docile means willing to obey. . 29.means not. down. Benevolence means the inclination to be kind and generous. also because the sentence states that people loved Ilona’s idea.means under or below. The preﬁx ab. The adjective sufﬁx -able means capable or worthy of. The preﬁx a. together.mean not. 22. Lamentable means regrettable. d. The key context clue is the phrase “the old storyline. a disposition to act charitably. The preﬁx sub.
40. emitting light. The preﬁx in. The root tac/tic means to be silent. 37. Veritable means real. or mistreat. cause to be. religious or political beliefs. Culpable means deserving blame or censure for doing something wrong or harmful. c. not quite doing either). full of light. obvious. a. 43. knowing all things. c. The root culp means blame. b. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. The root ver means truth. persecuting. at hand. 36.114 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 35. To depreciate means to diminish in price or value. true. The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. the root sci means to know. depreciated. as the other answers correspond with different roots. The root man means hand. The root pon/pos/pound means to put. To juxtapose means to place side by side. b. The preﬁx re.means not. to lessen the worth of. harass. The root bel means war. 46. to provoke. thus. The root equ means equal. guilty. 42. genuine. elicit. a. blameworthy. especially because of race. The ending -ent is an adjective sufﬁx meaning in a state or condition. 48. The root omni means all. especially to compare or contrast. d. . To equivocate means to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to mislead or conceal the truth. reserved. The root luc/lum/lus means light. death. Omniscient means having inﬁnite knowledge. The root nas/nat/nai means to be born. the sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. someone who equivocates is “equally” lying and telling the truth (or rather. showing an eagerness to ﬁght. Belligerent means hostile and aggressive. to belittle. The adjective sufﬁx -able means capable or worthy of. The sufﬁx -able means capable or worthy of. Thus. Renaissance means a rebirth or revival. Reticent means tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. the root voc/vok means to call. place. 44. untalkative. 45. 47. having no adverse or ill effects. 38. silent. It also means to think or speak of as being of little worth. To persecute is to oppress. brilliant. d. performing or causing a speciﬁed action. c. Thus. innocuous means harmless. Manifest means clear and unmistakable. or sexual orientation. the sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. 39. (2) to deduce or derive by reasoning.means back or again. the sufﬁx -ate means to make. The correct answer can be achieved here through the process of elimination. a. 41. To elicit means (1) to call forth or draw out. a. the sufﬁx -ance means state of. Luminous means shining.
Exorbitant literally means exceeding the bounds of what is fair or normal. (2) to distribute widely. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. 56. an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. 55. Zealous means eager. to make aware of. choice b. dispersed. c. (2) to be incomprehensible to. (2) to erase. or cause to do so. To peek is to glance quickly or peer at furtively. or skill. feign. 62. disseminate. The opposite of an exorbitant or outrageous price would be a reasonable one. daring. which means not. c. peek. To dissent is (1) to differ in opinion.means not. meddling. inform. eager. The other trick is not to choose the synonym. apprise. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. To apprise means to give notice or information to. so idle is most nearly the opposite. 60. queue. 51. 63. a. 50. especially by cleverness. Inadvertently means by mistake. c. To elude is (1) to escape from or evade. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. The preﬁx in. unskilled means unable. To cohere means to connect. 58. The key element in this word is the preﬁx in-. disagree. as from a source. Debris is scattered fragments or trash. dissent. Capable means able. To raze is (1) to level to the ground. artless. 54. a. which means out of or away from. Compatible means capable of existing or performing in harmony. One other precaution is to be careful and not be misled by the similar sounds of zealous and jealous. a. interfere. To meddle is to intrude in other people’s affairs. demolish completely. To disperse is (1) to separate and scatter in different directions. elude. to give the false appearance of. A coherent answer connects or makes sense. unable to mask feelings. To feign is to pretend.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 115 49. 53. frank sincere. A queue is (1) a line of waiting people or vehicles. Incoherent means not understandable. Ingenuous means (1) not cunning or deceitful. (2) in information processing. c. 61. obliterate. (2) to withhold approval or assent. You may have heard the word zeal before. 65. 52. 57. The best clue in this word is the preﬁx ex-. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. (2) lacking sophistication or worldliness. emanating. To emanate is to come or issue forth. ingenuous. 64. 59. escape the understanding of. 66. The sufﬁx -able tells you that a capable employee is one who has ability. which might give you a clue about the meaning of the word. very high. . This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. raze.
73. or lasting. A façade is (1) the face or front of a building. To be novel is to be new. especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. 69. 79. The sufﬁx -dom is a state of being. 77. which means warlike. 72. a. The synonym choices—hostile and ungracious—would be incorrect. A courtesy is a courteous or mannerly act. The key element in this word is the root belli. a truth is something that conforms to the facts. d. Continuous means marked by uninterrupted extension in space and time. To be wary is to be on guard or watchful. d. d. Liaison means (1) a channel or means of connection or communication between two groups. Someone who has wisdom is someone who is wise enough to discern or judge what is right. (2) a close relationship or link. a. A congregation would gather together with each other in a house of worship. a.116 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. 78. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. 74. a. 80. it is characterized by civility. 75. trickery. . c. an interruption or break. Hiatus means a gap or opening. 71. true. The preﬁx con. c. one who maintains such communication. To affect means to inﬂuence. 68. d. The antonym would be appeasing. A debut is a ﬁrst appearance in or presentation to the public.means to be together with. a. in disguise or under an assumed character or identity. 70. 76. the opposite is old. b. Incognito means with one’s identity concealed. careless is the opposite of watchful. (2) an artiﬁcial or deceptive front. A fallacy is a false or mistaken idea. d. b.
and they’re friend-friendly. Or. use it in conversation as soon as possible. After each vocabulary word. try writing a sentence that uses the word on one side of the ﬂash card and the deﬁnition of the word on the other. 1. Write the vocabulary word on one side and the deﬁnition on the other. and a sentence using the word. When you learn a new word. 117 . so you can study with a buddy. Learn a short list every day. review the word list. Figure out how many days there are until you take the TOEFL iBT. You and your friends can drill each other. part of speech. If you can make games out of learning vocabulary.APPENDIX A Word List B y now you’ve seen that a good working vocabulary is a very important asset when taking the TOEFL iBT. you will ﬁnd the word’s pronunciation. and it’s yours! Another alternative is to work with ﬂash cards. they’re portable. try the following strategy. studying will be more fun and you will learn more as well! Now. (Note: Some words have different meanings depending on how they are being used. Remember that the best way to learn vocabulary is also the easiest: make long lists of words you don’t know and then break them down into short lists. 2.) If the word list looks intimidating. You should also try and write sentences using the new words. deﬁnition. Flash cards are easy to handle. Repetition is key—use a word three times. Flash cards are pieces of paper or index cards that are used as a learning aid. Multiply that number by 10.
a a ˘ ah ahr air aw ay b ch d e e ˘ ee eer f h hw i ˘ ¯ j k l m n hat. You may want to photocopy the next few pages so that you will be able to refer to this list easily. puddle. trolley. dear sun. marry. pull vail. coin. head. preacher day. carry. aware. walk. live. noodle. worry cook. fact ago. live want. come. regular. stuffy. paper. frank odd. PRONUNCIATION KEY Before you review the word list. sky jug. please division. summon. chart. edible icy. ﬁshing. some of these words may already be familiar to you. toll more. fog heed. draw stage. treasure . measure her. breath this. put. ﬁnger. boat. fair ball. relief go. day bat. breathe cup. yarn. super pour. rice share. coy ooze. tragic. crib church. middle stencil. scorn. pedal palm. sure for. sliver. unhappy whether. house. farm bare. how pan. coarse oil. Next to each pronunciation symbol are words chosen to illustrate how the symbols are said aloud. trot salmon. quaint you. strengthen. blame. trickle eat. cheer fan. tree ear. sew aboard. heaven. cash tip. father car. fox. mutter. cure. cherry shaken. advisor oak. shaken. rabbit. turn. nowhere it. slim no. hedge kitten. hazy. treat. pot three.118 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT If you have only 30 days until the test day. listen. father. pop rain. tire. bed egg. track lost. dinner. yesterday zebra. dependable. by studying only ten new words each day! And. man n o o ˘ oh ohr oi oo oor or ow p r s sh t th th u u ˘ ur uu v w y z zh sing. horse out. score. shut delicious. you can learn 300 new words. here a list of the pronunciation symbols used in the deﬁnitions. remember. clear. scare.
abeyance (a ˘·'bay·a ˘ns) n. He threw down his gun and absconded from the scene of the crime. abhor (ab·'hohr) v. a ceremonious tap on the shoulder with a sword to mark the conferring of knighthood. to abolish. I know Carlos abhors politics. to refrain from voting. the reviews were abysmal. He received accolades from his superiors for ﬁnding ways to cut costs and increase productivity. It was not surprising that the movie was a ﬂop. abrogate ('ab·ro ˘· ayt) v. subside. accolade ('ak·o ˘·layd) n. abysmal (a ˘·'biz·ma ˘l) adj. to choose to refrain from an action or practice. When Joseph became a citizen. used with temperance or moderation. 1. The dictator abrogated agreements that no longer suited his purposes. but he should still get out and vote. or degree. difﬁcult to comprehend. we began to survey the damage it caused. praise or approval. . abscond (ab·'skond) v. using or consuming sparingly. do away with. redemption. especially after wrongdoing to avoid prosecution. I have decided to abstain on this issue. 2.WO R D LI ST 119 WORD LIST A abate (a ˘·'bayt) v. sparing in the indulgence of appetites or passions. a ceremonial embrace in greeting. 2. abstemious (ab·'stee·mee·u ˘s) adj. Construction of the highway is in abeyance until we get agency approval. After Vadeem gained 30 pounds. absolution (ab·so ˘·'loo·sho ˘n) n. to give up or reject. 1. distortion. abjure (ab·'joor) v. suspension. he decided he needed a more abstemious diet. extreme. abstain (ab·'stayn) v. 1. 1. to lessen in strength. aberration (a ˘b·e ˘·'ray·sho ˘n) n. 2. obscure. abstruse (ab·'stroos) adj. detest. he had to abjure his allegiance to his country of origin. As the violent storm abated. The jury granted Alan the absolution he deserved. His new scientiﬁc theory was deemed an aberration by his very conservative colleagues. extremely bad. to go away secretly and hide oneself. deviation from what is normal. Albert Einstein’s abstruse calculations can be understood by only a few people. 2. 2. 3. to regard with horror or repugnance. formally revoke. being temporarily suspended or set aside. 1. eating and drinking in moderation. limitless. 1. to repudiate. an absolving or clearing from blame or guilt. 2. intensity. profound. a formal declaration of forgiveness. renounce under oath.
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
accretion (a ˘·'kree·sho ˘n) n. 1. growth or increase by gradual, successive addition;
building up. 2. (in biology) the growing together of parts that are normally separate. The accretion of sediment in the harbor channel caused boats to run aground.
acquiesce (ak·wee·'es) v. to comply, give in, consent without protest. After the
police ofﬁcer explained why the street was closed to pedestrian trafﬁc, I acquiesced and walked to the next street.
acrid ('ak·rid) adj. 1. having an unpleasantly bitter, sharp taste or smell. 2. bitter
or caustic in language or manner. The burning tires in the junkyard gave off an acrid odor.
acrimonious (ak·r˘·'moh·nee·u ˘s) adj. bitter and sharp in language or tone. Jasleen
did not like her new neighbors; it was obvious in the acrimonious way she spoke to them.
acumen (a ˘·'kyoo·me ˘n) n. quickness, keenness, and accuracy of perception, judgment, or insight. With Jonelle’s acumen, she would make an excellent trial lawyer.
ad hoc (ad 'hok) adj. for a speciﬁc, often temporary, purpose; for this case only.
An ad hoc committee will be formed to investigate Stella’s allegations.
adamant ('ad·a ˘·ma ˘nt) adj. 1. unyielding to requests, appeals, or reason. 2. ﬁrm,
inﬂexible. The senator was adamant that no changes would be made to the defense budget.
addle ('ad·e ˘l) v. 1. to muddle or confuse. 2. to become rotten, as in an egg. The
prosecuting attorney’s questions addled the defendant.
ado (a ˘·'doo) n. fuss, trouble, bother. Without much ado, she completed her book
adroit (a ˘·'droit) adj. skillful, clever, or adept in action or in thought; dexterous,
deft. Priya is a very adroit seamstress; she should have your trousers ﬁxed in no time.
agrarian (a ˘·' rair·ee·a ˘n) adj. relating to or concerning land and its ownership or
cultivation. Although his family tried to convince him to move to a big city, Greg preferred his agrarian life as a farmer.
aﬁcionado (a ˘·fish·yo·'nah·doh) n. a fan or devotee, especially of a sport or pastime. Sal is such an Rolling Stones aﬁcionado that he bought tickets to all ten Giants Stadium concerts.
alacrity (a ˘·'lak·ri·tee) n. a cheerful willingness; being happily ready and eager.
The alacrity she brought to her job helped her move up the corporate ladder quickly.
WO R D LI ST
allay (a ˘·'lay) v. 1. to reduce the intensity of, alleviate. 2. to calm, put to rest. The
remarks by the CEO did not allay the concerns of the employees.
allude (a ˘·'lood) v. to make an indirect reference to. The presidential candidate
alluded to the recent unemployment problem by saying, “We’ve all made sacriﬁces.”
altercation (awl·te ˘r·'kay·sho ˘n) n. a heated dispute or quarrel. To prevent an altercation at social functions, one should avoid discussing politics and religion.
amiable ('ay·mee·a ˘·be ˘l) adj. friendly and agreeable; good natured, likable, pleasing. Miguel was usually the ﬁrst person invited to a party; his amiable personality drew people to him.
amity ('am·˘·tee) n. friendship; a state of friendly or peaceful relations. Amity had
existed between Denise and Suzanne since they decided not to ﬁght about money anymore.
ambivalent (am·'biv·a ˘·le ˘nt) adj. having mixed or conﬂicting feelings about a
person, thing, or situation; uncertain. She was ambivalent about the proposal for the shopping center because she understood both the arguments for and against its construction.
ameliorate (a ˘·'meel·yo ˘·rayt) v. to make or become better, to improve. The diplomat was able to ameliorate the tense situation between the two nations.
amorphous (a ˘·'mor·fu ˘s) adj. 1. having no deﬁnite form or distinct shape; shapeless. 2. of no particular kind or character, anomalous. Andrea looked up at the sky, looking at the amorphous clouds.
amulet ('am·yu ˘·lit) n. something worn around the neck as a charm against evil.
The princess wore an amulet after being cursed by a wizard.
anachronism (a ˘·'nak·ro ˘·niz·e ˘m) n. 1. something that is placed into an incorrect
historical period. 2. a person, custom, or idea that is out of date. With the rise in popularity of cell phones, pagers seem like an anachronism.
anarchy ('an·a ˘r·kee) n. 1. the complete absence of government or control resulting in lawlessness. 2. political disorder and confusion. After the king’s assassination, the country fell into a state of anarchy.
anomaly (a ˘·'nom·a ˘·lee) n. something that deviates from the general rule or usual
form; one that is irregular, peculiar, or abnormal. Everyone in my family enjoys seafood, so my uncle’s distaste for the salmon dish was an anomaly.
antagonist (an·'ta ·o ˘·nist) n. one who opposes or contends with another; an
adversary, opponent. Hillary was Mike’s antagonist as they both competed for the lead role in the play.
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
antecedent (an·ti·'see·de ˘nt) n. that which precedes; the thing, circumstance,
event that came before. The police are trying to determine the antecedent of the deadly car crash.
anthropomorphic (an·thro ˘·po ˘·'mor·fik) adj. attributing human characteristics,
motivations, or behavior to animals or inanimate objects. Many mythologies are about anthropomorphic deities, who express human characteristics such as love, envy, and sadness.
antipathy (an·'tip·a ˘·thee) n. 1. a strong aversion or dislike. 2. an object of aversion. After Inti stole Peter’s wallet, Peter had antipathy for his classmate.
antithesis (an·'tith·e ˘·sis) n. the direct or exact opposite, opposition or contrast.
Martin’s parenting style is the antithesis of mine; he is strict, I am not.
apathetic (ap·a ˘·'thet·ik) adj. feeling or showing a lack of interest, concern, or
emotion; indifferent, unresponsive. Many students were apathetic when the principal resigned after thirty years working at the school.
aperture ('ap·e ˘r·chu ˘r) n. an opening or gap, especially one that lets in light. The
aperture setting on a camera has to be set perfectly to ensure that pictures will have enough light.
apex ('ay·peks) n. 1. the highest point. 2. tip, pointed end. Upon reaching the apex
of the mountain, the climbers placed their ﬂag in the snow.
apocalypse (a ˘·'pok·a ˘·lips) n. a cataclysmic event bringing about total devastation
or the end of the world. Many people feared an apocalypse would immediately follow the development of nuclear weapons.
apostate (a ˘·'pos·tayt) n. one who abandons long-held religious or political convictions. Disillusioned with religious life, Reverend Gift lost his faith and left the ministry, not caring if he’d be seen as an apostate by colleagues who chose to remain.
apotheosis (a ˘·poth·ee·'oh·sis) n. deiﬁcation, an exalted or gloriﬁed ideal. Hanson
was so in love with Marge; in his daydreams, she was an apotheosis.
appease (a ˘·'peez) v. to make calm or quiet, soothe; to still or pacify. The only way
to appease Lawrence is to concede that he is right.
appraise (a ˘·'prayz) v. 1. to evaluate. 2. to establish value or estimate the worth
of. The art dealer appraised the value of the painting.
apprise (a ˘·'pr¯z) v. to give notice or information to; to make aware of, inform.
The teacher apprised the class about when the midterm and ﬁnal exams would occur.
arduous ('ahr·joo·u ˘s) adj. passionate enthusiasm. askew (a ˘·'skyoo) adj. a movement upward. to set aside for a special purpose. Even the pictures on the wall stood askew after my ﬁve-year-old son’s birthday party. characteristic of the past. a·'proh·pree·ayt) v. Chancey’s comments may have been disturbing. adv. secret. Patrick’s Day. roughness of manner. 1. 2. ardor ('ahr·do ˘r) n. The rock climbers made the ascent up the side of the mountain. mysterious. ﬁtting. an upward slope. ﬁery intensity of feeling. . ill temper. archetype ('ahr·ki·t¯p) n. often without peror place. appropriate to the situation. (˘ mission. beyond comprehension. 1. an original model from which others are copied. The archaic language of Chaucer’s tales makes them difﬁcult for many students to understand. suitable for a particular person. laborious. advancement. incidentally. condition. original pattern or prototype. the grumpy accountant. brought to the meetings usually resulted in an early adjournment. ascent (a ˘·'sent) n. The local authorities issued an approbation to close the street for a festival on St. occasion.” archaic (ahr·'kay·ik) adj. not straight or level. 2. zeal. The asperity that Marvin. crooked. approval. severity. & adv. irritability. arcane (ahr·'kayn) adj. ascetic (a ˘·'set·ik) adj. appropriate (˘ a·'pro ¯·pre ¯·˘t) adj. apropos (ap·ro ˘·'poh) adj. but they were deﬁnitely apropos. 2. harshness. 1. not allowing oneself pleasures or luxuries. to one side. to take for one’s own use. asperity (a ˘·'sper·i·tee) n. practicing self-denial. by the way.WO R D LI ST 123 approbation (ap·ro ˘·'bay·sho ˘n) n. very difﬁcult. austere. at an appropriate or opportune time. Elvis Presley served as the archetype for rock and roll performers in the 1950s. A number of college students in the 1980s became involved in the arcane game known as “Dungeons and Dragons. The ardor Larry brought to the campaign made him a natural spokesperson. belonging to former or ancient times. requiring great effort. Commander Shackleton’s arduous journey through the Arctic has become the subject of many books and movies. The state legislature will appropriate two million dollars from the annual budget to build a new bridge on the interstate highway. Some religions require their leaders to lead an ascetic lifestyle as an example to their followers. suitable to what is being said or done. difﬁcult to traverse or surmount.
reduce in force. v. 2. patronage. unremitting. 2. 2. unadorned. I know my dad seems austere. Detective Malloy’s methods were considered bold and audacious by his superiors. to agree to something especially after thoughtful consideration. The chief engineer wanted a laboratory to assay the steel before using it in the construction project. 2. very plain. assiduous (a ˘·'sij·oo·u ˘s) adj. to make thin or slender. a forecast or omen. authoritarian (a ˘·thor·i·'tair·i·a ˘n) adj. attenuate (a ˘·'ten·yoo·ayt) v. or intensity. auspice ('aw·spis) n. Arty tried to help Ann and Stan settle their differences. favoring complete. majestic. fearlessly or recklessly daring or bold. diligent. to increase in size. automaton (aw·'tom·a ˘·to ˘n) n. put to a test. but he’s really just a great big teddy bear. but they often achieved results. unquestioning obedience to authority as opposed to individual freedom. enlarge. but his interference only augmented the problem. 2. hardworking. Because she fol- . 3. The military maintains an authoritarian environment for its ofﬁcers and enlisted men alike. assuage (a ˘·'swayj) v. The small cups of water offered to the marathon runners helped to assuage their thirst. consent. unrestrained by convention or propriety. In order to pass the new law. persevering. The Russian army was able to attenuate the strength and number of the German forces by leading them inland during winter. venerable. to make something less severe. simple. 1. a self-operating or automatic machine. concurrence. value. to soothe. strength. Omar’s teachers applaud his assiduous study habits. to satisfy (as hunger or thirst). agreement. augment (aw ·'ment) v. The children’s art museum was able to continue operating through the auspices of an anonymous wealthy benefactor. to try. 1. evaluate after an analysis. audacious (aw·'day·sh u ˘s) adj. the committee must reach an assent. austere (aw·'steer) adj. a robot. 1. or degree. 1. inspiring admiration or reverence. someone who acts or responds in a mechanical or robotic way. august (aw·' ust) adj. protection or support. to examine. to weaken. severe or stern in attitude or appearance.124 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT assay (a ˘·'say) v. assent (a ˘·'sent) n. Jackie Kennedy’s august dignity in the days following her husband’s assassination set a tone for the rest of the nation as it mourned. to judge critically.
intense dislike. aversion (a ˘·'vur·zho ˘n) n. car. misrepresent. Yvette prefers the avant-garde style of writers like Donald Barthelme to the traditional narrative technique. 1. poison. balk (bawk) v. but the ﬁlm turned out to have a banal storyline and mediocre acting. and made her children’s lunch like an automaton. to amuse or charm. cutting-edge. 2. Todd has an aversion to arugula and picks it out of his salads. harmful. but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. to obstinately refuse or oppose. 1. autonomy (aw·'ton·o ˘·mee) n. I was expecting something original and exciting. personal or political independence. Whether it’s a man. you can be certain to ﬁnd at least one baleful character in a Stephen King horror novel. misery. belligerent. distress. destructive. woman. or animal. 1. self-determination. menacing. to stop abruptly and refuse to go on. or harm. quarrelsome. to show to be false. There was little hope for peace following the election of a candidate known for his bellicose nature. to give a false impression. 1. bane (bayn) n. Violet was able to beguile the spy. cooked breakfast. using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. The bane of the oak tree is the Asian beetle. repugnance. 2. The teenager desired fewer rules from her parents and a sense of autonomy. especially in the arts or literature. bellicose ('bel·˘·kohs) adj. innovative. . obvious and uninteresting. divert. By wearing an expensive suit and watch. to deceive or cheat through cunning. Old man Jones was ﬁnally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company. Natasha made coffee. 2.WO R D LI ST 125 lowed the same routine every morning. selfgovernment. avant-garde (a·vahnt·' ahrd) adj. commonplace. eager to make war. to contradict. 2. belie (bi·'l¯) v. a strong. causing him to miss his secret meeting. beguile (bi·' ¯l) v. banal (ba ˘·'nal) adj. trite. to pass time in a pleasant manner. B baleful ('bayl·fu ˘l) adj. Alan hoped to belie his lack of success to everyone at the reunion. sinister. the object of this feeling. to distract the attention of. cause of trouble.
1. light-hearted. 2. 1. . blasphemy ('blas·fe ˘·mee) n. a disposition to act charitably. blight (bl¯t) n. accused of trying to bilk senior citizens out of their investment dollars. 1. They still do not know what caused the blight that destroyed half of the trees in the orchard. cheat. something that causes this condition. Regina showed benevolence when she volunteered to help raise money for the local soup kitchen. hostile and aggressive. disrespect of something sacrosanct. an unsightly object or area. to buoy or hearten. attitudes or writings against God or other things considered sacred. not attempting to conceal in any way. uninterested because of frequent exposure or indulgence. he always acted in a benign manner. Because Omar had a reputation for being belligerent. completely obvious. Samuel’s blatant disregard of the rules earned him a two-week suspension. bevy ('bev·ee) n. very sophisticated. noisy. not harmful or malignant. something that impairs or destroys. mild. benign (bi·'n¯n) adj. 2. contemptuous or irreverent acts. stormy and rough. There was a bevy of eager bingo fans waiting outside the hall for the game to begin. Rachel’s blithe attitude toward spending money left her broke and in debt. the inclination to be kind and generous. boisterous ('boi·ste ˘·ru ˘s) adj. gentle. 2. a plant disease that causes the affected parts to wilt and die. many people refused to associate with him because they feared confrontation. The stockbroker was led away in handcuffs. to deceive or defraud. If you committed blasphemy during the Inquisition. 2. a ﬂock of animals or birds. Simo’s actions toward his competitors was never mean-spirited. especially to evade paying one’s debts. blatant ('blay·tant) adj. showing an eagerness to ﬁght. and lacking restraint or discipline. you would be tortured and killed. Quincy has traveled so much that he speaks of exotic places such as Borneo in a totally blasé manner. kind. 1.126 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT belligerent (bi·'lij·e ˘r·e ˘nt) adj. utterances. Coach Edmond’s speech bolstered the team’s conﬁdence. bilk (bilk) v. 4. loud. 2. blithe (bl¯th) adj. 3. blasé (blah·'zay) adj. unconcerned. 1. bolster ('bohl·ste ˘r) v. such as air pollution. having a beneﬁcial or favorable nature or inﬂuence. to support or prop up. and carefree. nonchalant. 1. to swindle. 3. The boisterous crowd began throwing cups onto the ﬁeld during the football game. casual. 2. benevolence (be ˘·'nev·o ˘·le ˘ns) n. a large group or assemblage.
Seeing Chuck wipe his mouth with his sleeve. cheerful. Although she won millions in the lottery. broach (brohch) v. in fact. buoyant ('boi·a ˘nt) adj. to begin to grow and ﬂourish. 2. burgeon ('bur·jo ˘n) v. With Antonio as their leader. or materialistic. burnish ('bur·nish) v. 1. to edit by omitting or modifying parts that may be considered offensive. the members of the unit readied themselves to begin the cabal. C cabal (ka ˘·'bal) n. grow new buds. the Brothers Grimm had to bowdlerize the folk tales they had collected. introduce. to polish. the children tried to identify which objects on the table would be buoyant. for many of the original tales included graphic language. ill-mannered person. Ahmed was shocked that a renowned and admired humanitarian could give such a bombastic keynote address. a scheme or conspiracy. a small group joined in a secret plot. 1. 2. typical of the middle class. a crude.WO R D LI ST 127 bombastic (bom·'bas·tik) adj. It was hard for Sarah to broach the subject of her mother’s weight gain. offensive. boor (boor) n. In science class. conservative. arrogant. conforming to the standards and conventions of the middle class. bravado (bra ˘·'vah·doh) n. Ada still maintains her bourgeois lifestyle. as in to draw off liquid. discordant sound. loud. to tap or pierce. cacophony (ka ˘·'kof·o ˘·nee) n. bourgeois (boor·'zhwah) adj. The tulip bulbs beneath the soil would burgeon in early spring providing there was no late frost. . able to ﬂoat. Maribel realized she was attending her senior prom with a classic boor. 1. in order to begin a discussion of. a show of pretended bravery. Kyle’s bravado often got him in trouble with other kids in the neighborhood. bowdlerize ('bohd·le ˘·r¯z) v. censor. speaking pompously. she realized that it was. When Kathryn began to burnish the old metal tea pot. with inﬂated selfimportance. jarring. conceited. The bumptious man couldn’t stop talking about himself or looking in the mirror. clamor. to begin to sprout. to bring up. blossom. I heard a cacophony coming from the garage where the band was practicing. light-hearted. solid silver. commonplace. rub to a shine. To make their collection of fairy tales suitable for children. hence also. bumptious ('bump·shu ˘s) adj. din. 2. false courage.
caustic ('kaws·tik) adj. While visiting India. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. whimsical and unpredictable. able to burn. distribution. to obtain by begging. Their dog Cleo would cadge at my feet.128 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT cadge (kaj) v. Survivors of war often experience a catharsis when viewing Picasso’s painting Guernica. bitingly sarcastic. to wheedle. caste (kast) n. or otherwise objectionable. ﬁlms. catharsis (ka ˘·'thahr·sis) n. to chastise severely. etc. especially through art. they castigated him. 1. candor ('kan·do ˘r) n. cajole (ka ˘·'johl) v. but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. The librarian served as a censor. to give in. to beg. hoping I would throw him some table scraps. corrode. Old man Jones was ﬁnally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company. a distinct social class or system. The mechanic was very careful when working with the caustic ﬂuid around the car because it could damage the car’s paint. cutting. even if it’s something she hasn’t earned. to rush carelessly or headlong. an ofﬁcial who reviews books. When I told my boss about my performance concerns. to inﬂict a severe punishment on. he welcomed my candor. capricious (ka ˘·'prish·u ˘s) adj. to lurch from side to side while in motion. Valerie is quite adept at cajoling others to get what she wants. Michael was fascinated to learn the particulars of each caste and the way they related to each other. the comedian. sincere speech. 2. to remove what is considered morally. which depicts the bombing of a town during the Spanish civil war. castigate ('kas·t˘· ayt) v. openness. careen (ka ˘·'reen) v. capitulate (ka ˘·'pich·u ˘·layt) v. . demonstrates a capricious nature even when he is not performing. to forbid the publication. to urge with gentle and repeated appeals or ﬂattery. 1. politically. the act of ridding or cleansing. censor ('sen·so ˘r) n. When his parents caught Bryan stealing money from his classmates. frank. to surrender under speciﬁc terms or agreed upon conditions. relieving emotions via the experiences of others. Robin Williams. Watching the car in front of us careen down the road was very frightening. impulsive. v. deciding what books were appropriate for the young readers. acquiesce. or dissolve by chemical action. 2.
the sequence in which events occur. a detailed record or narrative description of past events. a trite or overused expression or idea. to criticize harshly. to criticize strongly. rebuke. kept or done in private. circumspect ('sur·ku ˘m·spekt) adj. Angelo’s churlish remarks made everyone at the table uncomfortable and ill at ease. a goat’s body. illusion. clandestine (klan·'des·tin) adj. male chauvinists are pretty rare today. as with a beating. to punish severely.WO R D LI ST 129 censure ('sen·shu ˘r) n. chronic ('kron·ik) adj. expression of strong criticism or disapproval. . Seduced by the chimera of immortality. The track coach used a chronometer to determine the runner’s time for the marathon. habitual. boorish. 2. rude. a precise instrument for measuring time. an exceptionally accurate clock. condemn. Seamus has had a chronic cough for the past six months. a rebuke or condemnation. chronicle ('kron·i·ke ˘l) n. v. Tito has an engaging writing style. cliché (klee·'shay) n. chronology (kro ˘·'nol·o ˘·jee) n. her mother censured her behavior. After Tyra was found cheating on the exam. Historians have made a chronicle of the war’s events. (in Greek mythology) a ﬁre-breathing she-monster with a lion’s head. but he uses too many clichés. a person who believes in the superiority of his or her own kind. conducted in secrecy. Charles knew that his wife would chastise him after he inadvertently told the room full of guests that she had just had a face lift. chastise ('chas·t¯z) v. on-going. ill-mannered. cautious. chimera (ki·'meer·a ˘) n. a vain or incongruous fancy. churlish ('chur·l˘sh) adj. The ﬁreﬁghter determined the chronology of incidents that contributed to the ﬁre. to record in chronological order. 2. v. wary. Victor Frankenstein created a monster that ended up destroying him and everyone he loved. 1. make a historical record. often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose. The prison guard was circumspect when he learned that some of the prisoners were planning an escape. the arrangement of events in time. Though common in the early days of the women’s movement. a (monstrous) product of the imagination. an extreme nationalist. watchful. 1. rebuke. chauvinist ('shoh·v˘n·ist) n. continuing for a long time. long-lasting or recurrent. chronometer (kro ˘·'nom·i·te ˘r) n. and a serpent’s tail. The private investigator followed Raul to a clandestine rendezvous with a woman in sunglasses and a trench coat.
conspiracy. persuasive. convincing. to combine and form a whole. general agreement or accord. appeasing. The shipwrecked couple found a copious supply of coconut trees and shellﬁsh on the island. 2. contemporary. copious ('koh·pi·u ˘s) adj. quick to ﬁght. of the same time period. contented to a fault. surrender. a hard riddle. abundant. enigma. complacent (ko ˘m·'play·se ˘nt) adj. causing contention. plentiful. Abraham Lincoln made conciliatory gestures toward the South at the end of the Civil War. unconcerned. 1. controversial. to join together. a feeling of deep. large in number or quantity. The discovery of the e-mail proved that collusion existed between the CEO and CFO to defraud the shareholders. compelling belief. conundrum (ko ˘·'nun·dru ˘m) n. 1. The double agent had a conclave with the spy he was supposed to be observing. an opinion or position reached by a group. conclave ('kon·klav) n. or comfort. The poet Ben Jonson was coeval to Shakespeare. soothe. Renee was complacent even when she learned that her coworkers were trying to get her ﬁred. consternation (kon·ste ˘r·'nay·sho ˘n) n. The look of consternation on the faces of the students taking the history exam alarmed the teacher. who thought he had prepared his students for the test. self-satisﬁed. concede (ko ˘n·'seed) v. etc. The leader conceded the right to vote to all her country’s inhabitants. a puzzling question or problem. competitive. making or willing to make concessions to reconcile. quarrelsome. to yield. (often with reluctance). Jay and Jael coalesced their money to create one savings account. a private or secret meeting. coeval (koh·'ee·va ˘l) adj. cogent ('koh·je ˘nt) adj. The school board reached a consensus about building a new high school. Alex’s logic professor gave the class a conundrum to work on over the weekend. fuse. contentious (ko ˘n·'ten·shu ˘s) adj. mollifying. incapacitating horror or dismay.130 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT coalesce (koh·a ˘·'les) v. collusion (ko ˘·'loo·zho ˘n) n. it was sure to be a lively debate. to grant as a right or privilege. conciliatory (ko ˘n·'sil·ee·a ˘·tohr·ee) adj. . consensus (ko ˘n·'sen·su ˘s) n. 2. a secret agreement between two or more people for a deceitful or fraudulent purpose. With two contentious candidates on hand. to acknowledge or admit as true. Ella’s cogent arguments helped the debate team win the state championship. proper.
a total defeat or failure. having a hidden or secret meaning. 2. violent ﬂood waters. graphs. 1. The ﬁrst-graders made cornucopias for Thanksgiving by placing papier-mache vegetables into a hollowed-out horn. a signal. to make more certain. guilty. culpable ('kul·pa ˘·be ˘l) adj. The crux of the trial was her whereabouts at the time of the burglary. such as a word or action. “This craven act of violence will not go unpunished.” remarked the police chief. I only had time to give it a cursory review. Although I should have proofread the essay carefully. When my prank ending up breaking Andrea’s lamp. cryptic ('krip·tik) adj. especially of a problem. conﬁrm. I admitted that I was culpable. secret. When the timer buzzed. the central or critical point or feature. cowardly. hidden. craven ('kray·ve ˘n) adj. to intimidate. to make afraid or discouraged. countenance ('kown·te ˘·na ˘ns) n. deserving blame or censure for being or doing something wrong or harmful. Julia’s countenance was absolutely radiant. D daunt (dawnt) v. All the tables. debacle (di·'bah·ke ˘l) n. a queue. crux (kruks) n. facial features and expression. gullible. As she walked down the aisle. mysterious. 1. often caused by the breaking up of ice in a river. so she must be telling the truth. credulous ('krej·u ˘·lu ˘s) adj. His austere manner daunted the small children. . to strengthen or support with evidence or authority. a sudden breaking up or breaking loose. corroborate (ko ˘·'rob·o ˘·rayt) v. a horn of plenty.WO R D LI ST 131 cornucopia (kor·nyu ˘·'koh·pi·a ˘) n. and charts made the company’s assets look too good to the credulous potential investors at the meeting. too willing to believe things. hasty and superﬁcial. occult. Jimmy was confused by the cryptic note he found written on the refrigerator. a sudden disaster or collapse. 2. cue (kyoo) n. a hint or suggestion. Sonia realized that it was a cue to take the hamburgers off the grill. abundance. Putting the bridge’s supporting beams in loose sand caused a total debacle when the sand shifted and the bridge fell apart. cursory ('kur·so ˘·ree) adj. the appearance of a person’s face. blameworthy. given to prompt or remind someone of something. a line of waiting people or vehicles. Both Irma’s and Ye’s statements corroborate Tia’s story.
to deceive. Irina’s Carnegie Hall debut received rave reviews. sketch. actual. so those scenes were removed. Sharon could be very demure. to express disapproval of. defame. The dictator was widely regarded as an infamous demagogue. describe. The movie script reportedly contained scenes that would denigrate the queen. The survey will clearly delineate where their property ends. to draw or outline. appropriateness of behavior. make someone believe something that is wrong. Neglect and time would eventually decimate much of the housing in the inner cities. or pretending to be so. Nicole deluded Maria when she claimed to forgive her. to make a ﬁrst appearance in public. decimate ('des·˘·mayt) v. to blacken the reputation of. propriety. When questions concerning decorum arise. . in reality or fact. deign (dayn) v. the resolution or clearing up of the plot at the end of a narrative. The students sat at the edge of their seats as they listened to the denouement of the story. the outcome or solution of an often complex series of events. When it was to her advantage. disparage. but she didn’t think adding ten cloves of garlic to the recipe would taste good. de facto (dee 'fak·toh) adj. to belittle.132 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT debut (day·'byoo) n. the de facto leader is the prime minister. to destroy a large portion of. depreciate. to raise objections. to portray. denigrate ('den·i· rayt) v. Would you deign to spare a dime for a poor old beggar like me? delineate (di·'lin·ee·ayt) v. deprecate ('dep·re ˘·kayt) v. but otherwise she was quite outgoing. decorum (di·'kohr·u ˘m) n. I always refer to Emily Post. a leader who obtains power by appealing to people’s feelings and prejudices rather than by reasoning. demagogue ('dem·a ˘· aw ) n. hesitate. demure (di·'myoor) adj. decency in manners and conduct. delude (di·'lood) v. depict. denouement (day·noo·'mahn) n. v. a ﬁrst appearance in or presentation to the public. Polly hated to demur. & adv. to be kind or gracious enough to do something thought to be beneath one’s dignity. modest and shy. The king is only the nominal head of the country. Grandpa’s tendency to deprecate the children’s friends was a frequent source of family strife. demur (di·'mur) v. to condescend.
to profane. disabuse (dis·a ˘·'byooz) v. jeering. diffuse (di·'fyooz) v. something that is derived or made by derivation. Miguel’s dilatory approach to getting himself up and dressed was his own small act of passive resistance to having to work on a holiday. wordy. haphazard. especially to gain time. shy and timid. Ichabod’s desultory ramblings worsened as his disease progressed. Remy discerned that Opal had no intention of calling him back. desultory ('des·u ˘l·tohr·ee) adj. adj. aimless. disperse. 2. mocking. spread out. The perfume she sprayed diffused throughout her bedroom. scattered.WO R D LI ST 133 derisive (di·'r¯·siv) adj. diminish. After the economy declined. 2. extremely poor. derisive comments were forbidden in the classroom. deviate. unoriginal. Unfortunately. to perceive clearly. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. derived from another source. 1. Helen’s slovenly appearance detracted from the impact of her otherwise brilliant presentation. dichotomy (d¯·'kot·o ˘·mee) n. extend. The word “atomic” is a derivative of the word “atom. to remove part of something. or swerve. division into two usually contradictory parts or kinds. penniless. When the teacher broached the subject of politics. to distinguish. intended to delay. utterly lacking. digress (d¯·' res) v. derivative (di·'riv·a ˘·tiv) n. slow or late in doing something. lacking self-conﬁdence. destitute ('des·ti·toot) adj. 2. to draw or take away from. . to violate the sacredness of. expressing ridicule. correct a false impression or erroneous belief. Her argument digressed from the main problem she had about her friend’s spending habits. dilatory ('dil·a ˘·tohr·ee) adj. there was a predictable dichotomy among the students. make less brilliant. adj. verbose. In order to promote freedom of expression. 1. discern (di·'surn) v. recognize as being distinct. difﬁdent ('dif·i·de ˘nt) adj. Natalie needed to disabuse Chin of his belief that she was in love with him. to spread throughout. scornful. moving from one subject to another without logical connection. 1. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. Someone desecrated the local cemetery by spray-painting grafﬁti on tombstones. to turn aside. to undeceive. to soften.” desecrate ('des·e ˘·krayt) v. Alan used to be so difﬁdent. detract (di·'trakt) v. not concentrated. many families were left destitute.
. falsely pretending to be unaware. 2. especially the right to vote. disconsolate (dis·'kon·so ˘·lit) adj. Carl’s disingenuous comments were not taken seriously by anyone in the room. to disguise or conceal one’s true feelings or motives behind a false appearance. dogma ('daw ·ma ˘) n. a system of principles or beliefs. dissemble (di·'sem·be ˘l) v. 2. 2. disparage (di·'spar·ij) v. disingenuous (dis·in·'jen·yoo·u ˘s) adj. 1. dejected. to consider or reject (someone or something) as unworthy or beneath one’s dignity.134 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT disconcert (dis·ko ˘n·'surt) v. be indecisive and uncertain. a prescribed doctrine. The arrival of Miriam’s ex-husband and his new wife managed to disconcert the typically unﬂappable Miriam. despise. but they didn’t listen. dissipate ('dis·˘·payt) v. to hesitate. to speak of in a slighting or derogatory way. Some ﬁnd the dogma inherent in religion a comfort. calculating. to frustrate plans by throwing into disorder. The independent monitors were at polling locations to ensure neither party tried to disenfranchise incoming voters. not straightforward or frank. a state of being despised. to disperse to the point of disappearing. squander. to be extravagant and wasteful. especially in the pursuit of pleasure. to separate and scatter completely. 2. 2. or nearly so. dither ('dith·e ˘r) v. disenfranchise (dis·en·'fran·ch¯z) v. and only the very angriest protesters remained. 1. to upset the composure of. v. 1. Tom needed to dissemble his goal of taking his boss’s job by acting supportive of his boss’s planned job change. 1. to shake or quiver. disdain (dis·'dayn) n. The disconsolate look on Peter’s face revealed that the letter contained bad news. Comedians often disparage politicians as part of their comedic routines. belittle. hopelessly unhappy. whereas others ﬁnd it too restrictive. to regard with haughty contempt or scorn. it is important to have a leader who will not dither. sad. disappointed. insincere. to deprive of the rights of citizenship. 1. The crowd dissipated when the riot police arrived. 2. I was humiliated by the way Angelica disdained every idea I proposed at that meeting. I tried to dissuade them from painting their house purple. 1. rufﬂe. a feeling or showing of haughty contempt or scorn. During a crisis. inconsolable. to discourage from or persuade against a course of action. dissuade (di·'swayd) v.
temporarily quiescent. v. latent. harmonious. exuberant. or styles. The chamber orchestra’s dulcet tunes were a perfect ending to a great evening. very harsh. great acclaim or applause. commonplace. ebullient (i·'bul·ye ˘nt) adj. something worthless. the return of the tide to the sea. Work crews immediately began the task of cleaning the dross at the abandoned plastics factory. to ﬂow back or recede. 1. to fall back. éclat (ay·'klah) n. 1. deviating from the conventional or established norm or pattern. dupe (doop) n. inactive but capable of becoming active. Her artwork was unlike any other artist at the museum. You’re sure to meet someone interesting at the party—Marieka always invites an eclectic group of people to her gatherings. I am eager for a reconciliation. inactive. E ebb (eb) n. brilliant performance or achievement. gullible. . sweet-sounding. Even the ruinous deceit of the envious Salieri could not impede the dazzling éclat of the young and gifted Mozart. bubbling over with enthusiasm. Students of international policy are often shocked by the draconian punishments used by other countries for seemingly minor offenses. systems. droll (drohl) adj. selecting or employing elements from a variety of sources. I hope Mark’s anger has ebbed. to deceive. trick. 1.WO R D LI ST 135 dormant ('dor·ma ˘nt) adj. Charlene was duped into buying this lemon of a car by a slick-talking salesman. 2. v. eclectic (i·'klek·tik) adj. The geology students made a surprising discovery: the volcano believed to be dormant was about to erupt. at rest. waste product. each painting had its own eccentric color scheme. melodious. droll story—the children will love it! dross (draws) n. extremely severe (especially a law or punishment). draconian (dray·'koh·ni·a ˘n) adj. lying asleep or as if asleep. 2. conspicuous success. as the tide. 1. amusing in an odd or whimsical way. sludge. 2. decline. anomalous. consisting of elements from a variety of sources. eccentric (ik·'sen·trik) adj. or trivial. This is a wonderful. dulcet ('dul·sit) adj. The ebullient children were waiting to stick their hands into the grab bag and pull out a toy. 2. someone who is easily deceived. irregular.
S. vigor. egregious (i·' ree·ju ˘s) adj. lofty. impudence. Enid was ﬁred. producing the desired effect or result. conspicuously and outrageously bad or offensive. improving. egalitarian (i· al·i·'tair·ee·a ˘n) adj. expressing emotions in an unrestrained or excessive way. distinctive style or ﬂair. reputation. character. describe or comprehend. gushy. towering above or more prominent than others. enlightening or uplifting with the aim of improving intellectual or moral development. eloquent ('el·o ˘·kwe ˘nt) adj. there existed a small group of musical elite who performed around the country. civil. acting effectively. to get or supplement with great effort or strain. effrontery (i·'frun·te ˘·ree) n. The . and economic rights for all persons. The customs ofﬁcials were infuriated by the effrontery of the illegal alien who nonchalantly carried drugs into the country in his shirt pocket. distinguished.. to earn or accomplish laboriously. profuse. characterized by or afﬁrming the principle of equal political. The bank robber was not caught during his ﬁrst crime spree and he proved to be a very elusive fugitive. 1. Anne’s unexpected effusive greeting made Tammy uncomfortable. eminent ('em·˘·ne ˘nt) adj. Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is considered one of the most eloquent speeches ever given by a U. brazen boldness. Hannah was moved by the candidate’s egalitarian speech. 2. expressing strong emotions or arguments in a powerful. overﬂowing. social. eluding the grasp. standing above others in quality. elite (i·'leet) n. difﬁcult to capture. effusive (i·'fyoo·siv) adj. The new designer’s élan and originality were sure to help him succeed in the highly competitive fashion industry. elusive (i·'loo·siv) adj. enthusiasm. efﬁcacious (ef·˘·'kay·shu ˘s) adj. Margaret’s efﬁcacious approach to her job in the collections department made her a favorite with the CFO. ﬂuent. insolence. His edifying speech challenged the audience to devote more time to charitable causes. élan (ay·'lahn) n. evasive. a person or group regarded as superior. 1. the best or most skilled members of a social group or class. instructing.136 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT edifying ('ed·˘·f¯·in ) adj. Working two jobs enabled Quincy to eke out a living wage for his family. etc. Within the student orchestra. president. ﬂagrant. After her egregious accounting error cost the company thousands of dollars. eke (eek) v. 2. vivacity. and persuasive manner.
ennui (ahn·'wee) n. Summer always seems so ephemeral. it’s time to go back to school again. endemic (en·'dem·ik) adj. a person devoted to the pursuit of pleasure and luxury. bring into existence. based on observation or experience rather than theory.) The enormity of the serial killer’s crimes will never be forgotten. The tour guide’s façade of enthusiasm could not hide his ennui. to make feeble or impotent. especially the enjoyment of good food and comfort. to ﬁx or settle ﬁrmly and securely. 1. larger territory. 2. 2. empirical (em·'pir·i·kal) adj. enigma (e ˘·'ni ·ma ˘) n. . especially by imitation. was actually imported from Japan. 1.g. purple-ﬂowered vine thought to be endemic to the southeastern United States. While on vacation at a posh resort hotel. Stephanie’s cutting remarks managed to enervate Hasaan. enclave ('en·klayv) n. a monstrous offense or evil act. Professor Sorenson’s support worked to engender Samantha’s desire to pursue a PhD.WO R D LI ST 137 chairperson proudly announced that the keynote speaker at the animal rights convention would be the eminent primatologist Jane Goodall. lasting only a very short time. emulate ('em·yu ˘·layt) v. deprive of strength or vitality. engender (en·'jen·de ˘r) v. the enormity of the task—but this is considered an incorrect use of the word. Ricky admired his sister Joan and always tried to emulate her behavior. The country of Lesotho is an enclave of South Africa. atrocity.. give rise to. ephemeral (i·'fem·e ˘·ra ˘l) adj. conceal. epicurean (ep·i·'kyoor·ee·a ˘n) n. Once the spy was comfortably ensconced in his new identity. to produce. 2. transitory. excessive wickedness. Joan became a true epicurean. Kudzu. he began his secret mission. before you know it. a bafﬂing problem or riddle. enervate ('en·e ˘r·vayt) v. The math problem was difﬁcult to solve and proved to be an enigma. enormity (i·'nor·mi·tee) n. native to a particular region. to try to equal or excel. (Note: Enormity is often used to indicate something of great size—e. Frank’s empirical data suggested that mice would climb over the walls of the maze to get to the cheese rather than navigate the maze itself. a distinct territory lying wholly within the boundaries of another. to place or hide securely. a hairy. something that is puzzling or difﬁcult to understand. to weaken. 1. ensconce (en·'skons) v. boredom and listlessness resulting from something tedious or uninteresting. prevalent in or characteristic of a speciﬁc area or group of people.
erudite ('er·yu ˘·d¯t) adj. it is not uncommon to experience feelings of euphoria. a Christian feast on the twelfth day after Christmas celebrating the divine manifestation of Jesus to the Magi. region. equanimity (ee·kwa ˘·'nim·i·tee) n. attitude. The thief evaded the store’s security guards by escaping out the back door. especially one that is inferior. ethos ('ee·thos) n. The ethos of their group included a commitment to paciﬁsm. I had a sudden epiphany that I was in the wrong major. to root out and utterly destroy. a feeling of well-being or high spirits. The exterminator said he would eradicate the vermin from the house. a perceptive revelation. evade (i·'vayd) v. scholarly. ersatz (e ˘r·'za ˘ts) adj. opinion. uneven. During an earthquake. a seismograph’s needle moves in an erratic manner. When falling in love. As I listened to Professor Lane’s lecture. 3. to avoid fulﬁlling. Epiphany. intuitive realization of the essence or meaning of something. calmness of temperament. epitome (i·'pit·o ˘·mee) n. Raj tried to equivocate when explaining why he came home after his curfew. 2. 1. 2. erratic (i·'rat·ik) adj. or doing. especially under stressful circumstances. a sudden. to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to mislead or conceal the truth. 1. equivocate (i·'kwiv·o ˘·kayt) v. The hostage negotiator’s equanimity during the stand-off was remarkable. or inconsistent manner. 2. Richard was asked to give a eulogy for his fallen comrade.138 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT epiphany (i·'pif·a ˘·nee) n. patience and composure. Waldo knew that the dish was made with ersatz trufﬂes. the spirit. etc. having or showing great learning. deviating from the normal or typical course of action. Einstein is the epitome of true genius. moving or behaving in an irregular. a brief summary or abstract. euphoria (yoo·'fohr·ee·a ˘) n. to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. being an imitation or substitute. . something or someone that embodies a particular quality or characteristic. eulogy ('yoo·lo ˘· ee) n. a representative example or a typical model. a manifestation of the divine. Though most of the guests couldn’t tell the difference. The scholarly work of nonﬁction was obviously written by an erudite young man. eventemperedness. 1. 2. epoch. to annihilate. etc. a formal speech or piece of writing in praise of someone or something. eradicate (i·'rad·˘·kayt) v. exterminate. artiﬁcial. disposition or beliefs characteristic of a community. profoundly educated. answering.
ﬂeeting. exacerbate (i ·'zas·e ˘r·bayt) v. he is really a deeply emotional person. to increase the severity. facetious (fa ˘·'see·shu ˘s) adj. We should have known that splashing salt water on Dan’s wound would exacerbate his pain. serving to promote one’s own interests rather than principle. especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. 1. stated clearly and fully. extenuate (ik·ten·'yoo·ayt) v. suitable for a means to an end. appropriate for a purpose. Jude’s facetious reply angered his teacher but made his classmates laugh. juveniles can petition the courts to expunge their criminal records. 2. demanding. 1. 1. requiring much effort or precision. violence. After ﬁnishing probation. expunge (ik·'spunj) v. exculpate (eks·'kul·payt) v. 2. When Anthony admitted to the crime. to reduce the strength or lessen the seriousness of. to make worse. greatly exceeding the bounds of what is normal or reasonable. critical. Three thousand dollars is an exorbitant amount to pay for a scarf. exigent ('ek·si·je ˘nt) adj. delete. or bitterness of. requiring immediate action or attention. exact. evince (i·'vins) v. adj. straightforward. urgent. to wipe or rub out. The man’s desperation extenuated his actions. Antoine’s stoicism is just a façade. cleverly amusing. to make evident. The terms of the rental agreement were explicit in the document. sportive.WO R D LI ST 139 evanescent (ev·a ˘·'nes·e ˘nt) adj. annihilate. to clear from a charge of guilt. to free from blame. to try to partially excuse. explicit (ik·'splis·it) adj. an artiﬁcial or deceptive front. F façade (fa ˘·'sahd) n. The subject of the poem is the evanescent nature of young love. inordinate and excessive. . transitory. exorbitant (i ·'zor·bi·ta ˘nt) adj. to eliminate completely. humorous and witty. to show or demonstrate clearly. The safety ofﬁcer tried to evince the dangers of driving under the inﬂuence by showing pictures of alcohol-related automobile accidents. a short-lived means to an end. A quick divorce was an expedient end to the couple’s two-month marriage. jocular. 2. expedient (ik·'spee·dee·e ˘nt) n. The late-night call on Paul’s cell phone concerned matters of an exigent nature. it served to exculpate Marcus. the face or front of a building. vanishing or tending to vanish like vapor.
fatuous ('fach·oo·u ˘s) adj. fervor ('fur·vo ˘r) n. that which is deceptive or has a false appearance. mock. Flappers in the early twentieth century ﬂouted convention by bobbing their hair and wearing very short skirts. ﬂippant ('flip·a ˘nt) adj. The fervor of the fans in the stands helped propel the team to victory. feckless ('fek·lis) adj. Y and Z will automatically follow. Mr. ornate. 1. 1. The presence of two security guards fettered their plans to get backstage. 2. incompetent and ineffective. disrespectful. The fecund soil in the valley was able to sustain the growing community. 2. careless. patience. tolerance. put in chains. Because Sam was such an intellectually accomplished student. weak. something that misleads. (of complexion) ruddy. go against (as in a tradition or convention). feeble. to shackle. intense emotion. not ﬁrm. ﬂaccid ('fla·sid) adj. The “slippery slope” fallacy argues that once X happens. The felicitous turn of events during her promotional tour propelled Susan’s book to the best-seller list. ardor. fecund ('fek·u ˘nd) adj. 1. 1. felicitous (fi·'lis·i·tu ˘s) adj. weak. a false notion or misconception resulting from incorrect or illogical reasoning.140 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT fallacy ('fal·a ˘·see) n. elaborate. feign (fayn) v. 2. Walter feigned illness to avoid attending the meeting. rosy. to pretend. feeble-minded and silly. to impede or restrict. but he faced it with great forbearance because he knew it was for his own safety. fetter ('fet·e ˘r) v. apt. lacking purpose or vitality. zeal. Jake’s feckless performance led to his termination from the team. to give the false appearance of. forbearance (for·'bair·a ˘ns) n. to disobey openly and scornfully. 1. ﬂorid ('flor·id) adj. ﬂabby. complacently stupid. Britt was surprised to discover that Sam’s well-meaning but fatuous parents were not at all like him. to reject. The ﬂorid architecture in Venice did not appeal to me. marked by good fortune. Ursula’s ﬂippant remarks in front of her ﬁancé’s parents were an embarrassment to us all. ﬂout (flowt) v. deception. 2. willingness to wait. not showing proper seriousness. The skin of cadavers becomes ﬂaccid in a matter of hours. hanging loose or wrinkled. . suitably expressed. 2. fertile. saucy. I prefer buildings without so much ornamentation. apropos. Gustaf dreaded the security check in the airport.
sparing. however. producing no result. Though Susan thought Las Vegas was garish. berate. useless. occurring unexpectedly or without any known cause. to give up. 2. My grandparents survived the Great Depression by being very frugal. tastelessly showy. gargantuan ( ahr·' an·choo·a ˘n) adj. renounce. happening by accident or chance. to deny. Wei chose a small. to explode or detonate. costing little. or declare false. especially excess ﬂattery or praise. offensive due to excessiveness. to amass. a fortuitous event can be either fortunate or unfortunate. Emily thought it was perfectly beautiful. gigantic.) By a stroke of fortuitous bad luck. 1. furtive ('fur·tiv) adj. 1. The Senator liked to fulminate when other legislators questioned her ideology. . frugal ('froo· a ˘l) adj. Whitney garnered enough money to buy a used car. to issue a thunderous verbal attack. vain. preempt. characterized by stealth or secrecy. contradict.WO R D LI ST 141 forestall (fohr·'stawl) v. 1. fulsome ('fuul·so ˘m) adj. to prevent by taking action ﬁrst. huge. garish (' air·ish) adj. futile ('fyoo·t˘l) adj. suggesting a hidden motive. acquire. forswear (for·'swair) v. hopeless. 2. fulminate ('ful·m˘·nayt) v. G gainsay (' ayn·say) v. My mother would never let me attend the party. surreptitious. Petra would gainsay all accusations made against her. thrifty. to oppose. fortuitous (for·'too·i·tu ˘s) adj. The diplomat was able to forestall a conﬂict by holding secret meetings with both parties. 1. shifty. to deny under oath. careful and economical. In its true sense. Harriet’s furtive glance told me I had better keep quiet about what I had just seen. 2. Her new coworker’s fulsome attention bothered Kathryn. excessively bright or over-decorated. gaudy. Natasha had to forswear her allegiance to her homeland in order to become a citizen of the new country. 2. It was a gargantuan supermarket for such a small town. arguing with her was futile. to gather and store up. exclusive resort for her vacation—only to ﬁnd that the ex-boyfriend she wanted to get away from had also chosen the same resort. (Note: Fortuitous is commonly used to mean a happy accident or an unexpected but fortunate occurrence. garner (' ahr·ne ˘r) v.
Aunt Midge is as garrulous as they come. hapless ('hap·lis) adj. you’ve got to stop groveling and stand up for yourself. and a very late arrival. and the soldiers girded for battle. humble. 1. 2. genteel (jen·'teel) adj. to sneer at. gestalt ( e ˘·shta ˘lt) n.142 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT garrulous (' ar·u ˘·lu ˘s) adj. 2. coarse burst of laughter. One of the fundamental beliefs of gestalt therapy is that we exist in a web of relationships to other things. to encompass. and that it is possible to understand ourselves only in the context of these relationships. . gird ( urd) v. to prepare for action. gauche ( ohsh) adj. well bred. reﬁned. 1. sociable. Panji. 3. shrewd. The genteel host made sure that each entrée was cooked to each guest’s speciﬁcations. guile ( ¯l) n. to divide an area into voting districts so as to give one party an unfair advantage. gibe. unfortunate. guffaw ( u·'faw) n. clumsy or awkward. a noisy. tending to form a group with others of the same kind. gregarious ( re ˘·' air·ee·u ˘s) adj. The religious leader hallowed the new worship hall. The most infamous pirates displayed tremendous guile. crafty deceit. or fearful manner. The negotiations had failed. 1. talkative. seeking and enjoying the company of others. v. so be prepared to listen for hours. unlucky. The hapless circumstances of her journey resulted in lost luggage. a conﬁguration or pattern of elements so uniﬁed as a whole that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts. consecrate. the act of gerrymandering. surround. My little brother is so gauche that it’s embarrassing to be with him in public. missed connections. Michael let out quite a guffaw when Jamal told him the outlandish joke. especially military confrontation. without tact. grovel (' ruv·e ˘l) v. lacking social graces or polish. elegantly polite. 4. treacherous cunning. to make holy. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. H hallow ('hal·oh) v. mock. 2. if you want your boss to treat you with respect. gerrymander ('jer·i·man·de ˘r) n. to lie or creep with one’s face to the ground in a servile. Alan used to be so difﬁdent. The election was rigged by gerrymandering that gave unfair advantage to the incumbent. to encircle or bind with a belt or band.
to speak in a pompous maner. a person who attacks and seeks to overthrow traditional ideas. a long. hone (hohn) v. and many members of the organization resigned. In the hermetic world of the remote mountain village. hegemony (hi·'jem·o ˘·nee) n. the inhabitants did not even know that their country was on the brink of war. I honed my computer skills. creating great stress or torment. hubris ('hyoo·bris) n. Oedipus’s hubris leads to his downfall. a forerunner or precursor. lacking nobility in character or purpose. v. common. Stanley is so often haughty that he has very few friends. Members of the audience began to get restless during the senator’s political harangue. 2. 1. to declaim. or event that foreshadows or indicates what is to come. In the Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex. haughty ('haw·tee) adj. Kobitu decided to take a long hiatus from the ﬁnancial world and took a job as a middle school math teacher. often scolding or bombastic speech. make more effective. ignoble (i ·'noh·be ˘l) adj. predominant inﬂuence or leadership. . 1. The hegemony of his country borders on imperialism. to perfect. a person. Using words as weapons. someone who opposes and destroys idols used in worship. overbearing pride or presumption. hiatus (h¯·'ay·tu ˘s) n. I iconoclast (¯·'kon·oh·klast) n.WO R D LI ST 143 harangue (ha ˘·'ran ) n. disdainful. the well-spoken iconoclast challenged political hypocrisy and fanaticism wherever she found it. or institutions. After he was laid off by the bank. beliefs. marked by shame or disgrace. having an airtight closure. 2. Mark was an ignoble successor to such a wellrespected leader. 2. hermetic (hur·'met·ik) adj. to sharpen. The arrival of the robins is a harbinger of spring. an interruption or break. despicable. protected from outside inﬂuences. 1. The evidence of plagiarism brought an ignominious end to what had been a notable career for the talented young author. deserving disgrace or shame. a tirade. harrowing ('har·oh·in ) adj. acting as though one is superior and others unworthy. not of the nobility. ignominious (i ·no ˘·'min·ee·u ˘s) adj. 2. dishonorable. a gap or opening. scornfully arrogant and condescending. harbinger ('hahr·bin·je ˘r) n. especially of one government over others. By practicing creating spreadsheets. thing. 1. The turbulent ﬂight proved to be a harrowing experience for Jane. distressing.
Children can’t help but importune during the holidays. the gypsy queen levies an imprecation on the lead character. to kill (oneself) by ﬁre. In the book I’m reading. unduly hasty and without thought. to destroy (one thing for another). Some of the people who call the customer service desk for assistance are implacable. importune (im·por·'toon) v. 1. penniless. impulsive. immolate ('im·o ˘·layt) v. Great Britain embraced imperialism. a deadlock. marked by violent force. as a sacriﬁce. 2. impecunious (im·pe ˘·'kyoo·nee·u ˘s) adj. not showing or feeling emotion or pain. a confused or difﬁcult situation. implacable (im·'plak·a ˘·be ˘l) adj. impassive (im·'pas·iv) adj. imperious (im·'peer·ee·u ˘s) adj. 1. 2. Stella was relieved with her new job transfer because she would no longer be under the control of such an imperious boss. It was an impetuous decision to run off to Las Vegas and get married after a one-week courtship.144 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT imbroglio (im·'brohl·yoh) n. stalemate. a difﬁculty without a solution. not able to be inﬂuenced or affected. Many impecunious immigrants to the United States eventually are able to make comfortable lives for themselves. 2. incapable of being penetrated. make incessant requests. the policy of extending the rule or authority of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories or dependencies. I had to immolate the weeds. to beg persistently and urgently. The labor negotiations with management reached an impasse. and a strike seemed imminent. imperialism (im·'peer·ee·a ˘·liz·e ˘m) n. usually involving a disagreement or misunderstanding. there is often an imbroglio caused by a case of mistaken identity. a curse. impetuous (im·'pech·oo·u ˘s) adj. 3. impervious (im·'pur·vee·u ˘s) adj. incapable of being placated or appeased. to kill. overbearing. to ask incessantly. . characterized by sudden. inexorable. In Shakespeare’s comedies. imprecation (im·pre ˘·'kay·sho ˘n) n. having little or no money. bossy. It was hard to know what she was feeling by looking at the impassive expression on her face. but most are relatively easy to serve. domineering. 1. constantly nagging for the irresistible toys they see advertised on television. forceful energy or emotion. an invocation of evil. acquiring so many territories that the sun never set on the British Empire. 2. Hadley is such a diehard libertarian that he is impervious to any attempts to change his beliefs. 1. In order for the plants to grow. poor. impasse ('im·pas) n.
it is difﬁcult to distinguish between a cow. inculcate (in·'kul·kayt) v. incredulous (in·'krej·u ˘·lu ˘s) adj. Thumbing his nose at the principal was an impudent act. the developing embryos take on the characteristics of their own particular species. (in·'sens) v. 2. to attribute to a cause or source. 1. unwilling to believe. in an initial or early stage of development. just begun. 1. My parents worked hard to inculcate in me a deep sense of responsibility to others. insolent. incendiary (in·'sen·dee·er·ee) adj. not yet fully formed. Marcel’s criticism incensed his coworker. to attack as false or questionable. tending to incite or inﬂame. to contradict or call into question. indisputable. undeniable. their relationship was an incontrovertible fact. or adv.WO R D LI ST 145 impudent ('im·pyu ˘·de ˘nt) adj. immodest. incontrovertible (in·kon·tro ˘·'vur·t˘·be ˘l) adj. The photographs showed Brad and Allison together. in disguise or under an assumed character or identity. causing or capable of causing ﬁre. There was an incursion on the western border of their country. ascribe. the act of entering or running into a territory or domain. 2. 3. fragrant material that gives off scents when burned. impute (im·'pyoot) v. with one’s identity concealed. shamelessly forward. to make (someone) angry. Fire marshals checked for incendiary devices in the theater after they received an anonymous warning. During the inchoate stage of fetal growth. impugn (im·'pyoon) v. a raid or temporary invasion of someone else’s territory. 2. instill. inﬂammatory. incipient. burning readily. inchoate (in·'koh·it) adj. of or involving arson. as they mature. Doctors impute the reduction in cancer deaths to the nationwide decrease in cigarette smoking. hoping to ﬁnd some measure of privacy on her vacation. incognito (in·ko ·ne ´e·toh) adj. to teach and impress by frequent instruction or repetition. The members of the jury were incredulous when they heard the defendant’s farfetched explanation of the crime. credit. or a human. boldly showing a lack of respect. . undeveloped. a frog. 1. to indoctrinate. incense ('in·sens) n. incomplete. skeptical. The editorial impugned the senator’s reelection platform and set the tone for the upcoming debate. The star was traveling incognito. incursion (in·'kur·zho ˘n) n.
unable to mask feelings. to prohibit. Parents of teenagers often observe the insolent behavior that typically accompanies adolescence. not cunning or deceitful. the members considered him an inﬁdel. unmatchable. bafﬂing. haughty and contemptuous. incompetent. It was completely inscrutable how the escape artist got out of the trunk. inclined to avoid labor. lazy. doctrine. inscrutable (in·'scroo·ta ˘·be ˘l) adj. certain. indomitable (in·'dom·i·ta ˘·be ˘l) adj. . 2. impertinent. or system of beliefs. The ineluctable outcome of the two-person race was that there would be one winner and one loser. disrespectful. inappropriate. brazen. inﬁdel ('in·fi·de ˘l) n. not to be avoided or overcome. unfathomable. His performance on the tennis court was inimitable. sincere. interdict (in·te ˘r·'dikt) v. 1. inimitable (i·'nim·i·ta ˘·be ˘l) adj. Because he did not subscribe to the beliefs of the party. and he won three championships. not suitable. 2. Trying to carry all her suitcases at once was an inept way for Amanda to save time. blithely unconcerned or carefree. slow to grow or heal. foolish. Julian’s insouciant attitude about his ﬁnances will get him in trouble someday. causing little or no pain. 1. Don’s expression of regret was ingenuous. one who does not accept a particular religion. indifferent.146 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT indefatigable (in·di·'fat·˘· a ˘·be ˘l) adj. 1. absurd. they worked until every piece of trash was removed from the beach. frank. 2. ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·u ˘s) adj. not easily exhausted or fatigued. Carlos argued that the agriculture department should interdict plans to produce genetically modiﬁed foods. bungling and clumsy. he felt a deep sadness when Mary died. insouciant (in·'soo·see·a ˘nt) adj. The construction foreman was hesitant to hire Earl because of his reputation of being indolent. incapable of being understood. indolent ('in·do ˘·le ˘nt) adj. a person with no religious beliefs. inept (in·'ept) adj. for even though he didn’t know her well. 3. a nonbeliever. The indomitable spirit of the Olympic athletes was inspirational. lacking sophistication or worldliness. inevitable. not able to be vanquished or overcome. nonchalant. not easily discouraged or subdued. defying imitation. 1. ineluctable (in·i·'luk·ta ˘·be ˘l) adj. The volunteers were indefatigable. artless. forbid. unconquerable. insolent ('in·so ˘·le ˘nt) adj. 2. tireless. lethargic.
I was ﬁlled with ire when Vladimir tried to take credit for my work. so if you talk to her. inured (in·'yoord) adj. and he faced the mammoth without fear. involute ('in·vo ˘·loot) adj. insisting on familiar favorites and rejecting anything new. Professor Carlton is so unpopular because he doesn’t have one iota of respect for his students. a very small amount. Hunger had made the caveman intrepid. ﬁrmly established. The technical manual was full of a lot of computer jargon. The tax reform committee faces an extremely involute problem if it wants to distribute the tax burden equally. nonsensical or meaningless talk. specialized or technical language of a speciﬁc trade or group. undaunted. easily aroused to anger. unmanageable. I am an inveterate paciﬁst and am unlikely to change my mind. indecisive. irresolute (i·'rez·o ˘·loot) adj. J jargon ('jahr· o ˘n) n. fearless. Sandra is still irresolute. stubborn. and it no longer bothered her. hesitant. intransigent (in·'tran·si·je ˘nt) adj. intricate. and training had to be cancelled temporarily. anger. irascible (i·'ras·˘·be ˘l) adj. unwilling to compromise. hence: (a) lacking in interest or signiﬁcance. The movie’s trite and overly contrived plot make it a jejune sequel to what was a powerful and novel ﬁlm. Her irascible temperament caused many problems with the staff at the ofﬁce. Young children can be intransigent when it comes to what foods they will eat. irritable. wrath. the smallest possible quantity. inveigle (in·'vay· e ˘l) v. you might help her make up her mind. lacking substance. meager. intrepid (in·'trep·id) adj. accustomed to. Trisha had become inured to her boss’s criticism. feeling or showing uncertainty. vex. ire (¯r) n. adapted. jejune (ji·'joon) adj. 2. inveterate (in·'vet·e ˘·rit) adj. Being a teenager means being continually irked by your parents—and vice versa. iota (¯·'oh·ta ˘) n. to entice. unruly. . childish (c) lacking nutritional value. irritate. The young colt was intractable. Vanessa inveigled her way into a promotion that should have gone to Maxon. hot tempered. complex. deep rooted. irk (urk) v. stubborn. to annoy. 1.WO R D LI ST 147 intractable (in·'trak·ta ˘·be ˘l) adj. habitual. brave. to inﬂuence or persuade through gentle coaxing or ﬂattery. insipid or dull (b) lacking in maturity.
Raheeb’s laissez-faire management style is not only popular with our employees but also very successful—employee satisfaction is high and proﬁts are up for the third quarter in a row. cheerful. liaison (lee·'ay·zon. weak. 2. 2. succinct. one who lives or acts in an immoral or irresponsible way. L laconic (la ˘·'kon·ik) adj. sprightly and lighthearted. but in my opinion. Juggernaut. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. chances are they will have a lot of trouble once they enter school. to become languid. a channel or means of connection or communication between two groups. to lose vigor or strength. often to the point of being curt or brusque. 'lee·a ˘·zon) n. lenient. present or in existence but not active or evident. Zse’s laconic reply made it clear that he did not want to discuss the matter any further. to exist or continue in a miserable or neglected state. hands-off. they’re just a bunch of libertines. Lucinda languished in despair when Sven told her he’d fallen in love with another woman. merry. 1. where the children must follow a long list of rules and regulations. not taut or rigid. laissez-faire (les·ay 'fair) adj. 1. 1. A shroud of fear covered Eastern Europe as the juggernaut of communism spread from nation to nation. Alexi’s jocund nature makes it a pleasure to be near her. a massive. latent ('lay·te ˘nt) adj. Julian’s latent musical talent surfaced when his parents bought an old piano at a garage sale and he started playing. 2. one who acts according to his or her own impulses and desires and is unrestrained by conventions or morals. They claim to be avant-garde. ﬂaccid. 2. juggernaut ('ju ·e ˘r·nawt) n. one who maintains such communication. overwhelmingly powerful and unstoppable force that seems to crush everything in its path. 1. If parents are too lax with their toddlers. slack. I have been elected to be the liaison between the union members and management. noninterference by the government in business and economic affairs. brief and to the point.148 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT jocund ('jok·u ˘nd) adj. concise. lax (laks) adj. feeble. title for the Hindu god Krishna. libertine ('lib·e ˘r·teen) n. a close relationship or link. . terse. languish ('lan · wish) v. lacking in rigor or strictness.
comical misuse of words. After several tests. sane or rational. a feeling of illness or unease. M machination (mak·˘·'nay·sho ˘n) n. especially those that are similar in sound. very clear. lugubrious (luu·' oo·bree·u ˘s) adj. to mutilate. misconduct or wrongdoing. malinger (ma ˘·'lin · e ˘r) v. producing much money. proﬁtable. especially by a public ofﬁcial. garrulous. tiny. or injure. maladroit (mal·a ˘·'droit) adj. maim (maym) v. to pretend to be injured or ill in order to avoid work. disable. malfeasance (ma ˘l·'fee·za ˘ns) n. The mining accident severely maimed Antol. His malapropisms may make us laugh. Teaching is a very rewarding career. improper professional conduct. to wound. trivial or petty. Irina’s lugubrious tears made me believe that her sadness was just a façade. 1. inept. The city comptroller was found guilty of malfeasance and was removed from ofﬁce. especially by depriving of the use of a limb or other part of the body. The maladroit waiter broke a dozen plates and spilled coffee on two customers. loquacious (loh·'kway·shu ˘s) adj. Macbeth’s machinations failed to bring him the glory he coveted and brought him only tragedy instead. excessively dismal or mournful. malaise (ma ˘·'layz) n. lucrative ('loo·kra ˘·tiv) adj. the act of plotting or devising. a crafty or cunning scheme devised to achieve a sinister end. easy to understand. My troubles are lilliputian compared to hers. cripple. and I am thankful that I do not have such major issues in my life. malapropism ('mal·a ˘·prop·iz·e ˘m) n. . bungling. The loquacious woman sitting next to me on the six-hour ﬂight talked the entire time. but they won’t win our vote. 1. Andrea presented a very lucid argument that proved her point beyond a shadow of a doubt. 2. talkative. lucid ('loo·sid) adj. Stop malingering and give me a hand with this job. but unfortunately it is not very lucrative. 2. intelligible. very small. clumsy. 1. 2. Wella ﬁnally learned the cause of her malaise: She was allergic to her new Siamese cat. often exaggeratedly or ridiculously so.WO R D LI ST 149 lilliputian (lil·i·'pyoo·sha ˘n) adj. disﬁgure.
one who acts independently. 3. to wander about. easily molded or pressed into shape. some people consider Las Vegas the most meretricious city in the country. The strident sounds of Omar’s abysmal saxophone playing marred the serenity of the afternoon. meander (mee·'an·de ˘r) v.150 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT malleable ('mal·ee·a ˘·be ˘l) adj. extremely careful and precise. easily controlled or inﬂuenced. mar (mahr) v. to distribute. You should be able to convince Xiu quickly. The eclectic mélange of people at the party made for a scintillating evening. 2. honeyed. mettlesome ('met·e ˘l·so ˘m) adj. gaudy. who don’t feel they can trust him. . she’s quite a malleable person. tawdry. milieu (meel·'yuu) n. mercurial (me ˘r·'kyoor·ee·a ˘l) adj. meretricious (mer·e ˘·'trish·u ˘s) adj. paying great attention to detail. Madonna has always been a maverick in the music industry. With its casinos and attractions. trying to ﬁgure out how I could have made such an egregious mistake. 2. 1. 2. courageous. easily adapting to changing circumstances. 2. 2. liable to change moods suddenly. melliﬂuous (me·'lif·loo·u ˘s) adj. mélange (may·'lahnzh) n. rebel. environment or setting. Carlos’s mendacity has made him very unpopular with his classmates. changeable. meticulous (me ˘·'tik·yu ˘·lu ˘s) adj. volatile. apportion. 1. Tibor was awed by the meticulous detail in the painting—it looked as real as a photograph. showily attractive but false or insincere. move aimlessly or without a ﬁxed direction or course. the tendency to be dishonest or untruthful. Her melliﬂuous voice ﬂoated in through the windows and made everyone smile. a mixture or assortment. high-spirited. nonconformist. 1. 1. mendacity (men·'das·i·tee) n. allot. Alice’s mettlesome attitude was infectious and inspired us all to press on. lively. a falsehood or lie. Fiona is so mercurial that you never know what kind of reaction to expect. 1. sounding sweet and ﬂowing. make defective or imperfect. to impair or damage. maverick ('mav·e ˘r·ik) n. The milieu at the writer’s retreat is designed to inspire creativity. to spoil the perfection or integrity of. mete (meet) v. I meandered through the park for hours. The punishments were meted out fairly to everyone involved in the plot. to move on a winding or turning course.
1. 2. gloomy. one who hates or distrusts humankind. 1. mitigate ('mit·˘· ayt) v. dull. an immense number. to make less intense or severe. moot (moot) adj. very small details. morose (mo ˘·'rohs) adj. The crying child was quickly molliﬁed by her mother. to walk or speak affectedly. If you do not have passion for your job. miscreant ('mis·kree·a ˘nt) n. vast amount. criminal. myriad ('mir·ee·a ˘d) adj. to soothe the anger of. going to work each day can become mundane. soften. he’s a real misanthrope. 2. His attention to the minutiae of the process enabled him to make his great discovery. great merriment. mollify ('mol·˘·f¯) v. melancholy. a villain. the myriad choices in the American supermarket were overwhelming. 3. greatly diversiﬁed. make less rigid.. 2. minutiae (m˘·no ¯o ¯'she ¯·a) n. the extenuating circumstances will mitigate the severity of your punishment. The joyous wedding celebration ﬁlled the reception hall with mirth throughout the evening.WO R D LI ST 151 mince (mins) v. 1. to say something more delicately or indirectly for the sake of politeness or decorum. and no one can do anything right in his eyes. to cut into very small pieces. very varied. debatable. mundane (mun·'dayn) adj. Please don’t mince your words—just tell me what you want to say. Pay no mind to his criticism. undecided. My daughter has been morose ever since our dog ran away. calm. to moderate the force or intensity of. Although this is a moot issue. diminish. n. alleviate. as with studied reﬁnement. it is one that is often debated among certain circles. having many aspects. joyous laughter. pl. I am sure that if you tell the headmaster the truth. mirth (murth) n. The miscreant had eluded the police for months. ordinary. 2. . multifarious (mul·ti·'fair·ee·u ˘s) adj. 3. The job requires the ability to handle multifarious tasks. to lessen in intensity. too numerous to be counted. commonplace. but today he was ﬁnally captured. innumerable. 1. To the refugees from Somalia. an indeﬁnitely large number. not spiritual. secular. sullen. misanthrope ('mis·an·throhp) n. worldly. trivial or triﬂing matters. to soften. evil person.
3. strikingly new. I doubt he’ll change his mind. O obdurate ('ob·du ˘·rit) adj. a genre of literature. Victoria tried to be nonchalant. original. not showing anxiety or excitement. a link or tie between a series of things. a connected series or group. 1. 1. but it degenerated into a series of non sequiturs. foul. to make null (without legal force). Some critics say that movie stars are guilty of narcissism. . 1. a means of connection.152 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT N nadir ('nay·d˘r) n. In Frankenstein. hardhearted. The nascent movement gathered strength quickly and soon became a nationwide call to action. Marcus’s argument started off strong. The noxious smell drove everyone from the room. 2. indifferent or cool. the lowest point. narcissism ('narh·si·siz·e ˘m) n. excessive interest in one’s own personal features. a conclusion that does not logically follow from the evidence. 2. harmful. The nexus between the lobbyists and the recent policy changes is clear. not easily moved to pity. What a noisome odor is coming from that garbage can! non sequitur (non 'sek·wi·tu ˘r) n. the cause of one’s misery or downfall. The opponents wanted to nullify the bill before it became a law. nonchalant (non·sha ˘·'lahnt) adj. The chef’s new idea to add mango to the salad was novel. the very bottom. putrid. bane. or different. noxious. the monster Victor creates becomes his nemesis. offensive. agent of retribution or vengeance. nullify ('nul·˘·f¯) v. especially in odor. he’s the most obdurate person I know. 2. adj. coming into existence. 2. to counteract or neutralize the effect of. unwholesome. source of harm or ruin. noxious ('nok·shu ˘s) adj. nemesis ('nem·e ˘·sis) n. invalidate. Robert began to practice mediation to elevate his spirits. admiration or worship of oneself. noisome ('noi·so ˘m) adj. emerging. stubborn and inﬂexible. nexus ('nek·su ˘s) n. novel ('nov·e ˘l) n. the core or center. unpleasant and harmful. When he felt he was at the nadir of his life. nascent ('nas·e ˘nt) adj. 1. but I could tell she was nervous.
to make obscure or unclear. so be prepared for lots of questions and advice. ofﬁcious (o ˘·'fish·u ˘s) adj. aggressively boisterous. concealed. obviate ('ob·vee·ayt) v. prominent. stupid and slow to understand. attentive in a servile or ingratiating manner. 1. obsequious (o ˘b·'see·kwee·u ˘s) adj. projecting. bossy. My ofﬁcious Aunt Midge is coming to the party. blunt. unruly. a work of art. Hiring Magdalena would obviate the need to hire a music tutor. In Greek mythology. but he was not omnipotent. hidden. The obstreperous child refused to go to bed. 1. contemptible. tending to push one’s self or one’s ideas upon others. 2. to dim or darken. Zachary found the work in the slaughterhouse so odious that he quit after one day and became a vegetarian. omnipotent (om·'nip·o ˘·te ˘nt) adj. beyond ordinary understanding.WO R D LI ST 153 obfuscate (ob·'fus·kayt) v. Constanta’s latest oeuvre is an avant-garde symphony featuring a cow bell solo. . Zeus was the most powerful god. involving the realm of the supernatural. forward. odious ('oh·di·u ˘s) adj. occult (o ˘·'kult) adj. etc. intrusive. noisily and stubbornly deﬁant. Please don’t be so obtuse. fawning. oligarchy ('ol·˘· ahr·kee) n. to make unnecessary. oeuvre ('uu·vre ˘) n. get rid of. the total lifework of a writer. excessively or ingratiatingly compliant or submissive. incomprehensible. Thankfully. 2. artist. obtrusive (o ˘b·'troo·siv) adj. 3. but she was left with several obtrusive scars. having unlimited or universal power or force. 1. hateful. detestable. meddlesome. Walter only obfuscated it further. Minsun survived the accident. you know what I mean. for she is also a classical pianist. 1. secret. The small governing body calls itself a democracy. 3. obstreperous (ob·'strep·e ˘·ru ˘s) adj. The embezzler was good at keeping his ﬁnancial records occult from the authorities. eagerly offering unnecessary or unwanted advice. undesirably noticeable. 2. thrusting out. composer. but it is clearly an oligarchy. 1. The obsequious manner of the butler made it clear that he resented his position. 2. to muddle or make difﬁcult to understand. not sharp or pointed. form of government in which the power is in the hands of a select few. Instead of clarifying the matter. obtuse (o ˘b·'toos) adj. 2. because even his rule was often held in check by the unchangeable laws of the Three Fates.
uninterrupted rhythm. Walton couldn’t believe the billionaire offered such a paltry reward for the return of his lost dog. appearing as such. duty or responsibility of doing something. luxurious. possessing great wealth. The fever subsided. to waver. opprobrious (o ˘·'proh·bree·u ˘s) adj. to provide relief from pain. knowing all things. contemptibly small in amount. 2. cast out from a group or from society. but I believe they have already made their decision. but it soon became clear that he would not be able to prevent a scandal. so the onus is on him to show us that it will work. relieve the symptoms of a disease or disorder. overbearing. presumptuously arrogant. seeming. P palliate ('pal·ee·ayt) v. pretended.154 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omniscient (om·'nish·e ˘nt) adj. but her pallor remained for several weeks. 2. Lee is very wealthy. The ostensible reason for the meeting is to discuss the candidates. . lack of color. In a story with an omniscient narrator. bringing shame or disgrace. excessive. abusive. task. oxymoron (oks·ee·'moh·ro ˘n) n. wretched or contemptible. scornful. 2. such as friendly ﬁre. ostensible (o·'sten·s˘·be ˘l) adj. but he does not live an opulent lifestyle. to swing back and forth or side to side in a steady. abundant. lacking in importance or worth. Kendall was ostracized after he repeatedly stole from his friends. ostracize ('os·tra ˘·s¯z) v. mitigate. 1. alleviate. 1. afﬂuent. pallor ('pal·o ˘r) n. a ﬁgure of speech containing a seemingly contradictory combination of expressions. expressing contempt or reproach. to make something less intense or severe. 1. onus ('oh·nu ˘s) n. to reject. paleness. we can hear the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters. 2. 2. paltry ('pawl·tree) adj. The governor tried to palliate his malfeasance. pitiful. to gloss over. having inﬁnite knowledge. 2. 1. burden. I quit because I couldn’t stand to work for such an overweening boss. as between two conﬂicting options or opinions. The term nonworking mother is a contemptible oxymoron. insigniﬁcant. put a positive spin on. The rhythm of the oscillating fan put the baby to sleep. immoderate. 1. 1. vacillate. put forward (as of a reason) but not necessarily so. It was Clark’s idea. opulent ('op·yu ˘·le ˘nt) adj. overweening (oh·ve ˘r·'wee·nin ) adj. oscillate ('os·˘·layt) v. It was inappropriate to make such opprobrious remarks in front of everybody.
marked by a narrow. a person who has suddenly risen to a higher social or economic status but has not been socially accepted by others in that class. Jason was treated like a pariah by all of the women in the ofﬁce. easy to understand. Although the ﬁlm received critical acclaim. beyond comparison. 2. especially of rules or trivial matters. an outcast. beliefs. Senator Waterson’s pellucid argument made me change my vote. (e. The paucity of food in the area drove the herd farther and farther to the south. tiresome focus on or display of learning. 2. able to be seen through with clarity. of writing) very clear. smallness of supply or quantity. partisan ('pahr·ti·za ˘n) n. a walker. The partisan lobby could not see the logic of the opposing senator’s argument and did not understand how the proposed legislation would infringe upon basic constitutional rights. Her lessons were so pedantic that I found I was easily bored. 1. 1. Don’t make such a big deal out of a little peccadillo. trite. its pedestrian plot has been overused by screenwriters for decades. dull. having the highest degree of excellence.WO R D LI ST 155 paradigm ('par·a ˘·d¯m) n. 1. a rejected and despised person. a trivial offense. a small sin or fault. adj. scarcity. unimaginative. pedestrian (pe ˘·'des·tri· a ˘n) n. or involving money. a person fervently and often uncritically supporting a group or cause. set of assumptions. commonplace. of. a guerilla. of course. he was a parvenu who struggled to be accepted by his wealthy peers. an upstart. a member of an organized body of ﬁghters who attack or harass an enemy. a walker adj. 2. pariah (pa ˘·'r¯·a ˘) n. paucity ('paw·si·tee) n. Ronnel was nice enough. Elected “Employee of the Month. something that serves as a model or example. pedantic (pi·'da ˘n·tik) n. quintessential. pellucid (pe ˘·'loo·sid) adj. Bob Hope was an entertainer par excellence. but because he was “new money” in an “old money” town. being the best or truest of its kind. unremarkable. values or practices that constitutes a way of understanding or doing things. pecuniary (pi·'kyoo·nee·er·ee) adj.g. parvenu ('pahr·ve ˘·noo) n. peccadillo (pek·a ˘·'dil·oh) n. After he told a sexist joke.. . relating to. Rosen was relieved to learn that his penalty would be pecuniary only and that he would not have to spend any time in jail. par excellence (pahr 'ek·se ˘·lahns) adj.” Winona is a paradigm of efﬁciency. translucent.
permeate. done out of a sense of duty or routine but without much care or interest. very destructive. pervade (pe ˘r·'vayd) v. we felt a more thorough job could have been done. Anoki was pensive about what he should do with his life. it’s good to be ﬁnancially secure again. dishonest. 2. The mother’s peremptory tone ended the children’s bickering. destitution. 3. Sandra is personable and well liked by her peers. not thorough. putting an end to debate or action. dictatorial. personable ('pur·so ˘·na ˘·be ˘l) adj. not allowing contradiction or refusal. After ten years of penury. the deliberate willful giving of false. We were not satisﬁed with his perfunctory work. 2. or incomplete testimony while under oath. harmful. offensively self-assured. purpose. a strong liking or inclination (for something). especially in a serious or melancholy manner. extreme poverty. deeply thoughtful. Fear pervaded the classroom after Sally started a rumor that Mr. holding ﬁrmly to a belief. pleasing in appearance or manner. William was convicted of perjury for lying about his whereabouts on the night of the crime. to be diffused or present throughout. or dread. disloyal. to stun or paralyze with fear. 1. perjury ('pur·ju ˘·ree) n. misleading. pertinacious (pur·t˘·'nay·shu ˘s) adj. superﬁcial. The pertinacious journalist ﬁnally uncovered the truth about the factory’s illegal disposal of toxins. Nancy’s opponent started a pernicious rumor that destroyed her chances of winning.156 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT penchant ('pen·cha ˘nt) n. or course of action. attractive. deadly. I was petriﬁed when I heard the door open in the middle of the night. to spread everywhere. There’s a real surprise for the audience in the penultimate scene. perﬁdious (pe ˘r·'fid·ee·u ˘s) adj. pernicious (pe ˘r·'nish·u ˘s) adj. petrify ('pet·r˘·f¯) v. 1. commanding. Consuela has a penchant for wearing the latest fashions. to make hard or stiff like a stone. treacherous. violating good faith. The perﬁdious knight betrayed his king. imperative. penury ('pen·yu ˘·ree) n. . perfunctory (pe ˘r·'fun k·to ˘·ree) adj. After the terrible car accident. pensive ('pen·siv) adj. Higgins would be their new teacher. astonishment. extremely stubborn or persistent. penultimate (pi·'nul·t˘·mit) adj. peremptory (pe ˘·'remp·to ˘·ree) adj. next to last.
spongelike central cylinder of the stems of most ﬂowering plants. controversial. plethora ('pleth·o ˘·ra ˘) n. arousing emotion. a person or thing that has become renewed or restored after suffering calamity or apparent annihilation (after the mythological bird that periodically immolated itself and rose from the ashes as a new phoenix).WO R D LI ST 157 petulant ('pech·u ˘·la ˘nt) adj. 1. The barbarians pillaged the village before destroying it with ﬁre. pivotal ('piv·o ˘·ta ˘l) adj. peevish. The spicy shrimp salad is wonderfully piquant. melancholy. philistine ('fil·i·steen) n. a smug. plaintive ('playn·tiv) adj. . Janice’s plaintive voice made me decide to stay and comfort her longer. They captured the poignant reunion on ﬁlm. but concise. pleasantly stimulating or provocative. idea. etc. We are at a pivotal point in the negotiations and must proceed very carefully. pillage ('pil·ij) v. 1. crucial. a trite or banal statement. especially in time of war. 2. sharp or tart in taste. (in biology) the soft. a person or thing of unmatched beauty or excellence. 2. touching. 1. Her brief. keenly distressing. 1. pique (peek) v. polemical (po ˘·'lem·ik·a ˘l) adj. unreasonably or easily irritated or annoyed. 2. platitude ('plat·i·tood) n. extreme excess. 1. especially one uttered as if it were new. to offend. the wrong move now could ruin everything. the heart or essence (of the matter. to wound (someone’s) pride. argumentative. pith (pith) n. ignorant person. deeply moving. calm and peaceful. 2. piquant ('pee·ka ˘nt) adj. statement went right to the pith of the argument and covered the most important issues. The pouting and sulking child could only be described as petulant. Richards thinks he is cosmopolitan. The analyst presented a highly polemical view of the economic situation. someone who is uncultured and commonplace. expressing sorrow. poignant ('poin·ya ˘nt) adj. the essential or central part. Matthew offered me several platitudes but no real advice. The article really piqued my interest in wildlife preservation. There was a plethora of food at the reception. an overabundance. but he’s really just a philistine. placid ('plas·id) adj. free from disturbance or tumult. The phoenix is often used to symbolize something that is indomitable or immortal. to plunder. phoenix ('fee·niks) n. to arouse or provoke. experience. mournful. Lake Placid is as calm and peaceful as its name suggests. to forcibly rob of goods. being of vital importance. agreeably pungent. 2.). piercing or incisive.
putting on airs. dropping sharply. 1. dangerously unsteady or insecure. ancient. 2. proﬂigate ('prof·l˘· it) adj. precept ('pree·sept) n. I just had a hunch that he wasn’t what he seemed to be. free from contamination. The propinquity of these two elements make them difﬁcult to tell apart. . showy. I think we should take the most pragmatic approach. foolhardy. 1. proletariat (proh·le ˘·'tair·ee·a ˘t) n. The proletariats demanded fewer hours and better wages. to stray from or evade the truth. precipitous (pri·'sip·i·tu ˘s) adj. to tell lies. 1. My ﬁrst impression of the arrogant newcomer told me that he was a poseur. clean. matter-of-fact. those who do manual labor to earn a living. pristine ('pris·teen) adj. we spotted a grizzly bear on a precipitous cliff and wondered if he would fall. someone who takes on airs to impress others. 2. pretentious (pri·'ten·shu ˘s) adj. prodigal. extremely steep. 1. proximity. 2. in its original and unspoiled condition. The headmaster reviewed the precepts of the school with the students. We were awed by the beauty of the pristine forest in northern Canada. 2. unadulterated. favoring utility. auspicious. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. propinquity (proh·'pin ·kwi·tee) n. These are propitious omens and foretell a good journey. primeval (pr¯·'mee·va ˘l) adj. afﬁnity. a phony. The primeval art found in the caves was discovered by accident. rash. The crocodile hunter is constantly placing himself in very precarious positions. but she is sorely mistaken. pure. prevaricate (pri·'var·˘·kayt) v. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. His prodigal actions led to his ﬁnancial ruin. Driving through the state park. prodigal ('prod·˘· a ˘l) adj. propitious (proh·'pish·u ˘s) adj. similarity in nature. nearness. especially with money. given in great abundance. belonging to the earliest ages. The proﬂigate man quickly depleted his fortune.158 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT poseur (poh·'zur) n. precarious (pri·'kair·ee·u ˘s) adj. pragmatic (pra ·'mat·ik) adj. dissolute. Quit prevaricating and tell me what really happened. lacking moral restraint. 2. original. lavish or profuse. fraught with danger. presenting favorable circumstances. hasty. pompous. Hannah thinks that being pretentious will make people like her. practical. a rule establishing standards of conduct. 1. 2. 1. the working class. Because we don’t have money or time to waste.
wisely providing for future needs. After a few minutes. or procedure with regard to people’s rank or status. stinging.WO R D LI ST 159 prosaic (proh·'zay·ik) adj. belonging to or of childhood. proselytize ('pros·e ˘·li·t¯z) v. Because my parents were so provident. The journalist consulted several legal pundits before drafting the article. In Native American mythology. caustic. protocol ('proh·to ˘·kawl) n. pungent ('pun·je ˘nt) adj. Don’t be so pugnacious—I don’t want to ﬁght. sharp taste or smell. eager to ﬁght. unimaginative. economical. I didn’t have to struggle to pay for college. a document authorizing this substitution. pugnacious (pu ·'nay·shu ˘s) adj. judicious. taking many forms. it became clear to Hannah that the purpose of the meeting was really to proselytize as many attendees as possible. Clarissa has always been very prudent. forbid. pundit ('pun·dit) n. etiquette. prudent ('proo·de ˘nt) adj. proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v. versatile. a ﬁrst copy of a treaty or document. protean ('proh·tee·a ˘n) adj. provident ('prov·i·de ˘nt) adj. One of the reasons he excels as an editor is because he is so punctilious. The king proscribed the worship of idols in his kingdom. changeable. immature. a person or agent authorized to represent or act for another. a learned person or scholar. 1. 2. quarrelsome. variable. puerile ('pyoo ˘·r˘l) adj. belief. so her recent bout of poor choices and boisterous behavior tells me she is very upset about something. the coyote is often called the “shape shifter” because he is such a protean character. 1. 1. proxy ('prok·see) n. to denounce or condemn. frugal. to banish or outlaw. 1. suitable only for children. Jackson was ﬁred for repeatedly refusing to follow protocol. ordinary. penetrating. 2. I love the pungent taste of a good. to convert or seek to convert someone to another religion. to prohibit. contentious. 2. childish. 1. Andrew is a remarkably successful businessman for someone so puerile. punctilious (pun k·'til·i·u ˘s) adj. 2. The prosaic novel was rejected by the publisher. one who is an authority on a subject. belligerent. . strong curry. doctrine or cause. having a strong. extremely attentive to detail. dull. exercising good judgment. careful and sensible regarding one’s actions and interests. very meticulous and precise. The president appointed a proxy to handle business matters during his absence. ceremony. 2.
the perfect example or embodiment of something. querulous ('kwer·u ˘·lu ˘s) adj. impractical. 1.160 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT purge (purj) v. latent. 2. quixotic (kwik·'sot·ik) adj. to free from impurities. 1. queue (kyoo) n. especially to rid of that which is undesirable or harmful. cower. the essence of a substance. quiet. 2. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. Mona quailed as soon as the vicious dog entered the room. an equal exchange or substitution. inactive. romantically idealistic. propose or intend. a thing given in return for something. quiescent (kwi·'es·e ˘nt) adj. but who knows when it will erupt again. I won’t agree to any deal that isn’t quid pro quo— it must be a win-win arrangement. to have the appearance of being. at rest. peevish. to be intended to seem. purport ('pur·pohrt) v. ﬂinch. pedestrian. 2. to drink hurriedly or heartily. quail (kwayl) v. quotidian (kwoh·'tid·ee·a ˘n) adj. discontented. to draw back in fear. Look how long the queue is! We’ll be waiting for hours. The volcano is quiescent at the moment. purloin (pu ˘r·'loin) v. Maura is the quintessence of kindness. The letter purports to express your opinion on the matter. he purges the text of unnecessary words to make it more succinct. 1. Q quaff (kwahf) v. pure. quintessence (kwin·'tes·e ˘ns) n. dormant. extravagantly chivalrous and unselﬁsh. 1. 2. The thief purloined a sculpture worth thousands of dollars. He quickly quaffed three glasses of water. His quixotic ways charmed all the women at the dance. daily. . to steal. but I love him. complaining. quid pro quo (kwid proh 'kwoh) n. to swallow in large draughts. Prudence took her quotidian dose of medicine. to make or become clean. commonplace. He’s a cantankerous and querulous old man. After Leon writes a draft. a line of people or vehicles waiting their turn.
plundering. The raucous music kept us awake all night. smartly dressed or mannered. a bitter feeling of ill will. stubborn. abstruse. resisting control or discipline. recalcitrant (ri·'kal·si·tra ˘nt) adj. The rakish young woman charmed everyone at the table. disobedient. Allowing prisoners to earn their GED or a college degree has been shown to greatly reduce recidivism. not easily understood. recidivism (ri·'sid·˘·vizm) n. dissolute or debauched. . excessively greedy and grasping (especially for money). regale (ri·' ayl) v. especially into antisocial or criminal behavior after conviction and punishment. Ameer realized he was being persecuted by his boss. refusing to obey authority. The recalcitrant child was sent to the principal’s ofﬁce for the third time in a week. to delight or entertain with a splendid feast or pleasant amusement. Greg is full of rancor towards his brother. voracious. rapacious (ra ˘·'pay·shu ˘s) adj. 2. reactionary (ree·'ak·sho ˘·ner·ee) n. disturbing the peace. It should be an interesting marriage: he’s a reactionary and she’s as liberal as they come. disorderly. My job was to reconnoiter the party and let my friends know if it was worth attending. obscure. to reprove or reprimand. a person who favors political conservativism. rebuke (ri·'byook) v. After weeks of being rebuked in front of his coworkers for minor infractions and imaginary offenses. 2. raucous ('raw·ku ˘s) adj. rancor ('ran ·ko ˘r) n. debonair. refractory (ri·'frak·to ˘·ree) adj. to repress or restrain by expressing harsh disapproval. 2. unpleasantly loud and harsh. long-lasting resentment. to criticize sharply. reconnoiter (ree·ko ˘·'noi·te ˘r) v. 1. 1. He loves the challenge of grasping a recondite subject. censure.WO R D LI ST 161 R rakish ('ray·kish) adj. recondite ('rek·o ˘n·d¯t) adj. 2. jaunty in appearance or manner. one who is opposed to progress or liberalism. especially to gather military information or prepare for military operations. and this causes tension at family gatherings. 1. 1. The rapacious general ordered his soldiers to pillage the town. dealing with abstruse or profound matters. unconventional and disreputable. unruly. a relapse or backslide. Elena is a counselor for refractory children in an alternative school setting. unmanageable. to make a preliminary inspection or survey of. The king regaled his guests until the early morning hours. boisterous.
gorged. v. Clarissa and Ahmed planned a rendezvous in the park after lunch. The wail of a police siren disturbed my repose. rendezvous ('rahn·de ˘·voo) n. repose (ri·'pohz) n. etc. repudiate (ri·'pyoo·di·ayt) v. renowned (ri·'nownd) adj. and a traitor in his written confession. well stocked or abundantly supplied. He wasn’t expecting such a sharp repartee from someone who was normally so quiet. the ability to make witty replies. to bring or come together at a certain place. 2. The children remonstrated loudly when their mother told them they couldn’t watch that movie. the practice of using political or military force without actually resorting to war. peace of mind. especially a popular gathering place. The president promised a swift reprisal for the attack. widely known and esteemed. temporary relief from danger or discomfort. reprisal (ri·'pr¯·za ˘l) n. a place where people meet. disavow. 2. 2. calmness. 1. renegade ('ren·e ˘· ayd) n. The reprehensible behavior of the neighborhood bully angered everyone on the block. to scold or reprove. reprieve (ri·'preev) n. reprobate ('rep·ro ˘·bayt) n. 1. 2. The renegade soldier decided to join the guerrilla ﬁghters. one without scruples. 2. a quick. Edgar deemed himself a reprobate. tranquility. an act of retaliation for an injury with the intent of inﬂicting at least as much harm in return. a criminal. resting or being at rest. an immoral or unprincipled person. Mrs. 1. to meet at a rendezvous. Tallon has repeatedly repudiated your accusations. 2. repartee (rep·a ˘r·'tee) n. a person who rebels and becomes an outlaw. 1. a prearranged meeting at a certain time and place. especially of the death sentence. group. a deserter. replete (ri·'pleet) adj. 1. deserving rebuke or censure. reprehensible (rep·ri·'hen·s˘·be ˘l) adj. 2. 1. The court granted him a reprieve at the last moment because of DNA evidence that absolved him. witty reply. objection. one who rejects a cause. postponement or cancellation of punishment. 1. 2. reject completely. The renowned historian Stephen Ambrose wrote many books that were popular both with scholars and the general public.162 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT remonstrate (ri·'mon·strayt) v. to disown. The house was replete with expensive antiques. 1. famous. or opposition. to say or plead in protest. full. .
WO R D LI ST 163 rescind (ri·'sind) v.” not “alternative medicine. resounding. 2. When you look at Judith’s work. tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. rigmarole ('ri ·ma ˘·rohl) (also rigamarole) n. The Olsens rescinded their offer to buy the house when they discovered the property was in a ﬂood zone. so don’t expect her to tell you much about herself. drawing attention through a striking quality. revere (ri·'veer) v. sound advice. untalkative. reserved. The new announcer at the stadium has a wonderfully resonant voice. petty procedure. or note of explanation or direction. a complicated. prominent. it’s easy to see which painter she reveres most. today he’s switched everything around in the cupboards! roil (roil) v. The crowd was roiled by the speaker’s insensitive remarks. wise. rogue (roh ) n. a class or category. to venerate. resplendent (ri·'splen·de ˘nt) adj. 2. resonant ('rez·o ˘·na ˘nt) adj. silent. having or showing sound judgment. . Annette is very reticent. dazzling. conspicuous. watching a resplendent sunset over the mountains. disrespectful or irreverent towards something regarded as sacred. a dishonest. incoherent talk. rubric ('roo·brik) n. 2. to void or annul. We had to go through a great deal of rigmarole to get this approved. to repeal or cancel. 1. 1. to stir up or agitate. rambling.” S sacrilegious (sak·r˘·'lij·u ˘s) adj. 1. 3. confusing. that rogue hid all of my cooking utensils. My sagacious uncle always gives me good. to regard with reverence or awe. 2. to make a liquid cloudy or muddy. Yesterday. having great splendor or beauty. perceptive. unprincipled person. hold in highest respect or estimation. 3. sagacious (sa ˘·' ay·shu ˘s) adj. 2. reticent ('ret·i·se ˘nt) adj. to anger or annoy. echoing. a heading. Her book was criticized by the church for being sacrilegious. 1. a pleasantly mischievous person. brilliant. Jill’s most salient feature is her stunning auburn hair. salient ('say·lee·e ˘nt) adj. Sanjay stood for a long time on the deck. 1. every painting is an homage to Cezanne. title. springing up or jutting out. highly noticeable. I would put this under the rubric of “quackery. a vicious and solitary animal living apart from the herd.
2. ofﬁcial authorization or approval. Adele’s savoir faire makes her the quintessential hostess. 1. ratify. sardonic (sahr·'don·ik) adj. I was hurt by his sardonic reply.164 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT salutary ('sal·yu ˘·ter·ee) adj. . sarcastic. knowledge of the right thing to do or say in a social situation. savoir faire ('sav·wahr 'fair) n. to approve or permit. composure. graceful tact. a trace or particle. sanguine ('san · win) adj. excessively self-righteous. I’ve decided to move to a more salutary climate. conﬁdently cheerful. red. producing a beneﬁcial or wholesome effect. The schism between the two parties was forgotten as they united around a common cause. v. remedial. a penalty imposed to coerce another to comply or conform. sangfroid (sahn·'frwah) n. sanctimonious (san k·t˘·'moh·nee·u ˘s) adj. scurvy ('skur·vee) adj. That scurvy knave has ruined my plans again. 1. scintillating ('sin·t˘·lay·tin ) adj. hypocritically pious or devout. to give ofﬁcial authorization or approval for. especially in dangerous or difﬁcult circumstances. I had planned to leave the dinner party early. a separation or division into factions because of a difference in belief or opinion. People are drawn to her because of her sanguine and pleasant nature. shining brilliantly. of the color of blood. She has not one scintilla of doubt about his guilt. sparkling. Toby’s seditious behavior nearly started a riot at the town meeting. dark. optimistic. 1. brilliantly clever and animated. scintilla (sin·'til·a ˘) n. but the conversation was so scintillating that I stayed until 2:00 in the morning. The saturnine child sulked for hours. To promote better health. engaging in or promoting sedition (conduct or language which incites resistance or opposition to lawful authority). The city council has sanctioned our request to turn the empty lot into a community garden. mocking scornfully. seditious (si·'dish·u ˘s) adj. minute amount. schism ('siz·e ˘m) n. 1. sanction ('san k·sho ˘n) n. sullen. iota. 2. saturnine ('sat·u ˘r·n¯n) adj. mean. contemptible. arousing to insurrection or rebellion. gloomy. I wish I had Jane’s sangfroid when I ﬁnd myself in a confrontational situation. The thief’s sanctimonious remark that “a fool and his money are soon parted” only made the jury more eager to convict him. 2.
who had believed she was doomed to play the role of a servile wife to a domineering husband. ﬁnds the courage to break the engagement and marry the man she truly loves. 1. servile ('sur·v¯l) adj. pithy. 1. sinuous ('sin·yoo·u ˘s) adj. clever but faulty reasoning. persevering. Scientists have studied humans’ simian ancestors. of or like an ape or monkey. The deer slaked its thirst at the river. 3. but knew he had a little more research to do before he presented his argument to the distinguished scholars in his ﬁeld. shiftless ('shift·lis) adj. not a sententious reply. or interpretation of words. 1. to approach with an offer for paid services. to satisfy. the study of relationships between signs or symbols and their meanings. undulating. semantics (si·'man·tiks) n. 3. After years of sedulous research. connotation. quench. solecism ('sol·e ˘·siz·e ˘m) n. to reduce the intensity of. . expressionless or dull. He claims it’s an issue of semantics. slavish. unimaginative. solicit (so ˘·'lis·it) v. Frank’s solecism caused his debate team much embarrassment. I was amused by his sophistry. or purpose. to ask for earnestly. sophistry ('sof·i·stree) n. slake (slayk) v. 2. but the matter is not open to interpretation. diligent. a mistake in the use of language. 2. allay. petition. serpentine. moderate. I was sodden by the time I reached the bus stop. Caught in an unexpected rainstorm.WO R D LI ST 165 sedulous ('sej·u ˘·lu ˘s) adj. lacking ambition. thoroughly saturated. soaked. impropriety. I was looking for your honest opinion. sodden ('sod·e ˘n) adj. the researchers discovered a cure. 1. 1. symbols. winding. lazy and inefﬁcient. It is dangerous to drive fast on such a sinuous road. 2. sententious (sen·'ten·shu ˘s) adj. 2. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote. The climax comes when Yolanda. a plausible but invalid argument intended to deceive by appearing sound. full of maxims and proverbs offered in a self-righteous manner. My shiftless roommate has failed all of his classes. or other forms. 1. 2. violation of good manners or etiquette. the study of meaning in language. simian ('sim·ee·a ˘n) adj. to seek to obtain by persuasion or formal application. hard working. 2. pertaining to or beﬁtting a slave or forced labor. 2. expressing oneself tersely. initiative. abjectly submissive. the meaning. 1.
adj. unswerving. not genuine or authentic. unpleasantly loud and harsh. counterfeit. ﬁrm and steadfast. to hinder. or reverence. 2. 2. dirty.166 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT sordid ('sor·did) adj. strident ('str¯·de ˘nt) adj. having noble or majestic qualities. 1. 2. below the threshold of consciousness. specious ('spee·shu ˘s) adj. discordant. I have always been a staunch believer in the power of positive thinking. The negotiations were stymied by yet another attack. subliminal (sub·'lim·˘·na ˘l) adj. squalid ('skwol·id) adj. 1. terse. shrill. The captain held a steadfast course despite the rough seas. 2. subvert (sub·'vurt) v. 1. (also stanch) stopping the ﬂow of something. . obstruct. false. stoical ('stoh·i·ka ˘l) adj. to ruin. Ian’s surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. staunch (stawnch) v. Beethoven’s music is simply sublime. inspiring awe. to make (someone) look foolish or incompetent. ﬁrm and constant in principle or loyalty. but underneath. She quietly subverted his authority by sharing internal information with outside agents. cripple. Cole’s eloquent and succinct essay on the power of positive thinking won ﬁrst place in the essay contest. sordid. supreme. resolute. spurious ('spyoor·ee·u ˘s) adj. seemingly plausible but false. wretched. ﬁrmly ﬁxed or unchanging. concise. Michael was stoical. grating. adoration. ﬁlthy and wretched. Subliminal advertising is devious but effective. When he heard the strident tone of his mother’s voice. 2. deceptively pleasing in appearance. 2. The housing inspectors noted such deplorable and squalid living conditions in the decrepit building on Water Street that they were forced to evacuate the tenants. impassive. to undermine. succinct (su ˘k·'sin kt) adj. lofty. steadfast ('sted·fast) adj. stultify ('stul·t˘·f¯) v. expressed clearly and precisely in few words. destroy completely. 1. to impair or make ineffective. morally degraded. unswerving. squalid. ﬁrmly loyal and constant. morally repulsive. to overthrow. sublime (su ˘·'bl¯m) adj. thwart. Vinnie did not fool me with his specious argument. seemingly unaffected by pleasure or pain. Of course I’m angry! You stultiﬁed me at that meeting! stymie ('st¯·mee) v. Oscar knew he was in big trouble. 3. indifferent. he is every bit as emotional as we are. to prevent the accomplishment of something. This sordid establishment should be shut down immediately. 1. 1.
Omar realized that one of the drawbacks of his celebrity was that he would always be surrounded by sycophants. slender and graceful. conjecture. but yesterday he regaled me with tales of his hiking adventures. an excessive amount or overabundance. 2. v. disdainful. Martha agreed to be a surrogate mother for her sister. The Red Cross and other relief organizations provide succor to the needy during natural disasters. bad-tempered. supplicant ('sup·l˘·ka ˘nt) n. surly ('sur·lee) adj. 2. v. done. surreptitious (sur·e ˘p·'tish·u ˘s) adj. to infer based upon insufﬁcient evidence. svelte (svelt) adj. supercilious (soo·pe ˘r·'sil·ee·u ˘s) adj. a person who asks humbly for something. In some countries. T taciturn ('tas·i·turn) adj. scornful. a person who tries to win the favor of inﬂuential or powerful people through ﬂattery. the leaders and a select few enjoy a surfeit of wealth while most of the population lives in squalor. to provide assistance or relief in time of difﬁculty or distress. to feed or ﬁll to excess. sundry ('sun·dree) adj. or fraudulent means. The supplicants begged for forgiveness. suave. Emily received a surly greeting from the normally cheerful receptionist. assistance or relief in time of difﬁculty or distress. 1. Sunil’s supercilious attitude and sarcastic remarks annoy me greatly. a fawning parasite. After ﬁnding dirty footprints in her apartment. overindulge. The sundry items in her backpack reveal a great deal about her personality. clandestine. habitually untalkative.WO R D LI ST 167 succor ('suk·o ˘r) n. or obtained through stealthy. satiety. made. glut. reserved. The svelte actress offered a toast to her guests. Ian’s surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. the state of being or eating until excessively full. . sycophant ('sik·o ˘·fa ˘nt) n. 1. or unfriendly in a way that suggests menace. I’ve always known him to be taciturn. marked by or acting with stealth or secrecy. various. to guess. miscellaneous. Lakisha surmised that someone had stolen her misplaced jewelry. surrogate ('sur·o ˘· it) n. one who takes the place of another. a substitute. or disgust. surmise (su ˘r·'m¯z) v. one who beseeches or entreats. surfeit ('sur·fit) n. gruff. haughty.
This pamphlet describes the tenets of Amnesty International. of no substantive connection. using no unnecessary words. real or concrete. audacity. not impartial. tenuous ('ten·yoo·u ˘s) adj. tenet ('ten·it) n. tenacious (te ˘·'nay·shu ˘s) adj. 3. partisan. After our disagreement. supporting a particular cause or position. cohesive. There is no tangible evidence of misconduct. holding ﬁrmly. thwart (thwort) v. lacking conﬁdence. stubbornly unyielding. palpable. 1. concise. temerity (te ˘·'mer·i·tee) n. not relevant facts. of or relating to a tangent. to be full of. shy. adhesive. conviction. 2. This is no time for temerity. timorous ('tim·o ˘·ru ˘s) adj. gaudy or showy but without any real value. 2. afraid. sticking ﬁrmly. Heidi and I engaged only in terse exchanges. holding ﬁrmly to something. ﬂashy and tasteless. Adele was so timid she could barely muster the courage to look another person in the eye. brashness. tendentious (ten·'den·shu ˘s) adj. a belief. ﬂimsy. and it took a great deal of coaxing to get him to come near the car. group. terse (turs) adj. tawdry ('taw·dree) adj. The tendentious proposal caused an uproar on the Senate ﬂoor. able to be perceived by touch. to be present in large numbers. having little substance or validity. succinct. The general thwarted an attack by the opposing army. doctrine or principle held to be true by a person. fearful. it’s all hearsay. (of memory) retentive. I’ve never seen such a tawdry outﬁt as the three-tiered taffeta prom gown that the music singer wore to the awards ceremony! teem (teem) v. Rudy’s thesis paper contained tangential statements. 4. to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. The stray dog was timorous. we must move cautiously to avoid any further damage. unsubstantial. timid ('tim·id) adj. hesitant. or organization. . Though the connection between the two crimes seemed tenuous at ﬁrst. only superﬁcially relevant. 1. she is the most tenacious person I know. timid. a thorough investigation showed they were committed by the same person.168 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tangential (tan·'jen·sha ˘l) adj. persistent. fearful. The ﬁsherman found a stream teeming with bass. or courage. biased. such as a right or principle. 1. tangible ('tan·j˘·be ˘l) adj. 2. opinion. When it comes to ﬁghting for equality. foolish disregard of danger.
a long. Their relationship was transient but profound. It was a trenchant argument. hackneyed. vote. difﬁcult or laborious work. to promote or praise highly and energetically. The totalitarian regime fell quickly when the people revolted. The glitch in the software program truncated the lines of a very important document I was typing. trenchant ('tren·cha ˘nt) adj. 2. incisive. his tirade did not surprise his roommate. to shorten or terminate by (or as if by) cutting the top or end off. and ﬂuctuating prices wrought havoc for investors. truncate ('trun ·kayt) v. It was another tumultuous day for the stock market. tumult. repeated too often. or agitation. worn out. truculent ('truk·yu ˘·le ˘nt) adj. penetrating. . exhausting labor or effort. lasting only a very short time. 1. Since Andre was known for his temper. 1. 2. especially with the goal of getting a customer. ﬁerce. 1. extremely perceptive. overly familiar through overuse. bitterly expressing opposition. ﬂeeting. creating an uproar. violent. of a form of government in which those in control neither recognize nor tolerate rival parties or loyalties. forceful. The theme of the novel was trite. labor strenuously. angry. tribunal (tr¯·'byoo·na ˘l) n. disorderly. tumultuous (too·'mul·choo·u ˘s) adj. toil (toil) n. etc. totalitarian (toh·tal·i·'tair·ee·a ˘n) adj. tractable ('trak·ta ˘·be ˘l) adj. deﬁantly aggressive. demanding total submission of the individual to the needs of the state. The outspoken congresswoman gave a truculent speech arguing against the proposal. In the novel Brave New World. and it forced me to change my mind about the issue. sharply deﬁned. effective. to work laboriously. 1. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote. etc. many writers had written about death in a similar way. votes. a court of justice. 2. docile. tout (towt) v.) in an especially brazen or persistent manner. a violent denunciation or condemnation. v. 3. transient ('tran·zhe ˘nt) adj. obedient. clear-cut. the World Controllers use hypnosis and a “happiness drug” to make everyone tractable. Evan toiled for hours before solving the problem. turbulence. brief.WO R D LI ST 169 tirade ('t¯·rayd) n. easily managed or controlled. trite (tr¯t) adj. often highly critical speech. to solicit (customers. 3. noisy. 2. He will be sentenced for his war crimes by an international tribunal. a state of confusion. transitory.
1. vacuous ('vak·yoo·u ˘s) adj. unpleasantly and excessively or insincerely earnest or ingratiating. untoward (un·'tohrd) adj. 1. by force and without right. to seize. especially by wearing away at the foundation. or take possession of. Christopher thinks he’s so urbane. Jackson’s untoward remarks made Amelia very uncomfortable. admonish.. troublesome. V vacillate ('vas·˘·layt) v. This TV show is yet another vacuous sitcom. offense. undermine (un·de ˘r·'m¯n) v. The curtains undulated in the breeze. the babysitter undermined their mother. inconvenient. 2. wickedness. course of action. usurp (yoo·'surp) v. inane. who had forbade them to eat sweets. urbane (ur·'bayn) adj. 2. 1. stupid. . Such turpitude deserves the most severe punishment. I took great umbrage at your suggestion that I twisted the truth. to wrongfully take over. After the king’s half-brother usurped the throne. suave. senseless. but he’s really quite pedestrian. to move or sway from side to side. containing or having the quality of oil or ointment. contrary to one’s best interest or welfare. adverse. 2. slippery. unseemly. waver. The child was upbraided for misbehaving during the ceremony. undulate ('un·ju ˘·layt) v. highly reﬁned in manners. a corrupt or depraved act. extremely tactful and polite. to move in waves or in a wavelike fashion. unctuous ('un k·choo·u ˘s) adj. improper. to swing back and forth about an opinion. reproach sharply. etc. empty. greasy. resentment. 2. ﬂuctuate. elegant. upbraid (up·'brayd) v. I left without test driving the car because the salesperson was so unctuous that I couldn’t trust him. 1. condemn. ﬂuctuate. who was the rightful heir to the throne. to reprove. U umbrage ('um·brij) n. to weaken or injure. perverse. 2. to be indecisive.170 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT turpitude ('tur·pi·tood) n. purposeless. 1. to destroy in an underhanded way. Denise vacillated for weeks before she decided to accept our offer. he executed the king and queen and imprisoned the prince. By telling the children that they could eat chocolate.
genuine. dignity. worthy of reverence or respect because of age. words can be every bit as virulent as the sting of a scorpion. vex (veks) v. the appearance of being true or real. indeed. acrimonious. Einstein was a veritable genius. to criticize or rebuke harshly or abusively. wordy. 1. 1. face to face with or opposite to. marked by great force. After being vituperated by her boss for something that wasn’t even her fault. . Jin handed in her letter of resignation. to annoy. easily bribed or corrupted. vigor. 1. The movie aims for complete verisimilitude and has painstakingly recreated the details of everyday life in the 1920s. The venal judge was removed and disbarred. Her verbose letter rambled so much that it didn’t seem to have a point. 2. berate. 2. irritate. bitterly hostile or hateful. veritable ('ver·i·ta ˘·be ˘l) adj. the lights came back on. Her vitriolic attack on her opponent was so hostile that it may cost her the election. 2. caustic. or energy. They say that the pen is mightier than the sword. vitriolic (vit·ri·'ol·ik) adj. using more words than necessary. to strive for superiority or victory. to cause worry to. especially a short literary sketch or scene or ornamental sketch in a book. injurious or infectious. venal ('vee·na ˘l) adj. vignette (vin·'yet) n. and Suki suddenly found herself vis-à-vis with the man of her dreams. The venerable Jimmy Carter has won the Nobel Peace Prize. vis-à-vis (vee·za ˘·'vee) adj. referring or directing attention to. real. face to face. to compete with or contend. adv. unprincipled. 2. The two scientists were vying to be the ﬁrst to ﬁnd concrete evidence of extraterrestrial life. character or position. to censure severely. characterized by extreme intensity of emotion or forcefulness of expression or conviction. vie (v¯) v. 1. verbose (ve ˘r·'bohs) adj. vituperate (v¯·too·pe ˘·rayt) v. venerable ('ven·e ˘·ra ˘·be ˘l) adj. virulent ('vir·yu ˘·le ˘nt) adj. The ﬁlm is a series of interrelated vignettes rather than one continuous narrative. true. verisimilitude (ver·i·si·'mil·i·tood) n. long-winded. extremely poisonous. I was completely vexed by his puerile behavior. The senator was vehement in her denial of any wrongdoing and maintained her innocence throughout the investigation. After a few minutes of pandemonium. a brief description or depiction.WO R D LI ST 171 vehement ('vee·e ˘·me ˘nt) adj. savagely hostile or bitter.
to examine or sift through to remove undesirable elements. turning or rotating easily on an axis. fervent. 1. After being swindled by the street vendor. unstable. I have always been a voracious reader and literally consume dozens of books every month. earnest. explosive. rapid. language marked by great ﬂuency. 2. Shalom was such a zealous student that he begged his teacher to assign him extra projects. zeitgeist ('ts¯t· ¯st) n. peak. the general intellectual and moral outlook or attitude characteristic of a particular generation or period of time. the highest point. 2. cautious. 1. guarded. changeable. a strong dislike. nimble speech. . Z zealous ('zel·u ˘s) adj. having a great appetite for something. 1. varying widely. 1. eager. ﬁlled with or marked by great interest or enthusiasm. ﬁckle. distrust. The revolutionary zeitgeist of the sixties and seventies is in sharp contrast to the conservative zeitgeist of the ﬁfties. winnow ('win·oh) v. 3. rapacious. We have winnowed the list of applicants down to ﬁve highly qualiﬁed candidates. Many atrocities have been committed because of xenophobia. to separate the grain from the chaff by using the wind or other current of air to blow the chaff away. (in chemistry) evaporating readily. top.172 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT volatile ('vol·a ˘·til) adj. voracious (voh·'ray·shu ˘s) adj. or fear of foreigners. X xenophobia (zen·o ˘·'foh·bee·a ˘) n. watchful. to separate the good from the bad. She is at the zenith of her career and has won every case this year. W wary ('wair·ee) adj. likely to change suddenly or violently. voluble ('vol·yu ˘·be ˘l) adj. the spirit of the times. Bridget was wary of most salespeople. zenith ('zee·nith) n. inconstant. The stock market has been so volatile lately that I have decided to invest in bonds instead. Your new spokesperson is very voluble and clearly comfortable speaking in front of large audiences. 2. the point in the sky directly above the observer. excessively greedy. devouring greedily. 2. talking a great deal and with great ease.
WO R D LI ST
Preﬁxes, Sufﬁxes, and Word Roots
The following table lists the most common English language preﬁxes, their meanings, and examples of words with each preﬁx.
PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES
a-, anab-, absanteant-, antibicircumco-, com-, concontracounterdedis-
not, without from, away, off prior to, in front of, before opposite, opposing, against two, twice around, about, on all sides with, together, jointly against, contrary, contrasting contrary, opposite or opposing; complementary do the opposite or reverse of; remove from, reduce away from, apart, reversal, not
atypical, anarchy, amorphous abnormal, abduct, abscond antedate, antecedent, antebellum antidote, antagonist, antipathy bisect, bilateral, bicameral circumference, circumnavigate, circumspect cooperate, community, consensus contradict, contraindication counterclockwise, countermeasure, counterpart deactivate, dethrone, detract disperse, dismiss, disinterested
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES
two out, out of, away from
duo, duet, duality expel, exclaim, exorbitant induct, impart, inculcate invariable, incessant, illicit, inept, impervious intervene, interact, intermittent intramural, intravenous introvert, introduction malfunction, malpractice, malign misspell, miscreant, misanthrope monologue, monogamy, monocle multiple, multimillionaire, multifarious neologism, neonatal, neophyte nonconformist, nonentity, nonchalant overabundance, overstimulate polytechnic, polyglot postpone, postpartum, postoperative precaution, precede, presage proceed, proclivity, profess pseudonym, pseudoscience recall, reconcile, rescind semiannual, semiconscious subconscious, subdue, subjugate superhero, superﬁcial, supercilious transmit, translate, translucent triangle, tricycle, triumvirate unable, uninterested, unorthodox unite, uniform, unilateral
in- (also il-, in, into, within in- (also il-, not im-, ir-) interintraintromalmismonomultineononoverpolypostprepropseudoresemisubsupertranstriununibetween, among, within within, during in, into, within bad, abnormal, evil, wrong bad, wrong, ill; opposite or lack of one, single, alone many, multiple new, recent, a new form of not exceeding, surpassing, excessive many, much after, subsequent, later (than), behind before (a) earlier, before, prior to; in front of (b) for, supporting, in behalf of (c) forward, projecting false, fake back, again half, partly, incomplete under, beneath, below above, over, exceeding across, beyond, through three, thrice not one
P R E F I X E S, S U F F I X E S, AN D WO R D R O OTS
The following table lists the most common English language sufﬁxes, their meanings, and examples of words with each sufﬁx.
SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES
-age -al -an, -ian -ance, -ence -ancy, -ency -ant, -ent -ary -cide -cy -er, -or -ion, -tion -ism -ist -ity -ment -ness -ology -or -sis -ure -y
(a) action or process (b) house or place of (c) state, rank action or process of or relating to; a person specializing in action or process; state of quality or state one that performs, promotes, or causes an action; being in a speciﬁed state or condition thing belonging to or connected with killer, killing action or practice; state or quality of one that is, does, or performs act or process; state or condition act, practice, or process; state or doctrine of one who (performs, makes, produces, believes, etc.) quality, state, or degree action or process; result, object, means, or agent of an action or process state, condition, quality or degree doctrine, theory, or science; oral or written expression condition, activity process or action act or process; ofﬁce or function state, condition, quality; activity or place of business
drainage, orphanage, marriage rehearsal, disposal, reversal guardian, pediatrician, historian adolescence, benevolence, renaissance agency, vacancy, latency disinfectant, dissident, miscreant adversary, dignitary, library suicide, pesticide, homicide democracy, legitimacy, supremacy builder, foreigner, sensor attraction, persecution, denunciation criticism, anachronism, imperialism anarchist, feminist, imperialist clarity, amity, veracity entertainment, embankment, amazement happiness, readiness, goodness biology, theology, eulogy candor, valor, succor diagnosis, dialysis, metamorphosis exposure, legislature, censure laundry, empathy, anarchy
emanate quicken. related to. to bring about violate. -fy -ize to make. listless adventurous. exacerbate. relating to. frighten beautify. pensive endless. -ical -an. of. to come to be or have to make. -ible -al. tending or liable to having the quality of. chronic. to cause to be or become to cause to be or have. preeminent helpful. -ent -ful -ic -ile -ish -ive -less -ous. lengthen. glorious. full of. relating to characterized by. having the qualities of. peaceful. plagiarize. -ial. futile. servile Swedish. unable to act or be acted on (in a speciﬁed way) full of. culpable. characteristic of performing (a speciﬁc action) or being (in a speciﬁed condition) full of. cooperative. American. tending or liable to pertaining or relating to. having the nature of without. cursory. having the quality of tending to or capable of having the quality of performing or tending towards (an action). archaic fragile. -ian -ant. tending or inclined to ﬂammable. lacking. -y capable or worthy of. incessant. agrarian important. fearless.176 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ADJECTIVE ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -able. egregious sleepy. electrify. synchronize . peripheral. squeamish sensitive. inscrutable educational. rectify colonize. having the qualities of. tolerate. form into to cause to be or become. or characterized by one who is or does. wistful fantastic. ephemeral human. desultory VERB ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -ate -en -ify. bookish. -ose.
belittle rebel. equanimity annual. mind. cascade chant. AN D WO R D R O OTS 177 WORD ROOTS The following table lists the most common word roots. to get heart ﬂesh cut to go. al al. benevolent. cip. to stop center to separate. discord carnivore. to happen by chance to sing head. to drive. belligerent. to distinguish. but don’t be intimidated by the length of this list. animosity. chast ced. To learn these roots. castigate exceed. try breaking the list down into manageable chunks of ten to 20 roots and memorize them section by section. bemoan. archi. reincarnation. bell ben. anarchy automatic. enchant. chastise. perennial anthropology. anniversary. another love to go. enamor ambulatory. to walk both. preamble. more than one. ambush ambiguous. bon cad. acute. android. acrimonious agent. misanthrope apology. bonus accident. amph anim annui. near other. alias. to force. agitate adjacent. acr act. to lead to. ambivalent. ept arch. soul. apotheosis adapt. intercept. cret. to have a certain quality war good to fall. cord. chronology. concentric. synchronize . ennui anthro. principal. S U F F I X E S. cent. capit. adept. autonomy. Some of these roots many already be familiar to you—you use words with these roots every day! ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES ac. incessant central. cipit cap. discern chronic. around life.P R E F I X E S. ag ad. ceed. amity. ﬁtness. to decide time acid. cour carn cast. crim. principal. andr apo apt. amphitheater unanimous. ali. and examples of words with those roots. alien amiable. to yield. emancipate encourage. eccentric ascertain. spirit year man. cert. capitulate capture. alter am amb amb. allure alternative. cardiac. ruler self to be. recant capital. chant cap. automaton befriend. toward. cess centr cern. archy auto be bel. human away skill. concede. inept hierarchy. antebellum beneﬁt. their meanings. to judge. carnage caste. monarchy. bitter to do. enact. cid cant. ability chief. coincidence. adhere. headlong to take. apocalypse. There are more than 150 roots here. crit chron sharp. cept card. critique.
coalesce. incubate. dox dol don. to trust hidden to lie down blame to teach people apart. error. ﬁdelity. cryptography succumb. proliferate fervor. preclude exclaim.178 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES cis cla. to make to bring. proclivity recur. to bubble faith. to use words worth opinion suffer. incredulous crypt. to cry out to lean toward. fam fac. well speak to do. durable. epigram. bureaucracy creation. trust end to burn to bend to ﬂow scissors. cur crat. inﬁdel ﬁnal. conducive endure. exculpate doctor. dia dic. ﬂux to cut shut. indolence. orthodox. eulogy. dichotomy predict. doc dem di. feit. dot. clin cour. acquiesce euphoria. enclose. indoctrinate. pain to give doubt to lead hard faulty. transfer. incursion. dubiety conduct. ﬂex ﬂu. superﬂuous . abnormal upon equal. clo. induct. diatribe. fervid. incisive closet. autocracy. dystopia. increment incredible. cracy cre. obdurate dysfunctional. factory. through to say. euthanasia fable. indubitable. incumbent culprit. ﬂexible ﬂuid. close to shout. affable ﬁction. epidemic. culpable. credit. to bear to boil. ﬂammable. inﬂammatory deﬂect. fait. ﬂam ﬂect. famous. to carry. even to wander becoming good. cresc. cryptic. increase. bend running. dolorous donate. ﬁc. fy fer ferv ﬁd ﬁn ﬂag. indict dignity. endow dubious. dictionary. effervescent conﬁde. cret cred cryp cub. equanimity. duct dur dys epi equ err esce eu fab. a course to govern to grow to believe. to tell. dit dign dog. clamor decline. erratic adolescent. cumb culp dac. clam cli. ﬁnite. endow. equivocate err. dyslexia epidemic. dict. recline. afﬁnity ﬂame. indignant dogma. ﬂuctuation. precise. epigraph equation. pandemic dialogue. paradox condolence. reﬂect. clu claim. dow dub duc. proclaim. cursory democracy. ﬁg. feign offer. docile democracy.
admonish. nym. fortuitous fracture. idiosyncrasy. minutiae prominent. recognize. metamorphosis. aggressive. gno grad. luminous illusion. diminish. fraction. moratorium mutate. manufacture. loquacious illustrate. conjecture joint. other same over. adherent. rise word. infringe infusion. excessive one’s own to throw. homogenous ignore. frac. mit mon. nown death change rule. ideology eject. hes (h)etero (h)om hyper id ject join. noc. nas. hyperbole idiom. allude lavatory. max man min min mis. lum. deluge magnify. log. creation. to choose lift. autonomy native. nascent. luv mag. perjury. junction. magnitude. morbid. permutation economy.P R E F I X E S. remit. renaissance innocent. intermittent monitor. death name immortal. taxonomy. dejected. loqu luc. light. nai nec. homonym hyperactive. gress grat her. lut. frag. nox nom. fortunate. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 179 fore fort before chance foresight. nown. incognito progress. fring to break fus gen gn. digress grateful. nic. heterogeneous. S U F F I X E S. abjure election. juxtapose jury. forbear fortune. magnanimous manual. lever. heterodox homogeneous. order to be born harm. eclectic elevator. preeminent transmit. hyperextend. to throw down to meet. race. lucid. lus lug. noun. alleviate dialogue. noun. gratitude. select. junct jur lect. monit morph to pour birth. nym nat. imminent. inherent heterosexual. forestall. genetics. to hang over to send to warn shape mort mut nam. to join to swear to select. speech light to play to wash big hand small to project. ingratiate cohere. immutable. maj. lus lud. innocuous nominate. leg lev loc. diffuse generous. eloquent. noxious. kind to know to step pleasing to stick different. anthropomorphic fra. nom. elude. nominal . homonym. remonstrate amorphous. dilute. manifest minute.
to jump to know to write apart announce. pens per peri pet. cacophony placid. sault. juxtapose import. paciﬁer panorama. placebo. panacea par. omnipotent. wrong around to go. novel. apathetic poverty. sanct. portable. of. impetuous philosophy. to test to ﬁght to point. reprobate repugnant. science. pauper. importune surprise. ris rog sacr. pos. comply. peas pan par para pas. appease. suffering. profuse. permeate. to pay completely. pervade perimeter. expedite. against. denounce novice. poor child. plethora complex. segregate. pedantic pedestrian. impoverish pediatrician. impede penalty. query quiet. compensate. disparate. apprehend. abrogate sacred. pensive perplex. pugnacious. impugn point. to seek. desultory conscious. sacrament. component. deplete. to bend to put. encyclopedia. sil. to seize much. to weigh. prise pro prob pug punc. pung. sult sci scribe. over all peace all. to. conquest. little. pronounce. to compensate to hang. penance depend. paragon. everyone equal next to. scrip se to announce new toward. pun pend. for. sanction assault. pod pen. omniscient scribble. nou ob. pound port prehend.180 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES nounc. circumscribe separate. to twist. oc. seditious . completely. surrogate. po. op omni pac. parity parallel. acquiesce riddle. puncture. ply pon. insolent. to strive love sound to please to ﬁll to fold. a lot to prove. reprisal proliferate. to get. petition. neo. to prick to seek quiet to laugh to ask sacred to leap. proselytize probe. poign que. bibliophile telephone. nunc nov. peripatetic compete. probation. complacent complete. obsequious omnipresent. pov. punishment. pu ped ped. disease few. to tangle. pandemic. philanthropy. path pau. neophyte object. paradox passionate. pit phil phone plac ple plex. antipathy. secr sal. derision interrogate. punctilious inquisitive. obstruct. education foot to pay. beside feeling. prescribe. plic. peripheral. ridiculous. tranquil. implicit expose. quis qui rid. homophone. omniscient pacify. to place to carry to take. pat.
vicarious evident. circumspect static. veritable revert. tenacious extend. sid sens. to thin god. sentiment. versatile vivid. S U F F I X E S. ten. steadfast suave. equivocate volunteer. benevolence . to free to look. sequ sed. intervene verdict. tenuous atheist. verisimilitude. sequel. utility. volition. obstinate. tent. to be still. to move toward truth to turn life to see to call to wish consequence. to plan. taciturn detain.P R E F I X E S. religion to drag. to draw to use to come. ut ven. tent. sustain. advocate. to see to stand. dissolution perspective. vert vi vid. dissuade tacit. apotheosis attract. tic tain. vok vol to follow to sit. tension. assiduous. survey. reticent. visionary vocal. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 181 sec. usurp convene. detract. to be in place smooth to be silent to hold to stretch. tenu theo tract us. resolution. to be aware to loosen. sent sol spec. sti sua tac. speculation. tens. dissident sense. spit sta. vigorous. tractable abuse. obsequious subside. aversion. vis voc. to pull. to plot to feel. venture. vent ver vers. theology. tin tend. dissent dissolve. sess. spic. persuade.
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