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John Andrew, PE Rev: 16 Aug 2012 Definitions 1. Components are designed to withstand: direct forces, moments and torsion. 2. These loads may be applied gradually, suddenly, or repeatedly. 3. A static stress analysis leads to a dynamic stress evaluation. 4. Stress is Force per unit Area, σ = F / A (psi or Pa) 5. Strain is extension divided by original Length, e = x / L (number) 6. Strength is the Stress of a tested material at failure, S = Fmax / A (psi or Pa)

[ Note: ( * ) = Multiply ]

Spread Sheet Method: 1. Type in values for the input data. 2. Enter. 3. Answer: X = will be calculated. 4. Automatic calculations are bold type. Multiply: Force lb * 100 Stress, psi * 100 Stress, psi * 100 Length, in * 100 Length, in * 100 Horse Power, hp * 100 Horse Power, hp * 100 Revolutions per Minute, rpm * 100 Rotation, deg * 100

S= σ= τ= F= A= e= x= L= by 4.448 6.895 0.006895 25.400 0.0254 745.7 6600 9.549 57.2958

Material allowable stress Applied direct stress Applied shear stress Force Area Strain Extension Length Obtain Newton's = 445 N Pascals = 689 KPa Million Pa = 0.69 MPa Millimeter = 2540.0 mm Meter = 2.540 m Watts = 74570 W in-lb/sec = 660000 in-lb/sec radians/sec = 955 rad/sec radians = 5729.58 rad

Cantilever Beam

The cantilever end load (F) and torque (T) are balanced by bending and shear stresses within the beam.

The stress element (A) at the top surface of the beam above, is subjected to a bending stress Sigma, (σx) and torsional shear stress Tau, (τxy). Note: In this case, σy = 0. The maximum stress due to these two stresses are the principal stresses, σ1 acting on the planes inclined at angle θ degrees and θ + 90 degrees. 1. Applied tensile stress, Sigma, σ = F / A = Force / Area (psi or Pa) 2. Applied bending stress, Sigma, σ = M * c / I = Load / Area (psi or Pa) 3. Tensile stress strength, S = Tested breaking load / Area (psi or Pa) 4. Strain, e = Extension / Original length = x / L (number) 5. Modulus of elasticity, E = Stress / Strain = σ / ε (psi or Pa) 6. Shear modulus, G = Shear Stress / Shear Strain = τ / θ (psi or Pa)

7. Shear strain, Theta, θ = Twist angle measured in radians (rad) 8.Torsion shear stress, Sus = T * r / J (psi or Pa) 9. Bending shear stress, Tau, τ = K * Shear Load / Area = V / A (psi or Pa) Principal Stresses Principal stresses are the maximum, Sigma (σ1) and minimum (σ2) normal stresses and they act on principal planes at 90 degrees to each other. There is zero shear stress on the principal planes. Max shear stress, Tau ( τmax) is on the plane 45 degrees to the principal planes. σ1 = (σx + σy)/ 2 + {[(σx - σy)/ 2]^2 + τ^2}^0.5 Principal stress (2) σ2 = (σx + σy)/ 2 - {[(σx - σy)/ 2]^2 + τ^2}^0.5 Max shear stress, τmax = (σ1 - σ3)/ 2 Principal stress (1) Example: The tensile stress at point (A) in the beam above is 5,000 psi due to bending and the shear stress is 2,000 psi due to the transverse load (F). Calculate the principal stresses and the maximum shear stress. 50000 psi 20000 psi 2000 psi Calculations Principal stress (1), σ1 = (σx + σy)/ 2 + {[(σx - σy)/ 2]^2 + τ^2}^0.5 σ1 = 50133 psi Principal stress (2), σ2 = (σx + σy)/ 2 - {[(σx - σy)/ 2]^2 + τ^2}^0.5 σ2 = 19867 psi Max shear stress, Tau: τmax = τmax = Shear area shape factor, (K) σy = σx = τ=

(σ1 - σ2)/ 2 15133 K 1.333 2.000 1.500 (psi or Pa)

Area Solid Circle Hollow cylinder Rectangle 10. Direct shear stress, Tau, τ = Shear Load / Area = V / A

5 Material shear safety factor. The compressive strength is equal to the tensile strength in ductile materials.5 Material yield safety factor. Sys = .5 von Mises' effective stress.5 N = Syt /( 1. The von Mises' effective stress is the uni-axial tensile stress that would create the same distortion energy as is created by the actual combination of applied forces. The distortion energy stress (σ’) is the direct stress equivalent to any combination of tensions and shears. σ’ = ( 3*τxy^2 )^0. N = Syt / σ’ Syt = Material tension yield stress In the case of pure torsion. Brittle materials stretch less than 5% and break at their tensile strengths. 2. σ’ = [ ( σ1^2 + σ2^2 – σ1*σ2 ]^0.732*τxy) Material shear yield stress. 1. N = Syt / σ’ N = Syt /( 3*τxy^2 )^0. von Mises' effective stress. Distortion energy Distortion energy or von Mises-Henky theory is the most accurate failure theory. σ’ = [ ( σx^2 + σy^2 – σx*σy + 3*τxy^2 ]^0. Material static strength is determined by increasing the tension load until it fractures.577 * Syt .Strength and Fatigue Failure Theories Ductile materials stretch 5% or more before breaking at their shear strengths. Maximum allowable static direct stress. σx = 0 and σy = 0.

4 Material shear safety factor.4 The maximum shear-stress theory states that failure occurs when the max shear stress in a part exceeds the shear stress in a tensile specimen at yield. Sys = 0.5 28054 psi Syt / σ’ 1. σ’ = ( 3*τxy^2 )^0.Given principal stresses: σ1 = σ1 = von Mises' effective stress. N = Syt /( 3*τxy^2 )^0. Sy = 36000 psi Calculation Material shear yield stress.5 σ’ = 3464 Material shear safety factor.5 N= 10. N = N= Input Data 4000 psi 2000 psi Calculations [ ( σ1^2 + σ2^2 – σ1*σ2 ]^0.50 * Sy Sys = 18000 psi . N = N= Material shear yield stress. σ’ = σ’ = Material yield safety factor.5 3464 psi Input Data 30000 psi 5000 psi 2000 psi 36000 psi Calculations [ ( σx^2 + σy^2 – σx*σy + 3*τxy^2 ]^0. σx = 0 and σy = 0.4 . Syt = von Mises' effective stress. σ’ = σ’ = Given x and y direction stresses: σx = σy = τxy = Material tension yield stress. N = Syt /( 1. One half of the tensile yield: Input Data Material tensile yield stress. von Mises' effective stress.577 * Syt 20772 psi Material shear safety factor.732*τxy) N= 10. Sys = Sys = Syt / σ’ 10.28 In the case of pure torsion.

τmax = σx / 2 τmax = 15000 psi psi . τmax = σ1 / 2 τmax = 15000 or Max shear stress. The Moore circle diagram for torsion shows: Input Data σx = 0 σy = 0 Principal stress. The Moore circle diagram for tension shows: Input Data σx = σ1 = 30000 Calculations σ2 = 0 Max shear stress. σ2 = 20000 Calculations Max shear stress. τmax = (σ1 + σ2) / 2 τmax = 25000 psi psi psi This stress element shows pure tension due to bending or axial loading. σ1 = 30000 Principal stress.The stress element shown here illustrates torsion which causes pure shear.

38 1. Steels and some titanium alloys have an “endurance limit stress” below which they will not fail. θ = Twist angle measured in radians J = Polar moment of inertia (in^4) Shear modulus.60 2. ε = Extension / Original length = (L – Lo) / Lo = ΔL / Lo (no units) Lo =Original length.75 * Tensile ultimate stress Fatigue Strength and Endurance Limit = cycles at a stress level to failure. σ = P / A = Load / Area (psi or Pa) Strain. Modulus of elasticity.65 0.55 0. G = Shear Stress / Shear Strain = τ / θ (psi or Pa) Modulus of rigidity. E = Stress / Strain = σ / ε (psi or Pa) Shear stress.70 1.60 0. no matter how many load cycles are applied.15 1.50 1.Material Brass Bronze Cast Iron Duralumin Monel Metal Mild Steel Nickel-Chrome Steel E (psi) 10^7 1. [Note: * = Multiply] When using Excel's Goal Seek. Steels: Sus = 0. Sus = 0.90 G (psi) 10^6 0.80 * Sut Shear yield stress. L = Length when load is applied.90 2.18 Tensile stress. τ = Shear Load / Area = V / A (psi or Pa) Ultimate shear stress. G = τ * Lo / (r * θ) (psi or Pa) Or G = E / 2(1 + ν) (psi or Pa) Most steel alloys have an E = 30 Mpsi = 207 GPa Ductile materials stretch 5% or more before breaking.40 1. unprotect the spread sheet by selecting: . Sus = T * r / J (psi or Pa) Shear strain.00 1.05 2.

Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Unprotect Sheet > OK When Excel's Goal Seek is not needed. restore protection with: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Protect Sheet > OK .

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Fatigue Testing of Metals Typical Fatigue Test A fatigue test piece is shown above. used four de Havilland Ghost 50 turbojet engines mounted in the wings.106 Comet airliner built in 1949. are subjected to time varying stress levels. de Havilland D. Two similar crashes followed in early 1954. After 500 hours of flight testing. Each end is clamped in a rotating bending machine. These cracks grew over time until the cabin exploded. fatigue cracks developed at the square corners in the cabin windows. The stress at all points.H. P1 . commercial operations began in early 1952. After several thousand of cycles of repeatedly pressurizing and depressurizing the fuselage in water. A few tests have been done by applying repeated cycles of axial tension and compression with no bending.ESTIMATING FATIGUE ENDURANCE LIMIT-US Units de Havilland Comet The British. around the circumference of the necked down center. from maximum tension to maximum compression. The corners of all jet airliners are now rounded to reduce stress concentration. A Comet mysteriously crashed shortly after takeoff on 2 May 1953.

surface finish. Reversed Stress Cycles The rotating fatigue test stress varies from maximum tension (Smax) to maximum compression (Smax) as shown in the diagram above. Repeated Stress Cycles Stress varies from zero to maximum tension (Smax). and static strength.Most fatigue testing has been done with metal that is round. and highly polished. section shape. P2 . temperature. Number of Cycles (S-N) diagram. Correction factors must be applied to parts that differ in size. small in diameter. This is done at several stress levels and the results are plotted in a Stress vs. They have been tested through many cycles until fatigue failure occurs.

In the case of steel. Sut = Material ultimate static tensile stress.000 psi P3 . Testing at a lower stress level results in a greater number of cycles to failure. A number of aluminum alloys have a fatigue strength of 40% of their ultimate tensile strength at 5 x 10^8 cycles. Sm = . Se' = Uncorrected stress endurance limit for steel = Infinite number of cycles. Material endurance stress at 1000 cycles (Sm) Bending.Fluctuating Stress Cycles Stress varies from minimum tension (Smin) to maximum tension (Smax). there is a low stress level at which fatigue failure does not happen no matter how many cycles of stress are applied.75 * Sut Uncorrected fatigue endurance limits are given below: Steels. Sm = Material endurance stress at 1000 cycles. Se' = 0. Se = Corrected stress endurance limit for steel = Infinite number of cycles. Sm = .5 psi psi if Sut < 200. Sf = Stress endurance limit for aluminum & copper alloys = Finite number of cycles. Ke = 0.5 * Sut Endurance factor. This (Se).9 * Sut Axial loading. S-N Diagram for Typical Steel and Aluminum Alloys Fatigue testing of metals at a high stress level results in a low number of cycles to failure. Aluminum and copper alloys do not have an endurance limit.

Aluminums. Copper Alloys. Csize = 1.835 P4 . d = 1. Se' = Ke = Se' = Ke = Se' = 0.000 psi if Sut < 40.000 psi S-N Diagram With Correction Factors The above S-N diagram was constructed using fatigue correction factors.000 Size of Circular Sections Fatigue testing is done with small diameter metal.000 Input Data Part diameter.869 * d^ -0.30 < d < 10 in.097 Csize = 0.Irons.000 psi if Sut < 48. (C).. Endurance factor. Csize = 0. Cload = 1. Cload = 0. Corrected endurance limit. Endurance factor.750 Pure Torsion.4 * Sut if Sut < 60.4 0. For d < 0.3 in. Se = Cload*Csize*Csurf*Ctemp*Creliab*Se' Load Factor Bending. Cload = 1.4 * Sut 0.4 * Sut 0.000 Axial loading.4 0.500 in Calculation For 0.

Input Data Solid or hollow round section.Fatigue Equivalent Size of Non Circular Sections Non-round section areas.025*b Beam base. are stressed above 95% of their maximum stress. b = 1.01045*d^2 A95 = 0.000 Calculations Equiv area.0766)^0.05*b*h A95 = 0. A95 = 0.100 Calculations Equivalent diameter. A95 = 0.000 Calculations Equiv area.05*b*h A95 = 0. Rotating.5 . This area of highest stress is called the A95 effective area. d = 2. Dequiv = (A95 / 0. h = 2. A95 = 0. A95 = 0.000 Rectangle height. A95 = 0. The equivalent diameter of non-round parts is De. Non-rotating.042 in^2 Input Data Rectangle base. b = 1.0765*d^2 A95 = 0.100 in^2 P5 Input Data Equiv area.000 Input Data in^2 Calculations Equiv area.100 Beam with t > 0.306 in^2 Equiv area. in bending . near the surface.000 Beam height. h = 2.

A = 1.340 2.897 Reliability % 50.000 0.000 Input Temperature.0058*(T-450) Ctemp = 0.700 2.699 4.000 Creliab = 0. T = 700 Calculation For.085 -0.900 b -0.826 Input Temperature. Ctemp = 1-0.000 -3.265 -0.085 Material ultimate tensile strength.189*Dequiv^-0.Dequiv = 1. deg C.700 14.659 P6 Z -3.000 99. S(N) = a * N^ b Log S(N) = Log a + b * Log N b = (1/Z) * Log (Sm/Se) N2 1.0032*(T-840) Ctemp = 1.900 99.174 Surface Finish Factor Surface Finish Factor.814 0. deg C.00 set Csurf = 1.000 99.000 90.999 Creliab 1.400 39. Csurf = A*(Sut)^ b If surface factor is greater than 1.995 Surface factor from table.340 Surface factor from table. Ctemp = 1.448 Reliability Factor From the Reliability table at the right: Input Data Assumed percent reliability. T = 480 Calculation For. Sut = 80 Calculations Csurf = A(Sut)^ b Csurf = 0. 550 <T<840 deg C.0E+06 1. Ctemp = 1-0.990 99.753 0.265 -0.143 Csize = 1.097 Csize = 1. % = 90. 450 <T<550 deg C.0E+07 .00 in in Ground Machined Cold Rolled Hot Rolled As Forged Input Data A 1.000 Equation of S-N line between points P and Q is: p333. b = -0.702 0.718 -0.0E+06 5. Endurance stress.897 0.923 (kpsi) Temperature Factor For T <= 450 deg C.

0E+08 5.699 5.b * Log (N1) or. P7 1.Se' = Ke * Sut kpsi .699 N2 is given in the table on the right.9% The Reversing bending stress vs Cycles (S-N) graph below was constructed from the calculated results below.Z = Log N1 .0E+09 4. Number of cycles.0E+08 1. Ke = 0. N1 = 1000 and.000 5. Log (1000) = 3.000 5.Log N2 Note. (N) N = [ (S(N) / a ]^ (1/b) Revise this Example for your application: A steel bar has an ultimate tensile strength of 87000 psi. Log a = Log (Sm) . Log a = Log (Sm) .5 Calculation Uncorrected endurance strength.000 6. Sut = 94 Material endurance factor from above.9 inch square section and a hot-rolled finish.699 6. How many cycles of fully reversed bending stress of 14500 psi can be expected at 500 deg. It has a 5.0E+09 5.3*b The equation to the endurance stress line between P and Q is S(N) S(N) = a * N^ b Number of cycles at the intersect. C? The reliability is assumed to be 99.0E+07 1. The uncorrected endurance strength (Se' ) is calculated: Input Data Ultimate static strength.

S(N) = 14. The Stress vs Cycles.340 b = -0. Surface factor (Csurf) for hot rolled finish: A = 1. 10.08 kpsi 8. Temperature factor (Ctemp) See temperature factor calculation above. Input Find number of cycles (N) at fatigue stress S(N): From above. Reliability factor (Creliab) Reliability = 99. Se = Cload*Csize*Csurf*Ctemp*Creliab*Se' Se = 51.90 * Sut Sm = 85 9.50 kpsi kpsi P8 kpsi Calculations The equation for the endurance stress line between P and Q is S(N) on a log-log scale: S(N) = a * N^ b .911 5. Load factor from above (Cload) Data from above. T = 700 Ctemp = 1.702 Input Data deg C Input Data % 7. S-N graph is made from the results above.0 Sm = 0.Se' = 47. Csize = 1.174 Input Data 4.0 2. Calculation From input data above. Corrected endurance limit. Cload = 1.00 Input Data kpsi 3. The number of cycles at σ psi will now be calculated. The 1000 cycles strength (Sm). A95 = 0.990 Creliab = 0. Sut = 94.100 Equiv area from above.448 6.085 Input Data Calculation Csurf = A * Sut^b Csurf = 0. Size factor from above (Csize) Equiv area from above. The fully reversed bending stress of σ psi intersects the Sm to Se line at the endurance number of cycles (N) at the fatigue failure point on the above graph.

755.08E+13 Reference: "Machine Design" by Norton cycles cycles When using Excel's Goal Seek.146 10^ Log(a) 140.1 The equation to the endurance stress line between P and Q is S(N) S(N) = a * N^ b Number of cycles at the intersect.b = -(1/3) * Log(Sm / Se) b = -0. restore protection with: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Protect Sheet > OK P9 .07304 Log(a) = Log(a) = a= a= Log(Sm) .332 or Answer: N = 3. (N) N = [ (S(N) / a ]^ (1/b) Answer: N = 30.3 * b 2.302.623. unprotect the spread sheet by selecting: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Unprotect Sheet > OK When Excel's Goal Seek is not needed.

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07 1. and torsion stresses are calculated first. bending. (-) comp. Static direct. I = I= Polar Moment of Area. A = Section Area.25759 -0.97527 0.00 3.89334 0.21796 -0. M = Torsion.75 D/d 6. σ’ = σ’ = Material yield safety factor. J = J= Direct stress (+) tension.7855 π*D^4 / 32 0.93836 0.05 1.10 1.96048 0.306811 Given x and y stresses above find static safety factor (N): Input Data Material tension yield stress. τxy = von Mises' effective stress.19653 -0. σm = σm = Torsional stress.STRESS CONCENTRATION FACTORS 1. 20560 psi 0 psi 917 psi [ ( σx^2 + σy^2 – σx*σy + 3*τxy^2 ]^0. 3.000 Calculations π*D^2 / 4 0.3832 458. Compression (-).90879 0.28598 -0.20958 -0. Static Stress in Round Shafts Tension Force (+). D = Section Area.17032 P1 psi .00 1.5 20621 psi Syt / σ’ 1. Syt = 36000 Calculations From above.0491 F/A 191 M*D / (2*I) 20369 T*D / (2*J) 917 lbs in-lbs lb-in in in^2 in^2 in^4 in^4 in^4 psi psi psi 40738.91938 b -0. σy = From above. concave (+).87868 0.17711 -0.20 1.00 2. σd = σd = Bending stress.33243 -0.01 A 0.03 1.97098 0. F = Moment. σx = σd + σm = From above. Static stress concentration factors are applied to the above static stresses.95120 0. T = Shaft Diameter. convex (-).0982 π*D^4 / 64 0.30860 -0.98061 0.98137 0. τxy = τxy = Input Data 150 4000 90 1.18381 -0. A = Second Moment of Area. N = N= Geometric stress concentration factor (Kt) in static bending.23757 -0. 2.02 1.50 1. Fatigue stress concentration factors modify the static stress concentration.

20 0.98 Calculation Calculated max direct stress. d = 2.35 1.25 0. b = -0.52 1.250 Notch radius.25759 Calculation Kt = A *(r / d)^b Answer: Kt = 1.50 2.50 2. in in in - - psi - psi Kt Table Geometric stress concentration factor (Kt) in static bending.125 Calculation D/d = 1.50 Input Data From Table Enter value from table above. σ = 24000 Static notch concentration factor.98 Kt is the stress concentration factor (Kt) in static bending.93836 Enter value from table above.68 D/d=1.10 0.15 0. D = 3.48 1. Input Data Calculated nominal direct stress. Kt = 1.58 1.07 P2 .05 D/d=6 Kt 1.2 Kt 1.41 1. A = 0.46 1. r/d 0.375 Smaller diameter.40 1. r = 0. σ = Kt*σ σ = 47520 Static stress concentration factor of a rectangular bar in bending.30 0.Static stress concentration factor for the round shaft above: Input Data Larger diameter.73 2.

118 0.5 = Neuber Constant r = Notch Radius Fatigue stress concentration factor (Kf) Sut (kpsi) 50 55 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 160 180 200 220 240 (a)^0. Fatigue notch sensitivity factor. D = 1.070 0.5 0.50 Calculation Calculated max static direct stress. c = 1000 4.1) Answer: (Kf) = 1.130 0.062 0. (Kf) = 1 + q * (Kt . r = Copy Kt data fom table above.080 0. (a)^0.055 0. P = Section area. neutral axis to surface. kpsi. Input Data Notch radius. σ = 30720 Static concentration factor from table. M = Section second area of moment.013 0. q = (Kf .049 0.1) or Fatigue notch sensitivity factor.125 1.080 0.10 D/d = 1. q = 1 / (1 + a^0. (se below) A = Applied moment.1)/ (Kt .039 0. q = 1 / (1 + a^0.024 0.375 lbs in^2 in-lbs in^4 in P3 .600 1. (see below) I = Distance.5) q = 0.Kt is the stress concentration factor (Kt) in static bending.5/ r^0. Sut = Type input from table. inches.018 0. q applied to the nominal stress: Input Data Tension (+ )compression (-) load.108 0.5) a^0.250 Plate large depth.408 Fatigue Notch Sensitivity Factor.009 The fatigue stress concentration factor (Kf) is a function of the sensitivity factor (q).815 Fatigue concentration factor.500 Calculation r/d = 0.500 Calculations Fatigue notch sensitivity factor. d = 1. σ = Kt*σ σ = 46080 - psi psi Notches and Stress Concentration in Fatigue Cyclic Loading Geometric stress concentration factor ( Kf ) in fatigue bending. Kt = 1.125 Plate small depth.031 0.125 6000 2.5 = Notch Radius.093 0.2 Input Data Calculated nominal direct stress. r = 0.044 0. Input Data Given ultimate tensile stress.5/ r^0. Kt = 80 0.

500 Height.4970 B*H 0.500 Section Area.250 Calculations Section Area. inches. σe = Kf * σnom From calculation above. D = 1. I = I= Section polar second area of moment. Kf = 1.2485 π*D^4 / 32 0. B = 0. H = 1. J = J= Calculations π*D^2 / 4 1.Calculations nominal stress. A = A= Section vertical second area of moment. inches. I = I= Circular Sections: Diameter.408 σe = 4808 Rectangular Sections: Base. unprotect the spread sheet by selecting: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Unprotect Sheet > OK When Excel's Goal Seek is not needed.767 π*D^4 / 64 0. A = A= Section vertical second area of moment.081 Input Data Input Data psi psi H in^2 in^4 B in D in^2 in^4 in^4 When using Excel's Goal Seek. inches.625 B*H^3 / 12 0. σnom = 3416 Design fatigue endurance stress. σnom = P/A + M*c/ I nominal stress. restore protection with: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Protect Sheet > OK P4 .

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r = Load distance from support.500 0.250 1. shown above. a = Beam span. Revise values in this example for your problem: Design the bracket for fully reversed load F for N cycles with 99.125 20. D = Fillet radius.000 80000 30000000 99.000 20. d = Large depth.500 1.99% reliability.CANTILEVER BRACKET WITH FULLY REVERSED BENDING Fatigue Safety Factor Design The machine bracket. L = Material ultimate strength. Sut = E= Reliability = 200 0. Input Data Fully reversed load. is subjected to a fully reversed transverse force F.90 lbf in in in in in in psi psi % P1 . b = Small depth. F = Width.

Se' = 0. Cload = 1.Max moment is at fixed end. dequiv = (A95 / 0.5 A95 = 0.0814 d/2 0.00 Input Data P2 .1) Kf = 1. Kt = 1. From. D/d = 1. Notch sensitivity q. Csize = . Input Data - Input Data From above input data. Remaining correction factors. "S-N Curve" tab.869*(dequiv)^-.50 12.5 / r^0.25 0.20 From above. From above.7d. Cantilever Bracket for Fully Reversed Bending 9. p327.639 Equation 6.815 10.63 M*c / i 30720 Calculations in-lbf in^4 in psi 8.08 Calculations q = 1 / (1 + a^0.10 Enter value from.5 = 0.03 dequiv = 0.41 Applied alternating stress. For steel. a^0.5*Sut Se' = 40000 Equivalent diameter. Sigma a = Kf*Sigma nom σa = 43246 11. Uncorrected endurance limit stress. r/d = 0. Static stress concentration factor.097 Csize = 0.50 for D/d and r/d above. M = M= I= I= c= c= Sigma nom = σnom = Calculations F*a 4000 b*d^3/ 12 0. Sut = 80000 From "Notches" tab. Kf = 1 + q*(Kt . "Notches" tab.908 psi - - - psi psi from above: d= b= in^2 in 1.5) q = 0.0766)^0. Fatigue stress concentration factor Kf.05*d*b A95 = 0.

70 From.00 from above (F / (6*E*I))*(x^3 . A = 2.00 from above 20. y = y= Note:Sut = kpsi not psi.90 Input Data From.4 a= x=L= Deflection at load. Ctemp = 0.826 From problem above.265 Calculations Surface Finish Factor. "S-N Curve" tab. Reliability = 99. "S-N Curve" tab.753 Corrected endurance limit stress.845 Input Data From.Input Data From. restore protection with: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Protect Sheet > OK P3 . Se = Sn. Okay 20.218 in When using Excel's Goal Seek. unprotect the spread sheet by selecting: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Unprotect Sheet > OK When Excel's Goal Seek is not needed. b = -0. Nf = Sn / Sigma a Answer: Nf = 0.3*a*x^2 . Se = Sn = Cload*Csize*Csurf*Ctemp*Creliab*Se' Sn = 19089 psi 13.(x . "S-N Curve" tab. Creliab = 0.a)^3)) -0. Fatigue load cycle safety factor. "S-N Curve" tab. Csurf = A*(Sut)^ b Csurf = 0.

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I = 0.091 in^4 c.101 in^4 ] . and an ultimate tensile strength of 80.125 20.50 in.000 21. I = 0.081 in^4 b.250 1.250 in over the span of the beam. A steel cantilever bracket having a span of 20 in.99 22.000 80000 30000000 99. a.QUIZ 200 0.000 psi. with rectangular section: base width. What is the cantilever beam section second moment of area at the free end? (new) The beam root depth is 1. b = 0. I = 0.500 1.500 0. constant depth d (was D) = 1.500 in.

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1 0.753 QUIZ 0.702 .

Fmin = Mean force. b = depth.00 1. E = Input Data 2. Sut = Beam material Young's Modulus. The three Forces (F) to be analyzed are: Maximum force. is subjected to a fully reversed transverse force (F) near the end of the bracket.00 6. r = Force distance from wall.00 80000 30000000 in in in in in in psi psi . Fav = Fav = Input Data 1100 100 (Fmax + Fmin)/ 2 600 lbf lbf lbf lbf Assumptions: Bracket breadth. D = Fillet radius. Fmax = Minimum force. shown above.CANTILEVER BRACKET WITH FLUCTUATING BENDING Fatigue Safety Factor Design Problem: Design the bracket below for a fully reversing load F = +/-500 lb for 10^9 cycles with no failure. a = Beam span.00 1.50 5. d = Beam root depth. SAE 1040. The machine partt.13 0. L = Material ult stress.

Reliability = 99.18 Fatigue stress concentration factor.50 Factors (A) & (b) from.1) Kf = 1. I = I= Max beam surface to . c = neutral axis distance.00 * Fmax 5500 Minimum moment. Kt = 1. Mav = 5. Sut = 80000 Input Data a^0.99 Three moments at fixed end. See "Notches" tab.16 psi .13 r/d = 0.00 * Fav 3000 Beam section dimensions. Kt = A*(r / d)^b D/a = 1.898 Kf = 1 + q*(Kt . σmax = Mmax*c / I 16500 σmin = Mmin*c / I 1500 Nominal mean stress. Kf. "Notches" tab: Input Data A= 1.σmin)/ 2 σnom-alt = 7500 psi psi psi psi Static stress concentration factor Kt: See "Notches" tab. Sigma.1667 d/2 0. Notch sensitivity. (M): Calculations Maximum moment. Tensile strength from above.2210 Calculation Static stress concentration factor.5 = 0.08 Calculations q = 1 / (1 + a^0. σnom-alt = (σmax . q. Mmax = 5.00 * Fmin 500 Mean moment. Mmin = 5.50 in^4 in Three bending stresses. c = % P1 in-lbf in-lbf in-lbf b*d^3/ 12 0.0120 b= -0. (σ): See stress graph above. σnom-av = (σmax + σmin)/ 2 σnom-av = 9000 Nominal alternating stress.5) q = 0.5 / r^0. trial guesses: Beam section properties: Second moment of area.

(σ’) or distortion energy stress is the direct stress equivalent to any combination of tensions and shears.143 Csize = . σalt = Kf * σnom-alt σalt = 8710 P2 psi psi The von Mises' effective stress.Applied stresses due to moment and notch stress concentration: Factored mean stress. For steel.869*(dequiv)^-. σ’av = σav σ’av = 10452 psi σy & τxy = 0 so that.097 Csize = 0. Se' = Se' = 0.00 Note: Sut = kpsi Se = Cload*Csize*Csurf*Ctemp*Creliab*Se Se = 21843 psi From above.00 2. Sut = 80000 psi . σ’alt = σalt σ’alt = 8710 psi The max applied mean (σ’av) and alternating (σ’alt) stresses in the beam have been calculated above.00 2.05*d*b A95 = 0. Now the allowable fatigue endurance stress for the beam material will be estimated.5*Sut 40000 if Sut < 200.265 Calculations A*(Sut)^b 0. dequiv = (A95 / 0. Se'.5 A95 = 0.70 -0. Uncorrected fatigue endurance limit stress.0766)^0.845 Input Data 1. σav = Kf * σnom-av σav = 10452 Factored alternating stress.000 psi psi from above: d= b= Equivalent diameter. σ’av = [ ( σx^2 + σy^2 – σx*σy + 3*τxy^2 ]^0. Cload = A= b= Csurf = Csurf = Ctemp = Creliab = Corrected endurance limit stress. Input Data 1.00 0.858 12.753 in^2 in 1.10 dequiv = 1. Remaining correction factors.5 σy & τxy = 0 so that.

a)^3)) ymax = -0. See "Modified Goodman diagram" below. restore protection with: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Protect Sheet > OK .P3 Fatigue load cycle safety factor. Nf = Se' * Sut / ( σ’alt * Sut + σ’av * Se) Answer: Nf = 1.00 from above x=L= 6.9 Okay The maximum beam deflection (ymax) is given br the equation below: a= 5. unprotect the spread sheet by selecting: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Unprotect Sheet > OK When Excel's Goal Seek is not needed.(x . The ratio of material fatigue endurance stress to applied alternating stress (Se') / σ’alt is combine with the ratio of material yield stress to applied mean stress (Sy) / σ’av in the formula below for fatigue safety factor (Nf).3*a*x^2 . ymax = (Fmax / (6*E*I))*(x^3 .00 from above Deflection at beam free end.060 in When using Excel's Goal Seek.

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T = Gear pitch circle radius.POWER TRANSMISSION SHAFTING 1. of shafts made of ductile materials are usually calculated on the basis of the maximum shear theory. P= N= D= A= Motor torque. ft. Shaft Diameter for Combined Torsion and Bending Fatigue Safety Factor Design SPUR GEAR FORCES Motor power. The strength in torsion. The objective is to calculate the shaft size having the strength and rigidity required to transmit an applied torque.000 Tip / R 216 Ft / Tan A hp rpm in deg ft-lbs in-lbs in in-lbs lbs in-lbs . Spur gear pitch circle diameter. 2.000 20 Calculations 33000*P / (2*π*N) 90 1080 D/2 5. in. 3. Shaft speed. Ft = Ft = Radial force. The design torsion is equal to the applied to torsion multiplied by a combined stress concentration and fatigue factor Ks.lbs. Fr = Input Data 30 1750 10. The design bending is equal to the applied moment multiplied by a combined stress concentration and fatigue factor Kf. R = Tangential force. Tfp = Torque.lbs. 2. R = Gear pitch circle radius. Gear pressure angle. T = Torque.

(Newton's first law) Input Data Length from left bearing to gear.Fr = 594 lbs FATIGUE LOADS The above tangential. B = 5. A = 3. Ft and radial. Fr forces cause fully reversed bending in the shaft as it rotates.00 Length from right bearing to gear.00 Calculations Vertical shaft bending moment Sum of moments about any point in the shaft = 0 Shaft Moment and Torque Use this side to solve problems in in . Equal and opposite Ft and Fr forces are applied to the driver gear. Driver gear applies forces Ft and Fr to the driven gear.

Su = 62000 Calculations Shaft Without Keyway 30% of material yield strength = 10800 18% of material ultimate strength = 11160 Shaft With Keyway 25% of 30% of material yield strength = 8100 25% of 18% of material ultimate strength = 8370 psi psi psi psi psi psi Calculate Shaft Diameter Input Data Allowable shaft shear stress.Fr*B R1v = Fr*B / (A+B) R1v = 371 Mv = R1*A Mv = 1113 Horizontal shaft bending moment Sum of moments about any point in the shaft = 0 Sum of moments about the right bearing = R1*(A+B) .5 Mmax = 1185 lbs in-lbs lbs in-lbs in-lbs ASME Code Load Factors Stationary shaft: Load gradually applied Load sudenly applied Rotating shaft: Load gradually applied Load sudenly applied (minor shock) Load sudenly applied (heavy shock) Load Case A B Cm 1.Fr*B R1h = Ft*B / (A+B) R1h = 135 Mh = R1*A Mh = 405 Maximum fully reversed fatigue bending moment in the shaft (Mmax): Mmax = (Mv^2 + Mh^2)^0. Cm = ASME Code Load Factor.0 psi - . Sa = ASME Code Load Case = ASME Code Load Factor. Sa = 8000 psi Shafts with keyway.0 1.5 to 2.0 C D ASME Code for Commercial Steel Shafting Shafts without keyway.5 1. Ct = 5800 C 2.0 2.0 to 3.0 1. Sy = 36000 Shaft material ultimate stress.5 to 2. Sa = 5800 psi ASME Code for Steel Purchased Under Definite Specifications Sa = 30% of the yield strength but not over 18% of the ultimate strength in tension for shafts without keyways.0 2.Sum of moments about the right bearing = R1*(A+B) . These values are to be reduced by 25% for the presence of k Input Data Shaft material yeild stress.

k = 0.00 Shaft outside diameter. Sa = (16 / ((π*D^3)*(1-k^4))) * (((Cm*M + ((a*F*D(1 +k^2)/8))^2 + Subtract Sa. N2 = 24 . Dg = 1.238 in Next larger standard shaft diameter.000 in Calculations Motor torque (from above).Given safety factor.250 in Gear Train Input Data Driver Gear Teeth. d = 0.0000 k = 0 for a solid shaft because inner diameter is zero Allowable shaft shear stress. T = 1080 in-lb Shaft maximum moment (from above) Mmax = M = 1185 in-lb Ratio of inner to outer diameters of the shaft. D = 1. 0 = (16 / ((π*D^3)*(1-k^4))) * (((Cm*M + ((a*F*D(1 +k^2)/8))^2 + Use Goal Seek D value to make equation = 0 = 0 psi Goal Seek Shaft diameter from above. N1 = 12 Driven Gear Teeth. D = 1. SF = 2.238 in Shaft inside diameter.

N3 = 10 Driven Gear Teeth. VR = VR = Driver Gear 1 Torque. T1 = Driven Gear 4 Torque. T4 = T4 = Calculation (N1/N2)*(N3/N4) 0. When using Excel's Goal Seek. N4 = 20 Gear train velocity ratio.Driver Gear Teeth. restore protection with: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Protect Sheet > OK .250 Input Data 100 Calculation T1/VR 400 in-lbs in-lbs Use the Input Data and Calculations in pages 1 through 3 above to calculate shaft diameters in the gear train shown here. unprotect the spread sheet by selecting: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Unprotect Sheet > OK When Excel's Goal Seek is not needed.

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5 to 3.0 1.0 55 40 Mpa Mpa th but not over 18% of the ultimate shafts without keyways.Ct 1.0 1. . 248 427 Mpa Mpa 40.5 to 2. reduced by 25% for the presence of keyways.0 1.0 1.5 to 2.0 Mpa See "Goal Seek" tab below.

Sa .)) * (((Cm*M + ((a*F*D(1 +k^2)/8))^2 + (Ct*T)^2)^(1/2) )) * (((Cm*M + ((a*F*D(1 +k^2)/8))^2 + (Ct*T)^2)^(1/2) .

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P5 .

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B = 5.Input Data Length from left bearing to gear.00 Calculations Vertical shaft bending moment Sum of moments about any point in the shaft = 0 Shaft Moment and Torque Use this side is an example in in .00 Length from right bearing to gear. A = 3.

5 to 2.0 to 3.5 to 2. Sa = 8000 psi 55 Mpa Shafts with keyway.5 to 2.0 1.Fr*B R1h = Ft*B / (A+B) R1h = 0 lbs Mh = R1*A Mh = 0 in-lbs Maximum fully reversed fatigue bending moment in the shaft (Mmax): Mmax = (Mv^2 + Mh^2)^0.0 Mpa .Sum of moments about the right bearing = R1*(A+B) .0 1.0 2.5 Mmax = 0 in-lbs ASME Code Load Factors Stationary shaft: Load gradually applied Load sudenly applied Rotating shaft: Load gradually applied Load sudenly applied (minor shock) Load sudenly applied (heavy shock) Load Case A B Cm Ct 1.0 1. Ct = Input Data 5800 C 2. Cm = ASME Code Load Factor.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 to 3.0 C D ASME Code for Commercial Steel Shafting Shafts without keyway.0 1.0 2. These values are to be reduced by 25% for the presence of keyw Input Data Shaft material yeild stress.0 psi 40. Sa = ASME Code Load Case = ASME Code Load Factor.5 to 2. Su = 62000 psi Calculations Shaft Without Keyway 30% of material yield strength = 10800 18% of material ultimate strength = 11160 Shaft With Keyway 25% of 30% of material yield strength = 8100 25% of 18% of material ultimate strength = 8370 psi psi psi psi 248 427 Mpa Mpa Calculate Shaft Diameter Allowable shaft shear stress. Sa = 5800 psi 40 Mpa ASME Code for Steel Purchased Under Definite Specifications Sa = 30% of the yield strength but not over 18% of the ultimate strength in tension for shafts without keyways.Fr*B R1v = Fr*B / (A+B) R1v = 0 lbs Mv = R1*A Mv = 0 in-lbs Horizontal shaft bending moment Sum of moments about any point in the shaft = 0 Sum of moments about the right bearing = R1*(A+B) . Sy = 36000 psi Shaft material ultimate stress.

0000 k = 0 for a solid shaft because inner diameter is zero Allowable shaft shear stress. 0 = (16 / ((π*D^3)*(1-k^4))) * (((Cm*M + ((a*F*D(1 +k^2)/8))^2 + (Ct Use Goal Seek D value to make equation = 0 = 0 psi Goal Seek Shaft diameter from above.010 in Shaft inside diameter. k = 0.250 in . Sa = (16 / ((π*D^3)*(1-k^4))) * (((Cm*M + ((a*F*D(1 +k^2)/8))^2 + (Ct Subtract Sa. d = 0.000 in Calculations Motor torque (from above). D = 1.00 Shaft outside diameter. Dg = 0. D = 0. T = 0 in-lb Shaft maximum moment (from above) Mmax = M = 0 in-lb Ratio of inner to outer diameters of the shaft. SF = 2.010 in Next larger standard shaft diameter.Given safety factor.

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.18% of the ultimate 5% for the presence of keyways.

((a*F*D(1 +k^2)/8))^2 + (Ct*T)^2)^(1/2) ((a*F*D(1 +k^2)/8))^2 + (Ct*T)^2)^(1/2) .Sa .

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