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09/15/2015

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Exer
ises 1

1.1.1 Show that the Zariski topology on a quasi-proje
tive variety X is a topology, but is non-Hausdor

unless X is

3 Show that P1 is irredu ible. Show that the diagonal X X . 1. but that is not losed in the produ t of the Zariski topologies on the two opies of X unless X is .2 Let X be an irrdu ible variety and f : X ! Y a morphism. = f(x. x) j x 2 X g. (Try Pn if you like. 1. Show that f (X ) (the losure of f (X ) in the Zariski topology) is irredu ible.nite.) 1.1.1. is Zariski- losed in X X .1.4 Let X be a quasi-proje tive variety.

2.nite.1 Let X be an irredu ible variety. 1. Show that C (X ) is a .

y2 z x3 x2 z = 0 . : : : . Sket h the real aÆne part of ea h urve.1 Let L = f(x. (x0 . [Hint. let Ui denote the Zariski open set in Pn de. y) 2 R2 j f (x. v ) = x makes L into a line bundle over Pn (usually denoted by O( 1)).3.eld.1. 2 C g: Show that the proje tion p: L ! Pn p(x.1 Consider the following urves in P2 a. 1. while ( ) is non-singular. v ) 2 Pn C n+1 j v lies on the line in C n+1 orresponding to xg = f((x0 : : : : : xn ). y. For 0 i n. y2z x3 + xz 2 = 0 Show that (a) and (b) ea h has one singular point. [Here by the real aÆne part we mean f(x. y2 z x3 = 0 b. 1) = 0g: ℄ Exer ises 2 2. xn )) j xi 2 C not all zero.

ned by xi 6= 0.1. Consider the restri tion of L to Ui .2 Show that O( 1) is de.℄ 2.

3 De.1.ned with respe t to the overing fUi g of Pn by the transition fun tions gij = xxji . 2.

Then de.ne the line bundle O(1) over Pn by O(1) = O( 1) .

} .ne O(a) for a 2 Z as follows: 8 > z > > > < a }| { O(1) O(1) O(a) = > O > O( 1) {z O( > > :| a 1 for a > 0 for a = 0 1) for a < 0.

for any a. O(a) is de. O(a + b) = O(a) O(b). b 2 Z. with respe t to the open overing a x i fUi g.Show that. Show also that.

2. 2. for a 0.ned by the transition fun tions gij = xj .1 Show that. O(a) an be identi.

Show also that. C is a non-singular urve and K is its anoni al bundle.2. for a < 0. : : : . In problems 3. O(a) = 0. xn .ed with the spa e of homogeneous polynomials of degree a in x0 .4. The genus of C is g and is de.1.1{3.3 Show that KPn = O( n 1). Exer ises 3 3.2.

on P1. 3.4 Show that. Show further that L is very ample whenever deg L > 2g. 3.ned by g = h1 (O).1 Prove the Riemann-Ro h theorem for line bundles over C .1 For given a. For what values of a is it true that h0 O(a) = h1 O(a) = 0? 3. show that deg K = 2g 2 and h0 (K ) = g. 3.3 Show that every line bundle L of degree > 2g 2 over C has h0 = d + 1 g.2. 3.2.3. b. at least one of h0 O(a) and h1 O(a) is 0.2 Using Riemann-Ro h and Serre duality.2.2. .

Show that there exists a unique line bundle L of degree 0 and an exa t sequen e 0 ! L ! E ! L ! 0: (This ompletes the lassi.nd all ve tor bundles E on P1 for whi h there exists an exa t sequen e 0 ! O(a) ! E ! O(b) ! 0: 3.1 Let E be an inde omposable ve tor bundle on an ellipti urve C .4.

1. Dedu e that.℄ Exer ises 4 4.4 Let E be a semistable bundle of rank n and degree d over C with d > n(2g 1).e.) [Hint.e. ation of rank-2 bundles given in the le tures. 4. E is generated by its se tions (i. given and point v in the . if E is stable. Prove a.1. if E is stable (semistable) and L is a line bundle. then F possesses a subbundle isomorphi to O(x) for some x 2 C .) 4.1. 4.2 Show that. then E is simple (i.1. if F is de omposable.1 Show that every line bundle over a non-singular urve C is stable.3 Show that. then E L is stable (semistable). Any ve tor bundle F of degree 2 has h0 (F ) 2. h0 (End E ) = 1 or equivalently the only endomorphisms of E are the s alar multiples of the identity..

Des ribe M (n. d) = 1.bre Ex of E over the point x 2 C . h1 (E ) = 0. 4.1. 4.1. 9 se tion s of E su h that s(x) = v ) b. d) in this ase. 2 .6 Show that 9 stable bundles of rank n and degree d over an ellipti urve C if and only if (n. 4. Show that 9 stable bundles of rank 2 and degree d over C .7 Suppose g 2 and d 2 Z.5 Show that the only stable bunles on P1 are the line bundles.1.

[Hint. Consider extensions of the form 0 ! L1 ! E ! L2 ! 0 where deg L2 deg L1 = 1 or 2. In the .

4) 6= . 5.2 Let E be a ve tor bundle over a urve C (it is not ne essary to assume C non-singular).1.1.1 Let U be a non-empty Zariski-open subset of an irredu ible variety X .1.2. try to prove that Rd is always non-empty if g 2 Exer ises 5 5. it is easy to show that any non-trivial extension is stable. one an show that 9 extensions whi h are stable. where L = det E .rst ase.8 Try generalising 4.1. RESEARCH PROBLEM For what values of d is B (2. and suppose that E is generated by its se tions. Show that there exists an exa t sequen e 0 ! On 1 ! E ! L ! 0.? 3 .1. 4.1 For an alternative proof of 4. in the se ond.℄ 4.8.7 to arbitrary n. Show that U is irredu ible. d.

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