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**Chapter 6 MOMENTUM ANALYSIS OF FLOW SYSTEMS
**

Newton’s Laws and Conservation of Momentum 6-1C Newton’s first law states that “a body at rest remains at rest, and a body in motion remains in motion at the same velocity in a straight path when the net force acting on it is zero.” Therefore, a body tends to preserve its state or inertia. Newton’s second law states that “the acceleration of a body is proportional to the net force acting on it and is inversely proportional to its mass.” Newton’s third law states “when a body exerts a force on a second body, the second body exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.”

r 6-2C Since momentum ( mV ) is the product of a vector (velocity) and a scalar (mass), momentum must be a vector that points in the same direction as the velocity vector.

6-3C The conservation of momentum principle is expressed as “the momentum of a system remains constant when the net force acting on it is zero, and thus the momentum of such systems is conserved”. The momentum of a body remains constant if the net force acting on it is zero. 6-4C Newton’s second law of motion, also called the angular momentum equation, is expressed as “the rate of change of the angular momentum of a body is equal to the net torque acting it.” For a non-rigid body with zero net torque, the angular momentum remains constant, but the angular velocity changes in accordance with Iω = constant where I is the moment of inertia of the body. 6-5C No. Two rigid bodies having the same mass and angular speed will have different angular momentums unless they also have the same moment of inertia I. Linear Momentum Equation 6-6C The relationship between the time rates of change of an extensive property for a system and for a control volume is expressed by the Reynolds transport theorem, which provides the link between the r system and control volume concepts. The linear momentum equation is obtained by setting b = V and thus r B = mV in the Reynolds transport theorem. 6-7C The forces acting on the control volume consist of body forces that act throughout the entire body of the control volume (such as gravity, electric, and magnetic forces) and surface forces that act on the control surface (such as the pressure forces and reaction forces at points of contact). The net force acting on a control volume is the sum of all body and surface forces. Fluid weight is a body force, and pressure is a surface force (acting per unit area). 6-8C All of these surface forces arise as the control volume is isolated from its surroundings for analysis, and the effect of any detached object is accounted for by a force at that location. We can minimize the number of surface forces exposed by choosing the control volume such that the forces that we are not interested in remain internal, and thus they do not complicate the analysis. A well-chosen control volume exposes only the forces that are to be determined (such as reaction forces) and a minimum number of other forces. 6-9C The momentum-flux correction factor β enables us to express the momentum flux in terms of the r r r r & V avg . The value of β is unity for uniform ρV (V ⋅ n )dAc = β m mass flow rate and mean flow velocity as

∫

Ac

flow, such as a jet flow, nearly unity for turbulent flow (between 1.01 and 1.04), but about 1.3 for laminar flow. So it should be considered in laminar flow.

6-1

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-10C The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow for the case of no external forces is r r r &V − &V F= βm βm

∑

∑

out

∑

in

where the left hand side is the net force acting on the control volume, and first term on the right hand side is the incoming momentum flux and the second term is the outgoing momentum flux by mass. 6-11C In the application of the momentum equation, we can disregard the atmospheric pressure and work with gage pressures only since the atmospheric pressure acts in all directions, and its effect cancels out in every direction. 6-12C The fireman who holds the hose backwards so that the water makes a U-turn before being discharged will experience a greater reaction force since the numerical values of momentum fluxes across the nozzle are added in this case instead of being subtracted. 6-13C No, V is not the upper limit to the rocket’s ultimate velocity. Without friction the rocket velocity will continue to increase as more gas outlets the nozzle. 6-14C A helicopter hovers because the strong downdraft of air, caused by the overhead propeller blades, manifests a momentum in the air stream. This momentum must be countered by the helicopter lift force. 6-15C As the air density decreases, it requires more energy for a helicopter to hover, because more air must be forced into the downdraft by the helicopter blades to provide the same lift force. Therefore, it takes more power for a helicopter to hover on the top of a high mountain than it does at sea level. 6-16C In winter the air is generally colder, and thus denser. Therefore, less air must be driven by the blades to provide the same helicopter lift, requiring less power.

6-2

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

or alternatively. so the acceleration must also decrease. the water will exert a force on the plate. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 4 The water is discharged to the atmosphere. . If you are a student using this Manual. 6-20 It is to be shown that the force exerted by a liquid jet of velocity V on a stationary nozzle is &2. Inc. Noting that m average nozzle outlet velocity. But as the plate begins to move. and thus it does not contribute to any pressure force or momentum flux & = ρAV where A is the nozzle outlet area and V is the term at the inlet in the x direction.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-17C The force required to hold the plate against the horizontal water stream will increase by a factor of 4 when the velocity is doubled since & V = ( ρAV )V = ρAV 2 F =m and thus the force is proportional to the square of the velocity. Analysis We take the nozzle as the control volume. where V is the relative velocity between the water and water on the plate is F = m the plate. which will cause it to accelerate. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. 3 The nozzle involves a 90° turn and thus the incoming and outgoing flow streams are normal to each other. the momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow in the x direction reduces to r r r &V − &V & out V out = βm &V F= βm βm → FRx = βm ∑ ∑ out ∑ in where FRx is the reaction force on the nozzle due to liquid jet at the nozzle outlet. Then. stationary nozzle is proportional to V2. 2 The nozzle is given to be stationary. to m Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. The plate acceleration will be a = F/m. and the flow direction at the outlet as the x axis. which is moving. V decreases. 6-19C The maximum velocity possible for the plate is the velocity of the water jet. and thus the gage pressure at the outlet is zero. you are using it without permission. to m Liquid Nozzle V FR 6-3 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. or alternatively. As long as the plate is moving slower than the jet. the force exerted by a liquid jet of velocity V on this &2. until terminal jet velocity is reached. 6-18C The acceleration will not be constant since the force is not constant.√ proportional to V2. & = ρAV m & V = βρ AVV = βρAV 2 → FRx = βm & V = βm & or FRx = βm & &2 m m =β ρA ρA Therefore. Note that the nozzle makes a 90° turn. The impulse force exerted by & V = ( ρAV )V = ρAV 2 .

5V when the plate is moving with a velocity ½V towards the plate. Analysis We take the plate as the control volume. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.25 F m Therefore. 1/2V V Waterjet 6-4 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. .5V and & i = ρAVi = ρAV ) → FR = ρAV 2 = F m & i = ρAVi = ρA(1. 5 There is no acceleration of the plate. you are using it without permission. Discussion Note that when the plate is stationary. 2 The plate is vertical and the jet is normal to plate. Inc.5 times. then the relative velocity is 1. the force required to hold the plate stationary against the oncoming water jet becomes 2. The relative velocity between the plate and the jet is V when the plate is stationary.25 ρAV 2 = 2.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-21 A water jet of velocity V impinges on a plate moving toward the water jet with velocity ½V. and the amount of mass striking the plate (and falling off its sides) per unit time also increases by 50%.5V. 6 Jet flow is nearly uniform and thus the effect of the momentum-flux correction factor is negligible. 6 The water splashes off the sides of the plate in a plane normal to the jet. 4 Fiction during motion is negligible.5V ) ) → FR = ρA(1. V is also the jet velocity. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Then the momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow in the horizontal direction reduces to r r r &V − & V → − FR = − m & i Vi → FR = m & i Vi F= βm βm ∑ ∑ out ∑ in Stationary plate: ( Vi = V and Moving plate: ( Vi = 1.5V ) 2 = 2.25 times when the jet velocity becomes 1. But if the plate moves toward the stream with velocity ½V. β ≅ 1. If you are a student using this Manual. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. 3 The pressure on both sides of the plate is atmospheric pressure (and thus its effect cancels out). The force required to move the plate towards the jet is to be determined in terms of F acting on the stationary plate. and 1.

1 m) 2 / 4] = 81. 2 The weight of the elbow and the water in it is negligible. Also.03(25 kg/s)(3.1 m) 2 / 4] Noting that V1 = V2 and P2 = Patm.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-22 A 90° elbow deflects water upwards and discharges it to the atmosphere at a specified rate. We let the x(b) The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow is F= βm βm ∑ ∑ out ∑ in and z. The gage pressure at the inlet of the elbow and the anchoring force needed to hold the elbow in place are to be determined. incompressible. gage A1 FRx = − βm 1N = −1. frictionless.components of the anchoring force of the elbow be FRx and FRz. 3 The water is discharged to the atmosphere.18 m/s 2 ρA ρ (πD / 4) (1000 kg/m 3 )[π (0. and designate the entrance by 1 and the outlet by 2. Noting that m m & & 25 kg/s m m = = = 3. We also use gage pressures to avoid dealing with the atmospheric pressure which acts on all surfaces. a negative value for FRx indicates the assumed direction is wrong. Analysis (a) We take the elbow as the control volume.9 N FRy FRx = tan -1 Water 25 kg/s FRx 1 1N & V = 1. and should be reversed. If you are a student using this Manual. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies.81 m/s )(0.gage A1 = 0 − βm & (+V 2 ) = β m &V FRz = β m z x FRz 2 35 cm Solving for FRx and FRz. gage = ρg ( z2 − z1 ) ρg 2 g ρg 2 g Substituting.434 kPa P 1.18 m/s) 1 kg ⋅ m/s 2 = −109 N − (3434 N/m 2 )[π (0.9 = −37° = 143° − 109 Discussion Note that the magnitude of the anchoring force is 136 N. the Bernoulli equation for a streamline going through the center of the reducing elbow is expressed as V1 = V 2 = V = P V2 P V2 1 + 1 + z1 = 2 + 2 + z2 → P 1−P 2 = ρg ( z2 − z1 ) → P 1. 4 The momentum-flux correction factor for each inlet and outlet is given to be β = 1. FR = FRx θ = tan -1 81. and its line of action makes 143° from the positive x direction.18 m/s) FRy = βm 1 kg ⋅ m/s 2 and 2 2 + FRy = (−109) 2 + 81. and thus the gage pressure at the outlet is zero. 6-5 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.03(25 kg/s)(3.35 m) 2 1000 kg ⋅ m/s r r r &V − & V . We also designate the horizontal coordinate by x (with the direction of flow as being the positive direction) and the vertical coordinate by z. Inc. & V − P1.03. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. and assume them to be in the positive directions.9 2 = 136 N. The continuity equation for this one-inlet one-outlet steady flow system is & = ρAV .434 kN/m 2 = 3. you are using it without permission. 1 kN 3 2 = 3. Then the momentum equations along the x and y axes become & (+V1 ) = − βm &V FRx + P1. . gage = (1000 kg/m )(9. the mean inlet and outlet velocities of water are &1 = m &2 = m & = 30 kg/s. and substituting the given values. √ Assumptions 1 The flow is steady. Properties We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3. and irrotational (so that the Bernoulli equation is applicable).

Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-23 An 180° elbow forces the flow to make a U-turn and discharges it to the atmosphere at a specified rate. We also use gage pressures to avoid dealing with the atmospheric pressure which acts on all surfaces.18 m/s) 1 kg ⋅ m/s 2 = −218 N − (6867 N/m 2 )[π (0. The gage pressure at the inlet of the elbow and the anchoring force needed to hold the elbow in place are to be determined. Analysis (a) We take the elbow as the control volume. 3 The water is discharged to the atmosphere. 2 The weight of the elbow and the water in it is negligible.18 m/s 2 ρA ρ (πD / 4) (1000 kg/m 3 )[π (0. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.218 N since the y-component of the anchoring force is zero. Inc.867 kN/m 2 = 6. Then the momentum equations along the x and z axes become & (−V 2 ) − β m & (+V1 ) = −2 βm &V FRx + P1. & V − P1. and designate the entrance by 1 and the outlet by 2. Therefore.867 kPa P 1. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. We let the x(b) The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow is F= βm βm ∑ ∑ out ∑ in and z. 4 The momentumflux correction factor for each inlet and outlet is given to be β = 1. Discussion Note that a negative value for FRx indicates the assumed direction is wrong. FRx 1 6-6 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. and should be reversed. gage = ρg ( z2 − z1 ) ρg 2 g ρg 2 g Substituting. the anchoring force has a magnitude of 218 N and it acts in the negative x direction. Properties We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3. gage A1 FRx = −2 βm 1N = −2 × 1. √ Assumptions 1 The flow is steady. and thus the gage pressure at the outlet is zero. . Noting that m & = ρAV . the Bernoulli equation for a streamline going through the center of the reducing elbow is expressed as V1 = V 2 = V = P V2 P V2 1 + 1 + z1 = 2 + 2 + z2 → P 1−P 2 = ρg ( z2 − z1 ) → P 1. If you are a student using this Manual. and assume them to be in the positive directions. and irrotational (so that the Bernoulli equation is applicable). you are using it without permission.1 m) 2 / 4] Noting that V1 = V2 and P2 = Patm. We also designate the horizontal coordinate by x (with the direction of flow as being the positive direction) and the vertical coordinate by z. incompressible.70 m) 2 1000 kg ⋅ m/s r r r &V − & V .03. The continuity equation for this one-inlet one-outlet steady flow system is &1 = m &2 = m & = 30 kg/s. one-dimensional. 1 kN 3 2 = 6. the mean inlet and outlet velocities of water are m & & 25 kg/s m m = = = 3.03(25 kg/s)(3.1 m) 2 / 4] 2 z x FRz Water 25 kg/s 35 cm and FR = FRx = . frictionless.components of the anchoring force of the elbow be FRx and FRz.81 m/s )(0. gage = (1000 kg/m )(9.gage A1 = βm FRz = 0 Solving for FRx and substituting the given values.

the flow rate of water is to be determined. some water will be scattered back.4 lbm/ft3. . β ≅ 1. For a given anchoring force needed to hold the plate in place. 2 The water splatters off the sides of the plate in a plane normal to the jet. 3 The water jet is exposed to the atmosphere.2 lbm ⋅ ft/s 2 1 lbf = 376 lbm/s Then the volume flow rate becomes V& = & m ρ = 376 lbm/s 62. If you are a student using this Manual.4 lbm/ft 3 = 6. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. The flow rate in that case will be less. 4 The vertical forces and momentum fluxes are not considered since they have no effect on the horizontal reaction force.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-24E A horizontal water jet strikes a vertical stationary plate normally at a specified velocity. and the direction of flow as the positive direction of x axis. and this will add to the reaction force of water. Analysis We take the plate as the control volume such that it contains the entire plate and cuts through the water jet and the support bar normally.02 ft 3 /s Therefore. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and thus the pressure of the water jet and the splattered water is the atmospheric pressure which is disregarded since it acts on the entire control surface. and we should not forget the negative & and substituting the given values. sign for forces and velocities in the negative x-direction. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. you are using it without permission. Solving for m &= m FRx 350 lbf = V1 30 ft/s 32. m 1 FRx = 350 lbf Waterjet 6-7 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. the volume flow rate of water under stated assumptions must be 6. Inc. Properties We take the density of water to be 62. The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow in the x (flow) direction reduces in this case to r r r &V − &V & V1 → FR = m & V1 F= βm βm → − FRx = − m ∑ ∑ out ∑ in We note that the reaction force acts in the opposite direction to flow.02 ft3/s. 5 Jet flow is nearly uniform and thus the effect of the momentum-flux correction factor is negligible. Discussion In reality.

0025 m 2 ) Taking the center of the inlet cross section as the reference level (z1 = 0) and noting that P2 = Patm. 81 m/s ) 1.components of the anchoring force of the elbow be FRx and FRz.0150 m 2 ) = −0.4 ( 1000 kg/m )( 9 .9 kN/m 2 = 73.0 m/s ρA1 (1000 kg/m 3 )(0. gage A1 FRx = βm 1 kN = 1. the inlet and outlet velocities of water are &1 = m &2 = m & = 30 kg/s. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. We also use gage pressures to avoid dealing with the atmospheric pressure which acts on all surfaces. and thus the gage pressure at the outlet is zero. & (V 2 cos θ − V1 ) − P1. gage 2 2 ⋅ 2 ( 9 .753 2 2 2 2 -1 FRz FR = FRx + FRz = (−0. incompressible. Then the momentum equations along the x and z axes become & V 2 cos θ − βm & V1 and FRz − W = βm & V 2 sin θ FRx + P1.908 Discussion Note that the magnitude of the anchoring force is 1. and substituting the given values.and ∑ F = ∑ βm out in r r r z.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-25 A reducing elbow deflects water upwards and discharges it to the atmosphere at a specified rate.7° from +x direction.908) + (0. . Properties We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3. 4 The momentumflux correction factor for each inlet and outlet is given to be β = 1.908 kN Water 30 kg/s 45° FRz FRx 150 m2 W 1 1 kN & V 2 sin θ + W = 1.4905 kN = 0. frictionless.5 N = 0. 3 The water is discharged to the atmosphere.2) m/s] 1000 kg ⋅ m/s 2 − (73. If you are a student using this Manual.9 kN/m 2 )(0. the Bernoulli equation for a streamline going through the center of the reducing elbow is expressed as V22 − V12 V22 − V12 P V2 P V2 1 + 1 + z1 = 2 + 2 + z2 → P + z2 − z1 → P + z2 1. The continuity equation for this one-inlet one-outlet steady flow system is & = ρAV . We let the x. The anchoring force needed to hold the elbow in place is to be determined. 2 2 1 kN 3 2 (12 m/s) − ( 2 m/s) = 73.03.0150 m 2 ) & 30 kg/s m V2 = = = 12 m/s ρA2 (1000 kg/m 3 )(0.753 kN 0. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Negative value for FRx indicates the assumed direction is wrong.03(30 kg/s)(12sin45° m/s) FRz = βm 1000 kg ⋅ m/s 2 + 0. Noting that m m & 30 kg/s m V1 = = = 2. 2 The weight of the elbow and the water in it is considered.7° FRx − 0. gage = ρg 1−P 2 = ρg ρg 2 g ρg 2 g 2g 2g Substituting. you are using it without permission.18 kN. Inc. and assume them to be in the positive directions. θ = tan = tan -1 = −39.03(30 kg/s)[(12cos45° . 81 m/s ) 1000 kg m/s The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow is & V − ∑ βm & V .753) = 1. one-dimensional. We also designate the horizontal coordinate by x (with the direction of flow as being the positive direction) and the vertical coordinate by z.gage A1 = β m 2 25 cm2 Solving for FRx and FRz. Analysis The weight of the elbow and the water in it is W = mg = (50 kg)(9. and its line of action makes –39. 6-8 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. and designate the entrance by 1 and the outlet by 2.4905 kN We take the elbow as the control volume.18 kN. √ Assumptions 1 The flow is steady. and irrotational (so that the Bernoulli equation is applicable).81 m/s 2 ) = 490.9 kPa P = + 0.

and its line of action makes –32.gage A1 = βm and & V 2 sin θ FRy − W = β m Solving for FRx and FRz.4905 kN = 0.8389 = tan -1 = −32.9 kN/m 2 = 73. Analysis The weight of the elbow and the water in it is W = mg = (50 kg)(9. the inlet and outlet velocities of water are &1 = m &2 = m & = 30 kg/s. Noting that m m & 30 kg/s m = = 2. gage = ρg ρg 2 g ρg 2 g 2g 2g 3 2 or. and thus the gage pressure at the outlet is zero. 3 The water is discharged to the atmosphere.components of the anchoring force of the elbow be FRx and FRz.9 kN/m 2 )(0. .9° from +x direction.0025 m 2 ) Taking the center of the inlet cross section as the reference level (z1 = 0) and noting that P2 = Patm. θ = tan -1 FRz FRx Water 1 30 kg/s 150 m2 W 6-9 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.03(30 kg/s)[(12cos110° . The anchoring force needed to hold the elbow in place is to be determined.0 m/s V1 = ρA1 (1000 kg/m 3 )(0.81 m/s ) (12 m/s)2 − (2 m/s)2 2(9.0150 m 2 ) = −1.9 kPa + 0. The continuity equation for this one-inlet one-outlet steady flow system is & = ρAV .297 kN 1 kN + 0. √ Assumptions 1 The flow is steady. and should be reversed. We let the x∑ F = ∑ βm out in r r r and y. incompressible. Inc. and substituting the given values. P 1. the Bernoulli equation for a streamline going through the center of the reducing elbow is expressed as V22 − V12 V22 − V12 P V2 P V2 1 + 1 + z1 = 2 + 2 + z2 → P + z2 − z1 → P + z2 1−P 2 = ρg 1.0150 m 2 ) & 30 kg/s m V2 = = = 12 m/s ρA2 (1000 kg/m 3 )(0. and designate the entrance by 1 and the outlet by 2. 2 The weight of the elbow and the water in it is considered.81 m/s ) 2 1 kN = 73. If you are a student using this Manual.9° FRx − 1.8389 2 = 1. We also use gage pressures to avoid dealing with the atmospheric pressure which acts on all surfaces.4905 kN We take the elbow as the control volume. 4 The momentumflux correction factor for each inlet and outlet is given to be β = 1.297 Discussion Note that the magnitude of the anchoring force is 1.4 1000 kg ⋅ m/s 2 The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow is & V − ∑ βm & V .2) m/s] 1000 kg ⋅ m/s 2 FRz − (73.03. gage = (1000 kg/m )(9.54 kN and FRz 0. Properties We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3. frictionless. & (V 2 cos θ − V1 ) − P1.8389 kN & V 2 sin θ + W = 1. and assume them to be in the positive directions. We also designate the horizontal coordinate by x (with the direction of flow as being the positive direction) and the vertical coordinate by z.297) 2 + 0.5 N = 0. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.54 kN.81 m/s 2 ) = 490. one-dimensional. and irrotational (so that the Bernoulli equation is applicable). Negative value for FRx indicates assumed direction is wrong.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-26 A reducing elbow deflects water upwards and discharges it to the atmosphere at a specified rate. gage A1 FRx = βm 1 kN = 1. Then the momentum equations along the x and z axes become & V 2 cos θ − βm & V1 FRx + P1.03(30 kg/s)(12sin110° m/s) = βm 2 1000 kg ⋅ m/s 2 25 cm2 110° 2 2 FR = FRx + FRz = (−1. you are using it without permission.

3 The water jet is exposed to the atmosphere. and the direction of flow as the positive direction of x axis. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 6-10 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. The braking force and the power wasted by the brakes are to be determined. If you are a student using this Manual. and thus the pressure of the water jet and the splattered water is the atmospheric pressure which is disregarded since it acts on all surfaces. 7 The motions of the water jet and the cart are horizontal. 1N & V r = −(25 kg/s)(+10 m/s) Fbrake = −m 1 kg ⋅ m/s 2 = −250 N The negative sign indicates that the braking force acts in the opposite direction to motion. you are using it without permission. as expected. the power wasted by the brakes is 1 kW & =F W = 1. 4 Fiction during motion is negligible. The momentum equation for steady onedimensional flow in the x (flow) direction reduces in this case to r r r &V − &V & i Vi → Fbrake = −m & Vr F= βm βm → FRx = −m FRx ∑ ∑ out ∑ in We note that the brake force acts in the opposite direction to flow. . Substituting the given values. The relative velocity between the cart and the jet is V r = V jet − Vcart = 15 − 10 = 10 m/s 15 m/s 5 m/s Therefore. 6 Jet flow is nearly uniform and thus the effect of the momentum-flux correction factor is negligible. we can assume the cart to be stationary and the jet to move Waterjet with a velocity of 10 m/s.25 kW brakeV cart = ( 250 N)(5 m/s) 1000 N ⋅ m/s Discussion Note that the power wasted is equivalent to the maximum power that can be generated as the cart velocity is maintained constant. β ≅ 1.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-27 Water accelerated by a nozzle strikes the back surface of a cart moving horizontally at a constant velocity. Noting that work is force times distance and the distance traveled by the cart per unit time is the cart velocity. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. and we should not forget the negative sign for forces and velocities in the negative x-direction. 2 The water splatters off the sides of the plate in all directions in the plane of the back surface. Inc. 5 There is no acceleration of the cart. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. . Analysis We take the cart as the control volume.

The acceleration will decrease as the relative velocity between the water jet and the cart (and thus the force) decreases. . The acceleration of the cart if the brakes fail is to be determined. Inc. Analysis The braking force was determined in previous problem to be 250 N. this force will propel the cart forward. When the brakes fail. and the accelerating will be a= F 250 N 1 kg ⋅ m/s 2 = m cart 300 kg 1N = 0.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-28 Water accelerated by a nozzle strikes the back surface of a cart moving horizontally. If you are a student using this Manual. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 5 m/s 15 m/s 300 kg Waterjet FRx 6-11 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.833 m/s 2 Discussion This is the acceleration at the moment the brakes fail. you are using it without permission.

We let The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow is F= βm βm ∑ ∑ out ∑ in the x. Therefore.1) = −1135 lbf 2 ⋅ 32. But for short distances. If you are a student using this Manual. Discussion In reality. We also designate the horizontal coordinate by x with the direction of flow as being the positive direction and the vertical coordinate by z. 3 The gravitational effects are disregarded.4 lbm/ft3. 2 The water jet is exposed to the atmosphere. these effects are indeed negligible.and y.4 lbm/ft 3 )(100 ft 3 /s) = 6240 lbm/s & = ρV m We take the splitting section of water jet. The force required to hold the splitter in place is to be determined.components of the anchoring force of the splitter be FRx and FRz. Analysis The mass flow rate of water jet is & = (62. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.2 lbm ft/s FRz = 0 The negative value for FRx indicates the assumed direction is wrong. Noting that V2 = V1 = V and m 2 axes become & & & FRx = 2( 1 2 m )V 2 cos θ − mV1 = mV (cos θ − 1) 1 & & FRz = 1 2 m( +V 2 sin θ ) + 2 m( −V 2 sin θ ) − 0 = 0 Substituting the given values. and assume them to be in the &2 = 1 & .Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-29E A water jet hits a stationary splitter. such that half of the flow is diverted upward at 45°. This can also be concluded from the symmetry. the gravitational effects will cause the upper stream to slow down and the lower stream to speed up after the split. r r r &V − & V . and should be reversed. 1 lbf FRx = (6240 lbm/s)(20 ft/s)(cos45° . 4 Jet flow is nearly uniform and thus the effect of the momentum-flux correction factor is negligible. . and the other half is directed down. including the splitter as the control volume. and thus the pressure of the water jet before and after the split is the atmospheric pressure which is disregarded since it acts on all surfaces. a force of 1135 lbf must be applied to the splitter in the opposite direction to flow to hold it in place. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. and designate the entrance by 1 and the outlet of either arm by 2 (both arms have the same velocity and mass flow rate). No holding force is necessary in the vertical direction. √EES Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. 20 ft/s 100 ft/s 45° 45° FRz FRx 6-12 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. β ≅ 1. you are using it without permission. Properties We take the density of water to be 62. the momentum equations along the x and z m positive directions.

° 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 8000 7000 6000 5000 & . Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. you are using it without permission. The effect of splitter angle on the force exerted on the splitter as the half splitter angle varies from 0 to 180° in increments of 10° is to be investigated. . g=32. ° 6-13 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. If you are a student using this Manual. lbf 0 59 234 519 907 1384 1938 2550 3203 3876 4549 5201 5814 6367 6845 7232 7518 7693 7752 FR.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-30E Problem 6-29E is reconsidered.2 "ft/s2" rho=62. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. lbf 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 θ. lbm/s m 6240 6240 6240 6240 6240 6240 6240 6240 6240 6240 6240 6240 6240 6240 6240 6240 6240 6240 6240 FR. Inc.4 "lbm/ft3" V_dot=100 "ft3/s" V=20 "ft/s" m_dot=rho*V_dot F_R=-m_dot*V*(cos(theta)-1)/g "lbf" θ.

(b) Noting that a = dV/dt = ∆V/∆t since the acceleration a is constant. 6 The velocity of the jet relative to the plate remains constant. 3 The water jet is exposed to the atmosphere. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies.636 m/s 2 )(20 s) = 12. and the velocity at a given time are to be determined. If you are a student using this Manual. the plate velocity in 20 s becomes V plate = V0. you are using it without permission. an equal and opposite impulse force acts on the plate. 7 Jet flow is nearly uniform and thus the effect of the momentum-flux correction factor is negligible. When the plate is released.2 s (c) Noting that a = dV/dt and thus dV = adt and that the acceleration a is constant. . and the direction of flow as the positive direction of x axis. Analysis (a) We take the vertical plate on the frictionless track as the control volume.7 m/s Discussion The assumption that the relative velocity between the water jet and the plate remains constant is valid only for the initial moments of motion when the plate velocity is low unless the water jet is moving with the plate at the same velocity as the plate.636 m/s 2 FRx = 14. Properties We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3. the time it takes for the plate to reach a velocity of 9 m/s is ∆t = ∆V plate a = (9 − 0) m/s 0. 5 The motions of the water jet and the cart are horizontal.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-31 A horizontal water jet impinges normally upon a vertical plate which is held on a frictionless track and is initially stationary. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. 2 The water always splatters in the plane of the retreating plate. and thus fiction during motion is negligible. Inc. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. 6-14 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. β ≅ 1.34 kg/s m The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow in the x (flow) direction reduces in this case to r r r &V − &V & i Vi → FRx = −m &V F= βm βm → FRx = −m ∑ ∑ out ∑ in where FRx is the reaction force required to hold the plate in place. plate + a∆t = 0 + (0. The mass flow rate of water in the jet is & = ρVA = (1000 kg/m 3 )(18 m/s)[π (0. the time it takes to reach a certain velocity. 4 The tract is nearly frictionless.34 kg/s)(18 m/s) Fplate = − FRx = m 1 kg ⋅ m/s 2 = 636 N Then the initial acceleration of the plate becomes a= Fplate m plate = 636 N 1 kg ⋅ m/s 2 1000 kg 1N = 0.05 m) 2 / 4] = 35.636 m/s 2 18 m/s 1000 kg Waterjet Frictionless track This acceleration will remain constant during motion since the force acting on the plate remains constant. The initial acceleration of the plate. which is determined to 1N & V = (35. and thus the pressure of the water jet and the splattered water is the atmospheric pressure which is disregarded since it acts on all surfaces. Vr = Vjet = V.

incompressible. and designate the entrance by 1 and the outlet by 2.components of the anchoring force of the elbow be FRx and FRz. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies.gage A1 = 0 − β m & (−V 2 ) − 0 FRz − P2.gage A2 = βm Note that we should not forget the negative sign for forces and velocities in the negative x or z direction. the gage pressure at the outlet becomes (5 m/s)2 − (20 m/s)2 1 kPa 1 kN P2 = (300 kPa) + (1000 kg/m 3 )(9. 15 cm 6-15 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. gage A1 = −1.4 kN/m 2 ) = −5.04.3 m) 2 / 4] = 353. The resultant force exerted on the reducer by water is to be determined.81 m/s 2 ) + 0. and should be reversed. 3 The momentum-flux correction factor for each inlet and outlet is given to be β = 1.9° from +x direction. one-dimensional. We let the x∑ F = ∑ βm out in r r r and z. and assume them to be in the positive directions.6 kN.15 m) 2 + (117.3 m) 2 − (300 kN/m 2 ) = −23.04(353. and its line of action makes 12. We also designate the horizontal coordinate by x (with the direction of flow as being the positive direction) and the vertical coordinate by z. and substituting the given values. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.28 kN 4 FRz 1 kN & V 2 + P2. Analysis We take the elbow as the control volume.4 kg/s. Inc.6 kN FRx 30 cm Water 5 m/s θ = tan -1 FRz − 5.5 = 117. .4 kg/s & & 353.28) 2 = 23. Noting that m & = ρAV . frictionless. Then the momentum equations along the x and z axes become & V1 FRx + P1. The continuity equation for this one-inlet one-outlet steady flow system is &1 = m &2 = m & = 353.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-32 A 90° reducer elbow deflects water downwards into a smaller diameter pipe.4 kPa 2 2 2 2(9. Solving for FRx and FRz. Negative values for FRx and FRy indicate that the assumed directions are wrong.9° FRx − 23. the mass flow rate of water and its outlet velocity are m 2 & = ρV1 A1 = ρV1 (πD1 m / 4) = (1000 kg/m 3 )(5 m/s)[π (0.04(353.4 kg/s)(20 m/s) FRz = − β m 1000 kg ⋅ m/s 2 and 2 2 FR = FRx + FRz = (−23.15 m) 2 / 4] The Bernoulli equation for a streamline going through the center of the reducing elbow is expressed as V2 = P V2 P V2 1 + 1 + z1 = 2 + 2 + z2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g → V12 − V22 + z1 − z2 P2 = P 1 + ρg 2g Substituting.28 = tan -1 = 12.0) 2 + (−5. 1 kN & V1 − P1. and irrotational (so that the Bernoulli equation is applicable). 2 The weight of the elbow and the water in it is disregarded since the gravitational effects are negligible.4 kg/s)(5 m/s) FRx = − βm 1000 kg ⋅ m/s 2 π (0. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady.81 m/s ) 1000 kg ⋅ m/s 1 kN/m The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow is & V − ∑ βm & V . Properties We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3. gage A1 = −1. If you are a student using this Manual.0 Discussion The magnitude of the anchoring force is 23.4 kg/s m m = = = 20 m/s 2 ρA2 ρπD 2 / 4 (1000 kg/m 3 )[π (0.0 kN 4 π (0. you are using it without permission.

200 kg/s) W max = m 2 2 1 kN 1000 kg ⋅ m/s 2 1 kW = 1330 kW 1 kN ⋅ m/s FR Then the actual power produced becomes & =η & W act wind turbineW max = (0.94 m/s) π (90 m) 2 4 2 = 55. The power generated and the horizontal force on the supporting mast of the turbine are to be determined.94 m/s) FR = m 1000 kg ⋅ m/s 2 = −67. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.3 kN The negative sign indicates that the reaction force acts in the negative x direction.32)(1330 kW) = 426 kW (b) The frictional effects are assumed to be negligible. and thus none of the incoming kinetic energy is converted to thermal energy. √EES Assumptions 1 The wind flow is steady and incompressible. and m 1 m/s V1 = (25 km/h) = 6. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies.25 kg/m 3 )(6. Therefore.25 kg/m3.32 = 5.200 kg/s)(5. you are using it without permission. 6-16 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-33 A wind turbine with a given span diameter and efficiency is subjected to steady winds. as expected.0. & V 2 / 2 for a given mass flow rate: which is V2/2 per unit mass.94 m/s 3.94 m/s) 1 . 4 Wind flow is uniform and thus the momentum-flux correction factor is nearly unity.72 m/s We choose the control volume around the wind turbine such that the wind is normal to the control surface at the inlet and the outlet. β ≅ 1. V2 V2 & ke 2 = m & ke1 (1 − η wind turbine ) → m & 2 =m & 1 (1 − η wind turbine ) m 2 2 or V 2 = V1 1 − η wind turbine = (6. If you are a student using this Manual. Writing it along the x-direction equation for steady one-dimensional flow is F= βm βm ∑ ∑ out ∑ in (without forgetting the negative sign for forces and velocities in the negative x-direction) and assuming the flow velocity through the turbine to be equal to the wind velocity give 1 kN & V2 − m & V1 = m & (V 2 − V1 ) = (55. 2 The efficiency of the turbine-generator is independent of wind speed. . 3 The frictional effects are negligible. and thus the portion of incoming kinetic energy not converted to electric power leaves the wind turbine as outgoing kinetic energy.200 kg/s V (6. Inc. The momentum r r r &V − & V . and the bending moment it generates at the bottom of the tower is obtained by multiplying this force by the tower height.72 . Analysis (a) The power potential of the wind is its kinetic energy.6 km/h & = ρ1V1 A1 = ρ1V1 m Wind V1 1 2 D V2 πD 2 4 2 = (1.94 m/s) & & ke1 = m & 1 = (55.6. Properties The density of air is given to be 1. Discussion This force acts on top of the tower where the wind turbine is installed. and the entire control surface is at the atmospheric pressure.

. 1 lbf FRx = −2(428. We also designate the horizontal coordinate by x (with the direction of incoming flow as being the positive direction). Inc. 4 There is no splashing of water or the deformation of the jet.4 lbm/ft 3 )(140 ft/s)[π (3 / 12 ft) 2 / 4] = 428. and designate the jet inlet by 1 and the outlet by 2. Properties We take the density of water to be 62. there is no need for an analysis in the vertical direction since the fluid streams are horizontal. Letting the The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow is F= βm βm ∑ ∑ out ∑ in reaction force to hold the plate be FRx and assuming it to be in the positive direction. Analysis We take the plate together with the curved water jet as the control volume. and thus the pressure of the water jet and the splattered water is the atmospheric pressure.8 lbm/s)(140 ft/s) = −3729 lbf 2 32. a force of 3729 lbm must be applied on the plate in the negative x direction to hold it in place.2 lbm ⋅ ft/s Therefore. The force required to hold the plate against the water stream is to be determined. you are using it without permission.4 lbm/ft3. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. 3 Friction between the plate and the surface it is on is negligible (or the friction force can be included in the required force to hold the plate).Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-34E A horizontal water jet strikes a curved plate. Also. β ≅ 1. 2 The water jet is exposed to the atmosphere. 2 140 ft/s Waterjet FRx 1 140 ft/s 3 in 6-17 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. which is disregarded since it acts on all surfaces. If you are a student using this Manual. which deflects the water back to its original direction. Discussion Note that a negative value for FRx indicates the assumed direction is wrong (as expected). the momentum equation along the x axis becomes & (−V 2 ) − m & (+V1 ) = −2m &V FRx = m Substituting. The continuity equation for this one-inlet one-outlet steady &1 = m &2 = m & where flow system is m & = ρVA = ρV [πD 2 / 4] = (62. and the reversed jet leaves horizontally at the same velocity and flow rate. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.8 lbm/s m r r r &V − & V . © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and should be reversed. 5 Jet flow is nearly uniform and thus the momentum-flux correction factor is nearly unity.

a negative value for FRx indicates the assumed direction is wrong. 3 Frictional and gravitational effects are negligible.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-35E A horizontal water jet strikes a bent plate. If you are a student using this Manual.3° from the positive x direction. 4 There is no splattering of water or the deformation of the jet. 6-18 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. and the vertical coordinate by z. 1 lbf FRx = −2(428. FR = FRx θ = tan -1 FRy FRx = tan -1 1318 = −11.8 lbm/s)(140 ft/s)sin45° = 1318 lbf 2 32. We also designate the horizontal coordinate by x (with the direction of incoming flow as being the positive direction). We let the xThe momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow is F= βm βm ∑ ∑ out ∑ in and z. and should be reversed. Properties We take the density of water to be 62. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. Analysis We take the plate together with the curved water jet as the control volume. which deflects the water by 135° from its original direction.8 lbm/s)(140 ft/s)(1 + cos45°) 2 32. β ≅ 1. you are using it without permission. 5 Jet flow is nearly uniform and thus the momentum-flux correction factor is nearly unity.2 lbm ⋅ ft/s = −6365 lbf 1 lbf FRz = (428.8 lbm/s m r r r &V − & V . and thus the pressure of the water jet and the splattered water is the atmospheric pressure. Then the momentum equations along the x and y axes become & (−V 2 ) cos 45° − m & (+V1 ) = −m & V (1 + cos 45°) FRx = m & & FRz = m(+V 2 ) sin 45° = mV sin 45° Substituting the given values.components of the anchoring force of the plate be FRx and FRz. 2 The water jet is exposed to the atmosphere.4 lbm/ft 3 )(140 ft/s)[π (3 / 12 ft) 2 / 4] = 428.4 lbm/ft3. and designate the jet inlet by 1 and the outlet by 2. Inc.2 lbm ⋅ ft/s 2 140 ft/s Waterjet 135° FRz FRx 3 in 1 and 2 2 + FRz = (−6365) 2 + 1318 2 = 6500 lbf . Also. and its line of action makes 168. and assume them to be in the positive directions. The continuity equation for &1 = m &2 = m & where this one-inlet one-outlet steady flow system is m & = ρVA = ρV [πD 2 / 4] = (62. The force required to hold the plate against the water stream is to be determined. and the reversed jet leaves horizontally at the same velocity and flow rate.3° − 6365 Discussion Note that the magnitude of the anchoring force is 6500 lbf.7° = 168. . which is disregarded since it acts on all surfaces. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

and assume it to be in the positive x direction. Discussion The force of 2457 N is equivalent to the weight of about 250 kg. which cannot be done by a single person. the firemen must be able to resist a force of 2457 N to hold the nozzle in place. 5 Jet flow is nearly uniform and thus the momentum-flux correction factor can be taken to be unity. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. which is disregarded since it acts on all surfaces. We let ∑ F = ∑ βm out in r r r horizontal force applied by the firemen to the nozzle to hold it be FRx.06 m) 2 / 4 = 1768 m/min = 29. 2 The water jet is exposed to the atmosphere. β ≅ 1. If you are a student using this Manual. you are using it without permission. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 3 Gravitational effects and vertical forces are disregarded since the horizontal resistance force is to be determined.5 m/s & = ρV& = (1000 kg/m 3 )(5 m 3 /min) = 5000 kg/min = 83. and thus the pressure of the water jet is the atmospheric pressure. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. This demonstrates why several firemen are used to hold a hose with a high flow rate. FRz FRx 5 m3/min 6-19 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-36 Firemen are holding a nozzle at the end of a hose while trying to extinguish a fire. with no contribution to the force balance in the horizontal direction). That is.3 kg/s)(29. Then the momentum equation along the x direction gives 1N = 2457 N & Ve − 0 = m & V = (83. Analysis (a) We take the nozzle and the horizontal portion of the hose as the system such that water enters the control volume vertically and outlets horizontally (this way the pressure force and the momentum flux at the inlet are in the vertical direction.5 m/s) FRx = m 1kg ⋅ m/s 2 Therefore. Inc. We also designate the horizontal coordinate by x (with the direction of flow as being the positive direction). The average water outlet velocity and the resistance force required of the firemen to hold the nozzle are to be determined. holding the nozzle requires the strength of holding a weight of 250 kg.3 kg/s m (b) The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow is & V − ∑ βm & V . The average outlet velocity and the mass flow rate of water are determined from V= V& A = V& πD / 4 2 = 5 m 3 /min π (0. Properties We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3. . and designate the entrance by 1 and the outlet by 2.

and the flow direction as the positive direction of x axis. 3 The water jet is exposed to the atmosphere. Properties We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3.05 m) 2 4 = 58. 5 The velocity of the plate. Discussion Note that we used the relative velocity in the determination of the mass flow rate of water in the momentum analysis since water will enter the control volume at this rate. The r r r &V − & V . β ≅ 1. the water jet applies a force of 1178 N on the plate in the direction of motion. we can assume the plate to be stationary and the jet to move with a velocity of 20 m/s. We let the horizontal F= βm βm momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow is ∑ ∑ out ∑ in reaction force applied to the plate in the negative x direction to counteract the impulse of the water jet be FRx. 6 Jet flow is nearly uniform and thus the momentum-flux correction factor can be taken to be unity.9 kg/s)(20 m/s) − FRx = 0 − m 1kg ⋅ m/s 2 = 1178 N Therefore. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. 2 The water splatters in all directions in the plane of the plate. The force that the water stream exerts against the plate is to be determined. and the velocity of the water jet relative to the plate. the mass flow rate of water relative to the plate will be zero since no water will be able to strike the plate). Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-37 A horizontal jet of water with a given velocity strikes a flat plate that is moving in the same direction at a specified velocity. Analysis We take the plate as the control volume. If you are a student using this Manual. Then the momentum equation along the x direction gives 1N & Vi → FRx = m & V r = (58. are constant. and thus the pressure of the water jet and the splattered water is the atmospheric pressure. The mass flow rate of water in the jet is & = ρV jet A = ρV jet m 10 m/s 30 m/s FRx 5 cm Waterjet πD 4 2 = (1000 kg/m 3 )(30 m/s) π (0. which is disregarded since it acts on all surfaces. 6-20 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 4 The vertical forces and momentum fluxes are not considered since they have no effect on the horizontal force exerted on the plate. you are using it without permission. Inc. (In the limiting case of the plate and the water jet moving at the same velocity. . © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and an equal and opposite force must be applied on the plate if its velocity is to remain constant.9 kg/s The relative velocity between the plate and the jet is V r = V jet − V plate = 30 − 10 = 20 m/s Therefore.

6 706. The effect of the plate velocity on the force exerted on the plate as the plate velocity varies from 0 to 30 m/s in increments of 3 m/s is to be investigated. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.4 176. N 1767 1590 1414 1237 1060 883.7 0 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 FR. m/s 6-21 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. If you are a student using this Manual. you are using it without permission. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. rho=1000 "kg/m3" D=0.1 353. m/s 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 Vr. . N 800 600 400 200 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Vplate. m/s 30 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 0 FR.05 "m" V_jet=30 "m/s" Ac=pi*D^2/4 V_r=V_jet-V_plate m_dot=rho*Ac*V_jet F_R=m_dot*V_r "N" Vplate.9 530. Inc.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-38 Problem 6-37 is reconsidered.

73756 lbf ⋅ ft/s Therefore. Letting the ∑ F = ∑ βm out in The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow is r r r reaction force to hold the fan be FRx and assuming it to be in the positive x (i. Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.91 W because of the fan inefficiency in converting mechanical power to kinetic energy. V & & 2 W fan.3704 psi⋅ft3/lbm⋅R. 3 Air leaves the fan at a uniform velocity at atmospheric pressure. a force of 0. √ Assumptions 1 The flow of air is steady and incompressible.3704 psi ⋅ ft 3 /lbm ⋅ R)(530 R) & = ρV& = (0. and thus the entire mechanical power input is converted to kinetic energy of air (no conversion to thermal energy through frictional effects).91 W fan. a useful mechanical power of 5. the flow) direction. Analysis (a) We take the control volume to be a horizontal hyperbolic cylinder bounded by streamlines on the sides with air entering through the large cross-section (section 1) and the fan located at the narrow cross-section at the end (section 2).50 lbm/s) W = 5. The force required to hold the fan and the minimum power input required for the fan are to be determined. 2 Standard atmospheric conditions exist so that the pressure at sea level is 1 atm.91 W must be supplied to 2000 cfm air.82 lbf 2 32.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-39E A fan moves air at sea level at a specified rate.e. 4 Air approaches the fan through a large area at atmospheric pressure with negligible velocity.6 ft/min = 10. the momentum equation along the x axis becomes 1 lbf & (V 2 ) − 0 = m & V = (2.7 psi P ρ= = = 0.0749 lbm/ft 3 )(2000 ft 3/min) = 149. . Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.50 lbm/s m V2 = V& A2 = V& 2 /4 πD 2 = 2000 ft 3 /min π (2 ft) 2 / 4 = 636.u = m 2 2 2 32. and discharge velocity of air are 14.50 lbm/s)(10. This is the minimum required power input required for the fan. If you are a student using this Manual.7 psi. 5 The frictional effects are negligible. for example) to prevent the fan from moving in the horizontal direction under the influence of this force. The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is 1 atm = 14. the energy equation for the selected control volume reduces to P V2 P V2 & & & & 1 + 1 + gz1 + W & 2 + 2 + gz 2 + W =m m pump. 6 Wind flow is nearly uniform and thus the momentum-flux correction factor can be taken to be unity. and let its centerline be the x axis.2 lbm ⋅ ft/s 0. you are using it without permission. Discussion The actual power input to the fan will be larger than 5.6 ft/s) FRx = m = 0. β ≅ 1. (b) Noting that P1 = P2 = Patm and V1 ≅ 0.82 lbf must be applied (through friction at the base. mass flow rate.8 lbm/min = 2. The density. Inc.6 ft/s & V − ∑ βm & V . u = m 2 2 V2 (10.loss → ρ ρ 2 2 Substituting. u turbine + E mech.0749 lbm/ft 3 RT (0.6 ft/s) 2 1 lbf 1W & & 2 = (2.2 lbm ⋅ ft/s Therefore. Fan 1 2 24 in 6-22 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

000+15. and the frictional effects are disregarded.3 m/s) = 7152 kg/s m V22 (34. whose mass is 10.3 m/s)2 & & = (7152 kg/s) W loaded fan. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.3 m/s & loaded = ρV&loaded = ρAV2. u = m 2 2 loaded 1 kW 1 kN = 4207 kW 1000 kg ⋅ m/s 2 1 kN ⋅ m/s 6-23 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. and let its centerline be the z axis with upwards being the positive direction. V 22 1 kW (21. Noting F= βm βm The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow is ∑ ∑ out ∑ in that the only force acting on the control volume is the total weight W and it acts in the negative z direction.000 kg: V 2. 15 m A = πD / 4 = π (15 m) / 4 = 176. and the mass flow rate of air in the unloaded mode become V 2.000 kg)(9. u turbine mech. you are using it without permission.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-40 A helicopter hovers at sea level while being loaded. 4 The frictional effects are negligible. . and thus the entire mechanical power input is converted to kinetic energy of air (no conversion to thermal energy through frictional effects). the elevation effects are negligible. u ρ ρ 2 2 2 Substituting. and the rpm and the required power input during loaded hover are to be determined. β ≅ 1. r r r &V − & V .7 m 2 )(21.7 m 2 ) = 21. Inc.u 2 1000 kg ⋅ m/s 2 2 1 kN ⋅ m/s unloaded (b) We now repeat the calculations for the loaded helicopter.18 kg/m 3 )(176.000 = 25. 3 Air approaches the blades from the top through a large area at atmospheric pressure with negligible velocity. 5 The change in air pressure with elevation is negligible because of the low density of air. the momentum equation along the z axis gives W & (−V 2 ) − 0 & V 2 = ( ρAV 2 )V 2 = ρAV 22 −W = m → W =m → V2 = ρA 1 where A is the blade span area. and thus the lift generated is equal to the total weight. loss fan.7 m/s) 2 1 kN & & = ( 4524 kg/s) = W m = 1065 kW unloaded fan. Analysis (a) We take the control volume to be a vertical hyperbolic cylinder bounded by streamlines on the sides with air entering through the large cross-section (section 1) at the top and the fan located at the narrow cross-section at the bottom (section 2). loaded = (1.7 m/s Sea level 2 V&unloaded = AV 2.000 kg)(9.000 kg Noting that P1 = P2 = Patm. If you are a student using this Manual.18 kg/m3. 6 There is no acceleration of the helicopter. 7 Air flow is nearly uniform and thus the momentum-flux correction factor can be taken to be unity. 2 Air leaves the blades at a uniform velocity at atmospheric pressure. V1 ≅ 0.18 kg/m 3 )(176. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Properties The density of air is given to be 1.81 m/s 2 ) (1.loaded = m loaded g = ρA (25. √ Assumptions 1 The flow of air is steady and incompressible.81 m/s 2 ) (1.7 m/s) = 3834 m 3 /s & unloaded = ρV&unloaded = (1.unloaded = (176. volume flow rate.18 kg/m 3 )(3834 m 3/s) = 4524 kg/s m Load 15. the energy equation for the selected control volume reduces to P V2 P V2 V2 & & & & & 1 + 1 + gz1 + W & 2 + 2 + gz 2 + W & 2 =m +E m W = m → pump. The volumetric air flow rate and the required power input during unloaded hover.7 m 2 2 2 Then the discharge velocity.18 kg/m 3 )(176.7 m 2 ) = 34.7 m 2 )(34.unloaded = m unloaded g = ρA (10.

If you are a student using this Manual.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems Noting that the average flow velocity is proportional to the overhead blade rotational velocity. . you are using it without permission.loaded V 2. 6-24 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.loaded V 2. unloaded & unloaded = n 34. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation.7 Discussion The actual power input to the helicopter blades will be considerably larger than the calculated power input because of the fan inefficiency in converting mechanical power to kinetic energy.3 (400 rpm) = 632 rpm 21. Inc. unloaded = & loaded n & unloaded n → & loaded = n V 2. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. the rpm of the loaded helicopter blades becomes & V 2 = kn → V 2.

2 The air leaves the blades at a uniform velocity at atmospheric pressure.sea = W / ρ mountain A W / ρ sea A = ρ sea ρ mountain = 1. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. you are using it without permission. r r r &V − & V . 7 Air flow is nearly uniform and thus the momentum-flux correction factor can be taken to be unity.000 kg Therefore.5 2 ρA 15 m Then the ratio of the required power input on top of the mountain to that at sea level becomes 1 . and the frictional effects are disregarded.18 kg/m 3 0.18 kg/m3 = 1. 6 There is no acceleration of the helicopter. the elevation effect are negligible.sea → & mountain = n V 2. and thus the entire mechanical power input is converted to kinetic energy of air.5W / ρsea A 2 ρ mountain ρsea = 1. mountain n = & sea n V 2. u 0.u 0.5W = 1 . mountain V 2. If you are a student using this Manual. Discussion Note that both the rpm and the required power input to the helicopter are inversely proportional to the square root of air density. the energy equation for the selected control volume reduces to P V2 P2 V 22 V 22 & & & & & 1 + 1 + gz1 + W & & = + + + + m m gz W E W = m → pump. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. u 2 turbine mech. Noting F= βm βm The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow is ∑ ∑ out ∑ in that the only force acting on the control volume is the total weight W and it acts in the negative z direction.5 = W 1 . and let its centerline be the z axis with upwards being the positive direction.5 & W / ρ mountain A mountain fan. . and thus the lift generated is equal to the total weight.18 kg/m3 at sea level. 6-25 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.mountain V 2. β ≅ 1. u ρ ρ 1 2 2 2 or V22 V22 V23 & & = = = = ρ ρ W m AV A fan.222 Noting that the average flow velocity is proportional to the overhead blade rotational velocity. V1 ≅ 0. more power is required at higher elevations for the helicopter to operate because air is less dense. and 0. 3 Air approaches the blades from the top through a large area at atmospheric pressure with negligible velocity. Inc.222(400 rpm) = 489 rpm n Noting that P1 = P2 = Patm.sea & sea = 1. the ratio of discharge velocities becomes V 2.2% on top of the mountain relative to the sea level. Properties The density of air is given to be 1. √ Assumptions 1 The flow of air is steady and incompressible. Therefore. 5 The change in air pressure with elevation while hovering at a given location is negligible because of the low density of air. Then for a given weight W.5 & Wsea fan. Analysis (a) We take the control volume to be a vertical hyperbolic cylinder bounded by streamlines on the sides with air entering through the large cross-section (section 1) at the top and the fan located at the narrow cross-section at the bottom (section 2). the required power input will increase by 22. the momentum equation along the z axis gives W & (−V 2 ) − 0 & V 2 = ( ρAV 2 )V 2 = ρAV 22 −W = m → W =m → V2 = ρA where A is the blade span area. The blade rotational velocity to hover at the higher altitude and the percent increase in the required power input to hover at high altitude relative to that at sea level are to be determined. 4 The frictional effects are negligible.79 kg/m3 Sea level Load 15.79 kg/m3 on top of the mountain.79 kg/m 3 = 1. the rpm of the helicopter blades on top of the mountain becomes & = kV 2 n → & mountain V 2. u 2 2 2 2 1 2 ρA W = ρA 3 1 2 ρA W ρA 1 .loss fan. and more air must be forced by the blades into the downdraft.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-41 A helicopter hovers on top of a high mountain where the air density considerably lower than that at sea level.222 0.

) 2 Wall shear forces at surfaces are negligible. incompressible. the force acting on the sluice gate is determined to be & (V1 − V 2 ) + FRx = m w 2 2 ρg ( y1 − y2 ) 2 (5) 1 FRx V1 y1 where V1 and V2 are given in Eq. The F= βm βm the channel. . frictionless. The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow is ∑ ∑ out ∑ in force acting on the sluice gate FRx is horizontal since the wall shear at the surfaces is negligible. V& wy 2 V& 2 g ( y1 − y 2 ) & − wy = 2 g ( y1 − y 2 ) → V = w 1 / y 2 − 1 / y 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 g ( y1 − y 2 ) → V& = wy 2 2 2 1− y2 / y1 (3) Substituting Eq. (2) gives the following relations for velocities. If you are a student using this Manual. We also take the bottom surface of the channel as the reference level so that the elevations of points 1 and 2 are y1 and y2. Noting that the pressure force acting on a vertical surface is equal to the product of the pressure at the centroid of the surface and the surface area. Eq. Then the conservation of mass relation for this single stream steady flow device can be expressed as V&1 = V&2 = V& → A1V1 = A2V 2 = V& → V1 = V& A1 = V& wy1 and V2 = V& A2 = V& wy 2 (2) Substituting into Eq. and the bottom surface of r r r &V − & V . and thus the pressure at free surfaces is the atmospheric pressure. The application of the Bernoulli equation between points 1 and 2 gives P1 V12 P V2 + + y1 = 2 + 2 + y 2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g → V 22 − V12 = 2 g( y1 − y 2 ) (1) The flow is assumed to be incompressible and thus the density is constant. 3 The channel is exposed to the atmosphere. 5 Water flow is nearly uniform and thus the momentum-flux correction factor can be taken to be unity. free surfaces of water. respectively. A relation for the force acting on a sluice gate of width w for steady and uniform flow is to be developed. 4 The flow is horizontal. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady. V2 6-26 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-42 The flow rate in a channel is controlled by a sluice gate by raising or lowering a vertical plate. (1). V1 = y2 y1 2 g ( y1 − y 2 ) 1− 2 y2 / 2 y1 and V2 = 2 g ( y1 − y 2 ) 2 2 1− y2 / y1 (4) We choose the control volume as the water body surrounded by the vertical cross-sections of the upstream and downstream flows. the momentum equation along the x direction gives y1 y2 & V2 − m & V1 → − FRx + & (V 2 − V1 ) − FRx + P1 A1 − P2 A2 = m ρg ( wy1 ) − ρg ( wy 2 ) = m 2 2 Rearranging. Analysis We take point 1 at the free surface of the upstream flow before the gate and point 2 at the free surface of the downstream flow after the gate. Discussion Note that for y1 >> y2. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. Inc. (3) into Eqs. the inner surface of the sluice gate. β ≅ 1. (3) simplifies to V& = y 2 w 2 gy1 or V 2 = 2 gy1 which is the Toricelli equation 2 Sluice gate y2 for frictionless flow from a tank through a hole a distance y1 below the free surface. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and uniform (and thus the Bernoulli equation is applicable. and it is equal and opposite to the force applied on water by the sluice gate. you are using it without permission. (4).

1N Fbrake = (1000 kg/m 3 )(0. you are using it without permission. . The momentum equation for steady one-dimensional flow in the x (flow) direction reduces in this case to r r r & Vi → FRx = m & Vi = ρV&Vi &V − &V F= βm βm → − FRx = −m ∑ ∑ out ∑ in Note that the reaction force acts in the opposite direction to flow. If you are a student using this Manual. 3 The atmospheric pressure is disregarded since it acts on all surfaces. Assumptions 1 The flow is steady and incompressible. and leaves in the normal direction along the pump casing. 2 The forces acting on the piping system in the horizontal direction are negligible.12 m3/s 7 m/s mV FRx 6-27 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL.12 m 3 /s)(7 m/s) 1 kg ⋅ m/s 2 = 840 N Discussion To find the total force acting on the shaft.Chapter 6 Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 6-43 Water enters a centrifugal pump axially at a specified rate and velocity. and find the vertical component of the reaction force. Substituting the given values. z x 0. Analysis We take the pump as the control volume. The force acting on the shaft in the axial direction is to be determined. and the inlet direction of flow as the positive direction of x axis. Properties We take the density of water to be 1000 kg/m3. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and we should not forget the negative sign for forces and velocities in the negative x-direction. Inc. we also need to do a force balance for the vertical direction.

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