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Golly, its the beginning of another chapter which means it is time for another exciting round of Remembering Things We Have Already Learned. Lets begin! Remember how Greek and Roman art and literature were pretty awesome? And then how the barbarians sacked Rome, and so a lot of stuff was destroyed? And then how feudalism developed, and people were busy just trying to stay alive, so there was a European dark age in early Middle Ages? And how most Medieval European art looked like it was drawn by six-year-olds? And then how, thanks to the Crusades, trade revived in the later Middle Ages, and the Europeans had more contact with other civilizations, and started realizing that their no-trade-pathetic-art existence was not optimal? Of course you do. Youre smart, and have excellent teachers. Hows your self-esteem doing? Well? Ours, too! Lets move on, then, with more new information and with fewer question marks.
(aka

Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section Onethe Renaissance

the Re-re-birth) Renaissance literally means re-birth. The Renaissance was a period in European history from about 1350 and 1600 during which there was a re-birth of interest in Classical Greek and Roman art, literature, and philosophy. The Renaissance began in Italy, in the city-state of Florence, then spread throughout Europe. It began in Italy for several reasons. First, due to its location in the Mediterranean Sea, Italy was in a great location for trade, so Italians were exposed to lots of people and products from other cultures. Second, all this trade made for a wealthy merchant class in Italy. These merchants had the cash to commission works of art, which helped to encourage
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To commission a work of art is to pay in advance for a custom-made piece. 5.1

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the Renaissance. Finally, Italy had been the center of the Roman Empire, so there were lots of ruins around for people to study. Since the Renaissance was a time of renewed interest in Greek and Roman art and literature, it makes sense that Renaissance art would have many of the same characteristics as the art of the Greeks and Romans. The three most important characteristics of Renaissance art were use of To depict something perspective, use of shading, and realistic depiction of bodies.
is to draw, paint, or otherwise make a picture out of it. For example, here is a depiction of a geometry class cube, drawn using linear perspective:

Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section Onethe Renaissance

Have you ever drawn a cube in geometry class? In order to make the cube look three-dimensional, you probably drew one square, and then another square a little bit to the right and a little bit below the first square, and then used angled lines to connect the two. If so, youve used linear perspective. Linear perspective is a technique for drawing things so that they look Notice the columns in this picture: as they three-dimensional. An get further away, they get smaller, and go back at an angle. This is an excellent artist who is using example of linear perspective. perspective will draw angled lines to show distance, and make objects that are supposed to be far away smaller than objects that are supposed to be close. Another technique Renaissance artists used to make objects and faces look threedimensional was shading. When combined with perspective, shading can make a painting look almost as realistic as a photograph. Bodies in Renaissance art tended to be wellproportioned and realistic. Many Renaissance artists dissected corpses so they could learn how the human body worked, which led to
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use of shading in a portrait by Hans Holbein


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better depictions in art. Many, many artists created paintings and sculptures during the Renaissance. Probably the most influential of the Italian artists was Leonardo da Vinci. Da Vinci was considered to be a Renaissance Manthat is, a person who was talented in many areas. In addition to painting, da Vinci also studied anatomy, spoke several languages, and designed many inventions, such as a helicopter, submarine, and robot. Other Italian artists included Michelangelo, a painter and sculptor; Donatello, a sculptor, and Raphael, a painter. Influential Northern
anatomical drawing by da Vinci Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section Onethe Renaissance

detail from the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo

equestrian statue by Donatello

The School of Athens by Raphael is often considered to be the quintessential Renaissance painting, because it includes all of the characteristics of Renaissance Art.
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Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section Onethe Renaissance

artists included Albrecht Drer, a German painter and printer famous for his woodcuts; To make a Pieter Bruegel, woodcut, an artist would carve a a Dutch artist picture into a piece who painted of wood. Then, he scenes of daily would dip it in ink life; and Hans and use it as a sort Holbein, a of stamp. German portraitist.

woodcut by Albrecht Drer

painting by Pieter Bruegel

In addition to being interested in the art of the Greeks and Romans, early modern European scholars became interested in Greek and Roman literature. They studied the subjects that the Greeks and Romans deemed important: history, languages, literature, and philosophy. Since they were so focused on humans, these subjects were collectively referred to as the humanities. Scholars who studied the humanities were known as humanists.
If something is described as secular, it is worldly and non-religious. 5.1

Some humanists were interested in purely secular concepts. For instance, the humanist Petrarch admired the glory of life in Classical Greece and Rome in his Letters to the Ancient Dead. Another secular humanist, Machiavelli, wrote a book of
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advice for rulers, called the Prince. Machiavelli was famous for the idea that the ends justify the means. This meant that it was okay for rulers to be ruthless and cruel if it helped them to achieve their goals of ruling a country well. Other humanists, called Christian Humanists, tried to combine the portrait of Machiavelli teachings of the Catholic Church with the ideas of Classical Greece and Rome. A Dutch Christian Humanist, Erasmus, wrote In Praise of Folly. This book criticized the corruption in the Catholic Church. An English Humanist, Thomas More, wrote Utopia, which satirically described an ideal society. Naturally, all the trade that was going on in the Renaissance put Europeans in contact with other civilizations. This allowed new ideas regarding technology and engineering to come into Europe. These new ideas, combined with the study of some old ideas from the Greeks and Romans, led to some pretty significant achievements in Western Europe. As we learned in Chapter Four, Chinese printers had been using the printing press since the Tang Dynasty. However, Europeans produced books by hand-copying them until 1456, when Johann Gutenberg used the first printing press in Europe to print a copy of the Bible. This new development made books cheaper and easier to produce, allowing information to spread rapidly across Europe. Naturally, since the Romans were so good at engineering, a rebirth of interest in Classical learning would lead to some engineering innovations. One of the most prominent of these innovations was the Dome of the Cathedral of Florence. Its designer, Brunelleschi, studied the techniques of Roman engineers to figure out how to build a dome which would not collapse. As a result, the Cathedral of Florence is one of the most iconic examples of Renaissance architecture.
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The ends justify the means is a famous descriptive phrase from Machiavelli. The ends refer to a goal; the means refer to how the goal is obtained. So if the ends justify the means, then it doesnt matter how a person reaches a goal, as long as the goal is reached even if he has to cheat, kill, or steal. A satire is a way of making fun of something by imitating it poorly. Some TV satires you may be familiar with are the Simpsons, the Daily Show, and South Park.

Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section Onethe Renaissance

Brunelleschis Dome
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Opulence is extreme luxury.

Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section Twothe Protestant Reformation

As we learned in Unit 3, in the latter part of the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church began to have problems with corruption. For example, all monks and priests took vows of poverty. However, some of the clergy were very wealthy and lived lives of opulence. Two practices that allowed the Catholic Church to enjoy such wealth were simony and the selling of indulgences. Simony referred to the selling of Church offices, or jobs within the Church. Indulgences were certificates that lessened the amount of time a person woodcut of Johann Teitzel selling indulgences in Germany would be punished for his or her sins in the afterlife. The Protestant Reformation was a time period in which many people pointed out the problems in the Catholic Church and proposed reforms to fix these problems. This era in religious history began in 1517 and lasted until about 1650, and occurred around the same time as the Renaissance.

Memory Trick Look at the root words of Protestant Reformation to help you remember what it was. Protestant = people who were protesting; Reformation = they wanted to reform the Catholic Church. A reform is a positive change. If you look at the root wordsre- and form it literally means to form again. To be incensed is to be really, really, really angry. 5.2

Martin Luther nailing the Ninety-Five Theses to Wittenburg Cathedral

The fact that the Church was selling indulgences incensed Martin Luther, a German monk. He wrote a list of reasons explaining why the selling of indulgences was
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wrong, called the Ninety-Five Theses. On October 31, 1517, he posted them on the door of his local church for everyone to read. Martin Luther didnt mean to start a whole new religious secthe just wanted the Catholic Church to correct some of its problems. However, thanks to the printing press, the Ninety-Five Theses were quickly disseminated throughout Europe and caused a huge uproar. The Catholic Church called Luther a heretic and ordered him to Martin Luther, thinking about how recant. Luther refused, and much he hated indulgences decided to formally break with the Catholic Church. This marked the beginning of a new kind of Christianity, called Protestantism. Soon, Luther further developed his ideas of religion. His three most important ideas were those of salvation by faith alone, the Bible as the only source of religious truth, and the priesthood of all believers. Salvation by faith alone meant that all a person had to do in order to be saved, or go to Heaven, was to have faith. According to Luther, only faith not actionsdetermined whether a person would be saved.

A sect is a small group within a larger religion. To disseminate information is to spread it around. A heretic is a person whose beliefs go against the official teachings of the Catholic Church. To recant is to take back something a person has said or argued. Martin Luther Martin Luther King. Martin Luther lived in the early 1500s in Germany; Martin Luther king lived in the mid 1900s in America.

Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section Twothe Protestant Reformation

This Lutheran symbol summarizes some of Marty Lus main ideas.

The Bible as the only source of religious truth meant that all a person needed to know about religion was in the Bible. If something was not in the Bible, it should not be part of religion even if the pope said so. Additionally, Luther endorsed the idea of the priesthood of all believers. This meant that a person did not need a priest to interpret the Bible for him. Rather, every person could act as his own priest, and should read the Bible and interpret it for himself.
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A denomination is a branch of a religion. Some of the more influential Protestant denominations include Lutherans, Episcopalians, Baptists, Methodists, and Presbyterians. The vernacular is the daily language used by most people in a country. (So our vernacular would be English; Frances vernacular would be French, and so on.) In the Middle Ages, Bibles were only written in Latin, and only very educated people spoke Latin, so not everyone could read them. A theocracy is a city or country that is ruled by a religious group.

This led to the creation of many, many Protestant denominationsbecause when people read the Bible for themselves, they tended to have different interpretations of it. It also caused many Bibles to be printed in the vernacular languages of Europe. A Swiss reformer, John Calvin, took Luthers main ideas and added his own ideathat of predestination. According to the doctrine of predestination, before anyone was born, God had already decided whether that person would be saved or damned. cover of a 16th-century Nothing a person could do in life would change his fate. Calvin set up a theocracy German Bible in Geneva, a city in Switzerland. In this city, he enforced his religious ideas with strict regulations and harsh punishments. The ideas of Luther, Calvin, and other Protestant reformers spread quickly throughout Europe. In many places, arguments over whether to continue with Catholicism or adopt Protestantism led to violence. For example, Spain tried to force Protestants in the Netherlands to revert to Catholicism, which led to the Spanish Netherlands Revolt in 1568. Additionally, in France, Protestants called Huguenots were slaughtered at the St. Bartholomews Day Massacre in 1572. Most notably, the Thirty Years War, which began in Germany and involved nearly every country in Europe, was waged from 1618 to 1648. This war led to the deaths of about 33% of Europes population.

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With all the critiques that had been leveled at it, naturally the Catholic Church needed to make an effort to enact some reforms. The movement within the Catholic Church to address the issues that had caused the Protestant Reformation is called the Counter-Reformation.

A critique is a criticism.

To counter is to go against.

Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section Twothe Protestant Reformation

the Council of Trent

In order to deal with the attacks that had been made on the Church, the Council of Trent in the mid-1500s. The council refuted most of Luthers arguments, arguing that faith and good works were necessary for salvation, and that the Bible and the Pope were sources of religious truth. Additionally, a new order of monks was created, called the Jesuits. The main goal of the Jesuits was to educate people about Catholicism. Many Jesuits traveled to the newly discovered Americas to serve as missionaries to Native Americans, in hopes of further strengthening Catholicism.
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To refute an idea is to argue against it.

Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits

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You may be thinking something like this right now: What? This chapter is called Early Modern Europe. Why is this section about early Mesoamerican civilizations? Well, its hard to fit in Mesoamerican civilizations into units in History classes. The Mayans could go with Classical civilizations, chronology-wise, and the Aztecs and the Incas were pretty much Postclassical civilizations. Even though they were contemporary with the civilizations weve studied, they had no contact with any of them. So the reasoning for putting these three civilizations in the Early Modern Europe chapter is that Europeans were not aware of these civilizations until the early modern period. Its kind of an Ethnocentrism refers ethnocentric approach, but hey, at least were aware of it.
to the study of history from the point of view of a particular ethnic or cultural group. Commonalities are things that two or more individuals or societies have in common.

Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section ThreeMesoamerican Civilizations

Mesoamerica literally means middle America. It refers to numerous civilizations in Mexico, Central America, and South America. Though they were quite diverse, these civilizations had several important commonalities. First, unlike all of the other early civilizations we learned about, none of them developed near a river valley. As a result, they had to find creative ways to interact with their environments so they could live comfortably and provide enough food for their societies. Additionally, they created complex civilizations with huge monuments. This is especially impressive considering that they had no contact with any European, African, or Asian civilizations, and had no draft animals. Since Mayan civilization was at its peak between 205 and 900 CE, obviously the Europeans did not encounter inhabited Mayan cities when they arrived in the Americas in the early 1500s. However, Mayan civilization influenced later Mesoamerican civilizations; additionally, it was one of the most advanced ancient civilizations in the Western Hemisphere.
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Draft animals are work animals used for pulling heavy loads, like horses or oxen. Maya is pronounced MYuh.

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Mayans lived in presentday Southern Mexico (on the Yucatan peninsula), Guatemala, and Belize. There were two main types of terrain in this area: volcanic mountains and forests. Due to this difficult terrain, the Mayans practiced slash-and-burn agriculture. This is a type of agriculture that is used in forested areas. Farmers would cut down Mayan temple at Tikal, Guatemala trees and other plants, then burn them. This served two functions: clearing land for planting, and fertilizing it. (The ash created by the burned plants served as a fertilizer.) They then cultivated crops such as corn, beans, and squash. Like Ancient Greek civilization, Maya civilization was not politically unified. Rather, it was composed of a group of city-states which shared cultural and linguistic attributes. Each city-state was ruled by a hereditary monarch, called an ajaw. In order to take power, a potential monarch had to capture a captive in war, and then use the captive as a human sacrifice in his crowning ceremony. Of all the preColumbian civilizations in the Americas, Mayan civilization was the only one to develop a true written language. Mayans produced books made from tree bark, called codices. They also inscribed their language into monuments to commemorate historical events. Around 900 CE, the image and script from Maya abandoned their cities. the Dresden Codex Historians are not really sure why, but some speculate that they may have overburdened the food supply or that civil wars may have caused the cities decline. Though the cities themselves were no longer inhabited, Mayan culture and language have persisted throughout Southern Mexico and Central America until modern times.
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Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section ThreeMesoamerican Civilizations

Codex is the singular form of codices.

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Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section ThreeMesoamerican Civilizations

Tenochtitlan is pronounced tenoach-teet-LON. To pillage is to rob or destroy a town in a time of war. A tributary state makes payments or gives gifts to a country with a stronger military in return for protection. the founding of Tenochtitlan

Around 1250, the ancestors of the Aztec migrated into northern Mexico and established a group of culturally linked city-states. According to Aztec legend, the gods told the Aztecs to settle in the place where they found an eagle perched atop a cactus with a snake in its mouth. The Aztecs found this in the middle of Lake Texcoco in 1323, and thus built the city of Tenochtitlan there. (Today, Mexico City is in this location. Because the Spanish conquerors pillaged Tenochtitlan to build their own city, there are not many ruins left for historians to study.) Eventually, the city-state of Tenochtitlan began to dominate the other city-states. These other city-states became tributary states (much like Korea and Vietnam were in relation to Ming China). In order to keep the other citystates under their control, the emperors of Tenochtitlan were almost constantly at war.

As you can imagine, its pretty hard to build a city in the middle of a lake. In order to grow food, the Aztecs created artificial islands called chinampas. Chinampa is pronounced chee- On the chinampas NOM-puh. they grew many crops, though corn, beans, and squash were the main ones. They also set up a complex system of canals to use as transportation throughout the city.

chinampas in Lake Texcoco

Like many early civilizations, the Aztecs were


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polytheistic. Their chief god was called Huitzilipochtli. According to Aztec teachings, Huitzilipochtli had to battle the forces of evil each night, and if he won, the sun would rise. In order to give him strength to fight so that the sun would rise each morning, he needed the sacrifice of a human heart. Because they needed to sacrifice someone each day, the Aztecs were constantly at war (since most of the sacrificial victims were prisoners of war).

Huitzilipochtli is pronounced WEETzee-lee-poachtlee.

Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section ThreeMesoamerican Civilizations

The Aztecs believed that their main god needed human sacrifices in order to have the strength to fight evil.

Aztec society fell when Spanish explorers led by Hernan Cortes conquered Tenochtitlan in 1521, which you will read about in the next section. The Incas established a civilization in Peru in the early 1200s. Then, in the 1400s and early 1500s, they incorporated or conquered other nearby cultures to form an the Inca Empire, which stretched throughout most of western South America. Much of the Inca Empire was in the Andes Mountains, which made farming difficult. In order to grow their crops, the Incas used a form of farming called terracing. Terraces were flat strips of land carved into the side of a hill or mountain. Walls made of stone would be built along the edges of

terrace farming in the Andes Mountains


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the terraces to keep the soil from washing away. Like all empires, the Inca Empire was ruled by an emperor, called the Sapa Inca. Like an Egyptian pharaoh, the Sapa Inca was considered to be both a god and the political and religious ruler of the land. The Sapa Inca had absolute power and owned everything. The government had a very organized chain of command, with chieftains ruling over designated areas. The capital of the Inca Empire was Cuzco, which is located in modern-day Peru. In order to rule efficiently over the huge empire, the Incas built a system of roads, which spanned more than 12,000 miles. They used the roads in much the same way as the Roman Empire had. Communicating the emperors commands throughout the empire and moving the army swiftly in times of need were the primary an Inca road near Machu Picchu, an functions of the road Incan archaeological site in Peru system. Considering the extreme efficiency with which the Inca ran their government, it should not be surprising that the Inca kept detailed records. They did this on sets of knotted strings, called quipu. Other areas in which the Incas excelled were metallurgy and medicine. Inca healers were able to successfully perform skull surgeries, and also used primitive forms of anesthesia and antiseptics. (This is especially impressive in comparison to European medicine at the time, which still relied on bleeding, cupping, and poultices!)

Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section ThreeMesoamerican Civilizations

Quipu is pronounced KEEpoo.

Inca government official with a quipu

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Near the end of the Middle Ages, the European economy changed its focus. As you will remember, in the earlier part of the Medieval period, there was very little trade in Western Europe. Instead, manors produced everything they needed to survive, and land was the main form of wealth. This type of economy was called manorialism. But, starting with the Crusades, Western Europeans began to focus more on a commercial economy. In this type of economy, trade was important, and cash was the most useful form of wealth. This gradual change from manorial economy to a commercial economy is known as the Commercial Revolution. Several aspects of the Commercial Revolution led Europeans to embark upon what is often referred to as the Age of Exploration, from the mid-1400s to the early 1600s. These include a search for new trade routes, the development of new technology, and the economic policy of mercantilism.
Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section FourMotives for European Exploration

Mercantilism is pronounced MURcan-teel-ism.

There was a general demand in Europe for luxury goodslike silk, tea, and spicesthat could only be obtained through trade with Asia. In order to trade with Asia, Europeans had to go through Muslim traders, who controlled the Mediterranean. They wanted to find ways to get to Asia that
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bypassed the Mediterranean. As a result, monarchs began sponsoring explorers who looked for new trade routes to make the journeys to Asia faster. Portuguese explorers, such as de Gama and Dias, discovered new ways to get to Asia and Africa. Additionally, explorers who were sponsored by Spain, such as Columbus and Magellan, sailed to the Western Hemisphere and began to stake claims in North and South America.

Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section FourMotives for European Exploration

Ferdinand Magellan

a Portuguese caravel

an astrolabe

To facilitate is to make easier. (Latin root facil = easy.)

Along with the desire to find new trade routes came the desire to develop new technology for sailing and exploration. The astrolabe, which helped to determine latitude at sea, and the caravel, a new type of sailboat, facilitated the Europeans voyages of exploration. A new economic policy, called mercantilism, developed as part of the Commercial Revolution. According to mercantilism, the best measure of a countrys wealth was gold and silver. Countries would do whatever they could to increase the amounts of precious metals they had in their treasuries. Another aspect of mercantilism was the idea that wealth was finite, and that in order for one country to gain wealth, it must take it away from another country. Both of these aspects of mercantilism helped to motivate and support European exploration. There was only so much gold and silver in Europe, so mercantilist countries looked to exploration to find new sources of precious metals. Also, the idea that wealth must be taken from other people helped to justify the Europeans conquest of the native peoples they encountered in their travels.

Something that is finite is only available in a limited supply.

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Historians frequently use an alliterative phrase to describe the motives of the Europeans who first visited the Western Hemisphere: Gold, God, and Glory. (Guess which one they cared about the most?) For the most part, European explorers saw the Native Americans they encountered as sources of free labor. They also hoped to find gold and silver mines in the New World. Others saw an opportunity to convert the Indians to Christianity. In order to achieve their goals, Europeans conquered native societies, such as the Aztecs and Incas. These conquistadors were able to prevail over the natives, even though the Europeans were badly outnumbered and unfamiliar with the terrain of the Americas. The Europeans possessed three advantages: guns, germs, and steel.

Alliteration is a literary device in which all of the in a phrase start with the same sound.

Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section FiveEuropean Conquest and Colonization

Conquistador is Spanish for conqueror.

Pizarros conquest of the Incas in 1532

The guns and steel part of the formula are pretty selfexplanatory. The Europeans had guns and steel weapons, while the Native Americans used mostly bows and arrows, spears, and swords made of softer metals. The germs part is a little less obvious. Europeans had developed epidemic diseases that the natives had not. (A historian named Jared Diamond wrote a whole book about it, but in a nutshell, in
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order to develop epidemic diseases, a geographic area has to have a large population density that the Americas didnt have.) So the Europeans were immune to the germs they carried with them from the East, but the Native Americans were Aztec illustration of the victims of smallpox not. As a result, huge portions of the native population died of diseases like smallpoxwhich made it easier for the Europeans to conquer them. Thanks to these advantages, Spaniards led by Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztecs in 1521. Francisco Pizarro led another group of Spaniards to conquer the Incas in1532. Spain then began to set up colonies in present-day Mexico and South America. Later on, the British and the French also established colonies in North America. This interaction between the people of the New World and the Old World led to an exchange of foods, animals, and microorganisms called the Columbian Exchange. (In this case, Columbian refers to Christopher

Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section FiveEuropean Conquest and Colonization

Europeans referred to the Americas as the New World (because it was new to them) and to Europe as the Old World.

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Columbus, not the country of Columbia, because the Columbian Exchange began with Columbus arrival in the Americas.) Items like wheat, rice, horses, chickens, cows, and microorganisms (smallpox in particular) accompanied the Europeans when they came to the Americas. When they returned to Europe, they took such things as coffee, potatoes, tomatoes, corn, chocolate, and tobacco back with them. Many of the new foods, like the potato, were very easy to grow, even in places with bad soil or a difficult climate. The introduction of these foods led to a population explosion in Europe. (Remember, historically, any time there is more food, the population will grow.) And like weve already discussed, the new microorganisms caused the native population in the Americas to decline. By the mid-1600s, many Europeans had come to the Americas to live in the Spanish, English, and French colonies. These colonies had mostly agricultural in economies. Colonists grew many different crops, like cotton, tobacco, and coffee, on plantations. Of course, any kind of farm or plantation requires laborers. The Europeans had originally planned to use the natives as a source of labor, but since the Native Americans were susceptible to European diseases, this didnt work out so well. In the 1400s, the Portuguese came to control much of the trade along the African coast. They had found that it was very profitable to transport slaves from one trading post to another. Later, the demand for labor in the Americas led to the development of a triangular pattern of trade among Africa, the Americas, and Europe. From Africa, slaves were exported to the Americas. From the Americas, raw materials and crops were shipped to Europe. And from Europe, manufactured goods (such as guns) were transported to the Americas and Africa.
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Chapter FiveEarly Modern Europe; Section FiveEuropean Conquest and Colonization

To be susceptible (pronounced suhSEPT-uh-bul) to a disease is to have a tendency to get it and suffer greatly from it.

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http://mrsproule.blogspot.com/2011/09/wednesday_28.html http://www.abcgallery.com/H/holbein/holbein25.html http://www.artofeurope.com/raphael/rap5.htm http://www.artyfactory.com/art_appreciation/animals_in_art/durer/albrecht_durer.htm http://jkpcblogs.blogspot.com/2010/10/much-before-i-write-word-in-this-blog-i.html http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/bruegel/bird-trap.jpg http://probaway.wordpress.com/2008/07/14/machiavelli-the-prince-discourses-and-doomsdayinevibability/ http://www.lutheran-resources.org/images/who_is_luther_1_&_2/Luther%27s%20German%20Bible.jpg http://www.archelaos.com/popes/image.aspx?id=169 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=11xs9mFKObs&feature=related http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikal http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/dresden-codex.htm http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3618/video/Fifth_World.html http://historystuff.net/chinampas/ http://media.photobucket.com/image/recent/chortravel/2010-Mexico/04-25.jpg http://www.pbase.com/image/74258371 http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/incaroad/ http://andyroscoe.com/peru/reference.html

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