taxmuftuljyK-vpOfxkwfpmapmif

twJG (11)? trSwf(8)? toif;awmftwGif; uefUowfxkwfa0onf/ Mo*kwfv? 2009ckESpf/

yifawukawåaeYESihf yif
awukawåtusKd;onf "r®opf
umvü oP²mefay:vmcJjh cif;jzpf
aomfvnf; xkdtaMumif;t&mudk
"r®a[mif;umvü t&dyt
f aeESifh
azmfjyjyD;jzpfonf/ "r®opfumv
ü uREyfk w
f Ydk taumiftxnftae
ESifh jrifawGYcHpm;&aomt&mrsm;
onf "r®a[mif;umvü t&dyf
taeESifh MudKwiftoday;xm;jyD;
jzpfonf/ xkdt&monf bk&m;o
cif\ tMuHtpnfawmfjzpfonf/
(wref?1;8)wGif ocifc&pfawmf
u ]]oifwkdYonf ig\oufao
jzpf M uvd r f h r nf } } [k a zmf j yxm;
onf/ udk,fawmfu ightaMumif;
avQmuf oufaocHyg[k rajymyg/
,aeY uk d , f a wmf t aMumif ; ud k
oufaocHjcif;ESifh ukd,fawmfjyK
aom tusK;d udck pH m;jy;D rS oufao
cHjcif;u rsm;pGmuGmjcm;ygonf/
yifawukawåoufaoESihf cHpm;
rI tawmfMumMum aysmufomG ;jy;D
aemuf toif;awmfrsm;ü avm
uDyHkoP²mef aqmifvmMuonf/
xkdtcsdefü 0g'trsm;ay:vmjyD;
*kdPf;*ersm;pGmvnf; ay:xGuf
vmcJhonf/ *dkPf;[lonf 0g't
ay:tajcwnfjyD; ay:vmcJhjcif;

jzpfonf/ yifawukawå\ wefc;kd
ESihf oufaoudkcHpm;í oGm;vm
aeygu *kdPf;[lír&Sdyg/ "r®opf
toif;awmf tpueOD;umvu
,HMk unforl sm;onf aumif;uifrS
wefcdk;udk cHpm;&jcif;\ oufao
ESifhwuG tcsif;csif;rdwfo[m,
jyKcJhMuygonf/ ocifa,&Iu igh
toif;awmfudk igwnfaqmuf
rnf[k rdeaYf wmfryl gonf/ ,HMk unf

aumif;uifrSwefcdk;udk cH&zkdY

olrsm;onf bk&m;ocif\ *wd
awmfEiS t
hf nD aumif;uifrw
S efc;kd
udk ocifa,½I &Sifjyefxajrmuf
awmfrlí aumif;uifokdY wuf<u
oGm;jyD;aemufrS cHpm;Mu&jcif;jzpf
ygonf/

jzpfygonf/ ,aeYavmuü vlt
rsm;u ynmudktav;xm;azG&Sm
Muonf/ynmonf avmuDu@
ü twkdif;twmwpfckxd tusKd;
jzpfapygonf/ okaYd omf xkyd nmu
uRekfyfwkdYtwGuf bk&m;&Sifxuf

þavmuMuD;xJü bk&m;
ocif\ yifawukawåoufao
udk cHpm;ae&aomoltrsm; &SdMu
onf/ 1931 ckESpf0ef;usifwGif
0dnmOfawmf\vkyaf qmifraI Mumifh
yifawukawåoufaoudkcHpm;jyD;?
toif;awmfrsm; Ek;d xvmMuonf/
xk d y if a wuk a wå o uf a oonf
aumif;uifrSwefcdk;udk cHpm;&jcif;

tav;xm;p&mjzpfjyD; ½kyfwkjzpf
oGm;ygu toufwmü r*Fvmr
jzpfyg/ ynmaMumifh uReyfk w
f o
Ydk nf
atmif j rif o nf / ynmaMumif h
pm;&onf/ bk&m;ocifae&mü
ynmtpm;0ifvmygu xkdt&m
onf &kyfwkjzpfonf/ a&m*ga0'
emcHpm;&onfhtcg bk&m;&Sifudk
udk;pm;&rnfhtpm; aq;udktm;
ud;k Muonf/ 'Daq;r&&if rdrad o
rnf[q
k ydk gu aq;onf&yk w
f jk zpf
oGm; onf/ ,aeYa&m*g jyif;xef
ojzifh q&m0efrwwfEkdifaomf
vnf;qkawmif;jcif;jzifh aoab;
rS vTwfoGm;Muolrsm;pGm &SdMuyg
onf/ xkdt&monf yifawuk
awåoufaoudk cHpm;&jcif;jzpf
onf/ a&m*gaysmufomG ;jcif;onf
aumi;fuifrS wefcdk;udkcHpm;jcif;
jzpfonf/ ,HMk unfo[
l ak c:qkjd y;D rS
bk&m;ocif&iS o
f efaeaom ouf
aoudk toufwmü rcHpm;&ygu
0rf;enf;p&m aumif;ygonf/
]]oifwkdYtay:okdY oefY
&Sif;aom0dnmOfawmfqif;ouf
aomtcg? oif w k d Y o nf w ef c d k ;
ud k cH & í a,&k & S v if j rd K UrS p
aom,k'jynf? &Srm&djynf? ajr
MuD ; pG e f ; wk d i f a tmif ig\ouf

page 1

aojzpfMuvdrfhrnf[k rdefYawmf
rl \ }}
(wref? 1;8)/
ocifc&pfawmf &Sijf yefx
ajrmufjyD;aemuf &ufaygif;ig;
q,fjynfch sed f yifawukawåyaGJ eY ü
aumif;uifrSwefcdk;onf qif;
ouf v mjyD ; wynf h a wmf w k d Y t
ay:ü oufa&mufvmonfhtcg
oufaotaeESifh trsKd;rsKd;aom
bmompum;tm;jzifh a[majym
Muonf/ xkdtcg a,&k&SvifjrdKUü
pka0;aeMuaom vltrsKd;rsKd;wkdY
onf rdrw
d b
Ydk mompum;jzihf Mum;
í em;vnf M uonf / xk d o k d Y v l
trsKd;rsKd;wkdYtm; rdrdwkdYbmom
pum;tm;jzih f Mum;apjcif ; rS m
aumif;uifwefc;kd \ vkyaf qmifrI
yifjzpfonf/ yifawukawåouf
aoudk cHpm;xm;aomolrsm;tm;
jzifh wqifhqufí tjcm;olrsm;
xkdoufaocHpm;zkdY bk&m;ocift
vdkawmf &dSygonf/ udk,fawmf\
oufaoudk a,&k&SvifjrdKUrSpjyD;
,k'jynf? &Srm&djynfrSwqifh ajr
MuD;pGef;wkdifatmif jyefYESHUoGm;zkdY
jzpfonf/ þavmuü yifawuk
awåc&pf,mef[lonfr&Sd? yifaw
ukawåoufaoudkcHpm;jyD;rSxkduf
aoudkxlaom c&pf,mefom&Sdyg
onf/

*wdawmfudk
iHhvifhaeaomolrsm;om
yifawukawåoufaoudk
rnfolwkdY cHpm;Muoenf;/
]] yif a wuk a wå y J G a eY
a&mufaomtcg xkdoltaygif;
wk d Y o nf wnD w nG w f w nf ;
pnf ; a0;í aeMu\}}
(wref 2;1)/
xdktcsdefumvu a,½k

&SvifjrdKUü ,HkMunfolrsm;pGm &SdMu
onf/ okaYd omf wpfO;D wpfa,muf
rS yifawukawåoufaoudk rcH
pm;Mu&ao;yg/ yifawukawåyJG
aeYü wynfhawmfwpf&m ESpfq,f
wkdYonf bk&m;ocif\uwdawmf

qufuyfír[kwf? *wdawmfudk
,Hkí em;axmifjyD; iHhvifholwkdif;
cHpm;&jcif;yif jzpfonf/ aumif;
uifwefcdk;oufaojzpfonfh rD;
vQm rdrdtay:ü oufa&mufae
onfukd um,uH&iS u
f rawG&Y yg/

udk cHpm;zkw
Yd nDwnGww
f nf; pnf;
a0;í aeMuygonf/ xkdtcsdefu
ukd,fawmf\pum;udk Mum;bl;
aomolrsm;pGm &Syd gonf/ okaYd omf
*wdawmfjynfhpHkzkdY tm&HkpdkufjyD; iHh
vifhaeaomolrSm vlwpf&mESpf
q,fom &Sdygonf/ xkdokdY apmifh
qkid ;f aeaomolrsm;om *wdawmf
jynfhpHkjcif;\r*Fvmudk cHpm;Mu&
ygonf/ wynfah wmfrsm;*wdawmf
udk iHhvifhí apmifhqkdif;aecsdefwGif
avjyif;rkefwkdif;uJhokdYaom toH
onf aumif;uifrv
S mí xko
d w
l Ydk
aeaomtdru
f kd jznfah vonf/ xkd
cPcsif;wGif aumif;uifwefcdk;
\oufaoonf rD;vQmuJo
h Ydk xif
&Sm;í xkdoltoD;oD;wkdYtay:ü
wnfaeygonf/ bk&m;ocif\
*wdawmfukd iHv
h ifah eolwidk ;f onf
aumif;uifwefcdk;\oufaoudk
jcm;em;jcif;r&Sd cHpm;Mu&ygonf/
bk&m;ocifonf rnfolYudkrQrsuf
ESmrvkdufyg/ ydkawmfír[kwf? ydk

tjcm;aomolu awGYjrif&onf/
yifawukawåoufao cHpm;&ol
tcsi;f csi;f u tjyeftvSeaf wGjY rif
Mu&onf/ xku
d o
hJ Ydk yifawukawå
oufaojzpfonfh aumif;uifrS
wefcdk;udk cH&olrsm;tm; 0dnmOf
awmfu a[majym&aomtcGiu
fh kd
ay;onfhtwkdif; wynfhawmfwkdY
onf trsKd;rsKd;aombmompum;
jzihf a[majymMuonfhtcg a,&k
&SvifjrdKUü pka0;aeaomoltoD;
oD;wkdYonf rdrdwkdY bmompum;
jzihf a[majymonfudkMum;í em;
vnf M uygonf / xk d t &monf
oefY&Sif;aom 0dnmOfawmf\vkyf
aqmifrIjzpfonf/ yifawukawå
wefckd;onf uREkfyfwkdY,Hkonfjzpf
ap? r,Hkonfjzpfap? oufaocH
pm;onfjzpfap? rcHpm;onfjzpf
ap ajymif;vJroGm;yg/
]]vlrnfonfum; c&pf
awmf ü &S d v Qif topf j yKjyif
aomowå 0 gjzpf \ / a[mif ;

aomt&mwk d Y o nf ajymif ; vJ
í cyf o d r f ; aomt&mwk d Y o nf
topf j zpf M u\/xk d o k d Y j zpf a om
bk & m;ocif \ wef c d k ; awmf t m;
jzif h jzpf M u\}}
(2aum? 5;17-18)
vlonf c&pfawmfukd ,Hk
Munfí c&pfawmfü &Sdvmonfh
tcg owå0gopfjzpfvmygonf/
xkdol vlopfjzpfí ajymif;vJvm
jcif;onf bk&m;ocif\ wefcdk;
awmftm;jzifhjzpfygonf/ xkdwef
ckd;awmfonf aumif;uifrSwefcdk;
jzpfonf/ vlwpfOD;onf c&pf
awmfudk ,HkMunfvufcHonfhtcg
xkdoltm; oefY&Sif;aom0dnmOf
awmfu c&pfawmf\udk,fxJokdY
oGif;ay;vkdufygonf/ (1aum?
12;13) xkdtrIonf 0dnmOfawmf
\vkyfaqmifrIjzpfonf/

,HkMunfol\
oabmobm0
avmuMu;D xJüc&pf ,mef
[k ac:qkdjyD;rS avmuom;xuf
omí qkd;aomolrsm;&SdMuonf/
tcsKdUu t&ufukd rjzwfEkdifMu?
wtm;rl;atmif aomufwwfMu
onf/ tcsKdUu rl;,pfaq;udk r
jzwfEidk Mf u/ tcsKUd tvky&f iS rf sm;u
c&pf,mef0efxrf;cefYzkdY&ef tvGef
aMumufMuonf/ xkdolrsm;onf
yifawukawåwefcdk;ESifh oufao
udk rcHpm;Mu&ao;aomolrsm;
jzpfMuonf/ avmuvlom;wkdif;
onf obm0xufvGefuJaom
aumif;uifrS wefckd;ESihf oufao
ukd jrifawGYcHpm;EkdifzkdY&ef bk&m;
ocif tvkdawmf&Sdygonf/ xkdokdY
cHpm;EkdifzkdY&ef yifawukawåouf
aoudk cHpm;xm;&aomolrsm;u
wqifh oufaoxlMuzkv
Yd ydk gonf/

page 2

avmuom;rsm;u vlvyk &f if bm
rqkdjzpfEkdifonf[k qkdMuonf/
okdYaomf vkyfwkdif;r&Muonfrsm;
vnf;&Sdygonf/ xkdokdY r&Muonf
rSm tb,faMumifhenf;/ uHMudK;
uGi;f qufaMumifh jzpfonf/ uREyfk f
wkdY\uHa<u;0#fa<u;udk rnfol
qyfay;rnfenf;/ avmuDvlom;
rsm;taygif;\uHa<u;? 0#fa<u;
&SdorQudk ocifa,&Ionf um;
wkdifü taocHjcif;tm;jzihf qyf
ay;cJhNyD;jzpfygonf/ xkdokdYqyfay;
jyD;rS oHk;&ufajrmufaomaeYwGif
&SifjyefxajrmufcJhygonf/ udk,f
awmfudk ,HkMunfaomolonf uH
a<u;0#fa<u;&SdorQrS vGwfcGifh&
ygonf/ uREyfk w
f u
Ydk yifawukawå
toif;awmfrS toif;om;jzpfyg
onf/ nDtpfudkrsm;toif;awmf
rS toif;om;jzpfonf[k qkí
d 0g
<um;aeMuzkdY r[kwfyg/ yifaw
ukawå c&pf,mef[k ac:qkdjyD;rS
yifawukawåoufaoESihf wefcdk;
udkrcHpm;&ao;ygu pOf;pm;yg/
rnfonfhtrnfemrudk wyfxm;
aomtoif;awmfü &Sad eygap? t
a&;BuD;onfrSm uRekfyfwkdYtouf
wmü yifawukawåoufaoudk
cHpm;aeMu&zkdY jzpfonf/ wref
awmf w k d Y \ touf w mü aeY p Of
yifawukawåoufaoESifh &Sio
f ef
aeonfudk awGYEkdifygonf/
]],HkMunfaomolt
aygif ; wk d Y o nf wpf p k w pf a 0;
wnf ; aeMuojzif h rd r d w k d Y ü &S d
orQud k quf q H í oH k ; aqmif
Mu\/ rd r d w k d Y \ Opö m ypö n f ; rsm;
udk a&mif;jyD;vQif vlrsm;qif;
&J o nf t wk d i f ; toD ; toD ; wk d Y
tm; a0iS j cif ; ud k j yKMu\}}
(w? 2; 44-45)/
,HMk unfojl zpfvmonfh t

cg wpfpw
k pfa0;wnf;aecsiaf om
oabm&dSvmygonf/ ,HkMunfol
onf ZmwdzufvmNyD; rdrdtwåudk
OD;pm;ay;vmonfhtcg [kdvlESifh
raygif;csi?f 'DvEl iS rfh aygif;csif jzpf

aomfvnf; tpdk;&0efxrf;b0ü
&Sv
d Qiv
f nf; tvkyrf xGub
f J EIwf
uywfawmftwkdif; &Sdonfhae&m
ü tvif;vif;í touf&SifMu
onf/ xkdYaMumifh bk&m;&Sifu csD;

vmwwfygonf/ xkaYd Mumifh bk&m;
ocifu EIwfuywfawmfü vGef
usLK;pGm rrkdufESihf? vGefusL;pGm r
ajzmifhrwfESifh[k qkdxm;ygonf/
,HkMunfoljzpfvmonfhtcg c&pf
awmf ü nD t pf u d k a rmif E S r rsm;
jzpfonf[k oefY&Sif;aom0dnmOf
awmfu azmfjyygonf/ wrefawmf
wkYd tcsed u
f mvu ypön;f Opöm&So
d l
rsm;u xkyd pön;f rsm;udk a&mif;csjy;D
vlrsm;qif;&Jonfhtwkdif; a0iS
ay;Muí twlwuG oH;k aqmifMu
ygonf/ xkdoufaou nDtpfudk
tcsif;csif;cspfí &SifoefMuaom
arwåmoufaojzpfonf/ tcsKUd u
tvJG,lMuonf/ nDtpfudkrsm;
toif;awmfü ygvkdvQif avmu
ESihf tqufjzwf&rnf/ tpkd;&t
vkyx
f u
G ?f pD;yGm;a&;rvky&f ponf
jzih f abmif c wf M uaomol r sm;
vnf; &SdMuonf/ okdYaomf EIwf
uywfawmfukd rSeu
f efpmG oGeo
f if
í cH,lcsufrSefuefaomolrsm;u
nDtpfudkrsm;toif;awmfü &SdMu

ajr§mufí &mxl;wkd;jyD;vcvnf;
aumif;Muonf/ tcsKdUu pD;yGm;
a&; qufvyk Mf uonf/ EIwu
f ywf
awmfESifhtnD jyKMuí bk&m;u
aumif;MuD;ay;ojzihf pD;yGm;wuf
jyD; &aomaumi;fMuD;ESihf jyefí
ay;vSLyg0ifEkdifMuonf/ ay;vSL
yg0if&müvnf; bk&m;ocifay;
ckdif;aomol? ay;ckdif;aomae&m
udkodjyD; ay;vSLyg0ifwwfzkdYvkd

ygonf/ yifawukawåoufao
ESihf wefc;kd udck pH m;Mu&aom wref
awmfwkdYonf rsm;pGmaomedrdwf
vu©PmESihf tHhMozG,faomtrI
wkdYudk jyKMuojzihf xkdoufao
udkjrifaomaMumifh vltaygif;wkdY
onf aMumufvefjY cif; &SMd uonf/
,aeYwiG f yifawukawåoufao
enf;aeMuojzihf ,HkMunfolwkdY\
touf&SifrIu at;pufaeMujyD;
avmuDom;trsm;u bk&m;ocif
udk aMumuf&GHUjcif; r&SdMuay/ xkdY
aMumihf ,aeY uREfkyfwkdYtouf
wmrsm;ü yifawukawåaeY\t
aMumif;udkom pOf;pm;qifjcifae
onf x uf yif a wuk a wå o uf
aoESifhwefcdk;udk cHpm;EkdifMuzkdY&ef
tav;*½kkjyK touf&SifMuzkdY&ef
arwåmESifh wkdufwGef;a0iSvkdufyg
onf/

emrawmfjrwfü
nDtpfuBkd uD;DrwifarmifxeG ;f

pmrlrsm;zdwfac:jcif;
2010ckEpS f Mo*kwv
f (18)&ufaeYwiG f usa&mufrnfh uReaf wmf
rsm; jyifOD;vGifNrdKU {AaeZnDtpfukdrsm;toif;awmf\25ESpfjynfh
aus;Zl;awmfcs;D rGr;f jcif;yGJ txdr;f trSwt
f jzpf r*¾Zif;xkwaf 0rnfjzpf
ygí a'oEåm&toif;awmftoD;oD;rS oif;tkyfq&mrsm;ESifh nDtpf
ukad rmifErS rsm;taejzifh 0dnmOfa&;&mpmrlrsm; yg0ifa&;om;ulnMD u
yg&ef ocifc&pfawmf\ emrawmfjrwfü zdwfac:tyfygonf/
pmrlay;ykdY&efvdyfpm- zkef;aemf
nDtpfukdrsm;toif;awmf
ik0gvrf;oG,f? taemf&xmvrf;? ½Gmopfvrf;?
&uu (7)? jyifOD;vGifNrdKU? rEåav;wkdif;/

page 3

bmoma&; jyu©'deft&
,aeYukd tudik ;f tcufrsm;aeY? pGef
yvGefcufrsm;aeY[k ac:ygonf/
vGecf ahJ om ESpaf ygif;ESpaf xmifcefY
u ,ckvdktcsdefrsKd;udk jyefí qif
jcifpOf;pm;onfhtcg ocifa,½I
c&pfonf vlom;rsm;udk tjypfrS
a&G;EIwu
f ,fwifz&Ydk ef avmuMu;D
okdY <uqif;vmjyD;? u,fwifjcif;
pDrHudef;udk vkyfaqmif&mü tqHk;
owfvak omtykid ;f okYd a&mufjy[
D k
qkEd idk yf gonf/ a&SU&uftenf;i,f
a&mufvQif aomMumMuD;aeYudk
a&mufrnfjzpfonf/ vlom;rsm;\
tjypfudk,fpm; um;wkdifü tao
cHjcif;? oN*ØKvfjcif;udkcHjyD; oHk;&uf
ajrmufaomaeYü &Sijf yefxajrmuf
jcif; wnf;[laom aoaomolwYdk
wG i f tOD ; oD ; aomtoD ; jzpf í
or®musrf;pmü MudKwifya&mzuf
jyKxm;aomt&mrsm;jynhfpHkrnfh
tcsdef jzpfonf/ ocifa,&Iudk
u,fwif&Siftjzpf ,HkMunfaom
olwkdif;onf c&pfawmfESifhtwl
xkdtmrcHcsufudk cHpm;&rnfjzpf
onf/ ocifa,½Iu ighukd ,Hk
Munfaomolonf aovGefaomf
vnf; &Siv
f rd rhf nf[í
l uwdawmf
xm;cJyh gonf/ ocifa,½Ic&pfukd
,HkMunfolwkdif;onf aojcif;udk
aMumufp&mrvkad wmhyg/

ya&mzufjyKcsuf
jynhfpHkjcif;
]] xk d t aMumif ; t&m rl
um;? oif\t&Sifrif;MuD;onf
jrnf ; rES i f h j rnf ; uav;uk d p D ; í

El;nHh odrfarGYaompdwfESihf oif
&S d & mok d Y <uvmawmf r l o nf u d k
Munf h & I a vmh [ k Zd t k e f o wk d Y
orD;tm; ajymMuavmh[laom
ya&mzuf\EIwfxGufjynfhpHkrnf
taMumif ; jzpf o wnf ; }}
(róJ?21;4-5)/
xdkya&mzufjyKcsuf pum;
onf vGefcJhaom ESpfaygif;600
cefYu Zmc&dtm;jzifh? today;cJh
aom ya&mzufjyKcsufyif jzpfyg
onf/ xkdya&mzuf jyKcsuf onf

enf;pdwfysufraeESifh tvGef0rf;
ajrmufavmh[k rdeaYf wmfryl gonf/
a,&Ic&pfonf þurÇmavmu
okdY bk&iftaeESihf <uvmjcif;jzpf
onf/ vljrifEkdifaomo@mefürl
EGm;pmcGuüf odyx
f m;jcif;cHygonf/
ud,
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ud k 0 wf q if v suf ? acgif ; ay:ü

page 4

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vkdonfhtcg rsufvTmudkajymif;

page 5

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vQif xdkrif;tm; ay;vSLrdwfzJGYjyD;

page 6

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page 7

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emrawmfjrwfü
nDtpfudkOD;uyfcefYckyf

page 8

avmuMuD;xJü Muufu
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]] igtrS e f q k d o nf u m;?

page 9

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I u
f ywf
awmfudkodzkdY? oGefoifay;EkdifzkdY&ef
uREkfyfwkdY tm;xkwfoifhygonf/
avmuMu;D \oGeo
f ifru
I uav;
rsm;tm; yxrt&G,f ynm&Sm?
'kwd,Opöm&Sm? wwd,t&G,frS
wrvGet
f wGuf pOf;pm;? bk&m;&Sm
ponfjzihf oGefoifMuonf/ xkd
oGeo
f ifro
I nf vGepf mG rSm;ygonf/

oli,fonf toufwmü rSm;,Gi;f
pGm &Sio
f efomG ;ygu uREyfk w
f o
Ydk nf
vnfyif;ü MudwfqHkausmufudk qJG
í yifv,fücsjcif;udk cH&ygu
omíaumif;rnf[k or®musr;f pm
u owday;ygonf/ xkdenf;wl
uREkfyfwkdYonf uav;oli,fwpf
a,mufa,mufudk rxDrJhjrifrjyK
rdzYdk owdjyKoifyh gonf/ taMumif;
rSm olwkdY\ aumif;uifwrefwkdY
onf aumif;uifbHk&Siftb\
rsufESmudk tpOfrjywf zl;jrifae
Muygonf/ urÇmavmuMu;D onf
bk&m;ocifudk oduRrf;jcif;ynm
vkdtyfaeygonf/ uRekfyfwkdYonf
avmuMuD;udk Munfhjrifonfhtcg
bk&m;ocif\tjrifESifh jrifwwf
zkv
Yd ydk gonf/ avmuMu;D xJü EIwf
uywfawmfudkrodaom uREkfyfwkdY

uREyfk w
f o
Ydk nf uav;rsm;i,f&,
G f
pOfuyif bk&m;udkodjyD; tav;*
&kjyK emcHvsuf touf&Sifwwf
MuzkdY oGefoifay;oifhygonf/

ol&Jvufü&Sdaomjr§m;uJhokdY
(róJ?19;13)wGif oli,f
wkdYudkvufawmfwifí arwåmydkY
zk d Y ocif a ,½I x H a wmf o k d Y ac:
aqmifvmonft
h cg wynfah wmf
wkdYu wm;jrpfMuygonf/ bmom
w&m;u oifwkdYESihf rqdkifqdkonfh
oabmjyKrlonf/ ocifa,&I\
toufwmukd qifjcifygu wpf
q,fEh pS Ef pS t
f &G,w
f iG f EIwu
f ywf
awmfESihfjynfh0jyD; Adr®mefawmfü
usrf;wwfyk*d¾Kvfrsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;
Ekid yf gonf/ ocifa,&Ionf EIwf
uywfawmfESihf jynfh0aeaom

aMumifh pmwef\pHkprf;jcif;trsKd;
rsKd;udkvnf; atmifjrifcJhygonf/
,aeYacwf uav;rsm;twGuf
pHpk rf;aESmuf,u
S jf cif;rsm; vSonf/
uGefjyLwmwpfcsufESdyfvkduf&HkESifh
aumif;wma&m? raumif;wma&m
twk,lp&mrsm;pGm vli,frsm;\
rsufapha&SUokdY a&mufvmygonf/
uav;i,frsm;\ toufwmü
EIwfuywfawmfESifh rjynfh0ygu
avmuMuD;\ vTrf;rkd;rIatmuf
okdY a&muf&SdoGm;rnf jzpfonf/
ocifa,&Ionf uav;rsm; rdrd
xHa&mufvmonfhtcg rqD;wm;
yJ vuf c H í vuf E S i f h c sD a yG Y u m
aumif;MuD;ay;ygonf/ rdbrsm;
rdrdwkdYom;orD;rsm;udk aumif;
Mu;D ay;yg/ eHeufr;dk vif;onft
h cg
om;orD ; rsm;tm; aumif ; MuD ;
ay;yg/ rdbrsm; udk,fhom;orD;
rsm;udk ausmif;xm;Ekdif&HkrQjzihf
auseyfraeoifhyg/ rdrdwkdYywf
0ef;usifrS ausmif;raeEkdifaom
uav;rsm;udkMunfhjyD; jyKpkMunfh
yg/ yHhydk;Munfhyg/ wpfaeYaomt
cg xkduav;rsm;xJrS tcsKdUonf
wkdif;jynfü acgif;aqmifMuD;rsm;
rjzpfvm[k rnfolajymEkdifrnf
enf;/ EkdifiHawmftpdk;&u vkyf
aqmifae&mü vpf[maeaom
uGufvyfrsm;udk MunfhjyD;0dkif;0ef;
jznfhpGufay;jcif;jzifh wkdif;jynfudk
tusKd;jyKEkdifygonf/ ywf0ef;usif
udkMunfhygu uRekfyfwkdYvkyfaqmif
p&m? bk&m;ocif vkyfaqmifap
vkdaom t&mrsm;pGm&Sdaeygonf/
rdbrsm;onf bk&m;ocif qkcsay;
oem;aom tarGjzpfonfh rdrdwkdY
om;orD;rsm;udk aumif;pGmxdef;
odrf;zkdY bk&m;ocif tvkdawmf&Sd
ygonf/ rnfuJhokdY xdef;odrf;rnf
enf;/ ol&v
J ufü&Sad om jrm§ ;uJo
h Ydk
jzpfapzkdYvdkygonf/ (qm? 127;4)

page 10

jr§m;awmifhonf ajzmifhwef;jcif;r
&Sdygu vkd&mypfrSwfudk rxd&HkrQr
u rdrdvlYudkyif tEå&m,fjzpfap
Ekdifygonf/ uRekfyfwkdY\ uav;
om;orD;rsm;onf ol&Jvufü&Sd
aom jr§m;uJhokdY ajzmifhajzmifhrwf
rwf&SdzkdY vkdygonf/ om;orD;rsm;
ajzmifhrwfpGm touf&SifwwfzkdY?
oef Y & S i f ; pG m touf & S i f w wf z k d Y ?
oGefoifay;zkdY vkdygonf/uREfkfyf
wkdYu uav;om;orD;rsm; ajzmifh
rwfpGm? oefY&Sif;pGm touf&Sif
wwfzkdY oGefoifray;rdygu olwkdY
t&G,fa&mufvmonfhtcg rdb
udkywf0ef;usifudk? wkdif;jynfudk
t&Suf&apjyD; rsufESmysufapol
rsm; jzpf v mMurnf jzpf o nf /
rd b rsm;onf rd r d w d k Y o m;orD ;
rsm;tm; EIwfuywfawmftwkdif;
tdrfaxmifjyKzkdY? tdrfaxmifrjyKrDS
rrSm;,Gif;rdzkdY oGefoifay;oihf

ygonf/ ,aeY uav;trsm;u
xko
d eG o
f ifru
I kd acwfrrSaD wmh[k
qkMd uygonf/ þavmuMu;D xJ
ü EIwfuywfawmftwkdif; oGef
oifrIudk em;axmifjyD; touf
&SiMf uaomolrsm;ESiEhf w
I u
f ywf
awmf\oGefoifrIudk tav;r
xm;aom ol\toufwmESihf
olwkdYrsKd;qufrsm;onf rsm;pGm
uGmjcm;ygonf/ or®musrf;pm
okawoDw\
Ydk avhvmazmfxw
k f
csut
f & or®musr;f pmoGeo
f if
csuu
f kd tav;rxm; r½kad ool
ruf*sKpfonf bk&m;ocifudk r
,Hk? rav;rpm;aomtrsKd;orD;
ESihf tdraf xmifzufNy;D olrS qif;
oufvmaomolrsm;wGif arG;
pu aoaomolrsm;? touf
&Sifaomfvnf; a&m*grsKd;pHkESihf
'kuw
©d jzpforl sm;? olawmif;pm;
rsm;? olckd;rsm;? rdef;rav rdef;r

ayghrsm;? vlowform;rsm;ESifh t
jcm;jypfrI usL;vGefMuolrsm;pGm &Sdvm
cJhjyD; wkdif;jynfudk tusKd;rjyK? rdb
aqGrsK;d *kPo
f u
d m© udk ndK§ ;EGr;f apaom
rsK;d qufrsm;pGm ay:xGuv
f mcJo
h nf/
EIwfuywfawmf oGefoifcsufudk t
av;xm; touf&SifcJhol a*smfeoef
tuf'yG rf mS rl bk&m;ocifukd aMumuf
&GUH í EIwu
f ywfawmfukd tav;xm;
aomtrsKd;orD;ESihf pHkzufí olwkdYrS
qif ; ouf a om om;pOf a jr;
qufwkdYü aumvdyfausmif;atmif
olrmS (265) a,muf? q&m0ef (60)
a,muf? 'kor®w (1)OD;? w&m;olMu;D
(30) a,muf? Oya'jyKtrwf (3)
a,muf? w&m;a[mq&m (100)
a,muf? a&SUae(100)a,muf? tkyf
csKyfa&;t&m&Sd (80)a,muf? vTwf
awmftrwf (2)OD;ESihf ygarmu©csKyf
(65) OD; ponfjzifh wkid ;f jynftwGuf
tusKd;jyKaomol? rdbaqGrsKd;*kPfudk

,k ' trsd K ;tEG , f w G i f
tjrpfcHaom c&pf,mef
,H k M unf u d k ; uG , f r I

tpDtpOftwGuf wpfywfwm
MuKd wifjyifqifrjI yKvyk &f wJ?h t
oif;vlMuD;? oif;axmufrsm;?
twGi;f a&;rSL;wk\
Yd yl;aygif;vkyf
aqmifrIu aemufuG,fwGif &Sd
aeMuygw,f/ aemufwrl xl;
jcm;csufuawmh? wpfcsKdU pae
aeYrsm;wGif þ0wfjyKaqmift
wGif; rxo tpnf;ta0;? rd
cifESihfuav; apmifha&Smufa&;
jyKvkyfaewmudkvnf; trSwfr
xif awGjY rif&wwfygw,f/ þ
t&mudk q&mBuD;\&Sif;jycsuf
t& nDtpfudktoif;awmfrsm;
\,HMk unfc,
H cl surf mS ? {0Ha*vd
0wfjyKaqmif(Gospel Hall)

udkom aqmufvkyfavh&SdjyD;? Adrmef
awmfMuD;rsm;udk aiGukefaMu;uscHí
raqmufvkyfbJ? {0Ha*vda[majym
jcif;? rdbrJhqif;&Jom;rsm;udk auR;
arG;jyKpkjcif;ESifh ta0;omoemudk
tav;xm;í aqmif&GufwwfMu
onf[k ajymjyygw,f/ wenf;tm;
jzihf Breth-ren rsm;onf wJawmf
0wfjyKudk;uG,frIudk Adrmefawmf0wf
jyKu;kd uG,jf cif;pepfxuf ydí
k tav;
xm;ygonf/ uREkfyfwkdYvnf; jyify
oP²mef taoG;om;rsufpdESihf cHpm;
xdawGYrI jrifuGif;awGudk acwåarS;
rSdefapjyD; EIwfuywfawmftm;jzifh
0dnmOfrsufpdudkzGifhí "r®a[mif;um
v? wJawmftm;jzifh £oa&vvl

(Judeo-Christianity)

(8)rkdif? a[jAKefnDtpfudk
rsm;toif;awmf0if;xJokdY? we*F
aEGtywfwidk ;f uReaf wmfw0Ydk ifvm
wJhtcg? b,fvkdjrifuGif;ukdawGY
jrifEkdifygovJ? 0SpfpDrIwfjyD; um;
rsm;udk vufjyaeaom roefrpGr;f
nDtpfudkwpfa,muf? vkdif;um;
wk;d pD;jy;D ajcusiaf vQmufvmwJo
h l
awG? wuúp?D ud,
k yf ikd u
f m;pD;vmwJh
vlwpfcsKdUESifh vli,frsm;? uav;
rsm; oG m ;vmvI y f & S m ;aewmud k
OD;pGm jrifawGY&ygrnf/ 0wfjyK

jrifhwufapaomol rsm;pGmay:
xGucf yhJ gonf/ xkaYd Mumifh rdbrsm;
taeESihf rdrdwkdYudk,fwkdif EIwfu
ywfawmfudk tav;xm;touf
&SifMuonfomru rdrdwkdYom;o
rD;rsm;udkvnf; EIwfuywfawmf
twkid ;f tav;*½kjyKtouf&iS Mf u
zkdY&ef oGefoifwnfaqmufay;yg
u rdrw
d t
Ydk oufwmomru om;
pOfajr;qufwkdif r*Fvmaumif;
usKd;udk cHpm;vsuf wkdif;jynfESifh
rdrdwkdYywf0ef;usifudk tusKd;jyK
olrsm; jzpfEkdifMurnfjzpfaMumif;
arwåmESihf today;a0iSvkdufyg
onf/

emrawmfjrwfü
nDtpfudkOD;atmifoufñGefY

rsK;d awmf xm0&bk&m;tm; 0wfjyK
udk;uG,frI? om;awmfa,&Ic&pf
awmf oufawmfxif&Sm;&SdpOf? udk;
uG,frI ykdif;qkdif&m ajymif;vJrIwkdY
udk qifjcifMunfhMuygpdkY/
ueOD; toif;awmfrsm;
wGif ,k',HkMunfoltrsm;jzpfjyD;?
aemufykdif;wyg; trsKd;om;rsm;
ajymif;vJvmjyD;? c&pf,mefom
oemonf taemufwkdif;Oa&my
okdY ysHUESHUvmcJhonf/ *sL;c&pf,mef
rsm;onf "r®a[mif;udk tajcjyK
í? xm0&bk&m;\ oefY&Sif;jcif;?
ajzmifrh wfjcif;wku
Yd kd tav;xm;jy;D
&kyfwkqif;wk jyKvkyfjcif;udk vHk;0
qefYusif\/ okdYaomf Oa&myc&pf

page 11

,mefrsm;onf *sL;wkdY\cH,lcsuf
jyif;xefru
I kd rESpjf rKd Uí aemufyidk ;f
wGif ,k'udk;uG,frIudk qefYusif
aom (Anti-Semitism) tkypf k
ay:vmjy;D taemufwidk ;f ,Ofaus;
rIvTrf;aom c&pf,mefudk;uG,f
rItoGifokdY ajymif;vJvmí crf;
em;aomtaqmufttHkMuD;rsm;?
tpDtpOfa&;qJjG y;D ? yHak ouk;d uG,f
rIrsm; jzpfvmjyD;? ,k'ukd;uG,fyHk
wkdYudk y,fzsufypf&ef MudK;yrf;cJh
Muonf/ okaYd omfvnf;? c&pf,mef
,HMk unfu;kd uG,rf o
I nf ,k'trsK;d
tEG,fwGif tjrpfcHxm;ygaom
aMumifh? b,fawmhrS jzwfawmuf
í jzdKzsufír&Ekdifyg/ xkdokdYvnf;
rvkyaf qmifoifyh g/
tmjA[Htm; xm0&t&Sif
bk&m;ocifonfac:awmfrí
l y#d
nmOfjyK&mü oift
h m;jzif4h if;? oifh
trsKd;tEG,ftm;jzifh4if;? vlrsKd;t
aygif;wkdYonf aumif;MuD;r*Fvm
cH&Muvdrfhrnf[k rdefYawmfrl&mü?
trsKd;tEG,fwkdU[k trsm;udkr&nf
rSwb
f ?J oif\trsK;d tEG,[
f k wpf
a,mufaomoludk&nfrSwfí rdefY
awmfrl\/ xkdwpfa,mufaom
ol u m; c&pf a wmf j zpf o wnf ;
(*vmwd 3;16)/ xk d Y a Mumif h
toif;awmf\tkwfjrpfjzpfaom
a,&Ic&pfonf urÇmOD;usr;f üyif
tajcjyKxm;jyD;? ya&mzufrsm;?
wrefawmftrsm;tm;jzifh quf
vufwkd;yGm;wnf&Sdaeygonf/

rdrdvlrsKd;awmfwGifusdef;0yf
vkdaom xm0&bk&m;
(The Indwelling God)
xm0&bk & m;u ya&m
zufa[&Sm,tm;jzihf rdefYawmf
rl c suf r S m ? aumif ; uif b H k o nf

ighyv’ifjzpf\/ ajrMuD;onf igh
ajcwif & mcH k j zpf \ / tb,f o k d Y
aomAdrmefawmfudk ightbkdwnf
aqmufMurnfenf;/ tb,ft
&yfonf igusdef;0yf&mt&yf jzpf
rnfenf;/ þt&mtvH;k pHw
k o
Ydk nf
igukd,fwkdif zefqif;aomaMumifh
jzpfMu\/
]]oefY&Sif;jcif;[k emr&Sd
awmfrlxaomtxG#ftjrwfjzpf
awmf r l a om? bk & m;rd e f Y a wmf r l
onfum;? pdwfESdrfhcsjcif;? ESvHk;
aMuuJ G j cif ; ? igh p um;aMumif h
wk e f v I y f j cif ; &S d a omol u d k o m
igMunf h & I r nf } }
(a[&Sm 66;1-2)/
xm0&bk&m;onf arm
a&Stm; wJawmfaqmufvkyfckdif;
jcif;trIrSm? bk&m;&Sif\ tMuH
awmfESifh rdrdtm;rnfokdY ukd;uG,f
0wfjyK&ef rdrd\oabmawmfudk
azmfjyjcif;jzpf\/ (xGufajrmuf
&musrf; 25;8-9)wGif
igonfoifwkdYwGifusdef;
0yf & mzk d Y oef Y & S i ;f & m|meud k
vk y f M uap? igjyorQaom wJ
awmf y H k ? wJ a wmf w ef q myH k E S i f h
tnD vk y f & rnf /
þEI w f u ywf a wmf t m;
jzifh wJawmfudk xm0&bk&m;&Sif
wnfvkyfapckdif;onfh &nf&G,f
csufrSm? vlrsKd;awmfESifhtwl teD;
uyf u sd e f ; 0yf a evk d a omqE´ E S i f h
&nf&G,fcsufudk azmfjyygonf/
xm0&bk&m;onf rdrdvlrsKd;ESifh
twlaevkdjyD; olwkdY\bk&m;[lí
odapvkdw,f/ 'gaMumifh igonf
tmjA[H? £Zuf? ,mukyfwkdY\
bk&m;? £oa&vvlrsKd;\ oefY
&Sif;aom t&Sifxm0&bk&m;jzpf
onf[k rdru
d ,
kd u
f dk xkwaf zmfjy\/
c&pf,mefwkdY\ bk&m;[kajymqkd

ír&yg/ okdYaomf tmjA[HtrsKd;
tEG , f t m;jzif h vl r sKd ; taygif ;
aumif;MuD;r*Fvm jzpfaprnf[k
rdefYawmfrl&mü ,k'trsKd;ü tajc
jyKaom xm0&bk&m;onf? vlrsKd;
wum udk;uG,fxkdufaom bk&m;
vnf;jzpfaMumif;? odapygw,f/
£oa&vvlrsKd;ESihf wJawmf0wf
jyKu;kd uG,rf t
I m;jzifh xm0&bk&m;
\ tMuHtpnfawmf? tvkdawmf?
oabmawmfwkdYudk uREkfyfwkdYod
em;vnfEkdifygonf/ wJawmfudk
wnfaqmuf&mü a&T? aiG? aMu;0g?
tmum&Sopfom;? ydwaf csm? om;
a&wkdYjzihf wnfvkyfapjcif;onf
tvGefwefzkd;MuD;ojzifh xm0&
bk & m;\ MuD ; jrwf a Mumif ; ud k
azmfjyygonf/ okdYaomf wJawmf
xJü xm0&bk&m;\ oP²mefawmf
udkazmfjyonfh &kyfxkr&Sdjcif;rSm?
wJ a wmf w ef q myvm tm;vH k ;
onf xm0&bk&m;\oabmo
bm0udk azmfjyaejcif;jzpfygonf/
xm0&bk&m;udk ud;k uG,jf cif;onf
avmuDom;rsm;uJhokdY bk&m;&kyf
xkoP²meftrsKd;rsKd;jzifh bk&m;
trsm;udk udkd;uG,fjcif; (Poly
Theism)r[kwb
f ?J wpfqw
l n;f
aombk&m;udkom udk;uG,fjcif;
(Mono Theism)jzpfygonf/
xkdYaMumifh ,Zfyka&m[dwf\ OD;
aqmifraI tmufü vlrsK;ad wmfonf
a<u;aMumf 0efcH&rnfrSm
tkd£oa&vtrsKd;em;
axmif M uavmh ? oif w k d Y \ bk
&m;onf wpfqlwnf;aom t
ouf & S i f a wmf r l a om xm0&
bk & m;jzpf \ [k 0ef c H M u\/
xm0&bk&m;\ oP²mef
awmf&kyfxkr&Sdjcif;rSm 0dnmOfo
bm0udk xif&Sm;ap\/ wJawmf
onf xm0&bk&m; usdef;0yf&m

t&yfjzpfí tvGefoefY&Sif;aom
Mumifh vl? wd&dpämef csOf;uyfvQif
npfnL;jcif;? roef&Y iS ;f jcif;aMumif?h
aoEkdifonfhtwGuf pnf;&kd;um
xm;&\/ wJawmfwiG ;f okYd csO;f uyf
0ifa&mufEkdifonfh enf;vrf;rSm
wpfckwnf;&SdjyD; xkdenf;vrf;rSm
aMu;0g ,Zfyv’iaf y:wGio
f ef&Y iS ;f
aom,Zf a umif u d k owf í ?t
aoG;udk(7)Mudrfywfjzef;jyD;rS? rD;
&dIY&m,Zftjzpf ylaZmfí wJawmf
twGif;okdY 0ifcGifh&\/
yxrwpfcsufrSm vlrsK;d
awmfonf tJ*kwåKjynfü uRefcH
ae&pOf? wJawmfwnfvkyfcGifh r&Sd
yg/ rkd;wdrftm;jzifh xif&Sm;aom
bkef;awmfvnf;r&Sdyg/ taMumif;
rSm vlrsKd;awmfonf zma&mrif;
vufatmufü 0rf;pma&;twGuf
yifyef;pGmvkyaf qmif&jy;D ? n§i;f yef;
ESyd pf ufrv
I nf; cH&onft
h jyif? em;
aecsdefr&Sdí? bk&m;udkvnf; udk;
uG,f0wfjyKjcif; rjyKEkdifyg/ olwkdY
\ nOf;wGm; jrnf;wrf;atmf[pf
jcif;toHudk xm0&bk&m;onf
Mum;í tmjA[H E S i f h j yKcJ h a om
*wdawmf y#dnmOfudk atmufarh
owd&í vlrsKd;awmfudk arma&S
tm;jzihf u,fEIwfzkdYpDrHawmfrl\/
wenf ; tm;jzif h tjypf ' k p &k d u f
atmufü uRefjzpfaeaom? u,f
wifjcif;vkdaeaom? uRefawmf^r
rajymif;vJao;aom toufwm
ESifh wlayonf/ zma&mbk&if\
tmPmpufrS vGwfajrmufzkdYom
ru? tJ*kwåKvlrsKd;wkdY\ ukd;uG,f
rI tusifh"avhwkdYrSvnf; aq;
aMumoefYpifzkdY&ef vkdayonf/
xkdYtwGufaMumifh vlrsKd;
awmfudk u,fwifjcif;omru?
a½G;EIwzf &Ydk ef? yócgok;d \taoG;
okwfaom tdrftrkd;atmufwGif

page 12

tuG,ftumjyKí tJ*kwåKvlwkdY
\ om;OD;rsm;udkowfypfí £o
a&vvlrsKd;\ om;OD;rsm;udk t
oufcsrf;omapjcif;jzifh a&G;EIwf
u,fwifcJhonf/ vlrsKd;awmftm;
cgeefjynfokdY ac:aqmif&mwGif
uke;f vr;fut
kd oH;k rjyKb?J yifv,f
eDuEkd pS jf crf;cJí
G jzwfausmaf pcJ\
h /
þtHhbG,faomtrIrS em;vnf&
aomtcsufrSm vlrsKd;awmfonf
tJ*kwåKjynfokdY aemufjyefrvSnfh
Ekdifatmif yifv,fa&udk jyefaph
apjyD;? vkdufvmaom tJ*kwåKppf
wyftm; aoaMuysufpD;apcJh\/
vlrsKd;awmfESihf &kyfwkqif;wk ewf
bk&m;rsm;udk udk;uG,faomolwkdY
tm;? yx0Dajrae&mt& oD;oefY
cJGjcm;vkdufjcif;jzpf\/ c&pfawmf
udk rdrw
d \
Ydk u,fwif&iS t
f jzpf pdwf
ESv;kH ü ,HMk unfvsuf EIwjf zih0f efcH
aomolwkdYtm; taoG;awmftm;
jzifh aq;aMumcGifhvTwfjyD; ao
jcif;rS vGwfajrmufapjyD; aom
tcg? a&ü AwdåZHr*Fvmtm;jzifh
r,HkMunfol avmuom;rsm;ESihf
,HkMunfaomc&pf,mefrsm;tm;
oD;oefY cJGjcm;xm;vkdufjcif; o
abmyif jzpfygonf/
wJawmfudk tJ*kwåKjynfü
wnfvkyfckdif;jcif; r&Sd? cgeefjynf
üvnf; wnfaqmufjcif;udk r
jyKapbJ? uEå&c&D;wpfavQmuf
vSnfhvnfae&pOf tjrJwJawmf
wefqmyvmrsm;ud,
k al qmifí rk;d
wdrfwnf&mt&yfü wnfaqmuf
apí? bkef;awmftm;jzifh vlrsKd;
awmftxJü usdef;0yfjyD; arma&S
tm;awGYqHkí vlrsKd;awmfonf rd
rdtm; rnfokdY,ZfylaZmfvsuf udk;
uG,fqnf;uyf&rnf? rnfuJhokdY
tJ*kwåKvlrsm;ESifh jcm;em;pGm t
ouf&Sif? usihfMuHjyKrl? pm;aomuf

aexkdif? tdrfaxmifjyKí om;o
rD;rsm; arG;zGm;&rnfukd tao;pdwf
nTefMum;rdefYawmfrlí wduspGm
vkdufemapcJhyg onf/
vlrsKd;awmftm; a&G;EIwf
u,fwifcJh&jcif;\ &nf&G,fcsuf
rsm; rdrdykdifxkdufaom oefY&Sif;
aomvlrsKd;tjzpfaomf4if;? pnf;
pdrf&Sdaom ,Zfyka&m[dwftjzpf
rdrdxHawmfokdY teD;uyfcsnf;uyf
vsuf rdwfo[m,zJGYí ukd;uG,f
0wfjyKzkdY&ef t<uif;rJhtvkdawmf
jzpfygw,f/ uRefawmf^rwkdYonf
vnf; r,HkMunfolrS ,HkMunfol
jzpfvmaomtcg (wenf;) t
aoG ; awmf t m;jzif h tjypf a q;
aMum cGifhvTwfcH&jyD; i&JrSvGwf
ajrmufcH&jcif;rSm? rdrdoabmt
wkdif;? trltusifh qufvuft
ouf&SifzkdY&ef vHk;0r[kwfbJ? bk
&m;&Si\
f oabmawmf? tvdak wmf
twkdif;omcH ,lod&Sdem;vnfjyD;
bk&m;&SifESihf eD;uyfpGmrdwfo[m
,jyKvsuf uk;d uG,q
f nf;uyfomG ;
vmzkdY&ef bk&m;&Sif\ t<uif;rJh
tvkad wmfjzpfygonf/
wJawmftm;jzifh bk&m;&Sif
onf vlrsK;d awmfEiS t
hf wl vrf;c&D;
uEå&wGif vSnfhvnf oGm;vmcJh
jcif;\ oabmobm0rSm xm0&
t&Sib
f &k m;ocifonf vlrsK;d awmf
tultnDvkdwJhtcg teD;tyg;
wGif&SdaevkdwJhtjyif? olwkdY\pm;
0wfaea&;? tdrfaxmifa&;? b0
tcuftcJ trsKd;rsKd;wGifvnf;?
pdwf0ifpm;jyD;? teD;uyfvufawGY
usus ajz&Sif;ay;vkdaom t&Sif
jzpfaMumif;udk odem;vnfapyg
onf/ c&pf,mef ,HkMunfolwkdY
onfvnf; avmuwGif touf
&SifpOftcg {nfhonftm*EåK jzpf
jyD;? avmu uEå&e,fwGif jzwf

ausmfí aumif;uiftdrfawmfokdY
c&D;jyKpOf rkd;wdrfESihf rD;wkdifjzpf
aom 0dnmOfawmfESihf EIwfuywf
awmfudk trSDo[JqJGudkifjyKvsuf?
c&pf,meftoufwmudk avQmuf
vSrf;Mu&ayrnf/

"r®opfumvudk;uG,frI
wJawmfonf a,&Ic&pf
awmfudk yHkaqmifygonf/ (a,m?
1;14)wGif udk,fawmf\ &ifcGifü
vJavsmif;í a,&Icspfaom w
ynfhawmf\ zGifhjycsufrSm
]]EI w f u ywf a wmf o nf
vnf; vlYZmwdudkcH,lawmfrlí
rd r d v l w k d Y w G i f wnf a eawmf r l
\}}[kq&dk mü wnfaejcif;qko
d nfh
a[jAJ p um;vH k ; onf usd e f ; 0yf
jcif;? wJawmf (Tabernacle)
ponfh a0g[m&t"dygÜ ,f twlwl
yifjzpfonf/ 0dnmOft"dyÜm,frSm
"r®a[mif;umvwGif xm0&bk&m;
onf wJawmftm;jzifh vlrsKd;awmf
tv,fwiG f used ;f 0yfouJo
h Ydk om;
awmfumvwGif crnf;awmfonf
om;awmftxJü vlZY mwdjzpfaom
a,&Ic&pfawmftm;jzifh rdrdvlwkdY
ESihf yk*K¾d vcf si;f xdawGY qufqv
H suf
oGm;vmcJh jcif;udk qkdvkdygonf/
þeufeJaom? vlwkdYwGif
usdef;0yfaom xm0&bk&m;\ o
abmobm0udk (1a,m? 1;1-4)
wGif &Sifa,m[efu
]]xk d E I w f u ywf a wmf
onf a&S;OD;pGmuyif&Sdí igwkdY
wGiftouf&Sif xif&Sm;&SdcJh\/
xk d t ouf & S i f a omEI w f u ywf
awmf\toHudk igwkdYonf em;
ESifhMum;cJh&í? rsufpdESifhvnf;
jrifcJh&jyD;? vufESifhvnf; udkif
wG , f p rf ; oyf c J h & wJ h o uf a o
rsm;jzpf w J h t wG u f om;awmf

tm;jzih f crnf ; awmf E S i f h rd w f
o[m&zJ G U &jyD ; ? oif w k d Y o nf
vnf ; igwk d Y \ Mo0g'pum;
ouf a ocH c suf u d k ,H k M unf c H
,l v Qif ? igwk d Y E S i f h t wl crnf ;
awmf? om;awmfESihfwpfvHk;wpf
0wnf ; jzpf M uí? 0rf ; ajrmuf
Murnf } }
[k EdI;aqmfaoG;aqmif
xm;ygonf/ ocifa,&I &Sifjyef
xajrmufjyD;aemuf aumif;uif
okYd wku
d &f u
dk rf wuf<uyJ &ufaygif;
(40)tMud r f M ud r f ? tajctae
trsKd;rsKd;wGif? udk,fxif&Sm;cJhjcif;
\t"dyÜm,frSm? ighudkrjrifaomf
vnf;? ig&Sdaeonfudk wrefawmf
rsm;ESifh ,HMk unfow
l ynhaf wmfrsm;
od&Sdí pdwfcsrI&&SdjyD;? tajccH
,HkMunfcH,lcsuf jzpfapvkdonf/
aumif;uifokdY wuf<uawmfrljyD;
aemuf yifawukawåyJGaeYü (&Sif
jyefxajrmufjyD;&uf-50
50tMum)
crnf;awmf\ uwdawmfjzpfwJh
0dnmOfawmfudk apvTwfawmfrlí?
txuf c ef ; ü 0d n mOf a wmf u d k
iHv
h ifv
h su&f adS om wrefawmfrsm;
ESifhwl r,fawmf? ,HkMunfolrde;fr
rsm;tygt0if? wynfah wmf (120)
wkdY\ pdwf0dnmOftwGif;ü 0dnmOf
awmfusdef;0yfjynfh0jyD;? touf
&Siaf omAdrmefawmf? ueOD;toif;
awmfjzpf ay:vm&ygw,f (1ay?
2;3-5)/ ({zuf? 2;19-21)/
xk d Y a Mumih f crnf ; awmf
umv wGif wJawmftm;jzifhom
av0d t rsKd ; ,Zf y k a &m[d w f w k d Y
onf arma&SEiS t
fh wl teD;uyfu;kd
uG,fqnf;uyfcGifh&SdjyD; usef£o
a&vvlrsKd;rsm; tvSrf;uGmaeyg
ao;onf/ om;awmfumvwGif
wrefawmfrsm;ESit
hf wl ,HMk unfo?l
wynfhawmf? vlwpfpkom om;

page 13

awmfa,&Ic&pfawmfEiS hf teD;uyf
vufyGef;wwD; &if;ESDH;pGmoGm;vm
vI y f & S m ;udk;uG,fcGifh &ygonf/
okdYaomf xkdtcsdefumvonf (3)
ESpfcJGrQom MumcJh\/

þoabm obm0ud k
c&pf ,meftrsm;onf em;vnfo
abmaygufjcif; r&SdaomaMumifh?
aumif;MuD;r*Fvmrsm;pGm qHk;&HI;jyD;
udk,fum,tjypf'kp&kdufü c&pf
,meftrsm; epfrGef;MujyD;? vlt
oufowfjcif; tjypfudkyif? MuD;
rm;pGm vGefusL;rdwwfMuygw,f/
oufao om"ujy&vQif tar

&duefEkdifiHü touf(80)eD;yg;
t&G,f&Sdaom c&pf,mefbmom
0ifq&m0efMuD; wpfOD;onf? rdrd
ouf w rf ; wpf a vQmuf tazr
ay:aom oaE¨om;zsufcsjcif;
trIudk jynfe,fOya't& w&m;
0if(65000)rQudk zsufcsay;cJhyg
onf/ (Ultra-Sound)ay:vm
aomtcg wpfcsdefu rdcifom;
tdrftwGif;u oaE¨om;i,f\
vufESpfzufajcESpfzufudk tEk
pdyf odyHÜu&d,mjzifh tqpfrSqJG
jzKwfaeyHk? oaE¨om;0rf;AkdufxJrS
uvD p mrsm;ud k xk d u &d , mjzih f
EdIuf,lqJGxkwfyHkwkdYudk jrifawGY&
aomtcsed üf ? xkq
d &m0efMu;D onf
pdwfrcsrf;ajrhEkdifawmhyJ? xkdokdY
toufudkzsufqD;aom tjypfrS
vGwfajrmufEkdif&ef? c&pfawmfudk
aemifwpdwjf zifh vufcí
H ,HMk unf
oljzpfvm&ygw,f/ ,cktcsdef
rSmawmh udk,f0efzsufcsjcif;onf
EIwfuywfawmfESihf qefYusifjyD;
vlowfrjI zpfaMumif;? omoemt
zJGYtpnf;wpfckESihftwl &yfwnf
wkdufyJG0ifvsuf &Sdygonf/ pm&if;
Z,m;t& tar&duefEkdifiHwGif
oaE¨om;zsucf srI oef;aygif;(50)
txd&SdaMumif; aMumuf&GHUxdwf
vefYzG,f od&Sd&ygw,f/
c&pf , mef E k d i f i H ü ? bm
aMumihf þokdYjzpf&ygovJ/ tpö

a&;EkdifiH? rGwfpvifEkdifiHrsm;wGif
þjzpf & yf r sKd ; enf ; yg;ygw,f /
þoaE¨om;rdcifavmif; 0rf;Aku
d f
ü oaE¨wnf&jcif;rSm um,uH
&Sif vla,musfm;? vlrdef;r? ESpf
a,mufpvHk;\ tjypfaMumifhjzpf
jyD;? or®mw&m;ESifhtnD opöm
oH0gojyKjcif;r[kwfbJ? arxkef
oH0go oufoufjyKjcif;omjzpf
jyD ; ? rw&m;aomarxk e f j zpf í
aoypfxu
dk yf gonf/ pm&if;Z,m;
t&? oaE¨om;zsufcsaom rdcif
avmif; (5000) a,mufwkdYrSm
vnf; wpfcsKdUaoqHk;jcif;? wpfcsKdU
pdwfa&m*g jzpfvmMujyD;? tdrf
axmifrsm;vnf; ysufpD;Mu&yg
w,f/ xkdYaMumifh c&pf,mef,Hk
Munfow
l o
Ydk nf rdru
d ,
dk cf E¨monf
bk&m;ocif0dnmOfawmf usdef;0yf
&mjzpfaMumif; oabmaygufem;
vnfjcif;r&SdwJhtwGuf? jyKrl? usihf
MuH? aexkdifrIwkdYü oefY&Sif;jcif;r
&SdawmhwJhtwGuf vdifESifhpyfqkdif
aom a&m*gtrsK;d rsK;d udk cHpm;Mu&
onfhtjyif? *kPfodu©medrfhusNyD;?
aumif;MuD;r*FvmqHk;½HI;í? oefY
&Sif;aombk&m;\ bkef;awmfudk
vnf; arS;rdSefapygw,f/

jcif;onf? oefY&Sif;aom,HkMunf
jcif;jzpfí oefY&Sif;ajzmifhrwfpGm
touf&SifEkdifzkdY&ef 0dnmOfawmf
tm;jzifh tjrJy|emjyKjyD;? bk&m;
ocifarwåmawmfü tpOfwnfae
zk&Yd ef? wku
d w
f eG ;f xm;ygw,f/ tm;
enf;aom? ppfreS af om ,HMk unfol
wkdYudkvnf;em;vnfí? ukd,fwkdif
tjypfEiS hf rNipd eG ;f bJ? aoG;om;wyf
rufjcif;rD;xJrq
S EGJ w
I zf &Ydk ef Ed;I aqmf
xm;ygw,f/ ,HMk unfocl &pf,mef
wkdYonf xm0&bk&m;\ynwf
awmftwkdif;? ocifa,&Iudk OD;
xdyfxm;vsuf? 0dnmOfawmftm;
jzifh? oefY&Sif;jcif;? ajzmifhrwfjcif;?
ESdrfhcsjcif;? aus;Zl;jyKvsuf? *½k
Pmpdwfjzihf touf&Sif aexkdif
oGm;ygvQif? uRefawmf uRefrwpf
OD;wnf;omru? oufqkdifwJh rd
om;pkrsm;tjyif om;pOfajr;quf?
aumif;MuD;r*Fvm <u,f0pGm? t
rSefcHpm;&rnfjzpfaMumif;? bkef;
ESifhjynfhpHkaomocif a,½Ic&pf
awmf\aemufqHk;owday;rdefYrSm
csuf pum;rsm;ukdvnf; (Asm'dwf
?22;11-13) wGif tav;xm;í
zwf&Iyg&ef arwåmESifh today;
wkdufwGef; EdI;aqmfvkdufygonf/

oefY&Sif;aom,HkMunfjcif;

emrawmfjrwfü
nDtpfudkOD;a,moyf

uREkfyfwkdY ukd;uG,faom
bk & m;onf tpOf a umif ; jrwf
awmfral om bk&m;jzpfonf/ ,aeY
rsufarSmufumvü vlwOD;usef;
rma&;csKdUwJhygu a&m*g&SmzkdYaq;

ppf&mü aiGrsm;pGm ukeu
f sygonf/
pm;zkyYd if tEkid Ef ikd ½f ek ;f uefae&csed f
ü a&m*gjzpfygu cufvSayonf/
xkdtajctaewkdYu EIwfuywf
awmfrSefuefaMumif; azmfjyvsuf

&Sdayonf/ EIwfuywfawmf rSef
uefaMumif; oufaoukd ,aeYcH
pm;aeMu&olrsm;&Sdovkd? rcHpm;
Mu&aomolrsm;vnf; &SdMuonf/
qmvHq&mBuD;u xm0&bk&m;

,HkMunfoltwGif;üusdef;0yf
aom 0dnmOfawmfbk&m;
,ck aemufqHk;aomum
v ? toif;awmfacwf? 0dnmOf
awmfumv tcsdeftcgwGifrSmrl
,k'vljzpfap? a[vovljzpfap?
om;awmfa,&Ic&pfawmfudk ,Hk
Munfvufco
H w
l idk ;f \ pdw0f n
d mOf
twGi;f ok?Yd 0dnmOfawmfb&k m;used ;f
0yfvsuf ,HMk unfow
l idk ;f wk\
Yd uk,
d f
cE¨monf bk&m;ocif\Adrmef
awmf (oufjrwfausmufwpfckpD
taejzihf) jzpfvmMu&ygonf/
({zuf 3;14-18)/

oaE¨om;zsufcs&jcif;\
taMumif;&if;

xkdYaMumifh ocifbk&m;\
nDawmf&iS ,
f 'k u? igwk\
Yd ,HMk unf

onf rdrdckdvIH&mjzpfonf[k >ruf
qkd0efcHygonf/ (qm? 91) ,aeY
avmuBuD ; xJ ü w&m;ojzif h
touf&SifaeMuolrsm; &SdMuo
vkd rw&m;pGmjyKí toufarG;ae

page 14

Muolrsm;vnf; &SdMuygonf/ or®
usrf;pmü rw&m;aomolrlum;
avwkdufívGifhoGm;aom zGJESifhwl
aMumif; ckid ;f EIid ;f azmfjyxm;ygonf/

ukd,fawmfukd
0rf;renf;rdapzkdU
]]wzef £oa&v t
rsKd ; om;wk d Y o nf xm0&bk & m;
a&SUawmfü 'kp½dkufukd jyKaom
aMumif h ? ol w k d Y u d k rd ' sef t rsKd ;
vuf ü ck E S p f E S p f t yf a wmf r l \ }}
(w&m;? 6;1)/
£oa&vvlonf avm
uBu;D xJrS bk&m;ocifvrl sK;d awmf
tjzpf a&G;aumufjcif;cH&aom
ol r sm;jzpf M uonf / ol w k d Y o nf
,cif u 'k p ½k d u f u k d j yKMuovk d
,ckwzefxyfí jyKaomaMumifh
bk&m;ocifonf olwkdYtm;rd'sef
vlwkdYvufü ckESpfESpf tyfawmfrl
ygonf/ bk&m;ocif\ vlrsKd;
awmf j zpf & jcif ; twG u f *k P f , l
p&maumif;ygonf/ xkdodkY *kPf
,l&if;ESifh bk&m;ocif\ bkef;
awmfukdvnf; xif&Sm;apzkdY vkdyg
onf / om;orD ; u rd b pum;
em;raxmif? rdb\*kPfukdrxdef;
ygu 0rf;enf;NyD; rqHk;rcsifbJ
qHk;r&ygonf/ om;orD;udk qHk;r
&í aysmfaomrdb[lí avmu
ü r&Sdyg/ rwwfomíom qHk;r&
jcif;jzpfonf/ om;orD;aumif;zkdY?
vdr®mzkdYom qHk;r&jcif;jzpfonf/
]]rd ' sef t rsKd ; onf £
o&vtrsKd ; uk d E k d i f í n§ i f ; qJ
aomaMumif h } }
(w&m;? 6;2)/
rd'sefvlwkdYonf £oa&
vvlwkdYudkEkdifí n§if;qJygonf/
rd'sefvlu bk&m;ocif\ vlrsKd;
awmfr[kwfyg/ £oa&vvlwkdY

rnfrQ0rf;enf;rnfenf;/ ,aeY
uREkfyfwkdYtoufwmü £oa&v
vlwkdYuJhokdY 'kp½kdufukd jyKrdygu
aemifw&í ukd,fawmfxHokdY jyef
vmMuzkYd owday;vkyd gonf/ ud,
k f
awmfonf uREkfyfwkdYtm; aumif;
Bu;D ay;vkí
d apmifah eawmfral om
t&Sijf zpfygonf/

xkdodkYcH&onfhtcg bk&m;ocif
onf rnf o k d Y c H p m;&rnf e nf ; /
ukd,fawmf0rf;enf;rnf jzpfay
onf/ uREkfyfwdkYonf bk&m;ocif
\vljzpfMuygu uk,
d af wmfcs;D rGr;f
p&mjzpf a tmif raeoif h M uyg/
ukd,fawmfcsD;rGrf;p&mjzpfatmif
raeoifhMuyg/ bk&m;ocif\ vl
rsKd;awmfjzpfygvsuf bk&m;pum;
em;raxmifygu r*Fvmtpm; t
r*FvmMuHKMu&rnf jzpfygonf/
orD;wpfa,muf ausmufuyfr
aumif;ojzifh zcifu rdrad usmuf

]] oem;jcif ; *½k P m\
tb? ouf o mjcif ; trsKd ; rsKd ;

uyfwpfzufay;zkdY pDpOfygonf/
okdYaomf 0rf;enf;p&maumif;vS
onfrSm zcifuay;ygvsuf orD;
\cE¨mu vufrcHí ay;r&yg/
xkdjzpftifu rnfrQ0rf;enf;p&m
jzpfygoenf;/ zcifyifvQif rdrd
orD;tm; þrQcspfygu bk&m;o
cifonf rdrdorD;rsm;tm; rnfrQ
cspfrnfukd qifjcifí odEkdifyg
onf/ rd'sefvlwkdYvufü cHae&
aom £oa&vvlrsm;\touf
wmjyifqifzkdY ukd,fawmfowday;
aomfvnf; rjyifMu/ aemifwESifh
ukd,fawmfxHodkY vSnfhvmygu
aumif;Bu;D ay;vkí
d apmifyh gvsuf
aemifwr&Muojzifh ukd,fawmf

wd k Y \ t&S i f w nf ; [l a om igwk d Y
\ocif a ,½I \ crnf ; awmf
bk & m;ocif o nf r*F v m&S d a p
awmf r l o wnf ; }}
(2aum? 1;3)/
r*Fvmu bk&m;ocifü
&SdNyD;om;jzpfygonf/ xkdr*Fvm
ukd uREkfyfwdkYcHpm;zkdY bk&m;ocif
tvkdawmf&Sdaomfvnf; opömcH
xm;í ay;csifwkdif;ay;ír&yg/
vlonfopömysuyf gu aumif;Bu;D
r*FvmcHpm;cGifhukd bk&m;ocifu
ay;ygvsufESifhyof rcHpm;Ekdifyg/
tvSLyGJü taumif;qHk;tpm;t
pmrsm;ukdjyifxm;ygvsuf aoG;wkd;
&Sdí rpm;Edkifjcif;onf tvSL'ge

uREkfyfwkdYtm;
oufomapaomt&Sif

jyKolu rauR;Ekdifír[kwf/ rdrd
bufu csKdU,Gif;rIyif jzpfonf/
rpm;&onfrSmMumí t&JpGefYNyD;
wpfvkyfpmavmuf pm;rdygaomf
vnf; xkw
d pfvyk pf mu vluakd &m
*gcHpm;NyD; tdyf&mxJvJü apyg
onf/ ,aeY xkdwpfvkyfpmuJhokdY
aom bk&m;ocif tvkdawmfr&Sd
onfh vkyf&yfrsm;u vludkacgif;
ukdufaponf/ zsm;emjcif;jzpfap
onfomru aemufqHk; touf
aoonftxd jzpf&ygonf/ aoG;
wkd;a&m*g cHpm;ae&csdefü a&m*g
ukay;Ekdifaomt&SifxH roGm;vkd
Mu? bk&m;&SifxHvmygu a&m*g
aysmuf½kHrQru aumif;BuD;cHpm;
&rnfudk odygvsuf bk&m;&Sifvkyf
apvkdaomt&mrsm;ukd rvkyfvkd?
emcHapvkdaomt&mrsm;ukd odyg
vsufremcHMujcif;rSm odvsufESifh
acgif;rm aeMuonf/
]]igwk d Y o nf bk & m;o
cif a us;Zl ; awmf t m;jzif h uk d , f
wk d i f o uf o mjcif ; &S d o uJ h o k d Y
qif;&JjciftrsKd;rsKd;ukd cH&aom
ol w k d Y t m; ouf o mapawmf r l
\}}
(2aum? 1;4)/
uREkfyfwkdY\ bk&m;ocif
onf oufomjcif;\ t&Sifjzpf
ouJhokdY uREkfyfwkdYtoufwmü cH
Mu&aom qif;&J'u
k t
© rsK;d rsK;d wküYd
tuREkfyftm; oufomapjcif;jzifh
xkdtawGUtMuHKcHpm;rIu tjcm;
aomqif;&J'ku©cHaomolrsm;ukd
tm;ay;axmufrEkdifzkdY&ef ukd,f
awmf tvkad wmf&ydS gonf/ ,HMk unf
oltcsif;csif; wpfa,mufESifhwpf
a,muf ay;urf;jcif;o[m,&Sd
ovkd? today;a0iSjcif;o[m,
vnf;&Syd gonf/ xko
d aYdk omtm;jzifh
wpf a ,muf t cuf t cJ u k d wpf
a,mufodírpvsuf tcsif;csif;

page 15

wk d Y u k d ouf o mapEk d i f y gonf /
toif;awmftpjyKtcsdefu a,
½k & S v if N rd K Utoif ; awmf ü &ef y H k
aiGr&Sdyg/ tvSLcHNyD; pkxm;aiGr
&Sdyg/ xkdYaMumifh wrefawmfwkdYü
ay;p&m bmrQr&S d y g/ ay;Ek d i f
onft
h &mrSm Mo0g'ay;Edik o
f nf/
vrf;ñTefay;Ekdifonf/ qkawmif;
ay;Ekdifonf/ wrefawmfwkdY qk
awmif ; wd k i f ; bk & m;ocif v uf
awmfrS oufaoay:vmygonf/
wrefawmfwkdYtm;jzifh bk&m;o
ciftHhMozG,foufaoxlí vlwkdY
u aMumuf½GHUMuonf/
]]vl t aygif ; wk d Y o nf
aMumuf j cif ; &S d o nf j zpf í w
ref a wmf w k d Y o nf rsm;pG m aom
edrdwfvu©Pm? tHhzG,faomt
rI w k d Y u k d j yKMu\/ ,H k M unf a om
ol t aygif ; wk d Y o nf wpf p k w pf
a0;wnf ; aeMuojzih f rd r d w k d Y ü
&SdorQukd qufqHí oHk;aqmif
Mu\}}
(wref? 2;43-4)/
,HkMunfolrsm;onf 'ku©
qif;&Jjcif;xJü twlwuGquf
qHMuonf/ tcsif;csif; rdrdwkdY
tcuftcJrsm;ukd tjyeftvSef
ajymjy½HkrQru xkdtcuftcJxJü
bk&m;ocif\ rprIcHpm;&onf
ukd oufaocHMuonf/ Mum;bl;
onfukd ajymjyMuonfr[kwf?
usrf;pmu xkdodkYqkdonf [lí
usrf ; pmouf a ouk d ajymonf
r[kwf/ rdrdwkdYtoufwmü usrf;
pmazmfjycsufwkdif; ukd,fawGUcH
pm;&onfukd azmfjyMujcif;jzpf
onf/ <u,f0aomaomolrsm;u
rdrdwkdYOpömudk,lvmMuNyD; tcsif;
csif; qufqHoHk;aqmif Muonf/
xkdtcsdefu 0dnmOfawmfckdif;í
vkyfjcif;jzpfonf/ ,aeY 0dnmOf

awmfrckdif;bJ vkdufrvkyfygESifh/
&SdorQukefoGm;rnfyif jzpfonf/
0dnmOfawmfckdif;aMumif; aocsm
pGmodNyD; vkyfMunfhygu oufao
&Murnfjzpfonf/

rcHEkdifaom
pHkprf;aESmuf,Sufjcif;ukd
ray;yg
ocifbk&m;u a&euf&m
okdY a½GUOD;avmh[k rdefYawmfrlyg
onf/ uREkfyfwkdY\toufwmü
ukd,fawmfukdukd;pm;jcif; touf
wmonf wpfaeYxufwpfaeY wkd;
vmzkdYvdkygonf/ rkd;&moDa&muf
vmonfhtcg trkd;rkd;zdkY 'ku©onf
rsm; a&mufvmwwfonf/ ulnD
rprIjyKaeonfhMum;u ay;vkdYr
avmufEkdif? ulvkd&mrjynfhEkdifjzpf
&onf/ þrQcufcJNyD; 'ku©rsKd;u
rjywf? tb,faMumihf xkdokdYjzpf
&oenf;/ 'ku©rsKd;u ckwfypfír
&? wl;NyD;tjrpfygz,fypfrS &rnf
jzpfonf/ bk&m;ocifu aemif
w&zkdY owday;aejcif;jzpfonf/
tcsKdUu aemifwr&½kHrQomru
uaZmfyifaomufvu
dk af o;onf/
'ku©rsKd;jywfzdkY tcsif;csif; ulnDr
pzkv
Yd o
dk nf/ bk&m;ocifu &wwf
aomoltm;ay;OD;rnf[k rdeaYf wmf
rlygonf/ &wwfzkdY&ef ay;wwfzkdY
vkyd gonf/ ,aeY ,HMk unforl sm;u
ay;&aumif;rSef;ukdyif rodMuyg/
xkdYaMumihf &wwfaomtrsKd;u
jywfoGm;onf/ q,fzkdYwpfzkdY r
ay;Mu/ aumif;uifjywif;ayguf
zGifhí aumif;BuD;ay;rnf ray;
rnfukdodzkdY q,fzkdYwpfzkdYay;jcif;
jzifh prf;MunfhMuzkdY bk&m;ocifu
rdefYawmfrlygonf/ tcsKdU,HkMunf
ol r[kwfMu/ q,fzkdYwpfzkdYt
aMumif; a0iSonfudkMum;í ay;

Munhf&mtHhMozG,f oufaocHpm;
&onf/ r,HkMunfolyif xkdouf
aoukdcHpm;&ygu ,HkMunfolt
ay:ü rnf r Qaumif ; BuD ; ay;vk d
onfudk qifjcifEidk yf gonf/ uREyfk f
wkdYvkdtyfrItwGuf tpOfawmif;
aeygu awmif;ae&aomtoD;
om oD;ayvdrfhrnf/ uREkfyfwkdYay;
wwfaomtoD;ukd oD;aeygu
tpOfay;p&m tjr&J adS eayrnf/ xkd
t&mum; arwåmawmf&Sifbk&m;
ocif\ opömynwfEiS x
hf m;aom
aumif;BuD;uwdawmf jzpfonf/
,HMk unfoo
l nf avmu"Hw&m;\
zdpD;rIatmufrS vGwfaeonfr
[kwfyg/ avmu"Hw&m;\ zdpD;rI
trsKd;rsKd;ukd tjcm;olrsm;enf;wl
cH&aomfvnf; c&pfawmftm;jzifh
ausmv
f mT ;ícHpm;&aom oufom
jcif;onf tvGefrsm;jym;ygonf/
]]vlü jzpfwwfaom pHk
prf ; aES m uf , S u f j cif ; uk d o m
oif w d k Y o nf cH & Mu\/ bk & m;
ocif o nf opö m ES i f h jynf h p H k
awmf r l o nf j zpf í oif w k d Y r cH
Ek d i f a ompH k p rf ; aES m uf , S u f j cif ;
uk d oif w k d Y ü a&muf p d r f h a omiS m
tcG i f h a y;awmf r rl / oif w k d Y
onf cH E k d i f r nf h t aMumif ; pH k
prf ; aES m uf ,S u f j cif ; t&mES i f h
wuG xG u f a jrmuf a omvrf ;
uk d v nf ; pD & if j yKjyif a wmf r l
vd r f h r nf } }
(1aum? 10;13)/
uREkfyfwkdYonf bk&m;o
ciftm;jzifh 'ku©rSvGwfajrmufEkdif
aomvrf; &Sdygonf/ uREkfyfwkdY r
cHEkdifaom pHkprf;aESmuf,Sufjcif;
uREyfk w
f t
Ydk oufwmü a&mufvmzkYd
&ef ukd,fawmftcGifhray;yg/ 'ku©
jyóemxJu ukd,fawmftm;jzifh
rnfokdY vGwfEkdifrnfenf;/ trI

a&mufonft
h cg yXmjyKyg[kb&k m;
ocifu rdeaYf wmfryl gonf/ rdrw
d Ydk
tcuftcJjyóemrsm;ukd tcsif;
csif;utoday;ajymjyNyD; twl
wlqkawmif;yg/ ,aeY toif;
awmfü vkdtyfaeaomolrsm;&Sd
ovkd ay;Ekdifaomolrsm;vnf;&Sd
aeygonf/ vkdtyfaeaomol\
vkdtyfrIukd ykdaeaomol? ay;p&m
&Sdaomolu odjrifíay;jcif;jzifh
tjyeftvSef rdwfo[m,jzpfMu
onfomru tcsif;csif; wpf
a,mufukdwpfa,muf oufom
apjcif;jzifh bk&m;ocif\ bkef;
awmfukd xif&Sm;apzkdY&ef ukd,f
awmftvkdawmf&SdaMumif; arwåm
ESifh today;a0iSvkduf&ygonf/

emrawmfjrwfü
tkwfrm

rmwdum

pmrsufESm

ryifawukawåoufaoudk cHpm;í

1

nDtpfudkBuD;DrwifarmifxGef;
rya&mzufjyKcsufjynfhpHkjcif; 4
nDtpfudkBuD;OD;wifarmifñdk
r,HkMunfolrsm;udk qHk;rp&mtzdkY 6
nDtpfudkOD;uyfcefYckyf
rxm0&bk&m;qkcsay;aomtarG 9
q&mOD;atmifoufñGefY
rom;pOfajr;quftusdK;cHpm;zdkY 11
nDtpfudkOD;a,moyf
ruREkfyfwdkYtm;oufomapaomt&Sif
14
nDtpfudkOD;a,moyf
r pmrlzdwfac:jcif;
3

page 16

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