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SSPC-PS4.02 62&Z T ADOPTION NOTICE SSPC-PS4.

02, "Vinyl Painting System, Three-And Four-Coatrn was adopted on October 3, 1994 for use by the Department of Defense (DoD). Proposed changes by DoD activities must be submitted to the DoD Adopting Activity: Commanding Officer, Naval Construction Battalion Center, Code 156, 1000 23rd Avenue, Port Hueneme, CA 93043-4301. DoD activities may obtain copies of this standard from the Standardization Document Order Desk, 700 Robbins Avenue, Building 4D, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094. The private sector and other Government agencies may purchase copies from the Steel Structures Painting Council, 4516 Henry Street, Suite 301, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. Custodians: Adopting Activity Army -ME Navy -YD-1 Navy -YD-1 Air Force -99 FSC 8010 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

SSPC-PAINT25 ADOPTION NOTICE SSPC-PAINT25, "Primer, Raw Linseed Oil and Aleyd, Red Iron Oxide, Zinc Oxide," was adopted on October 3, 1994 for use by the Department of Defense (DoD). Proposed changes by DoD activities must be submitted to the DoD Adopting Activity: Commanding Officer, Naval Construction Battalion Center, Code 156, 1000 23rd Avenue, Port Hueneme, CA 93043-4301. DoD activities may obtain copies of this standard from the Standardization Document Order Desk, 700 Robbins Avenue, Building 4D, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094. The private sector and other Government agencies may purchase copies from the Steel Structures Painting Council, 4516 Henry Street, Suite 301, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. Custodians: Adopting Activity Army-ME Navy -YD-1 Navy -YD-1 Air Force -99 FSC 8010 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

SSPC-PAINT 1 ADOPTION NOTICE SSPC-PAINT1, "Red Lead And Raw Linseed Oil Primer," was adopted on April 11, 1995 for use by the Department of Defense (DoD). Proposed changes by DoD activities must be submitted to the DoD Adopting Activity: Naval Construction Battalion Center, 1000 23rd Avenue, Code 156, Port Hueneme, CA 93043-4301. DoD activities may obtain copies of this standard from the Defense Printing Service Detachment Office, Bldg. 4D (Customer Service), 700 Robbins Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094. The private sector and other Government agencies may purchase copies from Steel Structures Painting Council, 4516 Henry Street, Suite 301, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3728. Custodians: Adopting Activity: Navy -YD1 Navy -YD1 (Project 8010-N998) unlimited. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--FSC 8010 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is

W 2595532 0079382 T30 B SSPC-PAINT2 ADOPTION NOTICE SSPC-PAINT2, "Red Lead, Iron Oxide, Raw Linseed Oil And Alkyd Primer," was adopted on April 11, 1995 for use by the Department of Defense (DoD). Proposed changes by DoD activities must be submitted to the DoD Adopting Activity: Naval Construction Battalion Center, 1000 23rd Avenue, Code 156, Port Hueneme, CA 93043-4301. DoD activities may obtain copies of this standard from the Defense Printing Service Detachment Office, Bldg. 4D (Customer Service), 700 Robbins Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094. The private sector and other Government agencies may purchase copies from Steel Structures Painting Council, 4516 Henry Street, Suite 301, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3728. Custodians: Adopting Activity: Navy -YD1 Navy -YD1 (Project 8010-N997) FSC 8010 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is un1imited. --`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

M 2575532 0079383 977 SSPC-PAINT 13 ADOPTION NOTICE SSPC-PAINT 13, "Red Or Brown One-Coat Shop Paint," was adopted on April 11, 1995 for use by the Department of Defense (DoD). Proposed changes by DoD activities must be submitted to the DoD Adopting Activity: Naval Construction Battalion Center, 1000 23rd Avenue, Code 156, Port Hueneme, CA 93043-4301. DoD activities may obtain copies of this standard from the Defense Printing Service Detachment Office, Bldg. 4D (Customer Service), 700 Robbins Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094. The private sector and other Government agencies may purchase copies from Steel Structures Painting Council, 4516 Henry Street, Suite 301, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3728. Custodians: Adopting Activity: Navy -YD1 Navy -YD1 (Project 8010-N996) --`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--FSC 8010 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

LEAD PAINT REMOVAL GUIDES: SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 2 SSPC = GUIDE 61 (CON) Guide for Containing Debris Generated During Paint Removal Operations and SSPC = GUIDE 71 (DIS) Guide for the Disposai of Lead-Contaminated Surface Preparation Debris STEEL STRUCTURES SSPC 92-07 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

SSPC TITLESSYSTEM 91 W 8bè79LiO 0003359 T82 ~ ~~ DISCLAIMER These specifications, guides and recommendations have been developed in accordance with voluntary consensus procedures by SSPC Advisory Committees and are believed to present good current practice. They are monitored and revised as practices improve, and suggestions for revision are welcome. Other methods, materials, and specifications may be equally effective or superior. SSPC is not responsible for the application, interpretation, or administration of these specifications, guides and recommendations. Moreover, SSPC does not issue interpretations of its specifications, guides or recommendations; and no person is authorized to issue an interpretation of an SSPC specification, guide, or recommendation on behalf of the SSPC. SSPC specifically disclaims responsibility for the use or misuse of these specifications, guides and recommendations. The supplying of details about the patented formulations, treatments, or processes is not to be regarded as conveying any right or permitting the user of this manual to use or sell any patented invention. When it is known that the subject matter of the text is covered by patent, such patents are reflected in the text. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--Copyright 1992by SteelSîructures Painting Council Ali Right Reserved This book or any pati thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. First Edition March 1, 1992 STEEL STRUCTURES PAINTING COUNCIL 4400 Fifth Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213-2683

SSPC TITLE*A ** = 8627940 00034Lï 287 '1 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

SSPC TITLEXA XX 8627940 0003420 TT9 STEEL STRUCTURES PAINTING MANUAL Volume 1 GOOD PAINTING PRACTICE Third Edition Executive Editor John D. Keane Editors Dean Berger, Harold Hower, Bernard R. Appleman Assistant Editors Joseph Bruno, Kitti Condiff, Mark O DonneII, Janet Rex, Aimee Beggs, Vilma Macura, Terry Sowers, Monica Madaus STEEL STRUCTURES PAINTING COUNCIL 4516 HENRY STREET, SUITE 301 PITTSBURGH, PA 15213-3728 I Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

SSPC TITLE*A YS ôb2794O 0003421 935 Copyright, 1993, by Steel Structures Painting Council All Rights Reserved This book or any pari thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. Third Edition First Printing, January 1994 IBSN 0-938477-81-1 --`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS II

SSPC TITLESA *Y = 8627740 0003422 87% Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--DISCLAIMER The techniques, procedures, regulations and other information presented in this volume have been reviewed by experts in each field and are believed to represent good current practice. They are monitored and revised as practices improve, and suggestions for revision are welcome. SSPC is not responsible for the application, interpretation, or administration of the information outlined here. SSPC specifically disclaims responsibility for the use or misuse of any product, procedure or technology or misinterpretations of any regulations referred to in this manual. The supplying of details about patented formulations, treatments, or processes is not to be regarded as conveying any right or permitting the user of this manual to use or sell any patented invention. When it is known that the subject matter of the text is covered by patent, such patents are reflected in the text. Ill

IV --`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

SSPC TITLEXA XX Ab27940 0003424 b4V Table of Contents Page Foreword Chapter 1 .O INTRODUCTION SSPC Staff ............................................................... 1 Chapter 1.1 CORROSION OF STEEL -SIMPLIFIED THEORY byF.L.LaQue ............................................................. 3 Chapter 1.2 PAINTS FOR ANTI-CORROSION SERVICE byCliveH.Hare ............................................................ 10 Chapter 2.0 SU RFAC E PREPARATION byH.William Hitzrot ........................................................ 19 Chapter 2.1 MECHANICAL SURFACE PREPARATION byA.W.Mallory ............................................................ 22 Chapter 2.2 M ETALLI C ABRASIVES byEinarA.Borch ........................................................... 32 Chapter 2.3 NO N-M ETALLIC ABRASIVES by H. William Hitzrot.. ...................................................... 4 5 Chapter 2.4 ABRASIVE AIR BLAST CLEANING byJim Bennett ............................................................ 52 Chapter 2.5 WATER BLAST CLEANING byJim Bennett ............................................................ 64 Chapter 2.6 HAND AND POWER TOOL CLEANING by Preston S. Hollister and R. Stanford Short .................................. . --`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--68 Chapter 2.7 FIELD SURFACE PREPARATION COSTS byRobertB.Roth .......................................................... 75 Chapter 2.8 OTHER METHODS AND FACTORS IN SURFACE PREPARATION by Bernard R. Appleman and John D. Keane .................................... 78 Chapter 2.9 CHEMICAL CLEANING by Melvin H. Sandler and Sam Spring. ......................................... 9 0 Chapter 3.1 SPECIAL PRE-PAINT TREATMENTS: PHOSPHATING bySamspring ............................................................. 98 Chapter 3.2 PICKLING STEEL SURFACES by D. W. Christofferson ..................................................... 10 4 Chapter 4.1 PAINT MATERIALS by Sidney B. Levinson and Saul Spindel. ....................................... 117 Chapter 4.2 ZINC-RICH PRIMERS byCharlesG.Munger ....................................................... 125 Chapter 4.3 CORROSION INHIBITIVE PIGMENTS AND HOW THEY FUNCTION

byArnoldJ.Eickhoff ........................................................ 138 Chapter 5.1 PAI NT APPLICATION by Sidney B. Levinson and Saul Spindel.. ...................................... 150 Chapter 5.2 SCAFFOLDING by Sidney B. Levinson and Saul Spindel. ....................................... 168 Chapter 5.3 SAFETY IN PAINT APPLICATION by Sidney B. Levinson and Saul Spindel. ....................................... 176 Chapter 6.0 INSPECTION by Kenneth B. Tator and Kenneth A. Trimber .................................... 181 V Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

SSPC TITLEXA Xt 8627940 0003425 580 Chapter 7.1 QUALITY CONTROL OF PAINTS -AS MANUFACTURED by John F. Montle and Mary Ann Stephens ..................................... 20 7 Chapter 7.2 QUALITY ACCEPTANCE OF PAINTS -AS RECEIVED BY THE USER by John R. O Leary and Garland W. Steele ...................................... 21 3 Chapter 8.0 COMPARATIVE PAINTING COSTS by M.R. Sline, G. H. Brevoort, R. B. Feinberg,and S.J. Oechsle ................. ... 222 Chapter 9.0 SHOP PAINTING OF STEEL IN FABRICATING PLANTS byW.J.Wallace,Jr. ........................................................ 242 Chapter 10.0 PAINTING OF RAILROAD BRIDGES AND STRUCTURES byRayeA.Fraser .......................................................... 263 Chapter 11 .O PAINTING OF HIGHWAY BRIDGES AND STRUCTURES by R. R. Ramsey and Bernard R. Appleman ..................................... 28 0 Chapter 12.0 PAINTING OF STEEL VESSELS FOR SALT WATER SERVICE by David T. Bloodgood ...................................................... 293 Chapter 13.0 PAINTING OF STEEL VESSELS FOR FRESH WATER SERVICE byJ.R.Foster ............................................................. 307 Chapter 14.1 PAINTING STEEL TANKS byW.J.Wallace,Jr. ........................................................ 315 Chapter 14.2 THE LINING OF STEEL TANKS by Wallace P. Cathcart and Albert L. Hendricks ................................. 320 Chapter 15.0 PAINTING HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES byJ.L.Kiewit .............................................................. 330 Chapter 16.1 COATINGS FOR PIPELINES AND OTHER UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES by R. N. Sloan and A. W. Peabody ............................................. --`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--349 Chapter 16.2 CATH ODIC PROTECTION byA.W.Peabody ........................................................... 363 Chapter 17.0 PAINTING OF INDUSTRIAL PLANTS by William F. Chandler.. .................................................... 37 7 Chapter 17.1 WASTE TREATMENT PLANTS byThomasP.Delany ....................................................... 379 Chapter 17.2 PAINTING OF COKE AND STEEL PLANTS by Arthur R. Thompson and S. C. Frye ......................................... 3 90 Chapter 17.3 PETROLEUM REFINERY COATINGS byW.E.Stanford ........................................................... 396 Chapter 17.4 PAINTING CHEMICAL PLANTS by J. Roy Allen and David M. Metzger. ......................................... 412

Chapter 17.5 PAINTING PULP AND PAPER MILLS by C. Edwin Wilkins and William F. Chandler ................................... 420 Chapter 17.6 PAINTING FOOD PLANTS bySteven L.Schmidt ....................................................... 429 Chapter 17.7 POWER GENERATION FACILITIES byRonald R.Skabo ......................................................... 442 Chapter 18.0 GOVERNMENT PAINTING PRACTICES by Richard W. Drisko and Howard G. Lasser .................................... 4 48 Chapter 19.0 TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR PAINTING byJayl.Leanse ............................................................ 452 Chapter 20.0 THERMAL SPRAYED COATINGS by S.J. Oechsle and J. N. Childs, Jr. .......................................... . 456 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS VI

Chapter 21.O Chapter 22.0 Chapter 23.0 Chapter 24.0 Chapter 25.0 Chapter 26.0 Chapter 27.0 Chapter 27.1 Chapter 27.2 Chapter 27.3 Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Index ....... SSPC TITLEtA tt m 8b27940 000342b 417 HOT DIP GALVANIZING byErnestW.Horvick ........................................................ 465 PAINTING GALVANIZED STEEL by Richard W. Drisko ...................................................... 481 CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF PAINT FAILURE by Charles G. Munger ...................................................... 486 PAINTING NAVY SHIPS by Stephen D. Rodgers, Richard W. Drisko and John Tock ....................... 5 16 DESIGN OF CORROSION-SAFE STRUCTURES byV.RogerPludek ......................................................... 528 SAFETY AND HEALTH IN THE PROTECTIVE COATINGS INDUSTRY by Dan Adley, D. Brian Shuttleworth, Scott Ecoff, Sidney Levinson and Saul Spind el . . 538 ENVI RON MENTAL REG U LATIONS AFFECTING PROTECTIVE COATINGS by Bernard R. Appleman ................................................... 556 AIR QUALITY REGULATIONS by Bernard R. Appleman and Karen A. Kapsanis ................................ 56 0 WASTE HANDLING AND DISPOSAL by Bernard R. Appleman ................................................... 573 OTHER REGULATIONS AFFECTING PROTECTIVE COATINGS by Bernard R. Appleman and Monica Madaus .................................. 580 ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................ 595 DEFINITIONS ............................................................... 596 STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS REFERENCED IN VOLUME 1 ................. 619 UNITS CONVERSION CHART ................................................. 629 ............................................................................ 630 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

SSPC TITLESA tX 9 8627940 0003427 353 FOREWORD Coatings for structural steel have been called the principal means of protecting our principal construction material-steel-from its principal weakness-corrosion. This technology has been the subject of an intensive program by the Steel Structures Painting Council since 1950. The purposes of the SSPC are to assess and advance the technology of surface preparation and coating of industrial structures by conducting research, developing standards, and disseminating information: More specifically: 1. To instigate and carry on laboratory and field investigations of techniques to mitigate corrosion through the use of protective coatings; 2. To develop standards, specifications, and guides covering techniques and materials of surface preparation and coating of structures; and 3. To organize and communicate information intended to further improve and make more effective the protection of industrial structures. I. THE THIRD EDITION The first undertaking of the Council was the preparation of Volume 1 of the Steel Structures Painting Manual. It has been revised since then to incorporate new information. This third edition of Volume 1, Good Painting Practice is primarily an editorial revision and update. A complete technical revision of the volume will take several years. In the interim, several chapters have been added and several have been revised to reflect changes in the industrial painting industry since 1982. One of the most important changes since that time has been the increased attention health and safety and environmental regulators have focused on the industry. In addition to their other duties, specifiers and users must now be familiar with hazardous waste, air pollution control and other regulations. Worker safety has also become a concern. In recognition of the increased importance of these issues to painting concerns, an environmental chapter and a health and safety chapter have been added to the third edition. Concern about environmental and health effects has also led to major changes in the kinds of paint the industry uses. Lead- and chromate-based paints, once a mainstay of the industry, are being rejected in favor of less toxic paints. Most military and federal specifications for lead- and chromatebased paints have been canceled. SSPC has recently proposed to withdraw its specifications for lead-based paint and is re-examining specifications for paints containing chromate pigments. At the same time, paints are being reformulated to meet air pollution control requirements, and the recent amendmentsto the Clean Air Act will accelerate this process. The tables in this volume have been revised in light of these new realities. Because the list of specifications in the back

of Volume 2, Systems and Specifications has been enthusiastically received, we have added such a list to Volume 1. Like its predecessors, the third edition is written from the coating end user s point of view and not that of the paint technologist or scientist. Volume 1 should be considered a companion to Volume 2. Volume 1 was intentionally designed to include some duplication between chapters. This tends to make each chapter as complete as possible for the industry being covered, to present shades of opinion with regard to various controversial matters, and to spare the reader the necessity of large amounts of cross-referencing. When such cross-referencing is necessary, however, it is expedited by the detailed Index, Glossary, Table of Contents and Specification list. Each chapter attempts to be a balanced presentation in which each author has been given the benefit of the viewpoints of the outstanding leaders in his particular specialty, usually representing buyer, supplier, applicator, manufacturer, contractor, maintenance engineer and engineer-architect. The focus, of course, has been on coatings for structural steel rather than factory-applied enamels. II. ABOUT THE SSPC The SSPC is a professional technical society whose primary objective remains to improve the technology and practice of protecting structures through the application of coatings. Headquarters and laboratories of the SSPC are located in Pittsburgh. SSPC membership is open to both individuals and organizations, but SSPC services are not restricted to its membership. These services include consensus standards developed by technical committees, to help industry define and use good painting practice, a wide range of publications, and annual national conference and specialty conferences and tutorials offered throughout the year. SSPC s laboratory evaluates new materials and application techniques and develops procedures for coating performance evaluation and surface characterization. SSPC s Painting Contractor Certification Program (PCCP) is a national, prequalification service developed for facility owners who hire contractors. The PCCP confirms that an industrial painting contractor has met the standards for quality set forth in SSPC-QP-1, Standard Procedure for Evaluating Qualifications of Painting Contractors: Field Application to Complex Structures . 111. ORGANIZATION The affairs of the Steel Structures Painting Council are managed by a Board of Governors composed of sixteen (16) elected members, a non-voting Secretary and Treasurer, and additional ex-officio members appointed by the President. The board of Governors annually elects a five-person ExecuCopyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS VIII

tive Committee, consisting of the President, President-Elect, c.1.2 METALLIC COA TINGS Vice President, and two additional members from the Board C.1.2.a Painting Galva nized Steel of Governors. C.1.2.b Thermal Spray (Metallizing) The 6-member Standards Review Committee determines whether a standard is consistent with the Bylaws, mission c.1.2.c Shop-Applied Zinc (inactive) and overall best interests of SSPC and the industry before C.1.3 SOLVENTBORNECOA TINGS the standard is sent to the Board of Governors for approval. C.1.3.a C.1.3.b Coal Tar Epoxy (inactive) Chlorinated Rubber (inactive) The Executive Committee of the Board of Governors is responsible for the policy matters of the Council. It is electc.1.3.c C.1.3.d C.1.3.d.l Epoxy Polyamide (inactive) Polyurethanes Thick Film Polyurethanes ed annually, and is currently made up of the following: C.1.3.e Vinyls (inactive ) C.1.3.f Silicone-Containing Coatings (inactive) R. Dale Atkinson John F. Montle Brock Enterprises, Inc. Carboline President President-Elect C.1.3.g C.1.3.h Alkyds LOW-VOC Alkyds William M. Medford North Carolina Vice President Department of Transportation c.1.4 WATERBORNE COATINGS Bernie Beethe R. Wayne Beason Bernie Appleman Company American Steel & Aluminum Co., Inc. Texas Eastman SSPC Secretary (Ex Officio) C.1.4.a C.1.4.b C.1.4.c Waterborne Epoxies Water Miscible Coatings Latex Coatings Richard Benton Bob Washburne Dave Watson Barbara Fisher SSPC Treasurer (Ex Officio) C.1.5 SPECIAL USE COATINGS The following also served as members of the Board of Governors at the time of publication:

C.1.5.a C.1.5.b C.1.5.c Aluminum-Pigmented Coatings Marine Coatings Weathering Steel coatings (inactive) Steve Delich Steve Draskovich Gary Tinklenberg Fred Beckmann Joseph L. Buerger Ed Darrimon Tom Dunkin, II The American Institute of Steel Construction Procter & Gamble Company Bay Area Coating Consulting Co Dunkin and Bush C.1.5.d C.1.5.e C.1.6 C.1.6.a C.1.6.b C.1.6.c Surface Tolerant Coatings Coatings Under Fireproofing (inactive) Coatings & Linings for Concrete Concrete Coatings Floor Toppings for Concrete Coatings For Secondary Containment Tim Race Tim Leise Tim Leise Bob Ketterlin Tim Hyde Alan Holub Marcel M. Gaschke CIBA-GEIGY (Ex Officio) c.2-SURFACE PREPARATION E. Crone Knoy Tank Industry Consultants, Inc c.2.0 Surface Preparation Steering Ken Trimber Richard Lavergne Transocean Anti- c.2.1 Abrasives Bill Hitzrot corrosion, Inc c.2.2 Abrasive Blast Cleaning (inactive) Michael J. Masciale Mark S. Schilling Steven L. Schmidt Kenneth A. Trimber Charles H. Wyatt Valspar Corporation Unocal Corporation Porter International KTA-Tator Enviro-Air Corporation C.2.3 C.2.4 C.2.5 C.2.6 Power Tool Cleaning

Wet Blast Cleaning Visual Standards Industrial Blast Cleaning Duane Bloemke Jerry Woodson Lydia Frenzel Ken Trimber Ken Trimber Technical Committees are standing or ad-hoc groups asC.2.7 C.2.7.a Soluble Salt Contamination Chloride Extraction Simon Boocock William Johnson signed to address a specific or general technical topic within the scope of SSPC. Activities of technical committees include developing consensus standards and providing fo-g&3 APPLICATION, INSPECT ION, AND QUALITY CONTROL rums for exchange of information on pertinent technical issues. Technical committees are open to those interested in participating in the above activities, including members and non-members of SSPC. C.3.0 C.3.1 C.3.2 c.3.3 Application Steering Application Methods Paint Thickness Measurement Inspection TBA TEA Forrest Couch Dean Berger Dick Drisko c.3.4 Quality Assurance Nick Kozuska COMMITTEES AND CHAIRMEN Stan Gillard (1993) c.3.5 Applicator Pre-Qualification Ralph Trallo Eric Kline Number Name Chair 0 METHODS FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE -c.1 COATING MATERIALS C.4.1 Maintenance Painting TEA c.1.0 Coatings Steering Mary McKnight C.4.2 Performance Evaluation Mary McKnight c.1.1 Zinc-Rich (Unit) Dan Griffin c.4.3 New Specifying Methods (inactive) C.l.l .a ZR Performance Specs (inactive) Gerald Evarts c.4.4 Economics AI Roebuc k C.l.1.b ZR Topcoating Systems Gary Tinklenberg Gordon Brevoort C.l.l .c ZR Preconstruction Primers (inactive) John Peart Dick Drisko Joe Butler AI Kay AI Roebuck AI Beitelman Dick Wakefield Dean Berger Dick Hergenrother Jeff Jarboe

Bill Johnson Clive Coady Susan Simpson Marcel Gaschke --`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--SSPC TITLEfA ft m 8627940 0003428 2îT m Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS IX

SSPC TITLEmA ** 8b27940 0003429 126 c.4.5 C.4.6 c.4.7 C.4.8 c.4.9 c.5 C.5.0 C.5.1 C.5.1.a C.5.l.b C.5.1.c C.5.l.d C.5.1.e C.5.1.f C.5.2 c.5.3 C.5.3.a C.5.3.b C.5.3.d c.5.4 C.5.4.a -C.6 C.6.0 C.6.1 C.6.2 C.6.4 C.6.3 C.6.5 C.6.6 C.A C.A.l C.A.2

C.A.4 NACEISSPC JOINT TASK GROUPS SSPC/NACE TG A NACEISSPC TG B SSPCINACE TG C SSPCINACE TG D SSPCINACE TG E NACEISSPC TG F --`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--Bridge Painting Research John Peart Protective Linings Wallace Cathcart Tank Painting (inactive) Pulp & Paper Industry Dennis Justice Accelerated Testing Simon Boocock ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY COMPLIANCE Environmental, Health and Safety Steering Dan Adley IV. PUBLICATIONS The Council makes available the results of its research, surveys and specifications work in a wide range of reports, manuals, conference proceedings and training videotapes which are listed in its publications sheet and which include, in addition to Volumes 1 and 2, the following: Individual specifications from Volume 2 on surface preparation, painting systems, paints, application, safety, thickness and maintenance; Photographic standards for surface preparation and degree of rusting; SSPC National Conference proceedings, covering protective coatings, surface preparation and compliance with environmental and health and safety regulations; Reports on laboratory and full coating performance evaluation, influence of soluble salts, accelerated testing and maintenance of weathering steel; Lead paint removal manuals, conference proceeding and reports; Video tape training on Abrasives, Protective Coatings, and Application. Bernard Appleman John Keane Dean Berger Harold Hower September 1993 Safety and Health Worker Protection Task Group (TG) Guidelines for Contract Documents Respiratory Protection TG Safety and Health Guideline TG Technical Peer Review Lighting in Containment TG Regulations & Litigation

Hazardous Paint Removal and Disposal Lead Paint Containment Lead Paint Disposal Ambient Air Monitoring for Lead Paint Abatement VOC Performance Reg-Neg Task Group EDUCATION AND CERTIFICATION Education & Certification Steering Education Main Education Objectives & Curriculum Review Certification Requirements PCCP Advisory Local Chapter Education Policy Local and National Painter ComDetitions ADMINISTRATIVE Local Chapters National Conferences Volume 1 Revision Dan Adley Scott Ecoff Richard Thompson Bill Dixon Frank Pokrwyka Doug Stephens Richard C. Miller James A. Giese John Baker Lloyd Smith Ken Trimber Lloyd Smith Vincent Coluccio Bob Klepser Bob Klepser Steve Pinney Steve Pinney Harold Hower Ron Hayden Ralph Trallo Mark Schilling Richard LaVergne Ed Feige1

Rose Mary Surgent Terry Sowers Ken Trimber Fred Lichtenstadter Carroll Steely Jerry Woodson Carroll Steely Lydia Frenzel Sy Solomon TBA Tom Aldinger Abrasive Blasting Thermal Cleaning Wet Abrasive Blasting Water Jetting Solvent Cleaning Surface Preparation of Concrete Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS X

SSPC TITLEtA tt 8627740 0003430 948 BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY Dr. Bernard R. Appleman has been the Executive Director of the Steel Structures Painting Council since 1984. In this position, he is responsible for organizing and managing operations of a technical society whose activities encompass research, development of industry standards, and dissemination of technical information via reports, presentations, training programs and conferences. He has directed and coordinated numerous projects in coatings performance evaluations, surface preparation techniques, development of specifications and guides, and lead paint removal and abatement. His past work experience includes work as a CorrosionlCoatings Specialist for Exxon Research and Engineering Company. From 1977 to 1982, he was Project Manager, Coatings, for the Federal Highway Administration. He also worked as a Research Chemist for the Naval Ship Research and Development Center. BIOGRAPHY de Nemours and Company. Mr. Keane is a member of various honorary societies, including Tau Beta Pi, Phi Lambda Upsilon, Pi Nu Epsilon and Alpha Chi Sigma. He has served as director of several civic and religious organizations and is the author of approximately 60 scientific and technical publications and 30 technical disclosures. He has represented the United States at three international symposia and conferences on coatings. He served as a consultant, advisor, chairman, or active committee member in many societies, including the American institute of Steel Construction, the American Iron and Steel Institute, the Canadian Institute of Steel Construction, the Painting and Decorating Contractors of America, the Steel Plate Fabricators Association, the Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology, the American Society of Association Executives, the National Paint and Coatings Association, the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE), the American Society for Testing and Materials, the Transportation Research Board, the International Organization for Standardization, and the American National Standards Institute. He is a Certified Manufacturing Technologist (Coatings), a NACE Corrosion Specialist, and a registered professional engineer (by examination) in the states of Illinois, Pennsylvania and California. Dean M. Berger received his B.S. degree at North Central College and did advance studies

at the University of Wisconsin. He has had over 20 years of research experience at PPG Industries, and eight years at Union Carbide Research. Beginning in 1974, he worked for GilbetVCommonwealth, advising engineers and architects on the application and use of coatings. In 1988 Mr. Berger retired from Gilbert Associates and formed his own coatings consulting firm, Berger Associates Inc., of Leola, Pennsylvania. He has attained specific expertise in zinc rich coating technology, epoxy, coal tar epoxy, urethane, and vinyl coating systems. He has been a member of the Steel Structures Painting Council since 1960, chairman of the Epoxy Advisory Committee, and CoChairman of both the Research Committee and the Inspection Committee. He was chairman of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee 0-1.46 on Industrial Protective Coatings. He is the Executive Director of the Board of Registration of Nuclear Safety-related Coating Engineers and Specialists, and a member of ASTM Committee D-33 on Coatings for Power Generation Facilities. Mr. Berger is a recipient of the Man-of-the-Year Award from the Washington Paint Technical Group, and belongs to the Gallows Bird Society. In 1957 Mr. Berger was President of the Pittsburgh Society for Coatings Technology Corrosion Committee, and of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE). He is also a director of the Institute of Applied Technology, and a member of the American Water Works Association Committee D102. Mr. Berger is a licensed Professional Engineer in California, a Nuclear-Safety-Related Coatings Engineer, and a NACE Corrosion Specialist. He has published over 100 technical articles and presented many papers on coating technology. BIOGRAPHY Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS XI

SSPC TITLE*A Y* öb27940 0004097 T30 XII Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

CHAPTER 1.0 INTRODUCTION by SSPC Staff This Third edition of the Steel Structures Painting Manual, GoodPainting Practice, also known as Volume 1, carries forward the mission of the Steel Structures Painting Council: 1. To instigate and carry on laboratory and field investigations of techniques to mitigate corrosion through the use of protective coatings; 2. To develop standards, specifications, and guides covering techniques and materials of surface preparation and coating of structures; and 3. To organize and communicate information intended to further improve and make more effective the protection of industrial structures. The first edition appeared in 1954 and the revised issue in 1964.The new edition is a technical update and editorial revision of the work that for nearly 40 years has been the bible in protective anti-corrosion coatings. Its aims remain the same as that of the original: the manual is written from the viewpoint of paint users; it is not intended to be a scientific or highly technical treatise on paint formulation, but rather a practical encyclopedia on painting methods, equipment, and systems that in the recent past have proved to be both economical and satisfactory. The manual is still appropriate to the varied audiences using it: contractors, engineers, specifiers, formulators, inspectors, suppliers, technicians, maintenance painters, users, and manufacturers. Given this wide audience with different levels of understanding about the subjects of the manual, it is necessary to present some material in a general rather than a detailed way, although some chapters have always been more detailed than others because the subject demanded it. I. PRINCIPAL CHANGES Volume 1 is intended as a companion to Volume 2, Systems and Specifications . The latter was revised in 1991. Like Volume 2, it now includes a list of specifications referenced throughout the book. During the last decade, there has been a tremendous increase in the number and the complexity of environmental and health and safety regulations. These regulations now apply in some way to most coating operations. Often, many different aspects of the same omperation are affected by a number of different regulations. A new chapter has been added to cover the aspects of environmental regulations that affect suppliers, specifiers, and contractors most: air pollution issues, particularly the

recent Clean Air Act Amendments, hazardous waste disposal as well as the requirements of the Toxic Substances Control Act, and requirements of the Clean Water and Safe Drinking Water Acts. While worker safety regulations have not grown at the same rate as environmental regulations, greater attention has been focused on health and safety aspects of coating operations, particularly exposures to lead. A revised health and safety chapter addresses the most important health and safety regulations facing coating applicators. Issues associated with exposure to lead in industries such as the coating industry are sufficiently distinct from those in general industry that OSHA recently issued a standard specifically addressing such exposures in the construction industry. Those in the coating industry must also be concerned with exposures to solvents, safety when working at heights, the flammability of solvents and coatings and communicating chemical hazards to workers. II. THE EDITORIAL PROCESS All sections of the manual were reviewed to identify needed changes. Leading authorities in their fields were asked to review and update selected chapters. Some aspects of the coating industry have changed more than others. William D. Corbett revised Chapter 6.0, Inspection . Gordon Brevoort revised Chapter 8.0, Comparative Painting Costs and John Tock revised Chapter 24.0 Painting Navy Ships . Dick Drisko rewrote chapter 22.0, Painting of Galvanized Steel. All specifications that have been canceled or fallen into disuse have been deleted from tables recommending paint for particular uses. Several recent SSPC specifications have been added, and specification for paints using lead pigments have been deleted. 111. USING THE MANUAL The reader of the Manual may wish to take advantage of several features that may be helpful: the Table of Contents, Index, Glossary, Metric Conversion Table and List of Referenced Specifications. The Index, for example, makes it possible to find both specialized information on a particular industry, and information applicable to most or all coating operations. --`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 1

SSPC CHAPTER*L.O 93 8627740 0003432 710 = --`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--Definitions common to most industries and practices are scientific to engineerin g to jargon in legitimate use in spegiven in the Glossary. Even in these, considerable variation cial contexts. Prop rietary names have been avoided exists within the standardizing bodies in the VariOUS indus- whenever a term cou ld be described in any other way. tries involved. Whenever deemed necessary, definitions are included with the textual material, since terms range from Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 2

O. CORROSION PROCESSES Understanding the process of corrosion provides the key to steps that may be taken to prevent the reaction from occurring and to identify the role that paint can play in . ideally to zero.) to the most common form of iron ore (hematite).SSPC CHAPTER*L-L 93 8627940 0003433 b57 CHAPTER 1. eventually. Appropriate conditions yield two other oxidized forms. La Que This chapter describes how steel corrodes. The principal difference. the discussion presents an explanation that will be useful to those who design and develop innovative protective coatings and to others who must put into practice the technology of coating systems. ENERGY EXCHANGE Steel corrodes in reaction with its environment because of the thermodynamically unstable condition of iron after it has been extracted from its ores. between reduction from ore and eventual conversion into rust by corrosion is not the amount of energy required but the rate of reaction. Effects of such mill scale must be taken into account in preparing and painting steel to prevent corrosion. I.1 CORROSION OF STEEL SIMPLIFIED THEORY by F. Let us examine first the processes involved in the corrosion reactions that paint coatings will be required to suppress. All three of these oxides are components of the mill scale formed on steel by oxidation at temperatures encountered in the manufacture of steel into structural shapes and plates. Rust is similar in appearance and practically identical in composition (Fe. The principal function of a paint coating is to reduce the rate of corrosion in the environment and the area of the metal involved as much as possible. one of which has the same chemical composition as a principal form of iron ore magnetite (Fe304). Because corrosion is the fundamental problem of coatings technology. II. The other is the lowest oxide of iron. Reduction of iron from its state as an oxide in ore requires energy in the reduction process. Fortunately. The fundamental laws of nature governing conservation of energy require that. ambient environmental corrosion of iron proceeds much more slowly than high temperature oxidation. Feo. In the case of iron (steel) the oxidized state usually appears as rust. balance must be restored by return of the unstable metal to its oxidized state.L. in terms of energy.

as at pores. Such isolation is the most important function of a paint coating. zinc.~) that corrosion is the result of an electrochemical process involving an anodic reaction. the flow of current in the external circuit is opposite the electron movement. Here. The anode in a corrosion cell is analogous to the negative zinc electrode in an ordinary dry cell battery. The cathode is analogous to the positive carbon electrode in such a cell.g. The electrons generated by the cell move in the external circuit from the zinc electrode (-) to the carbon electrode k(+). and therefore Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 3 .~. THE MECHANISM OF CORROSION It has been well established by experimental demonstrati~n(~. some constituents of a coating can suppress the rate of corrosion reactions where complete isolation is not achieved either generally or locally. the metal goes into solution as an ion. also. if the metal can be isolated from a corrosive environment. In addition. Consequently. 111. hydrogen ions in acid solutions. This is true even if a coating is unable to isolate the metal from its environment. One factor is the condition of the thin. to the possibility that a constituent of a coating might actually accelerate a corrosion reaction. air-formed oxide films that exist on dry steel. Obviously.achieving this recul t. Consideration must be given. Whether a particular area of a steel surface will act as an anode or a cathode will be determined by a number of factors. to the cathode. By convention. carbon.~. no corrosion reaction can occur. The current flows in the electrolyte inside the battery cell from the anode.~. what happens at discontinuities in a coating as related to the processes of corrosion requires special consideration. Such films when they are intact induce a modest level of passivity that makes the film-covered surfaces more noble than. or by reduction of oxygen in solution in neutral or alkaline solutions. Experience has shown that corrosion in the presence of a paint coating is likely to be much more serious where it is localized at discontinuities in a coating rather than where it occurs in a more general attack under a coating.~. e.~. and acathodic reaction takes place where the electrons released by the anodic reaction are discharged to maintain electrical neutrality by reaction with ions in solution. scratches or other discontinuities (holidays) in a coating.

in exceptional cases.cathodic to.(electrons) + . Anodic areas can be established also by variations in the dissolved oxygen concentration of a solution in different zones on the steel surface. But a division between anodic and cathodic surfaces persists with the cathodic areas at any time being protected from corrosion by currents flowing from adjacent anodic areas. the presence of contamination on the surface of the steel. and. As time progresses. The difference in corrosion potential that can be created by this mechanism on a steel surface can exceed 100 mV. about 50% of the surface has been corroding as an anode with the remaining cathodic surfaces showing little or no evidence of attack. there is breakdown of the protective films on the original cathodic surfaces so that corrosion spreads eventually over the whole surface. These variations can give rise to what is called an oxygen concentration cell in which current will flow from an anodic area in contact with the solution having the low concentration of dissolved oxygen to a cathodic area in contact with the solution having the higher concentration. ordinarily. Other factors in establishing anodic areas are differences in crystal orientation. Observations of steel surfaces after immersion in water for several days have shown that. which cause rupture of protective oxide films by plastic deformation. adjacent surfaces where a less protective film may exist. the effects of stresses above the elastic limit of the metal. The anodic and cathodic reactions in the corrosion of iron can be written as follows: At the anode where the metal goes into solution Fe (solid) Fe++ (ion) + 2e.

Y \CATHODE FIGURE 1 It may be possible under some circumstances to pre--`. In the case of steel. and an electron acceptor..`. rust Fe. the metal..O or O..`. The essential requirements for the electrochemical reactions in corrosion are. Iron ions (Fe++) released by the anodic reaction interact with hydroxyl (OH-) ions generated by cathodic reactions to form Fe(OH).. + 2 H. What we need to control.O. a thermodynamically unstable metal.. Galvanic Corrosion Induced by Passivation The change in potential of steel as a result of passivation. achieved for example by contact with passivating pigments such as red lead and chromates. iron.At the cathode 2H' (hydrogen ions) + 2e--H. hydrogen ions or dissoIved oxygen. and.`. eventually. can create galvanic couples between the passivated iron under the paint film and adjacent unpassivated iron at bare spots. Oxygen reaching the precipitated Fe(OH). We have the metal that we wish to protect from corrosion. Figure 1 helps to illustrate the process of corrosion. an electrical conductor. water or another conductive solution.`--vent corrosion by interfering with the anodic reaction by a process called passivation or reduction of the tendency of the iron to go into solution. an electrolytic conductor of ions. 4 IcATHODE.. near the boundaries of anodic and cathodic areas. reacts with it to form Fe(OH). or by reducing the concentration of electron acceptors such as hydrogen ions or dissolved oxygen. is the availability of an electrolyte.O + 4e--4 OH. The result would be galvanic acceleration of corrosion of . This is best accomplished by an isolating barrier such as paint. (air) + 2e--.`-`-`.(hydroxyl ion) The hydroxyl ions generated by cathodic reactions can contribute to degradation of paints subject to attack by alkali. passiva tion usually is accomplished by very thin adherent oxide films which change the corrosion potential of the iron in the more noble direction (towards gold in the electromotive series). (gas) or 2H' + %O. therefore.. therefore.H.

fact that an electrolyte be present for corrosion of a paint coating is to water or moisture to the (water or to occur. Details of these processes will be described in other chapters of this book. For the present it will suffice to note that penetration of water or moisture is accompanied by poor adhesion of the coating to the metal. The benefit of passivating the bare spot by a pigment will more than offset the galvanic effect of passivation under the paint film. with no more than the thin film of electrolyte with limited electrical conductivity that will exist on surfaces exposed only to the atmosphere. complete or partial immersion. the prinprovide a barrier to underlying metal Transfer of water or moisture through a paint coating can occur by water absorption by a coating or by transfer of water vapor through a coating. leading to the phenomenon of electroendosmosis5 with resulting blisters adjacent to cathodic areas. For this reason it Was been proposed that passivating pigments be excluded from paints used to protect steel under conditions of continuous or frequent. a significant galvanic effect on a bare spot need not be anticipated. Such action may be accentuated further by the superimposed effects of electrical currents created by corrosion. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . For this reason passivating pigments such as zinc chromate are beneficial rather than harmful in paints used for protection of steel in atmospheric exposures. However. In view of the moisture) must cipal function penetration of surface.the exposed iron. This permits osmotic effects to operate through the coating acting as a membrane and thereby results in the development of blisters.

The extent of corrosion at an anodic area will be determined by the magnitude of the current generated by the local reactive corrosion cell. The potential of the cathodic surfaces drifts towards that of the anodic surfaces as a result of accumulation of the products of the cathodic reactions. The most important of these factors is the location of the cathodic areas in the corrosion reaction. pores. to examine the factors related to attack at bare spots. The latter is affected by the rates of evolution of hydrogen as a gas or. the rate at which oxygen in solution can react with . It will be governed by Ohm s law: Equation 1 where I = corrosion current E = difference in potential between anodic and cathodic surfaces R = resistance of the circuit When current flows in a corrosion cell. or adjacent to. The potential of the anodic surfaces drifts towards that of the cathodic surfaces as a result of an accumulation of corrosion products.L 93 m 8627940 0003435 42T m IV.SSPC CHAPTER*L. the initial potential difference E is reduced by what is called polariza tion. Possible locations of cathodic surfaces are shown diagrammatically in Figure 2. It is convenient. more importantly in applications of steel. scratches or other bare spots. therefore. CORROSION AT DISCONTINUITIES IN A PAINT FILM As noted previously. corrosion of steel associated with paint films is most troublesome at.

As a result. It will be reduced further by an increase in the resistance of the circuit. POSSIBLE LOCATIONS OF CATHODES IN CORROSION CELLS AT BARE SPOTS IN A PAINT COATING ON STEEL ELECTROLYTE 7 1 AN OTHER METAL PRIMER (I) At Base Coating (2) At Surface of Coating (3)At Base of Primer (4) At Other Metal Surface FIGURE 2 EFFECTS OF POLARIZATION AND RESISTANCE ON CORROSION CURRENTS I I I il 1 I 1 1 Corrosion Current Corrosion CurrZnt Limited by Resistance Limited by Polarization and Polarization FIGURE 3 As a result of polarization the original potential of the anode PA will be reduced by a factor Ap. Figure 3 illustrates the potential shifts that result from polarization. Anodic corrosion cannot occur at a rate higher than that accommodated by the cathodic reaction. and the original potential of the cathode PC will shift towards that of the anode by a factor Cp. As indicated. polarization limits the amount of current that can flow. In most applications of painted steel the extent of cathodic polarization will determine the rate of the overall corrosion reaction. the effective potential difference (E) in equation 1 will become: (PA -Ap) -(PC + Cp) and equation 1 becomes: .electrons reaching cathodic surfaces after release by the anodic reaction.

the resistance of the electrolyte or whatever else occupies the discontinuity (D) in the coating (RDt).I = (PA -Ap) -(PC + Cp) Equation 2 R Let us now examine the factors that determine the magnitude of the resistance A. This automatically limits the area that can act as a cathode and. Combining all these component elements. the resistance of the solution or film of moisture outside the discontinuity (RL). by increasing the cathode current density. as the dimensions of the Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 5 . the resistance factor R becomes: RDt + RL + RCt and equation 2 becomes: I = (PA -Ap) -(PC + Cp) Equation 3 RDt + RL + RCt Now let us examine possible effects of the location ot the cathode on the corrosion reaction at the base of the discontinuity. Location 1 in Figure 2 assumes that both the anodic and cathodic reactions will have to occur at the base of a pore or other discontinuity in a coating. These will include. and the resistance of the paint coating (C). The resistance of the metallic electron path is sufficiently low to be neglected. The factor t in (RDt) and (RCt) takes into account the fact that the resistance of the electrolyte within a discontinuity and the resistance of a coating will increase as the thickness of the coating is increased. increases favorably the value of the term Cp in equation 3. (RCt). Even more importantly. consequently. in series.

This supports the recommendation that . the discontinuity becomes clogged with rust (Fe203) which has a very high electrical resistance. becomes important only if the cathode of the corrosion reaction exists underneath the coating. Cp in equation 3. favorable factors will be the thickness of the coating t and the resistance of the coating to water absorption and moisture penetration as well as its basic electrical resistance characteristics. A cathode created under a coating by the passivating action of primers containing inhibitive pigments such as red lead or chromates will have a low potential.SSPC CHAPTERsL-L 93 H 8627940 000343b 3bb discontinuity decrease and the thickness of the coating increases. especially if the application involves exposure under conditions of immersion. The factor RL covering the resistance of the solution or film of moisture explains why corrosion is likely to be more severe in sea water than in fresh water and under conditions of immersion as compared with atmospheric exposure. but subsequently found to have many very small pores. In such circumstances. the electrical resistance of the coating. Figure 2). sulfur dioxide or other pollutants can promote more corrosion than dry. Cp. unpolluted atmosp heres. the discontinuity resistance factor RDt may increase dramatically. Thus. especially when.6 The factor RCt. The rather startling 8500 to 1 range in corrosivities of atmospheres was demonstrated by a test program undertaken by ASTM. the effect is to increase the corrosion current I. In the case of the latter. humid atmospheres containing chlorides. What has just been described supports the advantage of increasing the thickness of a paint film. (location 3. The positive effect of thick coatings is shown by sea water tests of steel covered with a paint of proper thickness. as frequently occurs. and a relatively large area with low cathodic polarization. The steel showed no visible evidence of corrosion after immersion in sea water for more than a year.

The possibility of such effects produced by mill scale under paint coatings and the generally poor adherence of mechanically disturbed mill scale account for the need to remove mill scale from steel in preparation of steel for painting. This mill scale has the composition Fe. Copper ions reaching the steel surface from an antifouling paint can deposit on the steel by cementation and thereby become a powerful cathode to steel at the base of an adjacent discontinuity in a coating. It exhibits a potential that in sea water can be more than 500 mV more noble than that of bare steel. an antifouling paint system based on copper must include an effective anti-corrosive film under the anti-fouling topcoat. An essential requirement is that the zinc pigment loading be extensive enough to achieve electrical contact between the zinc particles so that they can function as effective galvanic anodes for the cathodic protection of the steel. partial or complete immersion. it is possible also to create a cathode under a paint film by migration of copper from an antifouling paint containing cuprous oxide or metallic copper. Metal exposed at discontinuities in such mill scale becomes the anode in a powerful galvanic cell with resulting severe localized attack at such anodic areas.. EFFECT OF CATHODIC PIGMENT . VI. Thus. mentioned above. This accounts for the excellent performance of zinc-rich coatings used either as primers or alone for protection of steel in marine and other severely corrosive environments. EFFECT OF ANODIC PIGMENTATION A very favorable condition can be achieved if a paint system includes zinc in either an organic or inorganic (silicate) matrix. As another example. Quite different from the thin invisible oxide films formed on steel by exposure to dry air. V. Since zinc is anodic to steel.passivating pigments should not be used in paints on steel in services involving continuous or frequent. are the relatively thick oxide scales formed on steel during high temperature manufacturing operations. an anodic potential in the opposite direction is superimposed on the steel so that the factor in the numerator of equation 3 becomes zero or even negative and consequently the corrosion current I is eliminated.O.

at the outer surface of the coating. both being immersed in an electrolyte. EFFECT OF GALVANIC COUPLES The most dangerous location of a cathode is location 4. Vil. This would be the case of painted steel in electrical contact with a more noble (cathodic) metal such as a copper or nickel alloy or stainless steel. Figure 2.It is unlikely that any paint system would create a cathode at location 2. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 6 . Dangers from this source have restricted the use of antifouling paints based on metallic copper pigment. But the best practice would be to paint both metals in the galvanic couple so as to eliminate both galvanic and normal corrosion. The next best choice would be to paint the more noble (cathodic) member of the couple and leave the steel bare. this could happen in the case of an antifouling paint sufficiently loaded with copper powder or flake to form an effective copper cathode. It would be much better to leave the steel bare and tolerate the extent of the broadly spread galvanic corrosion that would result. over 500 mV between the steel and the more noble metal. Such a situation would provide a cathode much larger than the very small anodes exposed at discontinuities in a paint film and with a large potential difference between the anode and the cathode (EA -EC). The resulting galvanic corrosion would result in fairly rapid penetration (pitting) of the steel. however. Figure 2. Painting the anodic (steel) member of such a galvanic couple will aggravate rather than minimize galvanic corrosion of the steel.

L 93 8b27940 0003437 2T2 = Discontinuities in a coating on the cathodic member can be tolerated in view of the small area of cathode that would become involved. The electrical resistance of the coating (RCt) plays an important role in cathodic protection by increasing the throwing power of the usually relatively small anodes by enabling the protective current to extend for greater distances from the current source. CATHODIC PROTECTION USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH PAINTS Cathodic protection can be achieved using either galvanic anodes (zinc. VIII. the effect of the impressed current is to eliminate or change the direction of the potential difference in the numerator of equation 3. An interesting form of galvanic corrosion has been encountered in oil production systems in the North Sea. This can be particularly serious if the galvanic effect is concentrated at discontinuities in a paint coating. aluminum or magnesium) or impressed current systems as the source of the protective current. In addition to the throwing power effect.SSPC CHAPTER*L. a paint system reduces the current required for cathodic protection by as much as 100to 1. Here. Coatings to be used on cathodic surfaces must be able to tolerate the alkali generated by cathodic reactions. The galvanic cell generated in this way can accelerate the corrosion of the outside steel. It has been found that under severe service conditions a combination of a good paint system and cathodic protection is better than either one alone. steel drilling and production structures are associated with very large concrete vessels used for storage of oil. its use can be justified in conjunction with cathodic protection in sea water. This could be a factor in deciding whether to use a paint coating as a supplement to cathodic protection and in determining the amount of current required for cathodic protection of the steel in the concrete. depending on the condition of the paint. As in the case of cathodic protection from zinc incorporated in a paint. Cathodic protection simply substitutes electrons from an external source for the electrons otherwise generated in a corrosion cell to accommodate reduction of hydrogen ions and oxygen at the cathodic surfaces. Even when there may be no opportunity for renewal of a paint system. This is based on the . The reinforcing steel embedded in the concrete can develop films that make the reinforcing steel strongly cathodic to steel outside the concrete.

. This leads to a substantial amount of current returning to ground through the water path in parallel with the return cable path. Under such circumstances the current is forced to leave the metal at discontinuities in the coating with consequent severe localized attack. on painted ship hulls when an on-shore source of current for electrical welding on a floating ship has been provided with inadequate negative return cables. the calcareous deposits created by cathodic reactions will replace the original paint system in achieving distribution of current and maintaining the level of current required for protection. in the course of time.probability that. As measured by weight loss after exposure in certain corrosive atmospheres for 10 years. for example. usually rare. Sulfur has the greatest detrimental effect. Potential measurements can be used. It is assumed that protection of steel has been achieved when its normal potential in sea water of about -600 mV has been raised to -850 mV. which can be compensated for by the presence of copper in an amount greater than the sulfur content. A conservative maximum polarized potential would be about -1000 mV versus a saturated calomel half cell. Copper. One such electrode is a saturated calomel half cell. The protective qualities of such rust films are affected by alloying elements and other minor constituents of steel. to avoid hydrogen blistering of paints by restricting the potential resulting from cathodic protection. nickel and phosphorus have beneficial effects. EFFECTS OF STRAY CURRENTS The advantage of a substantially intact paint film having high electrical resistance in connection with cathodic protection is reversed in situations. O Paint systems used with cathodic protection not only must tolerate attack by cathodic alkali. Combinations of favorable alloying elements are more effective than the same content of a single beneficial element. low-alloy steels. EFFECTS OF COMPOSITION OF STEEL Self-limiting forms of rust can offer protection to steel under certain conditions of atmospheric exposure. X. as well. This is the case with the so-called high-strength. but must be protected from the danger of blistering by hydrogen which can result from too high a cathodic current density. This has been observed. IX. Cathodic protection is usually monitored and controlled by measurement of the potential of the protected metal. chromium. This potential is measured relative to that of an appropriate bench mark reference electrode. where painted steel immersed in an electrolyte becomes involved in the passage of a stray electrical current. The effect is to increase greatly the anodic potential AP in equation 3 leading to a high corrosion current l concentrated at discontinuities in the coating.

The advantage of the low-alloy steels is even greater when the steels are painted. Painted specimens of a steel of very low copper content have poor resistance to a marine atmosphere as compared with a better steel containing about 0. Further improvement was achieved by a phosphating Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 7 . nickel.these steels showed an advantage over ordinary steel in a ratio of about 4 to 1or greater. chromium and phosphorus.20% copper and an even better steel containing copper. . The alloy steel suffered much less spreading of corrosion adjacent to the scribe marks in the paint.* as illustrated by Figure 4.

while the voluminous hydrated rusts that form on steels under conditions of immersion do not exhibit a similar difference in protective ability. Arnold Eickhoff.C. Furthermore. of Canada). (formerly International Nickel Co. as described in the following chapter. Clive Hare. William Hitzrot. and William Wallace.2%Cu Steel Cr-Ni-Si-Cu-$ Steel FIGURE 4 Effect of Surface Treatment on Painted Steels Exposed Eight Months in Atmosphere 80 Feet from the Ocean at Kure Beach. William Mathay. Chuck Munger. XI. was often called a pioneer in corrosion . such as dissolved oxygen. are external to the steel rather than related to its composition. The better performance of the alloy steel in atmospheric exposure is based on the superior protective qualities of the thin film of rust that forms on the alloy steels. the principal factors that influence corrosion under water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: Roy Boyd. CONCLUSION Knowledge of the reactions involved in the corrosion of steel combined with a knowledge of how a paint system can impede these reactions and the qualities of a paint system needed to achieve the desired results. Gallagher. Melvin Sandler. Theodore Dowd. W. As measured by weight loss of scribed panels the advantage of the alloy steel over the poorest steel was in the ratio of 10 to 1. LaQue. Percy Pierce. BIOGRAPHY The late Francis L. The advantage of a low-alloy steel observed in atmospheric exposure is not duplicated under conditions of immersion. Bruno Perfetti. former Vice President of inco Ltd. The combination of the phosphate pre-treatment and alloying resulted in an improvement to a ratio of 20 to 1. effects of organisms and water velocity.1 93 = 8627940 0003438 139 = Untreoted Surface Open Heorth Iron 01% Cu Steei Cr-Ni-Si-Cu-P Steel Bonderito Troated Surface Open Hearth tron 0.SSPC CHAPTERaL.P. along with proper preparation of steel of desirable composition.. can serve as an effective guide for using protective coatings to prevent corrosion. pre-treatment of the steel before painting. N. Richard Drisko.

the Electrochemical Society from 1962 to 1963. and the international Organization for Standardization (ISO) from 1971 to 1973. retiring in 1968. as Vice President and Special Assistant to the President. the American Society for Testing and Materials from 1959 to 1960. He devoted half his life to the research and development interests of the company. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 8 .research and had a distinguished career in metallurgy. An honored member of many technical societies. LaQue served as President of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers from 1948 to 1949. Mr. He was a Fellow and Honorary Member of the American Society for Metals. the American National Standards Institute from 1966 to 1971.

2. North Carolina.L 93 W 8627940 0003439 075 He influenced several professional areas within the scope of his diversified interests. R. Coburn. 394. 1932. 1903. 39.W.H. Whitney. 1947.P.. served as chairman of the U.`. p. Roy. Ind. Dec. ind. H. U. C.`.R. Larrabee. in LaJolla.SSPC CHAPTER*Z. He is best remembered for his specialization in marine corrosion engineering and for the establishment in 1935 of the worldrenowned marine corrosion test site at Kure Beach.K. S. Soc. 68. Chem.`. Elm. Department of Commerce. He was instrumental in the formation of IS0 Technical Committee TC156. Soc.. 33. 7. Inc. Corrosion of Metals . He was a senior lecturer at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography at the University of California. 1941. --`. W. ind. p. ASTM Metal Corrosion in the Atmosphere Symposium June 1967. Brown. Lawson and 0. North Carolina.P.A. The Velocity of Corrosion from the Electrochemical Standpoint.. 4. Chem.L. Mears and R.8. The Corrosion of Iron J. The LaQue Center for Corrosion Technology. Ellis. 9. Vol.`--9 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . Larrabee. 1001. & Eng. Corrosion. 8.R. H. Part II Proc. Hoar and U. Extra Durability of Paint on Low Alloy Steels ASTM Bull.S. Evans. REFERENCES 1. Corrosion of Metals by Salt Solutions and Natural Waters an Agreed Statement.) stands as a monument to his achievements. Chem.. Boylan. Copson and C. The . T. 5. California and a professor at the University of Hawaii. p. (a corporate unit of Inco Ltd. Kettelberger and A.. Beniouah. 343.C. LaQue and J. Water Immersion Testing of Metal Protective Paints . & Eng. 1959. and as a Deputy Assistant Secretary to the US. Am. published June 1968. Wormwell. 237.`-`-`. Corrosiveness of Various Atmospheric Test Sites as Measured by Specimens of Steel and Zinc. Chem.R. Hoar and F. (A) 137.P.H.. Evans.. 1043.D. 1953. Causes of Corrosion Currents J. F. G.B. W. Vol.P. 6. Corrosion Research Council. 1938.R. T. Wrightsville Beach. 3. 242.. p.. 22.

or a phosphate conversion coating. with or without barrier coats.2 PAINTS FOR ANTI-CORROSION SERVICE by Clive H. the barrier principle may operate in a finish coat while another principle operates in the primer. These principles underline the specifics discussed in the chapters on paint materials (Chapter 4. Protective coatings may function by one or more of three mechanisms: (1) the barrier principle. alkyds.3).1).*. etc.2). Often.and zinc rich (Chapter 4. as in the case of a WP-1 wash primer5 pretreatment (SSPC-Paint 27). inhibitors (Chapter 4. For adhesion to take place. depending upon the nature of the primer vehicle3. Proceeding across this interface.).) have good wetting characteristics and show excellent physical adhesion characteristics (epoxies. Or(3) the galvanic or zinc-rich principle'. oil paints. I. and thick-film systems utilizing the barrier principle alone are widely used on buried structures.SSPC CHAPTER*L-2 93 W 8627940 0003440 897 September 1993 (Editorial Changes) CHAPTER 1. coating systems employ two of the three mechanisms in conjunction for improved effect. Any contaminant on the steel will increase the separation and decrease paint film adhesion. Inhibitive pigments are sometimes used in the finish coat as well as in the primer. Hare The chapter on corrosion has been primarily concerned with the metallic side of the metal/paint film interface. but also by chemically bound species which may themselves satisfy . ADHESION AND SURFACE PREPARATION The primer is the critical element in most coating systems because it is most responsible for preserving the metallic state of the substrate. reactive sites on steel at which adhesion can occur are masked not only by contamination.' Paint vehicles with polar groups (-OH. must be electrically contiguous with steel and are used only as primers. hydrogen bonds) that develop when two surfaces are brought closely together. and it must also anchor the total system to the steel. Much stronger chemically bonded adhesion is possible when the primer can actually react with the metal. (2) the inhibitive primer principle. etc. Zincrich coatings. review will now be made of some basic principles of paint technology as they apply to the design of protective coating systems. Moreover. This it may do in one of two ways. For instance. to work at all. -about three times the diameter of an oxygen atom. -COOH.g. Most coatings adhere to metal via purely physical attractions (e. the coating and substrate must not be separated from one another by more than appro:iimately 5 8.

and transmission of both is normally high enough so that prevention of the cathode reaction is impossible6. such passivation of underfilm surCopyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 10 . may also cause problems. Underfilm ionogenic ticularly chlorides surface preparation penetrate the film. the ionic solution from inhibitive pigments passivates the metal by increasing the polarization of the anode (Ap in equation 2 in Chapter 1. themselves. under conditions of immersion. At the interface. BARRIER PRIMERS The removal of surface contamination is important not only for adhesion. Inhibitive ions. Further degradation and loss of protective value can result from electroendosmosis generated by differences in the electrochemical potential on the metal surface at and around the film disruption. The barrier film prevents corrosion by increasing the electrical resistance (RCt) of the path of currents generated by slight differences in electrochemical potential between adjacent areas of the metal surface or between the underlying metal and another metal having a different potential. Thorough surface preparation removes such contamination. Penetration by water and oxygen does not produce a resistance low enough to maintain a corrosion current. II. but also for good corrosion resistance. However. thereby dramatically increasing the amount of surface area where adhesion can occur. differences in ionic concentration between liquids beneath and outside the film give rise to osmotic migrations of water into the film. The effect of corrosive salts such as chlorides is obvious.1). This promotes blistering and eventual film rupture. Paint films are not completely impermeable to the concentration of water and oxygen. and in- Also. and exposes many more reactive sites. however. even when the electrical resistance of penetrating moisture is reduced by absorption of ions.sites on the steel that would otherwise be available for reaction with the paint vehicle.*. they take up ion solutions only very slowly3. This keeps the electrolyte resistance relatively high and the corrosion low since corrosion is dependent upon ionic flow. Salts may also form from soluble matter within the film.'. and though most paint films take up water relatively quickly. (ion producing) materials (parand sulphates) that are left after poor can be dissolved as ion-free water. crease corrosion. the resistance of a good barrier film remains high enough to achieve an important reduction in the magnitude of the corrosion current. form conductive electrolytes. However.

Thermosetting systems such as epoxylphenolics and certain polyesters are also effective vehicles.g. these factors are overwhelmed because interstitial penetration dominates.~~'.)** with low water solubility pigments. tie coats should be used to improve adhesion between such metallic barrier films and zinc-rich primers. Vehicles with high hydroxyl or carboxyl contents (oils. Vehicle choice for barrier primers is also important. Thick films (particularly those of rigid thermosets) are less able to provide the necessary flexibility to substrate movement (e. Lamellar metallic pigmented barrier films are best used as finish coats.9. and can easily undergo adhesive and cohesive failure leading to subsequent disbondment. Lamellar pigments (leafing type aluminum) dramatically reduce ionic transmission rates. insufficiently cured films allow the penetration of much more ionic materiallo. the more severe the environment. cured uniformly. Care should be taken.V. alkyds. or the longer the requirement for protection.ll. are high molecular weight films with uniform crosslink density.C. This can result in accelerated corrosion at the bare spot. vinyls and chlorinated rubbers) are effective. with a nonmetallic primer to improve adhesion.~~. All things being equal in atmospheric service. Similarly. thicker barrier systems give better protection. however. in the application of high build systems to thin walled structures and other dimensionally unstable substrates. Good barrier films. etc) tend to attract water into the film. formulated well below the critical pigment volume concentration (C. for example.P. acrylics. High molecular weight thermoplastics (e. as shown in work by SSPC and the FSCTl8. Care must always be taken in using metal flakes (such as copper or stainless steel) to ensure complete pigment encapsulation to avoid unwanted galvanic effects. Polymer groups such as carboxyls and hydroxyls tend to foster ionic penetrati~n~~~. therefore.SSPC CHAPTER*L=2 93 W 8627740 000344l 723 faces can have a detrimental effect under certain conditions by accelerating the corrosion at bare spots.V. There will be a considerable difference between the potential of the unpassivated metal at a bare spot (PA in equation 2) and the relatively large areas of passivated metal (PC in equation 2) under the paint film. as are the coal tar epoxies. In general. Unlike well cured films. the greater will be the coating dry film thickness required. Such delamination has been found in rail car tank linings. As pigment volume concentration (P.)' is increased. For this reason the use of inhibitive primers (containing passivating pigments) is avoided by some formulators on surfaces submerged in conductive electrolytes such as salt water. expansion and contraction) than are thinner films. particularly at high builds.~~.C. .

pigment and binder) present in a coating.'Ratio of the volume of pigment to the volume of total hon-volatile material (¡. Here they modify anode andlor cathode reactions. Urethanes and epoxies may suffer from an unfavorable potlifeldrytime ratio resulting from exotherms that tend to increase reaction rate in the can but which are dissipated from the applied film. They employ a moderately slow solvent system with an efficient thixatrope to produce high wet film builds. High solids thermosets produce good barrier films. pyrogenic si Ikas. pigments are incorporated to provide a source of corrosion inhibitive ions which can be carried to the metal interface as water penetrates the film. by increasing the polarization of the cathode (Cp). There are two principal routes to such inhibition. direct inhibition. Such synthetics are more permeable than coal tar enamels applied in super thick films. or by thickening the natural oxide layer and increasing the electrical resistance across anode and cathode (increasing R). Solvent systems with high boiling aromatics or mono ethyl ether acetate are used. . High solids urethanes often have the additional problem of hygroscopicity. 111. the ionic solutions passivate the metal by increasing the polarization of the anode (increasing Ap in equation 2).e. relies on a controlled dissolution of ions from the pigment itself. One hundred mils of coal tar on buried pipelines or immersed structures used in combination with impressed current cathodic protection can reduce current requirements for cathodic protection ten thousandfold as compared to requirements for bare steeIl7. but they bring their own problems. High build epoxy systems are also effective. OrganomontmoriIlonites. "Level of pigmentation where just sufficient binder is present to fill the voids between pigment particles in the dry film. The successful use of multiple component systems is very dependent on the skill of the applicator. 11 High-build vinyl and chlorinated rubber systems of 8 mils and more make excellent barrier systems. Mixing and application instructions must be followed exactly. hydrogenated caster oi I derivatives or high molecular weight polyolefins are often used as thixatropes. THE INHIBITIVE PRIMER In this type of primer.. Minimum effect on viscosity is desirable for ease of application. Both polymers contain an inherent flexibility. The first. driving the steel potential into its passive region1a. At the interface. Application of up to 20 wet mils (5-7 dry mils) in one coat is possible.

as are the type of vehicle and its moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR). and borosilicates also protect by similar mechanisms. handling or disposing of these materials. Zinc chromate offers a moderate solubility and is extensively used. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . Highly soluble pigments (calcium chromate) are rapidly depleted. Follow all applicable health. phosphosilicates. (Chromate pigments are toxic substances. borates.Perhaps the most efficient direct inhibitives are the salts of hexavalent chromium. Pigment solubility is most important. the molybdates. Other less toxic inhibitors. phosphates. chromate inhibition is provided from such pigments as zinc potassium chromate. etc.) In paint films. while those with very low solubility (lead chromate) provide too few hexavalent chromate ions for protection. strontium chromate. Both type and loading of pigment are important. safety and environmental requirements in applying.

etc.) of the pigment system is equally important.SSPC CHAPTER*L*2 93 = 8627740 0003442 bbT tant. alkyds.V. A. Too high a ratio provides rapid dissolution of the inhibitor.C. employed in coating films at loadings that insure the film conductivity. Barrier type vehicles are less effective with inhibitive primers than the more permeable vehicles (oils.V. It must maintain zinc particle to zinc particle contact within its continuum and contact between pigment and substrate to ensure electrical conductivity within the film and across the interface. Very low ratios (low pigment content) give overly tight films and increase the tendency of the primer to blister. etc. Inhibitive primers are best restricted to environments where the penetration of chloride ions is limited.2. Chlorides and other depassivators compete with inhibitive ions for anodic adsorption. see Chapter 4. or at least increase the quantities of inhibitor needed. have the alkali resistance of vinyls. For more information on zinc-rich primers. This frequently occurs in alkyd systems where adhesion is destroyed.C. however. and can nullify inhibition. For more information on corrosion inhibitive pigments. IV. Zincrich primers based on both organic and inorganic vehicles are widely and successfully employed.C. Alkali attack occurs at cathode areas adjacent to or surrounding corroding areas (anodes).P..). The best pigment volume concentration: critical pigment volume concentration ratio is determined experimentally.) paint. ZINC-RICH PRIMERS Zinc.9: 1 is often used. will form an efficient anode of a galvanic couple with steel. Filiform corrosion of the substrate can occur. The concept is easily adaptable to practical coating systems. Alkai generated at the cathode can rapidly saponify alkalisensitive coatings. and this is a disadvantage. sacrificially corroding itself. Vehicle saponification can render a film quite water-soluble in such areas.V. see Chapter 4. Their use in immersion conditions is definitely not recommended because of the danger of osmotic blistering. ORGANIC ZINC-RICH PRIMERS The organic zinc-rich primer may be considered a special case of a high pigment volume concentration (P. and such primers are the most efficient of all. and allows corrosive ions such as chlorides from the environment to penetrate the film. and overriding local cell activity on the steel which becomes entirely cathodic and protected.3. as are the type of vehicle and its moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR). Oils and alkyds do not. but a level near 0. These re . The ratio of the primer s pigment volume concentration (P.) to the critical pigment volume concentration (C.

V.V. but not the P. therefore. Used in controlled amounts such materials may be employed to reduce zinc levels.V. Primer films will vary and reflect the properties of the vehicle type. high molecular weight linear epoxies and epoxy ester systems are used as binders. vehicles may generally be classed as either alkaline .P. but certain specific vehicles (high epoxy content) offer acceptable compositions. but chemically react with zinc ions on zinc particle surfaces forming primary bonded zinc silicate matrices.V. fixation of a zinc primer (and. Because of cathodic alkali generation at the interface..C. the P.C. These vehicles (generally silicates) do not bind zinc as do the organics. extenders. zinc settlement is possible.P. Poor physical properties. unlike the organics. the primer achieves its tightest zinc to zinc packing. and high zinc replacements have been achieved with this type of pigmentz0.: C.V.: C. Chlorinated rubber. thus obtaining a strong film.. Formulations are complicated by pigment anti-gassing agents.C. and zinc encapsulation is minimized. As presented in the SSPC-Paint 20 classification.C.C. to levels slightly higher than C. depart radically from conventional paint technology. The use of conductive extenders (di-iron phosphide) is not related to P. B.C.V. thixotropes. produces a coating having poor physical and application properties.V. its optimum zinc loading) would be simple. etc. although the coating system itself may have been quite satisfactory. Up to 15% mica has been effectively used in this way1e. particularly in single package coatings. Zinc encapsulation has ruined many jobs at the outset.. and some low in pigment. In adjusting the P.V.P. Careless application of any organic zinc-rich primer can severely change the P. This provides enough film and filmlcubstrate conductivity for good protection. INORGANIC ZINC-RICH PRIMERS Inorganic zinc-rich paints. Too high a P.P. effects. In a nonhomogenous film.V.V. ratio. epoxylpolyamides. Epoxy esters do not have quite the alkali resistance of other vehicles.C. Judicious mixing of zinc dust of different particle sizes will also assist here to provide more uniform packing.V. Even with the best thixotropes. ration in the applied film. Were zinc the only pigment. resulting in better particle contact and ultimate galvanic protection. and the coating becomes porous. Small amounts of highly oil absorbent materials markedly depress the C. some areas must surely be underbound. or zinc encapsulation (resulting in a nullification of cathodic protection) are the result.C.quirements translate to a paint formulated at a pigment volume concentration slightly above the CPVC. the vehicle must resist alkalis.C. anti-settling agents.C. The film must also display sufficient adhesion at these loadings to anchor the system to the steel. Application of organic zincrich paints must involve continuous agitation throughout the application. and maintain a P..C.

silicates (water solutions of sodium. 1. potassium. Alkali Silicates Film formation of the alkali silicates involves water Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 12 . lithium. or quaternary ammonium silicates) or alkyl silicates which may be ethyl silicate (the most common) or higher alkyl or alkoxy homologues.

This then reacts with zinc ions to form the three dimensional zincoxygen-silicon (zinc silicate) matrix. zinc levels lower than those necessary for the organics are possible with little immediate loss of performance. Some have reported that reduced zinc level products do not have as good a performance in the long term as do the 85% loaded primers's. alkoxy and hydroxy alkoxy silicates to form mixed esters pursue the same basic chemistry to provide similar film matricesz4. irrespective of the silicate used. They are quite resistant to heat. and hydrolysis of the vehicle to silicic acid by atmospheric moisture with evolution of the pertinent alcohol)z2. Single pack inorganic silicate vehicles are now generally available. Zinc levels of 70% of film weight can give acceptable performance. Other routes to single package inorganic zinc-rich primers include the use of amine-initiated hydrolysis of alkyl polysilicate~. at least) identical. Organic With inorganic primers the P. The silicic acid forms a matrix with the zinc similar to that described abovez3. As discussed in the chapter on zinc-rich paints. hydrolysis continues for some time after initial curing. The matrix of the in- . Some are modifications of silanes. Again. 3. Their films are strong. Organic moieties remain within these films and subtract from their wholly inorganic nature.C. Also. Alkyl Silicates The alkyl silicates form their matrix by an analogous route (evaporation of solvent.SSPC CHAPTER*L-2 93 8627740 0003443 5Tb W evaporation followed by neutralization of the silicate alkalinity (either by post curing solutions or by acids derived from the atmosphere such as carbonic acid) to form silicic acid.~~~~~ and the use of alkali metal alkoxide catalysis of hydroxyl free alkyl silicatesz7. 2. 4. The chemical nature of fully cured zinc silicates is (theoretically.V. Inorganic vs. and even levels of 50% (such as SSPC-Paint 29) if enhanced by other conductive pigments. Further atmospheric neutralization of residual alkali with consequent tightening of the matrix will occur with aging2'. hard. concepts must be modified. and resistant to impact and abrasion. Single-package Single-pack inorganic primers of the polyol silicate type involving ester exchange or interester exchange reactions with alkyl. the inorganic films show better performance than most organics.

thereby packing them so that the primer is sealed from the environment. it should protect. probably reflecting their higher organic content and lower surface energies. protection is still an open question. Despite their incompatibility with poorly prepared surfaces. Weathering may actually improve its physical properties. but also for good initial adhesion. the inorganics may be considered safer coatings than the organics. In practice. while others may severely mud-crack at these high builds. coating the zinc and bridging the voids within the film.. it is maintained until the zinc is again exposed by some abuse. but also they can mislead the applicator by adhering initially to poorly prepared substrates. which is possible only through intimate contact of iron and zinc (the more contact. a commercial blast being the very minimum acceptable. These phenomena are primarily responsible for long term zinc-rich protection. Alkyl silicates are rather more tolerant of poorly blasted substrates than the water-based type. in this state.organic primer film is not subject to age-related deterioration as are organic primers. Inorganics require such contact (through good surface preparation) not only for protection. Surface preparation requirements are exacting (particularly with the alkaline silicate systems). Some compositions form good films at thicknesses up to 6 mils. the better the protection). this is not the case. The porosity of zinc-rich films (particularly the . Not only are the organics subject to encapsulation. and a white or near white blast with a typical surface profile of 1 to 2 mils being more usual and often mandatory. Zinc-rich primers are normally applied at approximately 3 dry mils. As zinc corrodes. The zinc will then corrode again and be healed with corrosion product (providing that the agents of physical or chemical abuse have been removed). The film is slowly transformed from a zinc-rich primer to a barrier primer. If an inorganic sticks. which is easy to determine. Adhesion is of an exceptionally high order and has led to speculation on the formation of primary valency linkages with the substrate as well as the zinc. its corrosion products (depending upon the environment) tend to polarize the reaction. But adhesion is not protection. The mechanism of adhesion at this point is 13 unknown. and. they would rapidly break down as zinc was consumed. Secondary Mechanisms If cathodic protection were the sole mechanism of zinc-rich primers. 5. which may be initially difficult to determine. If an organic sticks.

The resultant bubbling and pinholing of applied top coats may necessitate the use of mist coats. SSPC-Paint 27) before finish coat application28. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .inorganic) can lead to problems because of air occlusion on top coating. Careful formulation of solvent system and pigmentation of the finish coat can mitigate this problem. thinned finish coats or tie coats (such as the WP-1 wash Orimer. and many manufacturers carefully tailor finish coats for bubble-free application over the zinc-rich SSPC-PS Guide 8 includes a list of such finish coats.

although adhesion at any coatinglcoating interface is usually better than at a coatinglmetallic interface. varnish-type finish coats had to be built up of successive coats to the required film thickness. Less appreciated are effects of poorly matched viscoelastic properties.~~. preconstruction primers may be recoated with a suitable primer and top coat. INTERMEDIATE AND FINISH COATS FOR STEEL A total coating system cannot be considered without regard for its external interface. Further considerations on zinc-rich primers are discussed in a separate chapter. particularly when modified with the conductive extender. High-build thermoplastics and high solids thermosets have enabled high film builds to be applied in single coats. Inflexible finishes applied over flexible primers can eventually lead to cracking on aging.c. highly dielectric. As finish coats are designed at low p. and are applied in film thicknesses as high as possible. ratios. oxidizing films.SSPC CHAPTER*L-2 93 W 8627940 0003444 432 6. they are dense. they allow easy cutting of steel and good weldability. checking. Too flexible a finish coat can actually pull an inflexible primer from the substrate. Oleoresinous./c. In any coating system. and other pitfalls. protecting steel during storage and fabrication. In thin films. Pre-Construction Primers Single component inorganic zinc-rich films make good pre-construction primers. fewer pinholes and voids. solvent induced bleeding of organic pigments from one coat to a subsequent coat. and better continuity throughout the film. compatibility between coats is critical. and play no inconsiderable part in assisting the primer in its anti-corrosive function.c. the finish coat must counteract malignancies specific to the environment in which the system must function. Statistically. high-build systems have economic advantages and careful formulation can minimize their shortcomings. Cohesive failures (cracking. di-iron ph~sphide~'. While the primer mitigates metallic corrosion.v. which may become obvious only after aging. . Unlike barrier primers.v. V.p. the finish coat must contend with the environment from which it must shield the lower elements of the total system. While thinner coats applied successively give better solvent release. because of drying time difficulties inherent in thick. After fabrication. which are designed to be recoated and thus protected from the environment. They are much like barrier primers. more coats increase the risk of intercoat failure. Compatibility can prevent solvent attack on primer films by the finish coat.

. All elements of the coating system must be matched to one another and to the substrate. high temperatures. ranging from exposure to weather and UV (ultraviolet light). blistering) can have grave consequences in anti-corrosive coating systems. The vehicle binder of the finish must bear the brunt of the environmental attack. Flexibility can be built into a system by P. thin steel siding requires a more flexible system than one applied to structural members. chemical attack. chemical attack. Finish coat selection is dictated by the environment. Primers are generally kept less flexible than succeeding coats. oxygen. copolymerization. abrasion and impact. but in-depth experience and understanding of the effects of such phenomena on molecular structure may be essential when resin systems must be mixed or synthesized to attain the desired result s. An empirical awareness of the effects of UV.C. Most design decisions should be based on the polymer chemistry of the vehicle involved.V. large temperature differentials. All elements of the environment must be considered and evaluated in terms of their relative importance to provide the best compromise system. etc. moisture. although there are considerations with regard to the primer and intermediate coat that may influence this. For instance. high and low temperatures. on individual finish coat polymers will often suffice. as does aluminum with twice the coefficient of expansion of steel.). microbiological attack. Environments vary widely.etc. or by vehicle changes including blending. adjustments. and plasticization. They may be simple or complex involving intermittent immersion. to chemical immersion. and physical abuse. popping. and adhesive failures (flaking. and extreme abra sion.

good abrasion resistance and. excellent exterior durability. LACQUERS: THERMOPLASTIC COATINGS A lacquer is simply a coating that forms its film by solvent evaporation alone. esters. and are suitable for water immersion service.An in-depth discussion of the wide ranging characteristics of each polymer type is quite beyond the scope of this chapter and is presented in a separate chapter. The following is no more than a brief discussion of those polymers commonly used in maintenance finishes. They have low water and oxy. The introduction of such aromatics may slightly upgrade the acid and alkali Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 14 . vinyl chloridelvinyl acetate copolymers or terpolymers with vinyl alcohol or maleic acid. also by concentrated organic acid. and softened by aromatics. Acrylic films have even better resistance to ultraviolet Ilght than the vinyls. Vinyls are the most common lacquers used in anti-corrosive maintenance finishes. Table 1 presents a summary of the properties of finish coat materials. Vinyl films are attacked by the solvents from which they were cast (ketones. Vinyls are distinguished by excellent acid and alkali resistance (their backbone being exclusively carbonkarbon bonds). etc. and copolymers of both acrylates and methacrylates are possible.). A. are used. gen transmission rates. when pigmented. and show long-term gloss and color retention as well as good weatherability in exterior environments. They are more suitable for polymer modification than the vinyls. Solutions of high molecular weight. Acrylics are also copolymerized with styrene and vinyl toluene.

hydrolizable plasticizers (phthalates. B. chlorinated rubbers) are quite possible and widely used. The inert chlorinated paraffins are widely used with thermoplastics. however. etc. although reference to their chemical structure will give a good general guide. latexes are dispersions (not solutions) of thermoplastic polymers in water. becoming soft and tacky. but aromaticity and unsaturation in certain species of these copolymers give poorer UV resistance. By judicious formulation with slow to medium evaporating solvents and efficient thixotropes. to the maintenance painting area as technologies dgvelop. Unlike lacquers. Further data and case histories may be obtained from the respective resin manu fact urers. Styrene is also copolymerized with butadiene. LATEX Latex systems show every possibility of expanding in. Film formation involves evaporation of water followed by coalescence of discreet particles of polymer (micelles) . but chlorinated rubber has better compatibility with other film formers than have the unmodified In any lacquer. care must be taken with selection of additives and modifiers (such as plasticizers) to suit the re quirements of the environment. Tricresyl phosphate is often used with vinyl systems. and the absence of pendent ester groups provides better chemical resistance than the acrylics. although the UV resistance is decreased. the coatings will become brittle with reduced physicals. These lacquers form films with better chemical resistance than the acrylics (all carbon-carbon backbones with the advantage of aromaticity). Heat resistance may be somewhat limited. high-build thermoplastics (vinyls. and much higher solids of very high molecular weight polymers are possible. Molecular weights are not restricted by solution viscosities. and will flow at high enough temperatures. Numerous other thermoplastics which can be employed in maintenance systems are beyond the scope of this chapter. and at low enough temperatures. Solvent resistance is not as good as the vinyls.SSPC CHAPTER+L*2 93 = 86279YO 0003445 379 a resistance of acrylics. Chlorinated rubber coatings have perhaps even lower moisture and oxygen transmission properties than the vinyls. All thermoplastics display a glass transition temperature (Tg). high-solids lacquers are not possible.) are best avoided. Where high alkali resistance is required. Because of the finite viscosity limitations of high molecular weight thermoplastics.

Great strides are being made and their excellent durability and mechanical properties indicate a bright future for latex maintenance systems in moderate environments. Alkyds make an excellent choice of vehicle in lightduty environments. Ester linkages are replaced by urethane linkages. and are difficult to recoat. The PACE program of SSPC has included the evaluation of many water-based systems. as phenolic or epoxy content of such resins increases. Unmodified oils are rarely used now except in certain specialized primers. They are slow drying and suscep tible to alkalis. . More alkali-resistant oxidizing vehicles are obtained with the phenolic varnishes and epoxy esters (epoxy resins esterified with oil fatty acids). and. fatty acids) or modification of such materials with other species. uralkyds both yellow and chalk on exterior exposure. Such systems are based on fish and vegetable oils (esters of glycerol and vegetable oil. cementitious substrates. CHEMICALLY CURING THERMOSETS Oxidizing systems are a special case of thermosetting . Still the backbone of the coatings industry. Both vehicles have better chemical resistance than either the unmodified oil or the analogous alkyd. acrylics and other resins. As with oils. D. Epoxy esters are hard.dispersed in the water. Chemical resistance is poor. epoxy esters yellow and chalk markedly during exterior exposures. the polycondensation products of multi-functional polyols and di-functional acids which are generally oil modified to give a wide variety of vehicles. and chemical and physical properties are again upgraded. and while deterioration is not progressive. but have excellent low surface energies and are perhaps the best vehicles where surface preparation is poor. styrene. resistant to abrasion. They lend themselves well to polymer modification and may be used with certain thermoplastics to provide increased gloss and adhesion. and soluble in aromatic and even aliphatic hydrocarbons. Replacing the dibasic acid with a polyisocyanate. the ester groups in the alkyd backbone are easily cleaved by alkalis. so does their chemical resistance. or for use directly over zinc-rich primers.and they are not suitable for immersion service. the alkyd becomes an oil-modified urethane or uralkyd. Thirty percent silicone modification provides finish coats that have excellent ultraviolet light resistance and exceptionally good weathering properties. Unfortunately. Like epoxy esters. Alkyds are oxidizing systems. chalking restricts usage on aesthetic grounds. alkyds have limited applications in heavy-duty maintenance. Total coalescence has never been and systems give higher moisture and oxygen transmission rates than their lower molecular weight analogues cast from solution. silicones. C. OXIDIZING SYSTEMS Oxidizing systems are thermosets which convert to three-dimensional polymeric networks by absorption of atmospheric oxygen. Alkyds may also be copolymerized with phenol. as with all epoxies.

In other cases.vehicle. water from the air will cure the vehicle. alkydlamino) both reactive oligomers are added to one can. In baking finishes (e.g. where the activator is supplied by the environment. but are selected so that Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 15 .

Epoxies are less complex than polyurethanes because of the more limited choice of reactants. give good protection against moisture and oxygen transmission. Because of the variety of possible epoxy resins and curing agents.Z 93 8627940 0003446 205 the reaction will only occur when the system is applied as a film and subjected to high temperatures (180-400°F depending on vehicle type). While polyisocyanates are generally limited to adducts of toluene diisocyanate or hexamethylene diisocyanates. Reactive vehicles are packaged separately and combined in the field just before application. ureas. polyols used in the formulation are exceptionally varied. Epoxies have less acid resistance than vinyls and chlorinated rubbers. Of these two-package systems. good chernical resistance. especially to alkalis. at 16-20dry mils or so. They are ideal coatings for areas with restricted access after application. but show good abrasion and impact resistance. epoxies show excellent adhesion. although -OH functionality is most widely used in coatings. maintenance painting systems are designed so that reactions occur at room temperature. which is not progressive and does not affect resistance properties. which. hardness. With certain coal-tar pitches. and good solvent resistance. epoxy systems give synergistically improved coatings. but poorer in solvent res istance. In general.or poly-functionality based on a hydrogen donor will react with isocyanates. Exterior durability is hampered only by a tendency to chalk and yellow. The opportunities for molecular engineering with the urethane (and its associated groups. performance capabilities will vary widely from one product to the nextJs. chemical attack and physical abuse. Chalk resistant epoxies with good color retention are now availableJ5. The properties of both systems are related to the chemical constitution of the reactants. With a given epoxy. the two most important are epoxies and polyurethanes. More commonly.SSPC CHAPTER*L. and cure response than the same resin cured with a polyamide. polyamines produce a tighter crosslinked film having greater chemical resistance. Epoxies are available in molecular weights ranging from materials which are liquid at room temperature to high molecular weight materials which may themselves be used without crosslinking as lacquers. The epoxy resin is most commonly cured in the field with polyamines or polyamides. allo- . As a molecular weight (distance between reactive Oxirane groups) of the epoxy resin increases. Polyurethane systems have an even wider variety of possible reactants. the cured material becomes more flexible. The polyamides give better flexibility. Almost any resinous material having di. water resistance and exterior durability. substituted ureas.

biurets. chromium green oxide. If both the environment and the chemistry of the pigment are understood. Metallic pigments may be attacked at either extreme of pH. Aluminum and stainless steel flakes are also ideal for high temperature coatings. while hexamethylene diisocyanate systems have exceptional light and weather resistance. design error can be avoided. all too often there is too little communication between these parent technologies and fewer attempts by scientists and engineers of either practice to cross the interface and assess the same problem from the other s perspective. PIGMENTS IN ANTICORROSIVE FINISH COATS Pigments for finish coats must also be chosen with care.) must not be used in acidic environments. Toluene diisocyanate coatings give exceptional chemical and abrasion resistance. cellulosics. Urethanes show better curing properties at low temperatures than do most epoxies. but. phenolics.c. and despite high costs are finding ever increasing markets. epoxies and other polyethers. its resistance to microbiological and biological agents such as marine foulants and mildew. Alkaline pigments (calcium carbonate. iron oxide (brown) and a range of calcined pigments based on mixed inorganic oxides. but specific properties will depend greatly upon the type of modifier selectedJ7. CONCLUSION: The design of effective anticorrosive coatings for steel structures is a complex discipline that borrows extensively from both corrosion science and coatings technology. and its physical properties.) are much greater than with other types of vehicles.p.). reduce the moisture and oxygen transmission.phanates. The urethanes may range from hard. at less cost than prime hiding pigments. to soft rubbery finishes having good abrasion resistance. chemically resistant finishes.c. Inert extenders may be used to advantage in finish coats to adjust the p. VI. etc. and pigmentation can assist the polymer in providing the necessary protection against the environment. If we are to serve our respective disciplines to mutual benefit in our avowed war on corrosion. etc. Unhappily. ratios. Some common types are discussed in a separate chapter. Hydroxy-terminated polyesters and acrylics. Other inert finishes may be employed with nickel titanate.v. pigments may actually improve the ultraviolet resistance of the vehicle. used in flake form in neutral environments. polycaprolactams. titanium dioxide. a more intensive effort to appreciate the problems involved on both sides of . iron blue. Pyrogenic and ultrafine silicas may also be used as thixotropes and flatting agents./c. ultramarine blue. etc. Thus. VII.v. and even alkyds are all possible hydrogen donors. and alkalis will attack alkali-sensitive pigments (chrome yellow.

the interface is required of us all -corrosion engineer and paint chemist alike. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 16 . A desire to foster such effort has been the driving force behind the presentation of this chapter.

John tective Coatings an d Linings Montle. since 1989. Arnold Eickhoff. Silicone GFFFEEEGGFGE Silicone Siliconized Polyester E E E G E E E E G G E E ' Siliconized Pdyester Thermoplastic Acrylic F G F G E E E G G P F P ' Thermoplastic Acrylic ThermosettingAcrylic E G G G E E E G G E G G ' Thermocetting Acrylic Acrylic Latex P E F P E G E F F F F P Acrylic Latex Fluorocarton E E E E E E E E VG E E E * Fluorocarton Epoxy-Polyester E G G G E E G G F G E G Epoxy-Polyester Epoxy-Phenolic E F G G P P P E E E E G ' Epoxy-Phenolic Epoxy-Amine EFGGGPPGEEEF Epoxy-Amine Epoxy-Amide E G G G G P P G VG VG E F Epoxy-Amide Epoxy Ester GGFFFPPFFGGF' Epoxy Ester UrethaneOil Modified G G G F P P P F P F F F Urethane01Modified UrethaneMoistureCure G E E G F F P G G G G F UrethaneMoistureCure UrethaneAliphaticTwo Pack E E E G E E E E E E E G ' UrethaneAliphaticTwo Pack UrethanekomaticTwo Pack E E E G F F P E E E E F ' UrethaneAromaticTwo Pack Vinyl Lacquer G E G E E E E E E F E P ' Vinyl Lacquer ChlorinatedRubber G G G Ë G G G E E P E P Chlorinated Rubber Styrene Butadiene G G G G G G G E E P E P Styrene Butadiene Asphaltics PGFEG--G G F E P Asphaltics Coal Tar FGFEP--G G F E P Coal Tar Coal Tar-Epoxy G F E E F --V G E G E P Coal Tar-Epoxy Key: E = Excellent VG = Very Good G=Good F = Fair P = Poor BIOGRAPHY ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Clive H. Bruno Perfetti.. Jr.SSPC CHAPTER*1-2 93 m 8627740 0003447 141 m TABLE 1 SOME PROPERTIES OF FINISH COAT MATERIALS FOR EXTERIOR EXPOSURE Oil Paints FFPFGFFFPPPF Oil Paints Alkyd-LongOil F F P F G F G F P P F F Alkyd-LongOil Alkyd-MediumOil F F F F F G G F P F F F ' Alkyd-MediumOil Alkyd-SM Oil GPFFFGGFPFFF' Alkyd-ShortOil Alkyrhstyrenated F G F F F F G F F P F P ' Alkyd Styrenated Alkyd-Siliconized F G F F E E E F P F F VG ' AlkyrhsiIiconized Alkyd-AminoComb. Bob Martell. In his work as a conMelvin Sandler. Praschan. Dick Drisko. William Mathay. Chuck Munger. Wallace. after hav ing spent ten Wonders. Hare has developed anti-corrosive coatings and coatings specifications for many organizations. Ron Skabo. ogy section of the Journal of ProHarlan Kline. Inc. William J. Hare of Coating The author and editors gratefully acknowledge the active System Design. E. such as . Frank LaQue. has been participation of the following in the review process for this Editor of the Mate rials Technolchapter: Ted Dowd. Jarry Drake. E G G G G G G G G G E G * Alkyd-AmimCmb. years as chief chemist of Cadillac Paint Ei Varnish. Percy Pierce. and Harry sultant.

The Painting of Steel Bridges. and highway departments. --`.. He is an active member of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE). the military.`...raw materials suppliers. a synthesis of highway practice emanating from his work for the Transportation Research Board. Among his numerous publications are Units 26 and 27 of the original FSCT Series on Coatings Technology (Corrosion and the Preparation of Metals for Painting and Anti-Corrosive Barriers and Inhibitive Primers). October 1984.`.`--17 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .`-`-`. "Specific Utility in the Design of Coatings Systems for Steel Bridges.`.. for which he won SSPC's Annual Publication Award." JPCL. and the recently issued book.. NASA..

O. 61.. 58. 1963. 1976. 28.E.N. Law. K. 1969. 435.315. C.. 533. Rudram. Mayne and D. Stern of Electrochemical Soc. 155.I.W. 1979. M. Eickhoff.C.119. 18 --`. 25. N. Anti-Corrosive Barrier and Inhibitive Primers Unit ?7 Federation Series on Coatings Technology.O.W. Law. Berger. October 1980. Berger. England. 1959.E. W.A. Sec. 5.W.M. 1978. 17. Intorp and N.M. Dutch Pat. Ginsberg.. PDCA. MacDonald.. McMahon. 469. Tellor. 1959. Phila. on Metallic Corrosion. 9. Pat. 37. 106. 3. Cherry and J. 32.C. 23. 14. 1965. Peabody. 1427. 9.C.900. Lange. 3.A. Maitland. September 1977.Y. p. Mayne. 48. Wettach and C. Merriam. 16. Tator. J. 41.E. 5. Ind.653. Hare. J. U. 59. July 1981. 3. Official Digest 33.M. 7. Eng. G. 47. 432. 21. 18. D. 1961. Munger. 29. 7.. 15.H.T. J. 14. T. 27. Berger. Private Communication. 1966. Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology.T. April 1978. 36. 197. Kittelberger and A.O. Modern Paint and Coatings.`. A. Congress on Metallic Corrosion (N. F. 13. W.660.`-`-`.M.T. Keane.W.730 and 3.SSPC CHAPTERaL. 26.E. L.D. 11.B. Modern Paint and Coatings. 1975. Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology. 4.C.C. Official Digest 33. Pat. Simko.C.R.P.26 Wiley.M. Simpson.. 325. New York. 30. 3. 105. L. 10.C.2 93 8627940 0003448 088 M REFERENCES 1. 1978.`.C. 1952.C. R. C. Bath Iron Works. 24. Perf. 5. 436.J. Cherry and J. November 1976.T. 1976.C.615. 2. G. A. 17.A. 1976. C. D.. McMahon. Mayne.O. Mills. 1973.. 7th Int. 8.) 680. Official Digest. Allen.M.. p54. Metal Finishing..P. 33. B. 12.`. C.G. of Cambridge. Modern Paint and Coatings. J. Hare.W. Bosch. 614. Perf.. Jr. 1961. Raothwell.P. 31. Mat. Metal Finishing.`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with . M.H. Paint Journal. 24. W. 1975.M. Brazil. 1979.G.J. 6. 1952. Corrosion Vol. 9.15. Official Digest. 34.S. 326. NACE Basic Corrosion Course National Association of Corrosion Engineers.. T. June 1975. 52. Mayne. Ph. R. J. W. Berger.. 25. Bullet and A. 49. D. Cressey. Rio de Janeiro.930. 20. Hare.A.E. J. Pittsburgh Society for Paint Technology. Chem. 1961. Br.M. D. 1975. 1974.O. J.749. Corr. 15.O.T. J.. Elm. 22.H. 44. V. 33. C. Robeson. J.H. 127. G. D. J. Corrosion and the Preparation of Metals for Painting Unit 26 Federation Series on Coatings Technology. Kowalik. Thesis U.. 11. 1969. 19. Mayne. Berger. Strength and Structures Aspects of Adhesion Vol 1..M.O.C. 11. Int. Mat. University Press of London. J.O. 6..A. J.. 37. M. D. 605. July 16. A. J. Young. Houston..W.. 2. Oken. Berger. 789. 638. US..J. 1978. Mat.S.D. Perf. B. 372. 1958. 35.0.C. Principles of Cathodic Protection. Am.M. C. D. Phila. 14. Cong. K.O. 27. 69.H.. Shreir. 219.

SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .

8 Other Methods and Factors in Surface Preparation Chapter 2.9 Chemical Cleaning in the Field Pickling is described in a separate chapter. INTRODUCTION It is widely recognized that surface preparation is the most Important single factor in coating performance.4 Abrasive Air Blast Cleaning Chapter 2. Each mechanical method is described in detail together with recommended applications and examples. surface preparation cost and some future alternatives.5 Water Blast Cleaning Chapter 2.7 Field Surface Preparation Costs Chapter 2. Also included are types of equipment and anticipated performance criteria. The various abrasives available are described along with recommended applications for these abrasives. Chapter 2. . As our knowledge of the relationship. This series of chapters represents the current state of the art and covers most aspects of industrial applications of mechanical surface preparation.SSPC CHAPTER*2.3 Non-Metallic Abrasives Chapter 2. Both metallic and non-metallic abrasives are discussed. For those experienced in the field this material not only reviews techniques but offers possible solutions for some of the out of the ordinary surface preparation jobs as well. They provide up-to-date information on mechanical surface preparation with a ready reference and background for ChOOSinQ the proper technique for a given job. between coating and metal substrate expands.1 Centrifugal Blast Cleaning Chapter 2.0 73 8627740 0003447 TL4 September 1993(Editorial Changes) CHAPTER 2. so also does the need for improved and varied surface preparation techniques. types of abrasive.2 Metallic Abrasives Chapter 2. The chapters were authored by recognized authorities and cover not only the methods of surface preparation but also equipment.0 SURFACE PREPARATION by H. William Hitzrot I.6 Hand and Power Tool Cleaning Chapter 2.

or coming directly from the mill? Scaled and rusted surfaces are best cleaned by any of the mechanical methods that employ an abrasive medium. providing the reader with one means of comparison among the various approaches to mechanical surface preparation. A. Surface preparation costs are discussed as a separate section. These chapters cover those methods of surface preparation requiring mechanical force as well as the related equipment. DEGREE OF CLEANLINESS The required degree of cleanliness as defined by the SSPC Surface Preparation Specification is a determining factor in the method of cleaning. Hand tool and power tool specifications apply only where localized surface prepara- . On the other hand. the location of a job is an important parameter in the selection of a surface preparation method. rusted. If the job is located in an area where soluble salts could be a surface contaminant. then an automatic operation such as a centrifugal wheel machine should be considered. is it coated. compressed air blasting. high-pressure water blasting and high-pressure blasting with a mixture of water and sand. B. an abrasive blast cleaning method can be used. centrifugal wheel blasting. LOCATION OF JOB Although often not considered. maintenance or repair jobs generally call for portable hand and power tools and manual sand blasting. Mechanical methods include hand and power tool cleaning. outside fabrication. If the job is on a production line. then wet blast cleaning may be preferable. such as near the ocean or in an industrial atmosphere. The broad spectrum of tools available suggests that surface preparation is in fact a complex process and therefore requires a good understanding of the mechanical surface preparation process and job parameters that dictate the process. CONDITION OF SURFACE The surface preparation method selected will depend on the condition of the surface to be cleaned. Surface preparation methods vary from the most rudimentary hand scraper to laser beams. II. DISCUSSION Mechanical surface preparation has been the traditional approach to preparing metal substrates for subse quent coating systems. Steel coming directly from the mill is usually cleaned by means of production line centrifugal wheel machines. For more extensive cleaning of painted surfaces. As an aid in selecting the proper mechanical surface preparation process. the following brief discussion of job parameters and associated techniques is provided. C. For example. Painted surfaces can be cleaned by hand or with power tools to remove loose paint. and costs. abrasive materials.Reference is made to a number of specialty abrasive products and their applications. painted.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 19 .

Sieve Average . Studies by R. as in the removal of loose paint. A further discussion of water blasting is given in the subsection dealing with water blast cleaning. contaminated surface.SSPC CHAPTERsZ-0 93 m 8b27940 0003450 736 m tion is required. Ideally. show that residual chemical contaminants may be a greater threat to a coating system than physical surface imperfections. Blast cleaning specifications usually cover applications where the entire surface is to be prepared to a defined degree of cleanliness. test panels prepared prior to the start of a job offer the best method for testing the adequacy of a chosen surface finish. Table I is provided as a guide. To minimize dust. one should take into consideration the compatibility of the subsequent coating. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS In recent years environmental constraints have played an ever larger role in the selection of surface preparation methods. cheaper sands are being replaced by costlier and less abundant products such as boiler slags or copper slags. If enclosed blast cleaning is necessary. To aid in selecting the proper abrasive for a given surface profile or etch. PHYSICAL VERSUS CHEMICAL CLEAN LIN ESS. its formation. (mils) U. Allen and A. F. When . its control. or other localized surface defects. the surface finish should be finer than if a heavy coating were required. and its effect on coating performance4. consideration should be given to recyclable steel abrasives and automated centrifugal wheel blasting TABLE 1 Typical Profiles Produced by Some Commercial Abrasive Media Maximum Typical Profile Height. D. McKelvie2. its measurement. If the final coating is two mils or less. ordinary abrasive blast cleaning techniques do not remove nonvisible contaminants such as salts from a rusted. PROFILE The surface finish (or profile) resulting from surface preparation should be compatible with subsequent coating or finishing steps.choosing a mechanical surface preparation method. According to these studies.S. loose rust. E. Methods such as high-pressure water blasting and high-pressure water-abrasive blast cleaning have proven more effective in removing such surface contaminants. confirmed by SSPC3. enclosed rather than open blasting is being favored. A report is available from the SSPC on profile. Most coating manufacturers recommend a degree of cleanliness and a minimum etch or profile for good coating adhesion. Also.

5 2.2 f 0.9 Mineral 81Slag Abrasives Heavy Mineral Sand Medium-Fine 3.4 f 0.7 fi 0.5 f .5 f .6 f 0.4 2.7 3.4 2.Size Maximum Maximum Steel Abrasives Shot Shot Shot Shot Grit Grit Grit Grit 5-230 20 2.1 f 0.3 S-280 18 3.7 G-50 30 2.5 4.5 3.5 G-25 16 4.7 G-14 12 6.5 f 0.5 Copper Slag (Air-Cooled) Medium 4.5 f .4 Silica Sand Medium 4.5 3.4 Copper Slag (Air-Cooled) Coarse 6.6 f 0.7 f 0.0 f 0.2 f 0.0 f .7 Stau rol ite Medium-Fine 2.2 2.4 Flint Shot Medium-Fine 3.3 1.5 f 0.4 2.4 2.4 Boiler Slag Medium 4.3 2.5 f 0.5 f 0.3 G-40 20 3.0 f 0.7 5.5 f 0.6 f 0.4 2.2 f 0.5 3.0 f .1 f 0.6 f 0.5 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .5 S-390 14 4.0 f .5 2.5 f 0.8 f 0.4 S-330 16 3.5 3.4 f 0.5 f .1 f 0.5 Copper Slag (Air-Cooled) Medium-Fine 3.6 f 0.5 Copper Slag (Air-Cooled) Fine 2.9 f 0.9 f 0.0 f .5 Boiler Slag Coarse 6.8 5.8 f 0.6 f 0.

. 3. J. This chapter is also available for those who have chairman of the Abras ives Comdifficult or unique cleaning problems or ones that require mittee. 34.. 10. He is actively involved in the abrasives industry.. Waldegrove Rd. Oct. 2. Teddington Middlesex. Bill is Vice ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS President of Chesapeake The author and editors gratefully acknowledge the active Specialty Products. Calabrese. Keane. pp. Research Department and then with a business unit developing and then manufacturing steel abrasives. Surface Profile for Anti-Corrosion Paints . al.A. et. Inc . Evaluation of Various Cleaning Processes for Steel . Mallory. M. Richard Drisko.SSPC CHAPTER*2. chapter: William Chandler.`.. 4.. England. This subject is ex-Bill Hitzrot is an activ e member of the Steel Structures plored in a separate chapter on other surface preparation Painting Council and c urrently methods.E. Ted Dowd.R.`.`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .D. To minimize subsequent environmental prob-BIOGRAPHY lems. Allen and C..F. TW11 8LD. Corrosion.. Steel Structures Painting Council. No. McKelvie. REFERENCES 1. one should investiaatethe environmental imDact of a given surface preparation mechanism. Currently.N. 1976. J.. 331-338. pent 31 years with Bethlehem Steel.0 73 8627740 0003453 672 machines. Keane.W. 1978. A. Marshall McGee and William Pearson. initially in the a novel approach. Paint Research Association. 21 --`. A.`. a participation of the following in the review process for this manufacturer of st eel abrasives. Bruno and R. J. Lichtenstadter. Weaver.`-`-`. Vol.

Among the most prominent applications of centrifugal ing structural steel. cut stone and acoustical ceiling tile... Development of Blast Pattern. Centrifu gal Blast Wheel.. The list grows annually as new applications are discovered.. deflashing. 22 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .`-`-`. It is typically used for machine parts. fabricated units.`. Courtesy of Pangborn. Centrifug al blast cleaning of structural steel peening. Courtesy of Wheelabrator-Frye Inc. as costs of other means become prohibitive. cleaning and descaling. and as pressures increase from OSHA. but to a wide range of applications blast cleaning is surf ace preparation of structural steel for that include etching. deburring. not only to clean.Mallory Centrifugal blast cleaning relates. molded plastic and rubber parts.`--FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2Centrifugal Blast Wheel.SSPC CHAPTER*Z=L 93 W 86279YO 0003Y52 509 W CHAPTER 2. steel mill rolls. --`. shot painting. steel plates and shapes. The art of air blasting began prior to the turn of the century.`. has emerged as an efficient process for ever increasing types of applications. environmentalists and ecologists. but centrifugal (airless) blast cleaning. W. since its introduction in 1932. texturing.. forgings.`. castings.. Abrasive Feed and Blast.1 MECHANICAL SURFACE PREPARATION CentrifugaI Blast Cleaning by A.

Portable systems are economical and environmentally acceptable. FIGURE 5 Airwash Separator System. dust-free cleaning of structures. @l WHEEL UNIT i ~2 CABINET .Y. the process has been limited to installa tions in fabricator shops. more uniform cleaning of steel and more acceptable environmental operating conditions. Courtesy of Pangborn. A further advantage is automation of the cleaning operation. Wide Flange or Fabricated Beam (4 Blast Wheels). Mobile (transportable) systems also have been developed for surface preparation prior to steel coating at construction sites. to the middle 1950 s. Traditionally. are savings in time. Inc. during construction as well as maintenance. compared to airblast cleaning. including massive fabrications of irregular shapes and complex construction. portable systems recently have been developed to provide on-site. bladed wheels to hurl abrasive at the surface by centrifugal force. 30 -MINIMUM EFFECTIVE ANGLE OF IMPINGEMENT FIGURE 3 Typical Blast Pattern. 5DUST I. Major advantages of centrifugal blast cleaning. such as storage tanks and ships. Centrifugal blast cleaning machines are used in most steel fabrication shops. which provides superior. dates back to the late 1940 s and. energy and abrasive consumption. labor. of steel for major construction projects. Courtesy Wheelabrator-Frye. The abrasive used for structural steel ._. centrifugal blast systems have been developed for cleaning structural steel before and after fabrication. FABRICATED BEAM including air blast enclosures for touch-up blasting. Machines are often integrated into in-line . Since then. PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION Centrifugal blast cleaning machines use motordriven.RECOMMENDED BLAST PATTERN FOR TYPICAL continuous surface preparation and paintin g systems. However.

unlike sand. Abrasive is fed to the center of the wheel and moved onto the inner end of the blades by an impeller. Inc. they are accelerated and h urled at high velocity at the surface. motors of up to 100 hp (horsepower) for high production Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 23 . As abrasive particles move down 4 ABRASIVE CLEANING & RECYCLING the blade (Figure l). available in several sizes and may be equipped with driv e Courtesy of Wheelabrator-Frye. resist fracturing despite repeated impacts at high velocity. generally ranging in size from 0. These particles.040 inches in diameter. Centrifugal blast wheels are FIGURE 4 Blast Cleaning Machine.cleaning consists of tiny particles of alloy steel.005 to 0.

. with impressive cleaning results. it is easy to visualize the effect obtained when the velocity component (V) is increased. applications. about 14. New develop ments in centrifugal blast units have increased abrasive velocities to 18. Cleaning of Small Parts on Racks. Courtesy of Pangborn.`. motor sizes of 15 to 60 hp. velocities of the abrasive from the airblast nozzle or the airless wheel were similar. In c. Courtesy of Wheelabrator-Frye.`.. additional horsepower also can be used to increase the volume of abrasive being thrown and to inI i 4 FIGURE 7 Pre-Fabrication Descaling System Channels-Prior to and After Blast Cleaning.SSPC CHAPTER*Z. with wheels ranging from 15 to 20 inches in diameter.`--ClAl&&*L * crease the blast cleaning rate. Generally.000 fpm..L 93 ab27940 0003454 3ôL DESCALING MACHINE ABRASIVE REMOVAL SECTION EXIT ROLL CONVEYOR DRAG CHAIN CONVEYOR DRAG CHAIN CONVEYOR FIGURE 6 Pre-Fabricating Descaiing and Painting System. Courtesy of Wheelabrator-Frye. where M = MV2 2 mass and V = velocity of the abrasive particles. Centrifugal blast cleaning machines incorporate one or more wheel units. under average operating conditions. Generally. Until recently. Because blast cleaning*results depend on volume or mass (M) of abrasive particles impinged against the surface per unit of time..000 feet per minute (fpm). Inc. positioned so the abrasive blast will reach the entire surface.`. the abrasive from each Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 24 . Since work accomplished is based on the familiar formula -. --`. FIGURE 8 Pre-Fabrication Descaling System (4 Blast Wheels). are used for structural steel cleaning.. For special applications the velocity can be decreased by reducing air pressure to the nozzle or cutting the rotational speed of centrifugal units..`-`-`.000 -19.

That allows dust generated by the blast cleaning to be drawn into the dust collector and prevents it from escaping from the blast enclosure into adjacent work areas...SSPC CHAPTERx2... a four-wheel cleaning system has the capability to propel approximately 3. Inc. Although larger and smaller machines are available for particular needs.. The number of wheels needed is determined by the size. complexity and shape of the surface.000 hp air compressor to equal this abrasive capacity. Rate and degree of cleaning will vary depending on the number of wheels used and the size. Spent abrasive thrown by the blast wheels drops into hoppers beneath the blast chamber. There it is recovered and conveyed to an abrasive reclamation system. in terms of work size and production volume. depending on application of the system. type and quantity of abrasive. Courtesy of Wheelabrator-Frye. wheel is thrown in a fan-like pattern (Figure 3) covering an area about 3-4 inches wide and 36 inches long.`. If each wheel unit is powered by a 30 hp motor.`. where contaminants are removed in an air-wash separator (Figure 5) and reclaimed abrasive is returned to a storage . An airblast cleaning operation would require forty-four 318-inch diameter nozzles and a 3. It is essential to provide sufficient ventilation to ensure that air pressure within the blast enclosure is lower than the ambient pressure.1 93 8627940 0003455 218 ROOF SLOT FOR OVERHEAD CONVEYOR OR CRANE --`. Essential components of all centrifugal blast cleaning systems are blast wheels. in the case of structural steel surface preparation. Cleaning can be accomplished in one loadinglunloading cycle or.`. blast enclosure. The nature of the material to be cleaned and other variables also must be considered. Specifications for the machine selected should be based on analysis of present and future surface preparation requirements. and dust collector (Figure 4)..`--__---Y ~-~FIGURE 9 Post-Fabrication Descaling System. The type and arrangement of components will differ greatly. abrasive recovery and recycling system. in one pass through the machine. a typical structural steel blast cleaning machine generally has a combination of four to eight wheels (Figure 4).200 pounds of abrasive per minute.`-`-`. work conveyors. Openings provided for conveying the work through the blast enclosure must be equipped with good seals to prevent flying abrasive and dust from escaping.

hopper. Dust is drawn from the machine into a dust collector. 25 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . From there it is again fed to the wheels. keeping adjacent areas clean and dust-free.

possibly equipped with a drag chain loading table. shears. Courtesy of Wheelabrator-Frye. PRE-FABRICATION SYSTEMS Systems designed to clean plate and structural members prior to fabrication will generally include a loading conveyor.SSPC CHAPTER*2*L 93 W 8b27940 000345b 154 W II.`.). etc. Inc.`-`-`. 2. which also may include a drag chain table for clean steel storage. A thin-film primer can be applied in line with the blast machine to minimize rustina durina fabrication.. 5. and an exit conveyor. Aside from reduced cleaning time obtained with automated cleaning systems. Improved weld quality. Faster steel cutting and burning.`. Courtesy of Pangborn. More accurate layout for fabrication operations. which because of size or shape cannot be passed through the machine onto the rolls. 6. Opera--`. PRE-CONSTRUCTION (SHOP) CLEANING A... Prefabrication systems normally are equipped with roll conveyors.`. saws. Illustrations of channels before and after blast cleaning are shown in Figure 7.. Roll Conveyor. They include: 1. Drag Chain Work Car Conveyor. Rack Loading. FIGURE 12 ~~ Post-Fabricating Descaling System (8 Blast Wheels). 4. may be placed on racks or screens as shown in Figure 8. Improved tool life (punches. Rack Loading -Gantry Crane Conveyor. Depending on requirements of the individual fabricator. Inspection of cleaned steel for defects revealed by the blast. a centrifugal blast machine. ~ l ior ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ reduction of blast cleaningafter fabrication. 3. there are several advantages of cleaning steel prior to fabrication. Inc. the system also may include a paint spray booth and a drying oven (Figure 6). Parts.. FIGURE 10 Post-Fabricating Descaling System (8 Blast Wheels).. . Courtesy of Wheelabrator-Frye.`--FIGURE 11 Post-Fabricating Descaling System (8 Blast Wheels).

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 26 .

Post-fabrication systems generally include: a work conveyor of one of the following configurations: bridge crane. Depending on the type of primer. Minimal touch-up is required before applying the final prime coat.since many fabricated members cannot easily be conveyed on roll conveyors or work cars. burning and punching can be performed without removing primer. Also. optional air blast unit for touch-up. including massive girders and trusses for highway. bridge crane or gantry crane conveyors (Figure IO).SSPC CHAPTER*Z-L 93 m 8627940 0003457 090 = FIGURE 13A Post-Fabrication Descaling System (Roll Conveyor). located where crane access is required for other operations. work car. the machine generally is FIGURE 138 Exit Conveyor-after blast cleaning. power plant and industrial building construction. and roll conveyor. B. an eight-wheel cabinet to accommodate work to be blast cleaned and a selected conveyor system. Courtesy of Wheelabrator-Frye. optional movable wheels to eliminate work-piece turnover. A push-pull. There are fast-drying primers available that do not require a post cure at elevated temperatures. Inc. tions such as welding. drag chain arrangement with . a work car system may be necessary with an overhead crane. and. If most of the work involves bridge girders. In post-fabrication blast cleaning systems the blast chamber design may have a slot in the roof for a monorail. gantry crane. a flash-off tunnel at the paint booth exit may be required to exhaust volatile paint fumes. This work may be extremely long and often will have a camber or slight curve. in lieu of a drying oven. Courtesy of Wheelabrator-Frye. a drying oven may also be required. POST-FABRICATION SYSTEMS A post-fabrication cleaning system (Figure 9) can clean external surfaces of a wide variety of fabricated sections. Inc. Entry Conveyor-prior to blast cleaning.

Inc. FIGURE 14 Post-Fabrication Descaling System (8 Blast Wheels).variable speed drive provides power to work cars (Figure 11). Courtesy of Wheelabrator-Frye. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 27 . adjustable wheels to accommodate deep girders.

(Official U. allowing the girder to be passed back through the machine to clean the remaining surface.) A multi-bay structural shop can use this system with the direction of the blast cleaning system either perpendicular to or in-line with the work flow by using drag chain tables for efficient work transfer to and from the conveyor at both sides of the machine. Steel that will not roll directly on the conveyor because of shape. all eight wheels can be positioned upward. (lllustrations of fabricated girders before and after blast cleaning are shown in Figures 13A and 138. Inc. Navy Photograph). The racks can be pre-loaded so the shop can take maximum advantage of the cleaning time available..S. in an eight-wheel vertical design machine. Navy Photograph) Racks can be mounted on work cars for stacking and hooking of miscellaneous structural members. Use of a roll conveyor system (Figure 12) with an eight-wheel vertical cleaning machine offers a fabricator economical handling and efficient cleaning. Generally.L 93 8627940 0003458 T27 = Ship Hull Bottom Cleaning System: Two Wheel Blast Head Units in Foreground. five-to-six-foot high fabrications can be cleaned in a single pass through the machine.SSPC CHAPTER*Z. can be placed in baskets or on racks that will support work through the blast cleaning machine. c. A roll conveyor is the most economical way of handling structural steel. etc. Adjustment of wheels is illustrated in Figure 14 (also refer to Figure 9).S. the fabricating shop arrangement should be reviewed. Courtesy of Wheelabrator-Frye. SYSTEMS APPROACH TO EQUIPMENT SELECTION To achieve maximum savings from a centrifugal blast cleaning and painting system. The combination of overhead and roll conveyor systems offers maximum flexibility to the shop that is engaged primarily in fabrication of steel for industrial and building applications. Special tion should be given to the following areas: Shop layout and capability . All eight wheels must be moved to obtain the same degree of cleaning as during the first pass. Rather than turn deeper girders over. size. Machine designs also are available with moveable wheels to reduce handling of larger fabrications. or the presence of gusset plates. (Official U. Hull-Side Cleaning System (Two Wheel Unit. 48 inch Cleaning'width). 28 Shii.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . Navy Photograph). Courtesy of Wheelabrator-Frye. Inc.FIGURE 17 Ship Deck Cleaning System (Two Wheel Unit. (Official U. 48 inch Cleaning Width).S.

the evaluation of components blast cleaning machine. Most shops fabricate structural steel in one bay and bridge girders in another.L 93 m 8627940 0003459 963 m DUST AND FIGURE 18 Portable Blast Cleaning System (Operational Schematic). and subsequent selection of equipment be based on use of the total system concept to obtain maximum efficiency and economy. whereas a post-fabricating cleaning system is usually located in the painting and shipping area. or new work handling and other related systems. A systems approach to the selection of the blast cleaning equipment and work handling components results in a highly efficient. Fabricators may be tempted to select centrifugal blast cleaning machines with a large number of wheel units with high horsepower to obtain fast cleaning speeds while neglecting thorough evaluation of work handling and auxiliary systems. cleaning requirements and shop layout. In either case. it may be advisable to relocate the layout and fabrication to achieve efficient work-flow through the shop. number and arrangement of centrifugal blast wheels. . Some have built separate shops due to the variation in methods of fabrication. pre-fabrication or postfabrication cleaning. Cleaning costs can be reduced markedly by matching the throughput capability of the cleaning machine with existing. Location of the blast cleaning system also may pose a problem in older structural shops planned prior to the advent of centrifugal blast cleaning. Present and projected scope of production Cleaning and painting requirements Pre-fabricating de-scaling system Post-fabricating de-scaling system Selection of the blast cleaning machine depends on the configuration of the steel fabricated. A pre-fabricating cleaning system generally is located between the steel storage yard and the punch and drill operations. conveyor and work-handling mechanisms -presents an array of system combinations too numerous to discuss in this chapter. The result can be an inefficient capacity to handle production capability of the blast cleaning machine. modified. For either type of system.(Steel Surface Parking Deck). Inc.SSPC CHAPTER+Z. FIGURE 19 Portable Cleaning System -with Auxiliary Dust Collector. It is emphasized that work requirements must be thoroughly examined. low cost surface preparation operation. Courtesy of Wheelabrator-Frye.

applications presently include ship decks. Applying the centrifugal wheel process to cleaning structures in place meant the traditional approach had to be reversed.e. ON-SITE (PORTABLE) CLEANING Traditionally. ship hull bottoms and sides. Development of portable. Although many applications can be envisioned for portable centrifugal blast cleaning systems. Since then. centrifugal blast cleaning systems dates back to the early 1960 s.. several systems have been developed and used for a wide variety of applications. storage tank exteriors (top and shell) and the wet side of tank bottoms. ¡. but commercial application of such units first became reality in 1974. with work to be cleaned brought to the machine. it became necessary to take the surface preparation process to the work with a portable blast cleaning device. the real impetus in the development of such systems was initiated Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 29 . airless centrifugal blast process has taken the form of fixed place equipment. For structural steel cleaning. Machines are used during construction and for maintenance painting operations.111.

the United States Navy became increasingly aware of this need because open airblasting of ship hulls and decks in drydock created huge quantities of dust that settled around the vessel and caused costly maintenance problems on board the ship and all over the shipyard. the total system includes a supplementary.. Smaller and more maneuverable companion machines subsequently have been put into routine service. the type illustrated in Figure 19. Smaller units employ a single blast wheel and clean a swath 20 inches wide. In many applications. A mobile. ¡. the blast wheel. Similar equipment is be- . Ship Deck Cleaning.L 73 8627740 00034b0 685 FIGURE 20 Portable Cleaning System.S:Navy Photograph) in the early 1970 s. respectively. (Official U. large capacity dust collector (Figure 19). Navy Shipyard for cleaning hull sides. self-propelled centrifugal blast cleaning machine (Figures 17 and 20) for removal of heavy. anti-skid coatings from aircraft carrier decks was first put into service at Long Beach. system ventilation. In principle. are used for the on-site blast cleaning of storage tank tops (both floater and cone). dust removal and collection and a work conveyor (Figure 18). the portable machines use the basic components required for stationary installation.e. and emphasis on the need for more environmentally acceptable and economical alternatives to traditional. California. In 1974 and early 1975 portable systems custom designed to Navy specifications were put into production first at the Norfolk U.SSPC CHAPTER*Z. For applications where great amounts of blast residues are generated andlor where effluent dust cannot be tolerated. blast cleaning units are completely self-contained except for power supply.Navy Shipyard for cleaning hull sides (Figure 16) and hull bottoms (Figure 15). and then at Long Beach US. Most notably. open airblasting. in 1975. Portable blast cleaning units. Like the hull bottom and side cleaners. the result of increasing pressure from environmentalists and OSHA. Machines incorporate one or two blast wheels and clean a swath approximately 28 and 48 inches wide. It also posed a major health (air pollution) hazard which had to be eliminated. These systems now are used routinely in ship hull maintenance painting operations. two blast wheels are used to clean a 48-inch path.S. Similar but less costly and less complex systems are being developed for application on commercial and military vessels. abrasive recovery and re-circulation. where small amounts of dust are generated during blasting or where minor dust effluent from the ventilationlcollector system is permissible.

B. February. A. Touch-up cleaning by airblast (or various types of powered hand tools) is required around narrow peripheral areas and protuberances. 9-13. the operation is environmentally clean and economical. Bullett. February.. pp. 10. Smaller units. lnd. 15. Current Occupational Safety. 1980. National Association of Corrosion Engineers Committee T6-6-13. pp. Mallory. 1978. 5. Centrifugal Blasting for Surface Preparation. Mallory.W. 1977. Malldry. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 30 .A. No. 19-21.J. 23. Baldwin. Technical Paper MR79-764. Plant Engineering. No. Methods of Dust-Free Abrasive Blast Cleaning.ing developed to clean the inside bottoms of the tanks. essentially hand-held. April. 116-125. 1974. Vol. Otherwise.Feb. Centrifugal Blasting of Steel: Cleaning and Coldworking. Materials Protecfion.airblast. pp. 8-12. 1-9. 67. Centrifugal Wheel Blast Cleaning of Steel Plate. Vol. Cromwall. F. and Pollution Codes and Their Effect on Surface Preparation. Impact Finishing: Synthetic Abrasives Erode the Natural Markets. Finishing and Coatings Processes. REFERENCES 1. 46. Materials Performance. 6. pp. 1976.R. Oct. L. Materials Performance. A. 2. 1977. 2. T. No. Because it is essentially an automated process. 16. 4. Paper No. 1971. B. 121. Victor. Bennett. Scrima and A. Preparation and Protective Painting of Structural Steel. 7. June. 11-17. American Society for Materials. Cleanliness and Anchor Pattern Available Through Centrifugal Blast Cleaning of New Steel. it provides greater consistency and uniformity of cleaning than airblasting does. Society of Manufacturing Engineers. 4. Conference Specialized Cleaning. 1979. 1971. Swedish Corrosion Institute Bulletin. 18. Cleaning rates obtained with portable units are many times greater than those produced by. Centrifugal Blast Cleaning of Surfaces for Painting. Corrosion Prevention and Control. 8. Modified versions of the basic blast machine also make it possible to clean the external surface of the tank shell. Materials.W. 25-27. 9. pp. pp. 16. No. Thureson and V. Health. are being developed for touch-up blast cleaning of small areas and cleaning weld seams on horizontal and vertical surfaces. 31. Centrifugal Blasting for Surface Preparation. Shapes and Fabrications. 3. P. Vol. NACE Publication 6G-174.W. 1973. 29.

. Bill Pearson.. Marketing Department. Duke actively represented Wheelabrator-Frye in the Steel Structures Painting Council.`. as a Project Engineer.`-`-`.`. Duke held various positions in Design and Sales Engineering and Marketing in the Landing Gear and Nuclear Reactor Components groups of the Bendix Corporation.. Marshall McGee. and Bill Wallace. He later was appointed Manager of Technical Development. including the National Association of Corrosion Engineers and the American Society for Testing Materials. DUKE MALLORY The late A. BIOGRAPHY A. Indiana. Wheelabrator-Frye Inc.1 73 8627740 0003461 511 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: Jim Flaherty. Landing Gear and Controls Systems Eñgineering groups.`.`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 31 . Joe Mazia. W. and in 1974 assumed the additional position of Manager of Product Planning for the Division.. --`. Angola. and in similar activities of other industry associations.W. Duke Mallory was a 1939 Aeronautical Engineering graduate of Tri-State College. working on advisory committee activities in steel surface preparation cleanliness and profile studies. In 1963 he joined Douglas Aircraft where he held positions of Design Engineer and Systems Design Analyst in Hydraulics. Bill Hitzrot.... In 1966 Duke joined the Materials Cleaning Systems Division. Charlie Lewis.SSPC CHAPTERa2.

malleable iron shot and grit and chilled cast iron shot and grit -are available for surface preparation. An equally important requirement is for the user to maintain and operate the blast-cleaning system to produce a properly balanced size distribution in the abrasive working mix. mechanics of blast cleaning with these abrasives.CHAPTER 2. Metallic abrasives are available in a wide variety of types. hardnesses and sizes. the user must be prepared to evaluate the above factors in selecting proper abrasive. shape or hardness of metallic abrasive can fulfill all requirements of blast cleaning for all applications. the frequency of recycling is rapid. efficient cleaning and uniform finish. including the effect of down time for maintenance work. can assure effective. parts and maintenance of the blast-cleaning equipment. In addition to hardness. In air-blast. but represents less than one percent of all metallic abrasives produced. in turn. This. I. TYPES OF METALLIC ABRASIVES Three general types of metallic abrasives -cast steel shot and grit. Therefore.2 METALLIC ABRASIVES by Einar A. These factors should be considered in evaluating the performance of a metallic abrasive used to achieve a specified finish: Time required to achieve the specified finish Abrasive consumption rate and its costs Cost of wear. shape and hardness with the surface finish required and evaluating relative consumption rates and cost. size. With the airless blast equipment.) The choice of one type over another is a matter of matching size. profile and cleanliness on metal surfaces. No one type. Also reviewed are types of metallic abrasives and an analysis of the . It is possible to select a metallic abrasive with the right combination of properties to meet specified finish requirements. the rapidity with which grit rounds up depends upon the frequency that individual particles are recycled. shapes. (Cut-steel wire shot is a fourth type.. Borch This chapter discusses the physical properties of metallic blast-cleaning abrasives and describes their versatility in producing various required degrees of finish. Purchasing abrasive that meets the prescribed chemical and physical specifications is only one prerequisite for achieving the required cleaning and finish. due to the ex- .

Chilled iron shot and grit subsequently replaced sand as the medium in many air-blast applications equipment. and the centrifugal . Chilled cast iron abrasive cut much faster than sand. coming into use shortly after the turn of the century. It is then screened into sizes in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) specifications (Table 1). after which it is screened into SAE sizes and heat treated. and because it could be reclaimed and re-used. faster-cutting medium to replace sand. the grit rounding process takes much longer. In the mid-I930 s. II. Grit is produced by crushing hardened shot in roll-type crushers or ball mills. which was being used for the gang-sawing and polishing of granite blocks. Its use grew rapidly because one ton of chilled iron abrasive did the work of 40-50tons of sand. Chilled iron abrasive. two events had major impact on the growth of the metallic shot and grit industry: anti-silicosis laws were imposed that prohibited the use of sand for blast cleaning inside industrial plants. 111. HISTORY OF METALLIC ABRASIVES Chilled iron shot was the first cast metallic abrasive developed. or by air or gas jets. which then drop onto jets of water under pressure. It satisfied a vital need in the granite industry for an improved. The cast shot is removed from the quenching pit and heat treated. moreover. atomizing the molten metal into random sizes of shot that fall into a water-filled quenching pit. Molten metal of the required temperature is removed from the furnace and is channeled into streams. METHOD OF MANUFACTURE Raw materials and alloys are melted and adjusted to meet required chemistry specifications for iron or steel.32 tremely low abrasive flow rates in relation to total abrasive in the system. cleaned better and faster. resulted in dramatic reductions of cost per square foot of sawed or polished surfaces. as required. Atomization may also be accomplished mechanically.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . using chilled cast iron shot and grit.(airless) blast-cleaning method was developed. more effective. and more economical cleaning than with air-blast methods using non-metallic abrasives. Centrifugal blast cleaning. eliminated the silicosis hazard of sand. The use of metallic abrasives expanded rapidly. It also provided faster.

00 3.00 1.80 2.600 0.75 4.425 .35 2.40 1.70 1.2 93 m 8627940 0003463 394 m TABLE 1 SAE SHOT & GRIT SIZE SPECIFICATIONS WITH SUGGESTED REMOVAL SIZES(') CAST SHOT SPECIFICATIONS FOR SHOT PEENING OR BLAST CLEANING Screen Opening Sizes and Screen Numbers with Maximum and Minimum Cumulative Perc entages Allowed on Corresponding Screens N BS Screen No.850 0.18 1.SSPC CHAPTERa2.36 2.500 0. Standard mm Screen Size (in) S1320 5550 SIE Shot Number S460 1 S390 S330 S2ôO I S230 5170 (3) (4) 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 80 120 200 4.00 0.710 0.

0139) (0.0331) (0.0138 ---Ail Pass 5% max 85% min 96% min -----00117 --All Pass 5% max 85% min .180 0.355 0.007) (0.01 17) (0.0555) (0.0937) (0.0787) (0.0165) (0.111) (0.157) (0.187) (0.0234) (O 0197) (0.0049) (0.300 0.0469) (0.0394) (0.0278) (0.0661) (0.0029) Jggestei for Cleaning Structurai --Ail Pass 5% max 85% rnin 96% min -------0.0.125 0.132) (0.075 (0.

0070 --All Pass 10% max --35% min 37% min --0.0059 ---------Ail Pass 10% max 80% min 90% min ------Ali Pass 10% max 80% min .96% min -0.0117 ----All Pass 5% max 85% mir 96% mir ---O0082 0.

132) ----------7 280 (0.36 (0.0555) -90% 80% -All Pass -----16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 1.0197) ----------0.0278) ----85% 70% -Ail Pass 0.500 (0. (in) G10 G12 G14 G16 016 025 G40 GSO GE0 G120 6200 (3) (4) 4 4.425 (0.180 (0.0937) -All Pass -------10 2.0787) 80% -Ail Pass -------12 1.0234) ----------0.0661) 90% 80% -Ail Pass ------14 1.0049 0.355 (0.00 (0.40 (0.00 (0.187) ----------5 4.18 (0.0117) ------80% 65% All Pass 80 0.300 (0.0029I CAST GRIT SPECIFICATIONS FOR BLAST CLEANING Screen Opening Sizes and Screen Numbers with Minimum Cumulative Percentages Allo wed on Corresponding Screens NBS Standard Screen CAE Grit Number 1 I I Screen mm Size NO.0331) ----------0.007) ------7 5 % 65% -All Pass G325 ----All Pass 20% .0139) ----------- 50 0.600 (0.0469) --90% 75% All Pass ----1.70 (0.35 (0.157) ----------6 3.90% min 0.111) AllPass ---------8 2.710 (0.00 (O 0394) ---85% 75% -Ail Pass ---0.75 (0.0165) -----80% 70% -All Pass -0.850 (0.

0029 Cleaning of structural Steed2) (1) Courtesy Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J444a)...0232 0.`-`-`.045 (0.0138 0.0029) ---------70% 55% 325 0.0117 0.0059 0..`.0017) ----------65% Suggested Removal Sizes for 0.`--120 O 125 (0.0062 0.075 (0..0165 0.0049 0..--`.`. (4) This is coarsest size in common use for blast cleaning structurai steel for painting Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 33 . (3) Corresponds to IS0 Recommendations.0165 0.`..0049) ------75% 60% ~ 200 0.

COMMON USES OF METAL LIC tant high consumption cost. contaminants. chilled iron shot and grit was subjected to a nor. in stages over a period of (removal of mill scale. being of lower hardness than chilled iron. r ust.SSPC CHAPTERU2. Surface preparation of fiberglass reinforced in subsequent processing. Shot peening to impart residual compressive sometimes in the ability to produce specified surface stresses to improve fatigu e properties of metal finishes or anchor patterns. creating problems 5. weldments and steel very markedly reduced the wear on blast-cleaning equip mill products including s labs.(removal of mill scale.2 93 m 8627940 00034b4 220 Much longer useful life -as much as a 2:l advanwas discovered that the combination of mass and velocity tage for steel abrasive of 45 Rockwell C hardness. The resultant malleable iron abrasive 2. billets. however. pipe and rolled structural shapes Malleable iron abrasives provided definite improve.A. Also. Surface cleaning of heat-treated metal products malleable iron abrasive. new problems. and generation of an anchor patFirst. 6. the use of malleable iron plastic products for b onding. and malleable iron 3. Metallic abrasives have several common uses: These problems were minimized by development of to. but introduced tions). ordinarily present in the 4. friable chilled cast iron resulted in two serious problems: fast abrasive breakdown and resul. CURRENT PRACTICE ucts. of the extremely hard. rust and other oxide accrement in the economics of blast-cleaning. Graphitic carbon. Peen forming of aircraft . often caused carbon deposition (removal of oxide scale) . ment. and to minimize intergranular and stress corrosion cracking of alloyed metal prodIV. with economic benefits: malleable iron abrasive scaIe). Etching of hardened steel mill rolls. bars. on the work or substrate being cleaned. it on the blast-cleaning equipment. malizing process. Surface cleaning and prep aration of metal prodday s superior metallic abrasive -steel shot and grit. shot and grit. Surface cleaning of f errous and non-ferrous had hardness values about half that of chilled iron castings (removal of molding sand. The ucts prior to coating a nd painting of the surface change came about. and heat treat abrasive. old paint and other years. Recognition of those problems led to the development 8.tern to enhance coatin gs adherence). had up to double the life of chilled iron. Surface cleanin g of forgings. and extensive and costly wear ABRASIVES As the use of centrifugal blast cleaning increased.1. sheet and strip. products. resulted in measurable reduction in cleaning rates and 7. plate.

. 55 Rc. Malleable Iron Shot or Grit Full range of SAE 1 range 1 range sizes (SAE J-444) (28 RC -40 RC) (28 RC -40 Rc) Chilled Cast Iron Shot or Grit Full range of SAE --`. these advantages over malleable iron: 10. permitting the sand lumps for reclamation an d re-use of foundry user to tailor abrasive hardness to finish re-sand. quirements.`. of cast steel shot and grit. approximately 85 per.. Reduction of chemically bonded mold an d core Wider selection of hardness ranges.wings. Today..9. De-flashing of prec ision molded rubber products cent of all metallic abrasives are cast steel....`-`-`. 45 Rc.`. 65 Rc. Elimination of the graphitic carbon deposition problem. TABLE 2 DESCRIPTION OF PROPERTIES HARDNESS ABRASIVES SHAPE SIZE SHOT GRIT Cast Steel Shot or Grit Full range of SAE May be specified: sizes (SAE J-444) commercially available cast steel abrasives have mid-range hardnesses of approximately 35 Rc.`. which has and some molded plastic (polymeric) parts.`--1 range 1 range sizes (SAE J-444) (57 RC -68 Rc) (57 RC-68 Rc) 34 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (TABLE 2) There are two generally accepted specifications for cast steel shot and grit: 1. in the system. 2. (Dusting of non-metallic abrasives causes visibility problems and can create environmental hazards. Minimal embedment of abrasive particles. CONSTRAINTS Basic constraints that must be recognized in the use of metallic abrasives as a substitute for non-metallic abrasives in airblast equipment are 1.) 3. Greater impact for given size particles. either of the above is suitable for specifying steel shot and . 3. resulting in much faster and better cleaning. 4.) 5. (Nonmetallic abrasives. and 2. From the standpoint of chemistry and screening. because they are so brittle and friable. in addition to the basic choice between round shot and sharp. careful attention must be given procedures for maintaining a stabilized work mix. ranging from 50 times greater for chilled iron to more than 200 times greater for tempered cast steel. Steel Founders Society of America -SFSA 20-66. Much greater visibility while blasting. Versatility and adaptability. Cast steel offers a wide range of options in size and hardness. and optimum operating costs. Longer useful life as compared to that of sand. or operating mix. (Metallic abrasives have a density of approximately 1-112 to 2-112 times that of sand or other non-metallic abrasives. Metallic abrasives must be protected in such a manner that they are not exposed to moisture or corrosive environments. The blast-cleaning operation must provide effective reclamation and recycling to realize the durability advantage of the metallic abrasive (abrasive leakage must be kept to the minimum by proper maintenance of the blast-cleaning system).SSPC CHAPTERt2. 4. To achieve consistent production cleaning quality.) C. ADVANTAGES Compared to sand or other non-metallic abrasives. angular grit. have a different type of embedment than metallics2.2 D. metallic abrasives are used differently and have certain advantages: I.2 93 m 8627740 O003465 Lb7 m B. 2. Society of Automotive Engineers -SAE J-827. Overblast must be avoided to assure proper profile for long-range performance of high-performance coatings.

The generally accepted specification for malleable iron abrasive is SFSA 21-68. with respect to hardness. The size and chemistry specification in SFSA 21-68 also applies to cast chilled iron. V = velocity) When selecting new blast-cleaning equipment for a given application. a choice of velocity is available. Area upon which that energy is expended. Velocity is governed by air pressure in airblast systems. However. and the angle of impingement. abrasive durability and equipment wear. Four factors determine that stress: Energy contained in the propelled abrasive particle. it must be noted that both of these specifications were developed primarily for blastcleaning iron and steel castings. as illustrated by the equation for kinetic energy -MV2 2 (M = mass. For abrasive particles to affect a change in the work surface. where an anchor pattern is seldom critical on the finished casting. Energy contained in a single particle of abrasive is generally related to the variables of particle mass and velocity. desired speed of cleaning.grit to be used in metalworking applications. or by centrifugal force from an airless blast wheel. Strength and hardness of the abrasive particle. wheel diameter . the cleaning of structural steel and other products often requires abrasives of greater or lesser hardness values than those specified by SAE J-827 and SFSA 20-66 (Rockwell C40-50). or by the combination of wheel-peripheral speed. Only the user can make the proper choice based on fhe priority placed on each of these factors. the stress exerted by the individual shot or grit particle at the point of impact must exceed the strength of the work surface itself. For many other applications. and because of more critical finish requirements. MECHANICS OF BLAST CLEANING WITH METALLIC ABRASIVES Abrasive blast cleaning is a battering or bombarding of the work surface by continuing impact of abrasive particles propelled by compressed air through a nozzle. V. Strength and hardness of the work being cleaned. The cost-benefit trade-offs in a user s selection of high versus low hardness in metallic abrasives requires evaluation of the finish.

Thus. be considered constant. However. It is apparent from the above equation that change in velocity has the most significant effect on kinetic energy of the particle. the factor of velocity can.(inside and outside) and shape and length of the wheel blade in centrifugal (airless) blast cleaning. for all practical purposes. for an abrasive of given hardCopyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 35 . with any given blast-cleaning equipment and under a given set of operating conditions.

000 60 s-280 210.000 110 S-330 110....700. varying as --`.SSPC CHAPTER*2.`-`-`. (2) Based on the mid-size pellet of the purchased abrasive.000.000 5 S-70 7.330 (through 20-Mor 40-M) (NOTE: Round particles are fractures that have been rounded back into spheres.000 10 s-110 1.000 40 S-230 360.`.. The data shown cannot be translated directly as kineti c energy.000 20 S-I70 660. all other values are relative to that base.000 1 (1) Basic shot size designations..) FIGURE 1 Fracture Failure (shot particles from work mix) Courtesy: Ervin Industries.2 93 m Bb2799O 0003466 OT3 TABLE 3 EFFECT OF ABRASIVE SIZE ON IMPACT ENERGY AND COVERAGE SA Approxima te Approximate Relative Effect Shot -~ Shot Pellets on Impact Energy Size (1) Per Pound (2) (Based on Weight) (3) S-390 65.`--S-330(through 18-Mor 20-M) S. 36 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . (3) The weight of a particle of S-70 shot is considered as the base of 1 the cube of the diameter.`. Inc.`..

which imposes the two modes of abrasive failures. rotational speed. blade (vane) design and drive-motor horsepower in centri fugal (a irl ess) b Ias t -c Ieanin g eq u ipm en t. affects finish and cleaning rates. in turn. A 112 in. a 1/4 in.SSPC CHAPTER*2-2 93 8b27940 O003467 T3T ness. depending upon the air pressure level. they eventually rounded up and diminished in size under repeated impact. the relative impact energy is approximately 8:l and the relative coverage (pellets per pound) is approximately 13. nozzle would have a flow rate of about 34 pounds per minute. This.0165") 40 mesh G-25 working mix (. Achieving the specified cleanliness and anchor pattern requires close control of the factors of impact energy and the coverage on the work surface. in turn. A general rule is that if there is a difference in diameter of 2:1. As Table 3 reveals. another critical factor in blast-cleaning effectiveness is coverage (a measure of impact distribution on the work surface by the many pellets contained in the abrasive work mix). Since the mass (in steel shot) varies as the cube of the diameter. As noted in the chapter on abrasive air blast cleaning. can account for pronounced changes in the effectiveness of contaminant removal and in the finish or anchor pattern produced. Abrasive flow rates of equipment to be purchased are predetermined by choice of airblast pressure and nozzle configuration in airblast equipment or by choice of wheel diameter and width. The mode of delivery or system by which the abrasive is propelled determines the abrasive flow rate and coverage per unit of time. Centrifugal blast-cleaning equipment G-25 working mix (. which. Table 3 illustrates the dramatic differences in both impact energy and coverage as particle size is changed.0079") 80 mesh FIGURE 2 Evolution of the working mix using steel grit: While all particles in the working mix started as original size G-25 (upper left). In addition to the impact energy delivered to the work. airblast nozzle has abrasive flow rates of about eight pounds per minute. (approxi- . it can be recognized that even slight changes in abrasive particle size can cause a major change in impact energy delivered. Such control is attained by maintaining an effective balance of the size distribution in the work mix. a work mix using S-390 as the original size and retaining particles as small as new S-70 will have the coarsest mid-size pellets delivering approximately 110 times more impact energy than the smallest mid-size pellets. the mass of the individual abrasive particle becomes the significant variable in the energy exerted at impact on the work surface.

Inc. 37 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .mately 1OX magnification) Courtesy: Ervin Industries.

MECHANICS OF METALLIC ABRASIVE FA1 LU RE Forces that work to develop the cleaning capability of metallic abrasives also tend to reduce the size of the abrasive particle and to cause its eventual breakdown to dust.As the outer surface of the abrasive particle is fatigued by repeated impact. Harnessing that cleaning power to best advantage depends on proper abrasive selection (type. as impact continues. As noted in the chapter on centrifugal cleaning.2 93 = 8627940 0003468 97b develops much higher flow rates. The second mode of abrasive failure is called flaking (Figure 3). each throwing approximately 600 to 800 pounds per minute. the relative rate of failure of the different types of abrasive varies in accordance with basic chemistry and microstructure. but much more slowly.SSPC CHAPTERx2. the inevitable result of an abrasive particle s repeated impact against the work being cleaned and against the wear parts of the blast equipment itself. near-round shape. The fracture and rounding process continues until individual particles are so small that they are pulled out of the system by the abrasive separator (exhaust) system (Figures 1 and 2).68%) fracture rapidly to sharp edged angular particles. Two modes of abrasive breakdown are involved. Iron abrasives. Hardness aside. The first and predominant mode is fracture failure. Chilled iron grit (55-67Rc) and full-hard (untempered) steel grit (66. ranging from 165 pounds with a 10 hp motor to as high as 2800 pounds per minute with a 100 hp motor. those flakes pop off and are withdrawn through the separator system to the dust collector. due prin- . VI. Under continuing impact the broken particles tend to be forged back into smaller. size and hardness) and constant control over the developed work mix. Such repeated impact fatigues the abrasive until it fractures. Tempered steel shot and grit and malleable iron shot and grit also fracture. this equipment for structural steel descaling typically may have four 30 hp wheels. microscopic flaking of the surface occurs and. The mechanics of blast cleaning -how metallic abrasives develop their tremendous cleaning power -can be appreciated by thinking in terms of one 30 hp wheel throwing from 600 to 800 times the numbers listed in Table 3 as pellets per pound for the various sizes at velocities usually in excess of 240 feet per second.

. especially grit. Generally speaking.`. Harder steel abrasives.`-`-`.cipally to extremely high content of carbon. microstructure and physical characteristics. the faster its breakdown from fracture failure. the harder the abrasive.`.. --`. phosphorus and sulfur. hardness and microstructure are the critical factors with regard to fracture and flaking failure. frac70-X 700-X FIGURE 3 Flaking failure of shot particles from work mix Courtesy: Ervin Industries. also cause greater wear on blast cleaning equipment. fracture and fail much more rapidly than steel abrasives.. In the case of steel abrasives that meet SAE andlor SFSA specifications for chemistry.. Every point of hardness higher than that needed to provide the required Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 38 .. the more the abrasive resists and delays fracture failure. and surface flaking of the abrasive becomes a contributing factor in its ultimate failure.`--ture failure is the dominant factor in the reduction of abrasive particle size.. The lower its hardness. However. Inc.`.

Steel grit breaks down slightly faster than steel shot of the same size and hardness range. the greater the difference in breakdown compared to shot. however. 2. Similarly. New abrasive must be added at regular intervals at rates corresponding to loss of abrasive due to the attrition or breakdown rate andlor by losses of usable abrasive via the separator system or carry-out with the work pieces. Malleable iron abrasives have a breakdown rate of 50% to 100% greater than steel abrasive in the 40-50 ßc hardness range. VII. Ref. the smaller the size grit involved. the following guidelines exist: Chilled cast iron abrasives have a breakdown rate as much as one third greater than full hard (65 plus Rc) untempered steel grit. However. individual abrasive particles become smaller and smaller until they eventually are pulled out of the system by the separator mechanism. Size distribution within the abrasive work mix is influenced by these factors: Type and quality of abrasive Original size Original shape Original hardness and density Velocity of thrown abrasive . ABRASIVE WORK MIX As fracture and flaking failure continue.) From the standpoint of relative metallic abrasive consumption (considering products that meet their respective SAEISFSA specifications). Obviously. (See Surface Profile for Anti-Corrosion Paints. increasing the hardness of steel shot or grit in a given operation increases the breakdown rate. The combination of new abrasive being added and the gradual attrition and withdrawal of abrasive added earlier results in a mixture of sizes commonly called the work mix or operating mix . the more rapid breakdown of a harder steel abrasive becomes academic if it has been determined that a lower hardness will not do the job.SSPC CHAPTER*2.2 93 m 8b2794O 00034b9 802 m finish in the required time cycle contributes both to faster abrasive failure and more rapid deterioration of the blast equipment.

Inc..Hardness of work being cleaned Angle of impingement Adjustment of air-wash separator abrasive size withdrawn from the system) (to control --`..`. 39 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . and should be neithe r predominantly coarse nor predominantly fine.330 work mix. and 6 illustrate size distribution of typical shotlgrit work mixes.`-`-`... Coarse particles provide optimum impact energy. Work mix should contain all of above sizes.`. 280 230 170 110 330 S330Work-Mix Courtesy: Ervin Industries.`. Figures 4.`--Loss of usable abrasive due to carry-out with work pieces Manner in which abrasive additions are made. smaller particles provide optimum cover age. FIGURE 4 S..5..

generally measured in pounds used per blasting hour. Inc. Conversely. is acceptable. the peak-to-valley value is decreased. greater number of impacts occur on a given area of the work piece and greater peak population results. FINISH Control of the work mix size and maintaining a stabilized work mix are vital factors in maintaining a consistent production rate and a quality finish.e. Theoretically. should be subjected frequently to careful sieve analysis to be sure the work mix has its size distribution in balance. Also. because of the smaller size. The larger pellets in the work mix impart the greatest impact energy per pellet. the result will likely be poorer quality cleaning and reduction of anchor pattern depth. or loss. G-25 work mix should contain all of the above sizes and should be neither predominantly coarse nor predominantly fine. FIGURE 5 G-25 work mix (centrifugal blast unit). A continuous automatic system of abrasive replenishment is the preferred and most reliable method of maintaining a uniform work mix in a production operation. size and shape has its own inherent impact life cycle. not predominantly coarse or fine.. A G-25 work mix may also contain materia l as fine as G-80. however. Delay in making new abrasive additions tends to decrease the percentage of coarser sizes in the work-mix. which actually does the cleaning and provides the finish (anchor pattern). VIII. new abrasive should be added to the system every blasting hour in amounts equal to the rate of withdrawal. ¡. smaller particles provide optimum coverage. Those are based upon SSPC experimental work in both laboratory and plant. In practice. cracking or fragmenting heavy surface contaminant on the work being cleaned and imparting identations of maximum peak-to-valley values. Figures 7 and 8 illustrate the effect of changing the size distribution in the work mix on both profile height and peak distribution. adding a large . C oarse particles provide optimum impact energy. Each abrasive type. Also see Commentary on Surface Preparation in Volume 2 of the Steel Structures Painting Manual. or every eight hours. from the system.SSPC CHAPTER*2-2 93 8627940 0003470 524 G=25 G-40 Courtesy: Ervin Industries. Representative samples of the work mix. ABRASIVE WORK MIX VS. making additions once a shift. Medium and smaller pellets in the work mix provide greater coverage for scouring and complete removal of cracked or fragmented surface contaminant. Because of the decreased impact energy of the smaller abrasive particles.

and for a given through-put speed. insufficient coverage and poorer cleaning. Maintaining a uniform and stabilized operating-mix also requires the abrasive particles removed from the blast machine to be of uniform size. the particle Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . To realize the greatest economic benefits of using metallic abrasives.quantity of new abrasive at one time increases the percentage of coarser sizes. resulting in a coarsening of surface profile.

. 55-60 RC TYPICAL EFFECT OF ABRASIVE SIZE ON PROFILE HEIGHT TYPICAL EFFECTOF ABRASIVE SIZE ON PEAK COUNT Effect of 4 Degrees of Cleoning IS Summed Out Effect of 4 Degrees of Cleaning is Summed Out SHOT T GRIT SHOT t4 GRIT E 1 I-Std Deviation II I-Std Deviotion T n E 2 1 O0 E I -L Each Profile Measured Optically by Averaging 60 Moximum Eoch Profile Measured witha Surfacouiit and a Brush Surfindicalar Peak. (Re f.`-`-`.`. Coarse particles provide optimum impact energy.. s maller particles provide optimum coverage. Work mix should contain all o f the above sizes.`. --`..0278 .`--. and should be neither predominantly coarse nor predominantly fine.2 93 8627940 0003471 460 m Courtesy: Ervin Industries.O165 (18-M) (25-M) (40-M) (50-M) FIGURE 6 S-330/Gm18*work mix (from centrifugal blast unit).. 1976. Bruno. 2) 41 .`.to-Valley Heights Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 From Surface Profile for Anti-Corrosion Paints .0394 . Inc. Weaver..SSPC CHAPTER*2.. by Keane.

. IX. The desired micrographs.`. 2) 42 Profile (h.`. VARIOUS SHOT BLASTED SURFACES * 1OOX 60 VIEW S 230 S280 S330 S390 NEAR-WH I COMMERCIAL (SP 6) . by Keane.. Bruno and Weaver.. ABRASIVE SELECTION in the cleaning operation. (Ref. conto adjustment of the separator system and of the air flow sideration must be giv en to the surface condition prior to through the separator. FIGURE 9 and density (NJ estimated visually from SEM From: Surface Profile for Anti-Corros ion Paints . Suggested removal sizes are Degree of cleanliness and lor profile are the main shown in Table 1 for each of the basic SAE sizes of shot reasons for impact clea ning and must be given priority and grit. DEGREE OF CLEANING Abrasive selection depends on whether the surface has a light oxide scale or is heavily pitted and rusted..SSPC CHAPTERa2. taken by the SSPCin its profile study.J stereo micrographs.. or whether Figures 9 and 10 are typical scanning electron photo. --`.`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . 1976.removal of paint or other coating is involved. Control of removal size requires careful attention over all other fact ors in abrasive selection. degree of roughness and type of steel shot and three sizes of steel grit.2 93 8b27940 0003472 3T7 size removed should be the smallest size that is effective X.. They finish after blast clea ning may include a combination of show a comparison of degrees of cleaning of four sizes of degree of cleanliness.`-`-`. Obviously.`. blast cleaning and its relation to the desired finish.

From: Surface --`..`-`-`.`--BRUSH-OFF (SP7) Profile for Anti-Corrosion . w hich rounds up.dints .usage. It also affec ts abrasive size distribution in the file.. re tain irregular or random leave a burnished scale condition in the root of the surface shape and produce a surface etch with more angularity indentation... Size. a harder grit work mix contains a lower VARIOUS GRIT BLASTED SURFACES * 1OOX 60 VIEW GL25 GL40 . tend to reduce the entrapped burnished scale however. bv Keane. Irregular pellet shapes in a grit mix. machine work mix. other hand.SSPC CHAPTER*2-2 93 8b27940 0003473 233 surface texture. Hard grit parShot pellets tend to burnish the surface and may ticles. 1976. on the than a softer grit.the light reflectiv ity of the surface. even when fractured. Higher grit hardness.`. (Ref. leads to short er impact life cycles and increased condition and can affect the angularity of the surface pro. GL50 hnax -Approximately 4 mils WHITE (SP 5) NEAR-WHITE (SP 10) COMMERCIAL (SP 6) FIGURE 10 Profile (hmeX) and density (NJ estimated visually from SEM stereo micrographs.. appears nearer the parent me tal in color. shape and hardness of the abrasive Changing the angularit y of the surface finish changes particles in the work mix are the dominant factors in deter. Bruno and Weaver..`. The grit or etched finish mining whether the desired finish will be attained. 2) Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 43 .`.

Steel grit. Plaster. June. Penton Publishing. Surface Profile for Anti-Corrosion Paints .. and Raymond E. Keane. tempered to under 65 Rockwell C. 1968. along . Reams. 455 State. 1962. Weaver. frequent and regular addition of new abrasive is absolutely essential to maintaining a consistent mix of particle size and shape. Des Plaines. Steel Structures Painting Council Report. when using shot. SAE J444a. Penton Publishing. ASM International. Optimum results can be obtained through an understanding of theories relating to the mechanics of impact cleaning and abrasive failure. However. ASM 6705-J. CONCLUSION smaller sizes. Modern metallic abrasives.J. 6. OH. 1968.. angular grit. 25. Jr. Society of Automotive Engineers. Cast Metals Federation Bldg. 7.2 93 8b27940 0003474 L7T percentage of the coarser sizes and a higher percentage of )(l. provide effective and economical means of preparing steel surfaces for coating applications. Under a given set of equipment operating conditions. thus. shapes and hardnesses to meet varying application needs. Cast Shot and Grit Size Specifications for Peening and Cleaning . Hertfordshire. size distribution. Society of Automotive Engineering. SAE J827. OH 44073. partially rounded particles and fully rounded particles. C. rounds up under repeated impact. John D. they offer extended use-life and high impact per particle. when using grit. Careful selection of shot or grit to satisfy surface finish specifications. 10. William A.A. Available in a wide range of types. Modern Blast Cleaning and Ventilation . Blast Cleaning and Allied Processes -Vols. SAE J792a. variables in the profile attained usually relate directly and only to the size distribution in the work mix.SSPC CHAPTER*2. 5. I and II. Letchworth. 4. Cleveland. and particle shape. H. Joseph A. Steel Founders Society of America. the grit work mix is a mixture of new. 1966. June. 1939. England SG6 1 JS. 2. Malleable Iron Abrasives . Cast Steel Shot . Cast Steel Abrasives . SFSA 20-66. Warrendale. IL 60016.. It is obvious that with the use of such grit.Garden City Press Ltd. 1939. Rosenberger. 9. Impact Cleaning . Society of Automotive Engineers. Bruno.F. Manual on Blast Cleaning . OH. variables in the profile relate to abrasive hardness. Coating Process . 1976. PA 15096. Steel Founders Society of America. Specialized Cleaning. November 1976. Cleveland. Materials Park. 3. 8. Handbook Supplement 124. REFERENCES 1. Finishing. 400 Cornmonwealth Drive. Oct. SFSA 21-68. used in currently available blast-cleaning equipment.

the Steel Founders Society of America. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 44 . He is currently working as a consultant for Ervin Industries.with a disciplined program for controlling a proper balance in the work mix will produce optimum results when blast cleaning with metallic abrasives. manufacturing. and the Steel Structures Painting Council. the Casting Industry Suppliers Association. Borch has been in the metal abrasive industry for over 50 years. BIOGRAPHY Einar A. the American Foundrymen s Society. He has been involved in committee work relating to development of metal abrasive specifications for various technical societies including the Society of Automotive Engineers. He is a former director of the Casting Industry Suppliers Association. a past trustee of the Foundry Educational Foundation and a past president of the Foundry Equipment Manufacturer s Association. marketing and research development. being active inthe various management phases of the business.

William Hitzrot Non-metallic abrasives used for blast cleaning may be classified as (1) naturally occurring. with median size in the 70 to 100 rather than 20 to 40 sieve size range more typical of silica sands. it can be recycled a number of times because of its toughness. angular abrasive (Figure 4). they are not desirable for critical blast cleaning. leaving a smooth. depending on the source.. NATURALLY OCCURRING ABRASIVES Naturally occurring sands and flint sand are probably the most commonly used abrasives. Physical data are summarized in Table 1. with a high degree of breakdown. The high cost of garnet restricts its use to specialty cleaning applications that require only small quantities of abrasive. matte finish. ¡. Zircon is another tough. olivene rutile -either by themselves or in various combinations. staurolite. Sands are a readily available source of abrasive and have been used for the blast cleaning of steel since the inception of this technique. their physical attributes and the choices among them. TYPES OF ABRASIVES A. Nonsilica sands may also be used for blast cleaning. Like garnet.SSPC CHAPTERlt2. These sands are tough and dense but generally of finer particle size than silica sand. Heavy mineral sands are effective for blast cleaning new steel. Sand particles (Figure 1) range from sharply angular to almost spherical. but are generally not recommended for maintenance applications. Since sands are often dusty. Silica sands are an effective abrasive for blast cleaning new steel and for maintenance cleaning in non-critical areas. An example of a heavy mineral sand is shown in Figure 2. Available in a range of sizes. I. These are generally termed heavy mineral sands and include magnetite. This chapter deals with these types.3 NON-METALLIC ABRASIVES by H. (2) by-product and (3) manufactured abrasives. cleaning in a closed system that permits recycling the abrasive. angular abrasive suitable for specialty-type blast cleaning of steel parts and castings. Its fine size limits its use to specialty blasting for removal of fine scale.3 93 8627940 0003475 O06 September 1993 (Editorial Changes) CHAPTER 2. it has higher density and greater hardness than silica sand .e. Garnet (Figure 3) is a tough. In recent years silica sands have been replaced by heavy mineral sands or other products that contain little or no free silica .

`--walnut shells .and is considerably more costly. availability in bulk... is ground to fine sizes for specialty blast cleaning. B. corroded. Conservation of materials and environmental concerns have given further impetus to converting by-products into commercial abrasives. Slag abrasives have a sharply angular shape ideal for efficient blast cleaning of new. and exhibit a minimum amount of breakdown on impact in order to be effective abrasives..`. It leaves a satin 45 luster finish and is most commonly used to clean precision tools and castings. Agricultural shell products such as --`. a very pure. or painted steel surfaces.`. Chief among the by-product materials being used as abrasives are slags from two sources: metal smelting slags (Figures 5 and 6) and electric power generating (bottom ash) slags (Figure 7). siliceous rock.. both for new construction and maintenance cleaning. They need to be tough. They are available in the full range of abrasive sizes -coarse (8 sieve) to fine (100 sieve). and low (less than 1%) free silica content make by-product abrasives well suited for blast cleaning large steel structures. homogeneous mixtures of various oxides..`. Smelting and boiler slags are generally glassy. The relative low cost.. Novaculite. Not all slags can be used as abrasives. BY-PRODUCT ABRASIVES This group constitutes the most rapidly growing source of abrasive materials for cleaning steel structures.`-`-`. have a bulk density of 80 to 100 Iblcu ft. which give them uniform physical properties important for abrasive applications.

(Figure 8) and peach pits offer a specialty by-product abrasive. These shell products are FIGURE 1 Silica Sand Abrasive (X8 -Magnification 8 diameters) Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . and other surface contaminants without altering the metal substrate. agricultural shells are excellent for removing paint. fine scale. Tough but lightweight with a bulk density of 42-47 Iblcu ft.

rust.SSPC CHAPTER*2. FIGURE 2 Because they are produced for specialized cleaning Heavy Mineral Sand Abrasive X8 needs. It is important to know how each of these parameters affects surface preparation. net cost can be comparable to that of the by-product abrasives. durable nature of most manufactured abrasives makes them particularly adaptable to recycling as many as 20 times. Figure 13 illustrates the scouring action. delicate parts. a tough angular abrasive for specialty etching. density and size. such as yvalnut shells FIGURE 4 Zircon Abrasive X8 and corncobs. C. are used for cleaning valves or turbine rotor blades and for removing grease from motors and dirt or . and glass beads (Figure 12) for peening and cleaning small. Round particles are also used to produce a peening action when little or no change in surface configuration is permitted. SHAPE (ANGULAR VERSUS ROUND) Because of their scouring action. Table l). without destroying or altering the paint or metal substrate. hardness. Soft abrasives remove light contaminants without disturbing the metal substrate or. such as grease and dirt. (see last column. the coating system. Corncobs are also available in a full range of sizes. Some examples are silicon carbide (Figure lo). MANUFACTURED ABRASIVES Non-metallic. HARDNESS (HARD VERSUS SOFT) Hard or tough particles are best suited for blast cleaning jobs where the primary objective is to remove surface contaminants. and. An abrasive has four parameters that determine its performance: shape. B. FIGURE 3 Garnet Abrasive X8 A. if recycling is employed. manufactured abrasives are made from raw material feed stock and can be produced for specific abrasive properties. Hard particles leave less residue on the surface. CHOOSING THE RIGHT ABRASIVE The variety of materials available make it necessary to know how to select the proper abrasive appropriate for a given job. in some cases. manufactured abrasives are 10 to 15 times more costly than by-product slags and 30 to 40 times more expensive than sand. Corncobs (Figure 9) are another agricultural product used for specialty cleaning to remove surface contaminants. or shape. manufactured abrasives are not recommended for bulk cleaning jobs where the abrasive cannot be recovered for reuse.3 93 8627940 0003476 T42 available from 10 to 100 sieve. II. Soft abrasives. aluminum oxides (Figure 11) for blast cleaning materials such as stainless steel. The tough. minimize dusting. Round particles are best suited for removal of brittle Contaminants like millscale. Consequently. For this reason. provide the best durability. and dirt. hardness. such as toughness. angular particles are best suited for removal of soft friable surface contaminants such as paint.

They are also effective in 46 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .other deposits on paint films.

a soft. Cleaning rate is determined by the number of particle impacts rate. spherical particles to pop off the oxide scale. if the coating is to be removed without altering the substrate. hard. the faster the cleaning Copper Slag Abrasive x8 FIGURE 5 enough to remove the surface contaminants. plastic molds. angular particles to bite into more resilient paint coatings. A foundry casting requires a hard. scaled.SSPC CHAPTER*2. it is equally important to be aware of the job conditions that influence the selection of an abrasive. DENSITY (DENSE VERSUS LIGHT) Generally. For recycled abrasives. Since the kinetic energy of a particle is equal to the mass times the square of the velocity. Glass beads are suitable for removing oxide films on rotor blades. and angular abrasive such as copper slag is recommended. and other intricate parts where no dimensional change can be tolerated.3 93 86279LIO 0003477 989 cleaning industrial plants prior to repainting. il^^ Bottom Ash slag X8 . Scaled steel requires dense. SIZE (LARGE VERSUS SMALL) Particle size is often overlooked as a parameter affecting the performance of an abrasive. MATCHING THE ABRASIVE TO THE JOB In addition to understanding the relation between these parameters and abrasive performance. 111. The limiting factor is that particles must be coarse per unit of time. such as walnut shells. TYPE OF SURFACE The abrasive selected to do the most efficient cleaning will depend on whether the surface is rusted. The best abrasive medium is one composed of a range of sizes because coarse particles will remove the coarser contaminants while fine particles will scour out the residual fine. high density particle to remove fused sand and metal flashing. For instance. Painted surfaces require coarse. FIGURE 6 Nickel Slag Abrasive X8 painted or produced in a foundry. Rusted steel requires an angular abrasive to scour the corrosion product. At the other end of the spectrum. B. FIGURE 7 coalFired. The more impacts. may be used. friable corrosion products or old paint. But marked improvement in cleaning can be realized by controlling the size distribution of particles making up an abrasive. A.SURFACE FINISH REQUIRED The desired finish is a factor in selecting the abrasive. D. increasing the mass increases the amount of work done by each particle. the denser the particle the more effective it is as an abrasive. The converse is also true. a coarse. C. it is extremely important that the range of particle sizes or operating mix be maintained by regular additions of new abrasives to replace fractured particles removed from the blast cleaning system. angular particle. if a deep etch in the metal substrate is required to enhance coating adhesion.

..`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 47 .--`.`.`..`...`-`-`..

FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 Silicon Carbide Abrasive X8 Aluminum Oxide Abrasive X8 48 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . F. The carbide and alumina abrasives and naturally occurring garnets and heavy mineral sands can be reused many times. The need to minimize dust or airborne free silica may require replacing cheaper sands with more costly FIGURE 9 Corncob Shell Abrasive X8 by-product slags or replacing open blasting with enclosed blasting.3 73 8627740 0003478 815 = FIGURE 8 Walnut Shell Abrasive X8 C. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS Environmental requirements affect the choice of abrasive. durable material if it is to be recycled many times. E. Enclosed blasting is commonly associated with reclamation of the abrasive. tough. CLEANLINESS Not all abrasives provide the same surface cleanliness.SSPC CHAPTER*2. COATING SYSTEM Most manufacturers recommend a minimum surface texture on the abrasive-cleaned surface for good coating adhesion. If conditions such as job location make recycling impossible. It is important to know whether an abrasive can meet the specified degree of cleanliness. The coating system will therefore also influence the choice of abrasive for surface preparation. Although the most commonly recycled abrasives are the steel abrasives. among the criteria for selection of abrasives are certain key physical and chemical properties of the abrasives. copper slag is recommended because it produces the least dust. which must be a high quality. An abrasive effective for a commercial blast (SSPC-SP6) may not be able to provide a near-white (SSPCSP 10) or white-metal (SSPC-SP 5)blast-cleaned surface. D. ABRASIVE EVALUATION TESTS Finally. manufactured and naturally occurring abrasives that exhibit excellent durability should also be considered for recycling.

.`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS FIGURE 14 Sponge abrasive used for sponge jetting -no magnification. Most manufacturers list a breakdown value.`.`. That is. little energy is left for removal of surface contaminants. 2 Abrasive breakdown is a measure of a particle breakdown after impact.`.. A proposed test procedure is outlined in Table 2. Size consist is the size distribution of abrasive particles and is best determined by sieve analysis. 49 .SSPC CHAPTER*2*3 93 8627940 0003479 751 1. and standard test procedures are being established by California and the federal government... FIGURE 12 Glass Bead Abrasive X8 Direction of Travel Twisting due to offset center of Gouging at point of impact FIGURE 13 Impact of Angular Abrasive Particle on Steel Surface --`. and Figure 14 illustrates the test equipment. A consistent range of abrasive particle sizes must be maintained to produce a consistent surface and cleaning rate. The greater the particle breakdown the poorer the cleaning rate. outlined in ASTM-D 451... if most of the particle energy is dissipated in particle breakdown.`-`-`.

Trace toxic contaminants should be reviewed prior to use. because chlorides in an abrasive will leave a chloride residue on the blasted substrate that could be detrimental to the substrate and subsequent coating systems. Dust generation is the amount of dust generated by an abrasive on impact.7 84 green nil high poor Walnut shells 3 cubic 1. The soluble chloride test is important.5 cubic 4.`. The pH value is easily checked and should be routinely monitored.`.3 44 brown nil low poor Manufactured Abrasives ..3 100-120 black nil low good Nickel 8 angular 2.3 93 8b27940 0003480 473 3. 7.. TABLE 1 PHYSICAL DATA ON NON-METALLIC ABRASIVES Free Degree --`. Most chemical laboratories can routinely analyze for soluble chlorides.. and suppliers should provide a trace element analysis for potentially toxic substances.. The pH values of an abrasive should be nearly neutral when the abrasive is mixed with water. routine checking for soluble chlorides is a must. 5.8 angular 4 145 pink nil med good Zircon 7.5 1O0 white 90 + low good By-product Abrasives Slags Boiler 7 angular 2. Excessive dust can create visibility problems during blasting and cause environmental problems at the job site.`. Most suppliers note the pH on the technical data sheet accompanying the abrasive. An abrasive with an acid pH would cause premature corrosion of steel and could cause coating failure.`-`-`. 4. Analysis for free silica is generally provided by the manufacturer.5 184 white nil low good Novaculite 4 angular 2...`--Hardness Specific Bulk Slllca of (Mohr Scale) Shape Gravlty Density Color wt Yo Dusting Reuse Ibslcuft Naturally Occurring Abrasives Sands Silica 5 rounded 2-3 1O0 white 90+ high poor Heavy Mineral 5-7 rounded 3-4 128 variable (5 med good Flint 6.3 44 brown nil low poor Peach pits 3 cubic 1. 6. A measure of dust generation may be obtained during the abrasive breakdown test described in Table 2.SSPC CHAPTER*2.5-7 angular 2-3 80 grey-white 90 + med good Garnet 7.8 80-90 black nil high poor Copper 8 angular 3. The level of free silica should comply with governmental regulations. If the abrasive source is near seawater.

0 * 120 brown nil low good Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 50 .2 k 105 black nil low good Aluminum oxide 8 blocky 4.Silicon carbide 9 angular 3.

N. Joe Mazia.W.SSPC CHAPTERt2.`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 51 ....`-`-`.3 93 8b27940 0003483 30T = ACKNOWLEDGEMENT BIOGRAPHY The author and editors gratefully acknowledge the active A biographical sketch a nd photo of Bill Hitzrot appear at the participation of the following in the review process for this end of Chapter 2.0 . A. --`. Mallory. McCorrnick and William Wallace. chapter: Harlan Kline.`. R..`..`..

surface preparation can be achieved on parts or weldments that are not uniform in size or shape. and nozzle imparts a velocity to the abrasive particle that becomes a working force.spent abrasive and the contamination being removed from the surface. Abrasive blast cleaning with a compressed air source. I. Uniform or flat pieces may. Proper surface preparation by this method provides a foundation for the paint system. In effect. TYPES OF AIR BLAST EQUIPMENT A. especially on new work. DESCRIPTION Air blast equipment contains and meters abrasive into a compressed air stream through conveying hoses and nozzles to the work piece. Because of its effectiveness in cleaning metals. II. In abrasive air blast cleaning. rust. economical coating life. abrasive blast machine. Paint coating manufacturers have found a uniform etch with a cleaner surface much more effective for coating adhesion than an overly smooth surface of similar cleanliness. It is important to maintain a proper size of abrasive for air blast cleaning. the part being cleaned is eroded away by a mass of abrasive particles until a firm.J. Respiratory protection must be given to the operator and workers in the blast cleaning area because of . resulting in a clean surface.September 1993 (Editorial Changes) CHAPTER 2. . proven. and a long. but the most widely used abrasive is silica sand that has been processed for a blasting abrasive. clean surface results. Bennett Abrasive air blast cleaning provides a method of surface preparation that is rapid. abrasive hose. Selection of the abrasive in this process becomes a major factor in cleaning speed. the process has been widely accepted to remove mill scale. surface etch and coating adhesion. air hose.4 ABRASIVE AIR BLAST CLEANING by P. a coarser size of abrasive is used for more corroded steel or harderto-clean surfaces. be cleaned more efficiently with mechanical cleaning machines. paint and other contaminants. Various abrasives are used in the process. An understanding of air blast cleaning with various abrasives is essential for a successful operation. uniform etch. The trend is to a finer size of abrasive because of increased cleaning speed on new or lightly rusted steel. PRESSURE TYPE In a pressure-type abrasive blast system the abrasive machine is under the same pressure as the entire system. and well established.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 52 . B. This cleaning method is the most productive of abrasive blast cleaning. abrasive blast machine. where moisture is a problem due to high humidity. This is considered a dust free abrasive blast cleaning because it shields the blast surface area from flying particles and dust. The efficiency is largely dependent on actual nozzle pressure. 4). recycled. air lines. Its use should be limited to touch-up or spot cleaning jobs. In some cases. The pressure method provides greater production. air and abrasive are captured in a rubber-hooded enclosure. or pot . Velocity of the abrasive in the pressure method is greater than the abrasive velocity found in suction equipment (Figures 1. Cleaning speed is limited because the surface is not visible to the operator. aluminum oxide or garnet.¡. In the suction type the abrasive is siphoned from container to the blast head. The pressure type machine delivers sand under pressure through a blast hose to the surface.. They are drawn by suction back to the blast unit where reusable abrasive is separated from blast-cleaned surface contaminants. The process is limited to the use of reusable abrasives. and reused. Cleaning speed is approximately 113 slower than that of pressure blast cleaning with similar size air jets. a mixture of steel grit and aluminum oxide or garnet is recommended because it keeps the metal abrasive from lumping or congealing due to moisture (Figure 7). the compressor. varies in size. steel shot or steel grit. C. but must be under pressure for an even flow of abrasives. There are two methods of vacuum blast cleaning. It will not disturb adjacent machinery and workmen. such as metallic. abrasive blast hose and nozzle. 2. VACUUM BLAST EQUIPMENT In the vacuum blast cleaning method. 3. which should be 90-100 psi range. The pressure blast machine. The jet of air blasts the abrasive against the surface after sucking abrasive from the container.e. where high speed cleaning is not a factor (Figures 5 and 6). SUCTION BLAST EQUIPMENT This equipment utilizes the suction jet method of obtaining abrasive from the abrasive tank that is not under pressure.

and oil and moisture separators. Insufficient air supply results in excess abrasive and slower cleaning rates. B. AIRSUPPLY Air supply provides energy for the entire operation and is responsible for maintaining pressure and volume. On lines over 100 feet.D. A. specific attention must be given to each component of the air blast equipment (Figure 8). unless a carbon monoxide detector is installed in the air system. c. A separate air source for air-fed hoods may be required. It is common for air compressor manufacturers to furnish compressors with 1-inch outlets and valves. of the coupling should be considered along with hose size. air-fed hoods and control valves. abrasive blast machines. Another problem is the size of the air compressor manifold valve. The nozzle size in Table 1 indicates air consumption in cfm (cubic feet per minute) at 100 psi (pounds per square inch) without abrasive going through the nozzle. Courtesy of Clemco Industries. When determining the compressor size the next larger size compressor available for the nozzle should be used. 111. operator equipment. abrasive blast hose and couplings. AIR HOSE AND COUPLINGS Recommended size of the air supply hose should be 3 or 4 times the nozzle orifice. The I. Each component is discussed in detail. These should be removed and replaced with 1% or 2 outlets to match the main air supply hose. Components are air SUPPlY. built to ASME code requirements for 125 psi working . Often. such as for an air-fed hood (20 cfm) and airdriven ventilating equipment (approximately 120 cfm). Volume requirement is determined by the orifice nozzle size. ESSENTIAL INGREDIENTS OF AIR BLAST EQUIPMENT To achieve efficient abrasive air blast cleaning. It is also wise to consider other air requirements from the compressor. A manager of an abrasive air blast operation should have a check list of each component to ensure peak performance. ABRASIVE BLAST MACHINES The pressure machine is a non-fired pressure vessel. nozzles.SSPC CHAPTER*2*4 73 8627740 0003483 182 = FIGURE 1 Pressure blast machine. which further restricts air flow. four times should be the minimum size. the size hose used requires a coupling installed on the inside diameter of the air hose. air hoSe and CoUPlings.

1 I4 105 CFM 490 Lbs..pressures. 511 6 160 CFM 812 Lbs.`--232 CFM 1152 Lbs. 711 6 315 CFM 1584 Lbs. 318 53 --`..`-`-`. 314 840 CFM 3174 Lbc. TABLE 1 AIR CONSUMPTION NOZZLE CFM REQUIRED ABRASIVE CONSUMPTION ORIFICE @ 100 PSI PER HOUR 311 6 60 CFM 260 Lbs. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS ..`. 518 580 CFM 2518 Lbs.. 112 412 CFM 2024 Lbs..`.`.. sized to maintain an adequate volume of abrasive for the nozzle orifice.

The tube is covered by 2-or 4-ply wrapping to provide strength for pressure requirements. There. The pressure tank. of 1-inch hose (called a tail line or whip hose) for a 3/. a short hose of smaller diameter should be used for operators convenience and flexibility. Suction machines are little more than small. Figures 9-11 illustrate various size machines. whereas larger machines can accommodate multiple large nozzle outlets for large flat areas. nonpressured containers with screens and a bottom outlet for abrasive flow to a suction blast nozzle. except near the nozzle end. D. ABRASIVE BLAST HOSE AND COUPLINGS Recommended size of the blast hose is important to an air blast operation because of friction loss measured in pressure drop of conveying abrasive. pressure type.SSPC CHAPTERx2-4 93 8627940 0003484 019 = Cover (Optional) ---Screen (Optional) -Coded Pressure I Sand Valve (Grit Valve not shown) FIGURE 2 Diagram of pressure blast machine. Hose construction is normally %-inch thick rubber tube with carbon black compounding for the dissipation of static electricity generated by an abrasive flow through tube. becomes an abrasive blast machine. Typical abrasive blast operations will be 100 ft. Dissipating static electricity prevents build up and shock to operator.-inch orifice nozzle. . The recommended size is three to four times the nozzle size. Courtesy of Clemco Industries. of 1i/d-inch sandblast hose and 10 ft. Smaller machines are adaptable to small nozzles and to smaller inaccessible type work. Hose distance is less than 25 feet where abrasive can be vacuumed to the blast nozzle. It should have a sloping bottom for free flow of abrasives and be constructed with an abrasive metering valve to provide the correct abrasive-to-air mixture. Normal working pressure should not exceed 125 psi. with pressurizing and depressurizing valves.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 54 . Parts that are abrasive FIGURE 3 Two chamber continuous action pressure blast machine.A wear-resistant cover is applied over the ply to protect it against premature wear. Courtesy of Clemco Industries. In areas of volatile liquids this type of hose should be used. In some cases an additional static wire or two is wrapped spirally around the tube between the ply to ensure drain of static electricity.

-inch orifice nozzle is 5 psi per 50 ft. Small screws through the coupling into the cover ply tube completes sure fastening of the coupling to the hose. . Nozzles are a very important part of an air blast operation and should be inspected regularly for orifice size and wear. NOZZLES There are many types of blast nozzles. cast iron.4 93 8627740 0003485 T55 POP-UPValve Seat Gasket -. blast cleaned should be grounded to prevent a spark that could ignite flammable material. but construction material used in liners of nozzles determines the life and cost. Average life of tungsten nozzles is 200 hours. Normal pressure drop of sandblast hose with 3/.. Ceramic and cast iron are 2-4 hours. and poor nozzle pattern (Figure 12)./'e-FIGURE 4 Diagram of two chamber continuous action pressure blast machine. Courtesy of Clemco Industries. The advantage of exterior couplings is that they do not contribute to friction loss. Carbide nozzles are long life. It is common to put a small.. increased abrasive usage. Worn out and cracked nozzles result in increased compressor wear. During construction of these nozzles a soft metal (lead and aluminum) is used to absorb shock and protect the liner. increasing cleaning rate compared to a straight bore nozzle of the same length. Boron carbide nozzles can maintain their size for 1500 hours if properly handled to prevent cracking of the brittle carbide material. but they should be checked for threads wearing. Couplings used on blast hoses should always be exterior and should be fitted to the hose in a snug. 4-6 inch piece of rubber hose over these nozzles for added protection. A word of caution: too large an abrasive hose (1-inch) on small nozzles (y. tungsten carbide and boron carbide. Proper grounding prevents the spark and ensures safe working conditions. Therefore. Venturi style nozzles (large throat converging to the orifice and then diverging to the outlet) provide rapid speed of abrasive particles through the nozzle. Nozzle shapes provide great advantages to nozzle construction.-inch) may result in uneven abrasive flow. A polyurethane cover is also used over liners. E. Liners are constructed of ceramic. length.SSPC CHAPTERw2. Ceramic and cast iron are short life nozzles. it is important to use large hose as short as practical.. tight condition.

F. The abrasive inlet on air blast machines is called an air operating and sealing valve. outlet or depressurizing and choke valve and an abrasive metering valve. Valves mentioned are all manual because of safety requirements. Courtesy of Clemco Industries. the need for fewer operating personnel and the use of pneumatic valves controlled by operation. but is not common to all machines (Figure 2). CONTROL VALVES Pressure abrasive blast machines have an inlet. Two FIGURE 5 Suction blast equipment. 55 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .

This is especially true in portable compressors. Further advantage is obtained when an abrasive hopper is placed above the blast machine. the inlet and outlet. FIGURE 7 Vacuum blast equipment. AIR SUPPLIED RESPIRATORSIHOODS The protective helmet for abrasive blast cleaning operations has several requirements to be effective. Courtesy of Clsmco Industries. FIGURE 6 Suction blast cabinet. The choke valve is closed momentarily to force all pressure through the machine. When these valves are replaced. The choke valve is seldom used. one-man operated machine. It is very important that this valve be in good condition. 56 . an adequately sized oillmoisture separator should be installed at the blast machine (the most distant point from the compressor) to eliminate 95% of the contaminants. It must be Safe to user. To combat this. it does not require constant or continual change. H. except for removing clogged abrasive. Once it is set. OIL AND MOISTURE SEPARATORS The large consumption of compressed air in an abrasive blast operation introduces the problem of moisture (especially in high humidity areas) and oil mists from the lubricating oils in compressors.SSPC CHAPTER*2*4 93 m 8627990 000398b 991 m G. Separators are usually of the cyclone type with expansion chambers and small micron filters. This usually takes 10 seconds. They require solvent cleaning to remove oil and routine replacement of filters. the air blast machine becomes an automatic. furnishing respirable air to operator at a low noise level and protecting operator from rebounding abrasive particles. freeing a clogged line. Courtesy of Pauli 81 Griffin Company. remote controlled by the blast operator. The abrasive metering valve is the carburetor that provides proper abrasivelair mixture to the nozzle orifice. This method is well suited for recycled abrasives in abrasive blast rooms or enclosed systems (Figure 13). paper or foreign particles that block flow of abrasives. of these manual valves. can be replaced.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .

SSPC CHAPTER*2-4 93 8627940 0003487 828 W Points to Check 1. Portable High Production Sandblast Machines 4.0469 x . The filter to the helmet hose cluding air-fed and non-air-fed. Proper Sandblasting Abrasive 10. Large Compressor 2. in. Able to provide clear vision to operator.e. Training of Operators FIGURE 8 Essential components of a successful sand blast operation. an abrasive is classified according to the following characteristics: Size -Usually by U. Chemical Components -Abrasives should not contain undesirable components that would remain on surface being cleaned. sharp. Air-fed helmets should They should not be used in confined or congested areas. In a confined or congested area only a ir-fed helmets Comfortable and not restrictive. convey compressed bre athing air.0165 -1. Shape -Irregular. non-continuous exterior work.regulator to filter air sup ply. Hardness -Usually by Moh s Hardness Scale of the present element. round. Color -Light or dark. and a selection of the proper abrasive is most important. Large Orifice Venturi Nozzle 6. Sieve Sizes (¡. Moisture Separators 8. and constructed to satisfactory for light duty. Generally. Safety Air Fed Helmet 11. High Nozzle Air Pressure 9. Large Size Sandblast Hose with External Couplings 5. Remote Control Valves 7.. The non-air-fed hood is should be a minimum of JS-inch I. IV. Lighter abrasives reflect light and restrict visibility. Each has specific uses and provides a specific etch and surface appearance.S.19mm x . Specific Gravity or Weight -Heavy abrasives clean faster and impact much better while lightweight abrasives are primarily used for polishing.42mm). Courtesy of Clemco Industries. They should have a charcoal fil ter with air There are several types of abrasive blast hoods. should be used.D. specifically designed NIOSH approved dust respirator must be worn under the hood. pH of Abrasive -A neutral pH within the range of . A have NIOSH approval. 16 x 40 mesh) -(. The coating usually has a specific adhesion requirement. Dark abrasives absorb light. AIR BLAST ABRASIVES Many abrasives are used in air blast operations. Large Air Hose and Couplings 3.

Quite often. iron shot or grit.0 i 1 is desirable. Availability and Cost -Selection of abrasives could result in a high cost of transportation to using area. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 57 . FIGURE 9 Abrasives fall into five general categories: Large (8 ton capacity) portable pressure blast machine.7. freight costs exceed abrasive cost. Metallic -Steel. Courtesy of Clemtex Ltd. Salt water washed abrasives are not recommended.

0 Slag-Coal Conglomerate Iron-Alum Silica Irregular Hard 2. 65 Rockwell C Hardness.8 Silicon Carbide Oxide Silicon Carbide Angular Hard 3. Hard 2 6 ""Various Hardnesses Available Oxides -Natural or manufactured. Rockwell C. coal. are used for easier cleaning jobs.5 Corn Cob Grit Vegetable Cellulosic Irregular Soft 1.SSPC CHAPTER*2.o Glass Beads Oxide Silica Round Medium 2.6 Iron Grit Metallic Iron Angular Hard 7. walnut shells. staurolite. Light clean.7 Plastic Beads Organic Polymer Resin Round/lrregular SoftlMedium 1 .2 Staurolite Mineral Silicate Round Hard 4. Oxide Oxide Alumina Angular Hard 3.abrasives is 45-50 Rockwe ll C.8 Garnet Oxide Iron-Silica Irregular Hard 4.o 'Soft materials are < 4 on Moh's hardness scale. derived by the NACE T-6G Com. production rates and lower unit costs. The softer abrasives. 30-40 grits.7 Limestone Oxide Caco2 Irregular Soft 2. Ave rage hardness of metal Table 2 is a guide for abrasive selection. nickel.5 Walnut Shell Vegetable Cellulosic Irregular Soft 1. from metal to produce a white metal surface condition with an etch (anchor pattern) on the surface.4 73 m 8627940 0003488 764 m TABLE 2 ABRASIVE CHART MAJOR SPECIFIC ABRASIVE -TYPE COMPONENT SHAPE HARDNESS GRAVITY Steel Shot Metallic Iron Round Hard*' 7. This is especially Tests for abrasives. are used for etching. rust and other contaminants as an air blast abrasive .2 Flint Silica Silica Sharp Medium 2. Generally. using a certain volume of abrasive to blast clean a pressure rapidly inc reases consumption of abrasive and steel plate at a constant pressure and distance. Vegetable -Cellulose type.4 Magnesium Silicate Mineral Silicate Round Medium 3. magnesium to increase life and rate of cl eaning.V.7 Sand Silica Silica Irregular Medium 2. copper grit will round-up after reuse.8 Slag-Copper Conglomerate Iron-Alum Silica Irregular Very Hard 3. EFFICIENCY OF AIR BLAST OPERATIONS ing removes only old paint and loose rust. efficiency results in good used for maintenance or repainting. Medium4 5 6. Metal etch. The softer Slags or conglomerates. corn cob but they break down rapidly.2 Sodium Chemical Sodium Bicarbonate Irregular Soft 1 . Figure 14 illustrates the irn- .2 Steel Grit Metallic Iron Angular Hard' 7.3 Zirconium Mineral Silica Round Hard 4. It is generally As with any productio n job.3 SlagNickel Conglomerate Iron-Alum Silica Irregular Hard 3. the hard silicate abrasives. Silicas -Sands. zirconium. determine decreases cleaning ra te.4 Alum. which works satisfactorily ing will remove mill scale.true in abrasive air blast op erations where a small drop in mittee.

machine and c ompressor. salt. Assume the correct size of Metallic abrasives present different problems. PROCEDURE Contamination -(clay. (.S.42mm).the breakdown rate of the abrasive and the abrading or portance of good nozzle p ressure. This is especially imsoft to hard and poor to good for metal removal.0165" x 1. Pressures in excess of consider 100 psi tire the operator. it provides accurate in. iron. Sieve) these pressures. minutes. These nozzle. abrasives are normally heat-treated to various hardnesses 58 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .To correctly set up an ai r blast the following promain on surface cleaned. A. etc. hose. Silica abrasives (sand) range from abrasive usage is mor e than double. and little is gained working above Size -Approximately 16 x 40 mesh (U. At Although this test is lengthy.19mm x .0469" x .60 psi the rate of clean ing is 112 the rate at 100 psi and formation on abrasives. Cleanliness -Fresh Water Washed. cedures should be followed. differences in nozzle pressure were compared. portant on interior work (insid e of tanks) where abrasive Field tests of abrasives by a qualified engineer should must be removed prior to painting. In a blast test of two metal removal quality.) that would re.

type of steel. The surface is now ready to be coated. Courtesy of Clemtex Ltd. while others find this work monotonous or otherwise unacceptable. Some people can be trained to perform satisfactorily. It is best to ensure operator comfort and safety. On completion of blast cleaning.SSPC CHAPTERr2. Portable bulk abrasive pressure blast machine. adjust abrasive metering valve to allow proper flow of abrasive to nozzle. B. Prior to painting the surface. . Uneven flow or surging indicates too much abrasive. VARIABLES Abrasives vary in their hardness and size. On large cleaning jobs it is wise to mark off a FIGURE 10 Large stationary pressure blast machine. The greatest variable is the operator. Test complete unit without abrasives.4 93 = 8627740 0003489 bTO Connect respirator and safety equipment and check for operation. the blast machine should be emptied to prevent introduction of moisture into abrasive. Depressurize machine. differences in surface condition. corrosion.. As with all cleaning operations. Install safety clips on abrasive hose. Start compressor after the oil and water has been checked and compressor has been located upwind of blast operation. Courtesy of Clemtex Ltd. Partially open the moisture trap drain valve to drain FIGURE 11 moisture. etc. Connect air hose with safety connections and blow out hose. affect the rate of cleaning. Connect blast machine to air supply hose ahci blow out machine for any abrasive that may have been left over from previous use. start blast cleaning operation. dry air from nozzle without abrasive should be used to blow down the surface to remove spent abrasive dust. The correct abrasive flow will be a steady flow to nozzle. Check all control valves on machine for correct working order. add abrasives. Uncoil air and abrasive hoses and lay out in most direct line to machine and work. Locate abrasive blast machine as close to work as possible to minimize abrasive hose use.

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SSPC CHAPTERs2-4 93 8627940 0003490 312 given area and run a cleaning test to achieve a more ac- Vi. PRODUCTION RATES OF CLEANING curate cleaning rate. Table 3 illustrates open air blast cleaning rates and Special consideration should be given to interior blast abrasive consumption On newly fabricated steel using a cleaning. A wide variation in production rates exists on in- J/,-inch orifice no zzle and 100 psi to a SSPC-SP 10 nearterior cleaning, as much as 2:l (112 exterior cleaning rate), white condition. because of visibility problems, ventilating problems, and inaccessi bi Iity. These variables can be mi ni mized with good lighting, ventilation and good scaffolding techniques. ~~ TABLE 3 EXAMPLES OF CLEANING RATES WITH TYPICAL ABRASIVES ABRASIVE PRODUCT ION ABRASIVE CONSUMPTION RATE COMMENTS Silica Sand 16/40 2.6 Lbs./Sq. Ft. 4.75 Sq. Ft./Min. 1Y' Mil Etch Mesh Dusty 'Garnet 36 Grit *3.6 Lbs./Sq. Ft. 3.55 Sq. Ft./Min. 1% Mil Etch -Very little dust-reusable *Aluminum Oxide *3.1 Lbs./Sq. Ft. 4.58 Sq. Ft./Min. 1% Mil Etch -Very 36 Grit little dust-reusable *G-40 Steel Grit '5.5 Lbs./Sq. Ft. 3.06 Sq. Ft./Min. 2'/2 Mil Etch-NO Düst Grey Metal-Reusable Crushed Flint 3.6 Lbs./Sq. Ft. 2.69 Sq. Ft./Min. 3 Mils -Reusable 12/30 Mesh Staurolite 3.1 Lbs./Sq. Ft. 4.85sq. Ft./Min. Mil Etch 501100 Mesh Smooth Surface Coal Slag 3.2 Lbs./Sq. Ft. 3.83 Sq. Ft./Min. 2% Mil Etch 16/40 Mesh Reusable-Imbedding Copper Slag 3.1 Lbs./St. Ft. 4.36 Sq. Ft./Min. 2 Mil Etch 16/40 Mesh Reusable-Imbedding *These abrasives are normally reused. CONVENTIONAL STYLE NOZZLE B:---sf High impact in center but diminishing -11 towards edge of pattern. Large fringe area. Requires more passes than Venturi to cover surface. Force of air and abrasive on fringe not being utilized. f' tun &celerates and develops an outlet speeà twice that of a straight barrel nozzle. FIGURE 12 Nozzle styles. Courtesy of Clemtex Ltd. 60

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SSPC CHAPTER*2.4 93 8b27940 0003493 259 = A general comment on abrasive tests would include the following: Only open blast cleaning is represented. Fine abrasives clean faster than coarse abrasives. Fine abrasives produce less etch than coarse abrasives. Reuse of abrasives lowers cleaning costs. Some abrasives imbed in mild steel. Illustrated is recessed Flo-Flor with 3 recovery pans. While configurations of Flo-Flor systems will vary, the components of each system will be the same NOTE: Attention must be given to drainage around recovery system. Moisture entering the recovery area will cause serious malfunction. FIGURE 13 Abrasive recycle system for blast room. Courtesy of Clemco Industries. VII. TRAINING OF OPERATORS A well trained sandblast operator can be a great asset. There are training films and training literature available from equipment manufacturers. It is easy to plan a training session. Specific topics that should be covered are Purpose of cleaning and degree of cleanliness required for protective coating to achieve maximum economical life. Training and familiarization of actual working pieces of equipment used in air blast cleaning operat ion. Air Compressor -start, stop, pressure adjustment. Abrasive Blast Machine -start, stop, abrasive filling, abrasive mixture control, choking machine to relieve moisture and inspection of ASME code stamp. Operator Remote Controls -start, stop and emergency shut-down. Trouble-shooting of problems. 61 a.. _L-

FIGURE 14 Effect of nozzle pressure upon cleaning rate. Cleaning time is two minutes. Courtesy of Clemtex Ltd. Air and sandblast hose -required for different size nozzles. Proper coupling techniques. Nozzle -proper size and care of (Figure 15). Complete equipment -with air-fed helmet (Figure 16), filter and pressure regulation. Care, maintenance and assembly. Proper grounding -of all equipment. Abrasive -type and size. A. SAFETY REQUIREMENTS It is necessary to stress the safety aspects of air blast cleaning. At the work place everyone should be advised of health hazards of improper grounding, abrasive dust, contamination, spent abrasive removal and known hazards of working with high pressure equipment. Scaffolding is not included in this section, but should not be overlooked. Safe scaffolding is very important and can provide many benefits. Safety requirements should be in accordance with all applicable federal, state, and local rules and requirements. They should also be in accord with instructions of the paint manufacturer and of insurance underwriters. A checklist of necessary precautions would include but not necessarily be limited to the following: 1. Proper grounding techniques -With the use of anti-static abrasive blast hose, the static electricity cannot build up as it dissipates immediately; however, precautions should be used when working with volatile, flammable materials. An example is petroleum storage tanks or similar containers. Equipment and the piece that is abrasive blast cleaned should be grounded. Quite often, patches (or repairs) to the vessel, valves and gauges are insulated from the tank itself by gaskets or epoxy adhesives; therefore, it is very important that all items be grounded and checked for ground potential. These pieces, when abrasive blast cleaned, build up high static electricity potentials. In some extreme cases the nozzle and worker should be grounded to the part being abrasive blast cleaned. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

--`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--FIGURE 15 Effect of nozzle size increases production rate from 96 to 180 to 252 cq. ft. pe r hr. Courtesy of Ciemtex Ltd. When weldments or small parts are being cleaned, it is not required to go into such detail when proper equipment and static dissipating abrasive hose are used. In the interest of safety, these conditions must be checked before blast cleaning. 2. Breathing air -With oil-lubricated air compressors, whether driven by electric or gasldiesel engines, a proper charcoal filter, particulate filter ora chemical cartridge filter should be used to sup ply breathable air to air-fed blast hoods. In some cases a separate air source should be used. The air supply should be monitored or sampled routinely with a carbon monoxide detector to ensure safe air supply. The air-supplied helmet should have NIOSH approval for use as a Type CE abrasive blast air-fed helmet. The instructions on its use should be carefully followed and a maintenance system installed. 3. Abrasive dust -Abrasive blast operations require an understanding of the principles of industrial hygiene and personal protective equipment. Abrasives, as provided for use in the abrasive blast industry, do not pose a hazard because they are not themselves respirable. However, when they are used in the blast cleaning process, they create a fine respirable dust. Inhalation of this dust may be harmful to the respiratory system. Therefore, it is imperative that the abrasive blast operator wear a National Institute for Occupational Safety and HealthIMine Safety and Health Administration (NIOSHIMSHA) approved type CE positive pressure air supplied blast hood. Other workers in the area should also be supplied with respirators. If no respiratory protective device is used, crystalline silica abrasives can cause silicosis after several years of constant exposure. Therefore, extreme caution should be used with these abrasives. Use of a low silica substitute (less than 1% free silica) should be considered. Although particles in excess of 10 microns are not readily breathable, the nuisance dust should be avoided with respirators designed to guard against this dust. Metal abrasives, copper slag and coal slag abrasives do not contain free silica; however, they do break down and cause a dust that should be avoided. ALL abrasives used in abrasive blast cleaning do break down and create a dust hazard. Work-

ers involved in blast cleaning operations should be provided with personal protective equipment. Water blast cleaning minimizes dust levels. (Refer to Chapter 2.5.) Compressed air cooled aftercoolers also serve this purpose. They cause the compressed air to expand, lowering the dewpoint and eliminating moisture in the blast cleaning system. By drying the air, the aftercooler reduces abrasive use and resulting dust considerably. (Refer to Section IIIG) 4. Contaminated Dust -This dust is often overlooked and can be more of a problem than abrasive dust. As abrasive and the contaminant dust combine, it is wise to ensure that respiratory and skin protection devices are adequate to protect workers from such contaminants as old lead paint, coal tar derivatives, and various metal oxide decay. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 62

In a majority of air blast operations this area of abrasive and contaminated dust is confined to a 200-foot radius from the nozzle. All workers in this area should wear respirators designed to provide safe, respirable air to required health standards. 5. Hazards of working with high pressure equipment -Any type of pressure equipment must be designed in accordance with ASME Code for working pressure requirements and so labeled. Excess pressures to overcome pressure drops on long hose lines should be avoided to maintain safe working conditions. Pressure vessels should be inspected annually. Personnel should be completely familiar with their use and operation. Pressure vessels (abrasive blast machines are non-fired pressure vessels) should be depressurized prior to inspection, filling of abrasive, and maintenance on controls. These vessels should not be transported under pressure. Although abrasive blast machines are provided with pressure gauges, they are not reliable because of fine, abrasive dust and harsh treatment received in this type of work. Therefore, the vessel should be fitted with a depressurizing valve (bleed-off valve) near the abrasive opening to discharge pressure prior to opening. Safety procedures are generally furnished with airblast equipment. Safe maintenance painting practices should include, but not be limited to SSPC-PA Guide 3 A Guide to Safety in Paint Application . ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: Wallace Cathcart. Howard Cheshier, Charles Fox, Charlie Lewis, A. W. Mallory, R. N. McCormick, Marshall McGee, William Pearson. Robert Roth and William Wallace. BIOGRAPHY P.J. BENNETT P.J. Bennett is a Registered Professional Engineer with 38 years experience in the fields of surface preparation and abrasive blast cleaning. He received a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering from Texas A&M in 1950. He is a member of a number of professional organizations. REFERENCES 1. B. Baldwin, Methods of Dust-Free Abrasive Blast Cleaning .

Plant Engineering, pps. 116-125, February 16, 1978. 2. P.J. Bennett, Surface Preparation Abrasives . Materials Protection, July 1964. 3. H.P. Bradley, Tanks Can be Sandblasted Safely . Petroleum Refiner, January 1961. 4. N.D. Cosdorph; Engineering Approach to Chemical Plant Coating , Corrosion, 1960. 5. Use of Abrasive Blast Equipment . Clemco Industries.: FIGURE 16 Air-fed helmet with filter. Courtesy of Clemco Industries. FIGURE 17 By eliminating moisture in the blast cleaning system, compressed air aftercoolers reduce abrasive use and dust levels. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 63

SSPC CHAPTERt2.5 93 m 8627940 0003494 TbB m September 1993 (Editorial Changes) CHAPTER 2.5 WATER BLAST CLEANING by P. J. Bennett Water blast cleaning (sometimes called hydroblasting) uses water at high pressure, 10,000 or more psi, and low volume, 2 to 15 gallons per minute, to prepare metal for painting. This process removes loose, flaky rust and mill scale. It has gained wide acceptance where dry abrasive blast cleaning dusts and contamination present a hazard to personnel and machinery. Water blast cleaning does not replace abrasive blast cleaning. Water alone cannot etch a metal surface. injection of dry abrasive at the nozzle achieves a surface etch. Many applications prior to painting are enhanced by this method with these major advantages: fast cleaning of soiled surfaces, a neutral surface for application of paint coatings, and low cost. It is important to exercise caution when using high pressure forces, taking care to protect personnel and equipment. I. DESCRIPTION AND USE Hydroblast cleaning takes a clean, filtered water supply into a power driven stainless steel pump and increases water pressure to as much as 10,000 psi. High pressure water is conveyed through hoses to a hand-held gun with a small diameter orifice nozzle (Figure 1). When abrasive is injected into the water stream, the process becomes much more effective. This method restricts dust and flying particles. When abrasive is used to expose bare metal, a secondary washing procedure must follow to remove spent slurry. This procedure includes a rust inhibitor, which must be compatible with the painting system. Hydroblast cleaning offers the greatest advantage in maintenance because of cleaning speed. With abrasive injection, it can be used to clean irregular shapes, back-toback angles, corroded valves, marine vessels with sea water corrosion and similar hard-to-clean surfaces. It has a wide range of applications, but does not solve all cleaning problems. It is not used to shop clean new weldments. Abrasive air blast cleaning can be used effectively and economically on new steel construction, where inorganic The process has been used by industry to clean heat exchangers, boilers, flaking tar, clogged piping, rubber molds, concrete surfaces and latency from fresh concrete prior to pour. It also is used in plant filter screens and con-

taminated floor areas. II. LOW PRESSURE TYPES Waterblast cleaning with water pressure. up to 2000 psi is low pressure cleaning (Figure 2). As water pressure increases, so does cleaning rate. Low pressure waterblast cleaning uses the same equipment as large units, ¡.e., engine, pump, hose and gun, but a smaller size and less water volume. The size of the cleaning job dictates the equipment required. Low pressure cleaning is referred to as Power Washing and should be recognized in that service requirement. Low pressure Power Washers are especially suited for removing oil and grease accumulations when water is added to a detergent inhibitor. The volume of water, in gallons per minute, at this pressure also influences the cleaning rate. The greater the volume, the greater the force or cleaning rate. 111. HIGH PRESSURE High water pressure cleaning is most widely used (Figure 3). It provides higher pressures and volumes for greater production cleaning rates. Pressures up to 10,000 psi and volumes to 10 gpm provide maximum cleaning rates and maximum endurance of the operators physical ability. Pressures up to 20,000 psi have been used. The most commonly used pressure for maintenance surface preparation is 3000 to 6000 psi at 8-10 gpm water volume. This pressure and volume provides an operator with a workable cleaning force and limits fatigue, resulting in greater overall performance. High pressures require safety provisions for sure, sound footing for operators. Ultra high pressure methods, which may use pressures above 40,000 psi, are more efficient but also more expensive. zinc primers are used as permanent primer. The hydroblast method is not preferred, due to rust forming between the *For further informatio n on water blasting, see Recomdrying period and coating application. mended Practices NACE RP-01-72: Surface Pr eparation of Steel by Water Blasting by L.L. Sline. 64 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

SSPC CHAPTER*2=5 93 8627940 0003495 9T4 W FIGURE 1 Typical Water Blast Equipment with Sand Injection. Courtesy of Partek Corporation of Houston IV. EQUIPMENT Abrasive is injected into the system after water is pressured by means of a suction head to prevent pump The basic waterblast unit consists of an engine driven damage. It is usually inj ected at the blast gun before the pump, inlet water filter, pressure gauge, hydraulic hose nozzle. The high pressure jet induces abrasive from short of burst pressure 3 times working pressure, gun and distances (up to 25 feet) by vacuum. The preferred method nozzle combination. The water gun should be a fail-safe is to use a pressure abras ive blast machine to ensure even dump gun, to relieve pressure should the operator release and adequate flow for distances greater than 25 feet. the trigger. Nozzles are usually circular orifices for concentrated round spray and tapered for flat or fan spray. Long hose may be used (200 -300 feet) without loss of pressure. Air compressors are not required for hydroblasting. V. INTRODUCTION OF ABRASIVES Any type of abrasive commonly used with air blast cleaning can be used in waterblast cleaning. Sand is the most common abrasive. Injecting abrasive into water eliminates dust that normally accompanies dry use of friable abrasives. Use of expensive abrasives is limited because spent abrasive becomes wet and contaminated. In this condition it cannot be economically dried, screened and recycled. FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 Low pressure water blast cleaning with sand injection. High pressure water blast cleaning with sand injection. Courtesy of Acme Cleaning Equipment Company Courtesy of Tri-Tan Corporation 65 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

SSPC CHAPTERr2.5 93 8b279LIO 000349b 830 TABLE 1 SOME WATERBLAST CLEANING RATES* Sq. Ft. Per Hour SURFACE Water Only -W 0-2000 PSI 3000 -6000PSI 10,000PSI CONDITION Sand Injection -SI @ 5 GPM 6-8 GPM 10GPM Easy to clean, dusty settlement, flaky flat W 150 350 500 surface, light oil or grease SI 200 450 650 Average rusty surface W 75 200 250 angles and piping SI 1O0 225 350 Heavily corroded surface W 20 75 125 rust scale, irregular shape SI 25 1O0 175 NOTE: Hydroblast surface comparable to SSPC-SP 6 condition. Abrasive cleaned surface comparable to SSPC-SP 10 condition. *These rates not necessarily achieved under different surface conditions. VI. PRODUCTION RATES The speed of cleaning is dependent on highest VIII. COST COMPARISON manageable working pressure and volume of water. Depend- Hydroblast cleaning cos t can be nearly the same as --`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--ing on surface condition, hydroblasting compares favorably dry abrasive blast cl eaning. Equipment costs are approxiwith dry or wet sandblasting. Table 1 is a guide to cleaning mately the same and production is comparable. There is a rates, based on the author s experience. difference because of inhibitors and rins ing costs. VII. INHIBITORS Steel cleaned by waterblast or water pressure flashes rust upon drying unless an inhibitor is in the spray solution or applied immediately after blasting. Inhibitors are generally injected at the blast nozzle, similar to sand injection. Inhibitors are generally sodium andlor potassium dichromate or phosphate. They mix well with water and retard corrosion until suitable paint is applied. The solutions, upon drying, leave salts that can produce adhesion problems for protective coatings. Hydroblast equipment manufacturers market chemical solutions that are very effective in retarding rust. The prime consideration should be to determine if the protective coating is compatible with the inhibitor. After hydroblast cleaning, the surface must be rinsed of spent abrasives. It is necessary to use an inhibitor that

prevents rust formation after rinsing. Inhibitors can retard rust up to seven days. This is par- FIGURE 4 ticularly useful in tank work. The entire surface can be Gasoline driven trailer mount -showing optional hose reel. Courtesy of Tritan Corporation cleaned prior to painting. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 66

SSPC CHAPTER*2*5 93 8627940 0003477 777 The blast gun should have automatic control to release pressure when the operator releases the trigger. A dump valve on the gun serves this purpose. Everyone within 50 feet of the work area should be warned of hazards associated with hydroblast cleaning (including signs a,nd rope-Offs where necessary). No electrical power should be in the work area. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: James Flaherty, A. W. Mallory, Joe Mazia, Marshall McGee, William Pearson, John Perchall and Bill Wallace. BIOGRAPHY A biographiwl sketch and photo of Jim Bennett appear at the end of Chapter 2.4. FIGURE 5 Steel blasted to white finish (SSPC-SP 5) at 10,000 psi. Courtesy of Partek Corporation In maintenance painting, where job specifications require only removal of all loose paint scale and flaky rust and a thoroughly washed surface, the hydroblast method is very economical, compared to hand or power tool cleaning. Hydroblast cleaning may also be preferred where there are restrictions on äry abrasive blast cleaning. IX. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Hydroblast cleaning uses high pressures. Extreme caution should be exercised with the equipment. Instruction and training of operators about correct use and equipment operation is essential. Surfaces, other than metal, can be damaged with high pressure water and should be protected from effects of the high pressure water blast. The operator of a hydroblast unit must have sound, safe footing. Extra caution should be taken on rigid scaffolding. Swinging stages and bosun chairs are not normally recommended for use with hydroblasting. The operator should wear a rain suit, face shield, hearing protection and gloves. 67

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SSPC CHAPTER+Z.b 93 m ab27940 0003502 964 CHAPTER 2.6 HAND AND POWER TOOL CLEANING by Preston S.Hollister and R. Stanford Short I. HAND CLEANING Hand cleaning is one of the oldest processes for preparing surfaces prior to painting. Generally, it is used only when power operated equipment is not available, if the job is inaccessible to power tools or when the job is small. Tools needed include wire brushes, non-woven abrasive pads, scrapers, chisels, knives, chipping hammers, and, in some instances, conventional coated abrasives. Specially shaped scrapers or knives are sometimes necessary. In close areas tools must be shaped so they can enter areas to be cleaned. Further limitations are also found with hand tools when tight mill scale or rust must be removed. These can be cracked on impact and removed with scrapers, abrasive paper or non-woven abrasive pads, a very slow and impractical method except for small areas. There is danger that deep markings in the metal from impact tools will leave a burr on the metal surface that interferes with coating systems performance. Generally, both hand and power tool cleaning are employed for economical cleaning. Before hand cleaning, the surface should be examined to determine the contaminants to be removed. Work should follow the Steel Structures Painting Council Surface Preparation Specification No. 2 Hand Tool Cleaning . Solvent cleaning should precede hand cleaning when detrimental amounts of oil and grease or other soluble contaminants may be present. This procedure is specified in detail in SSPC-SP 1. A. HAND CLEANING TOOLS Dried or caked soil and other such contaminants are generally removed with loose mill scale and rust by scraping, brushing with non-woven abrasive pads, wire brushing and hand chipping. It is important that any surface contaminant, such as gobs of oil or grease, is not distributed over the entire surface through cleaning operations. Some tools used for hand cleaning are illustrated in Figure 1. Wire brushes may be of any practical shape and size. Two general types are the oblong with a long handle and the block type. Bristles are of spring wire. Brushes should be discarded when they are no longer effective because of lost or badly bent bristles. Non-woven abrasives are used

in simple pad form or applied to a backup holder with handle (Figure 2). They are conformable and can be cut to fit various applicators. Scrapers may be of any convenient design. Figure 3 shows practical scrapers used by maintenance crews. Scrapers should be made of tool steel, tempered and kept sharp to be effective. Some scrapers are made by sharpening the ends of 1-112to 2-inch wide flat files or rasps and fastening them to a handle. The handle may be up to 5 feet long to increase the area that can be reached. Other chipping and scraping tools made from old files or rasps have both ends sharpened. Several inches from one end, the file is bent at right angles. Hand-chipping hammers are advisable in maintenance work where rust scale has formed. A chipping hammer is about 4 to 6 inches long with two wedge-shaped faces at either end of the head, one face perpendicular to the line of the handle and the other at right angles to the first face. Typical tools are illustrated in Figure 3. Auxiliary equipment includes dust brushes, brooms, various sizes of putty knives and conventional painters scrapers, coated abrasives, and safety equipment such as goggles and dust respirators. B. PROCEDURES Hand-cleaning operations vary depending on the job. Rust scale forms in layers. It is removed first, usually by impact from hand chipping hammers, sledge hammers, etc. Where rust scale has progressed to the point where thickness of the metal has been diminished, extreme care in removing rust scale by impact prevents heavy sledges from puncturing the metal. Deep marking of the surface must be avoided. Burrs interfere with performance of the coating system. After rust scale, oil, grease and similar contaminants are removed, all loose and non-adherent rust, loose mill scale and loose or non-adherent paint are removed by a suitable combination of scraping and nonwoven abrasive or wire brushing. The cleaning method depends on the surface. Loose, voluminous rust is easily removed by scraping with thin, wide-blade scrapers and then wire or non-woven abrasive brushing. Tightly adherent rust is generally removed with a heavy scraper. Hand cleaning does not remove tight mill scale and all traces of rust. Complete removal is extremely expensive and noneconomical, except for extremely small areas. Rust, scale, oil, grease, etc., should be removed from the surface before cleaning. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 6%

SSPC CHAPTER*Z.b 93 m 8b27940 0003503 BTO W 111. IMPACT CLEANING TOOLS Impact cleaning tools are characterized by chipping and scaling hammers. With these tools, a chisel is struck by an internal piston and strikes the work surface. Chisels can be adapted for scraping and chipping. This type of tool is useful when heavy deposits of rust scale, mill scale, thick old paint, weld flux, slag and other brittle products must be removed from metal. Typical tools are shown in Figure 4. Chisels have different shapes and are made of various materials. A needle scaler is a scaling hammer with a bundle of steel needles housed and positioned forward of the striking piston. The piston strikes all needles simultaneously, propelling them individually against the work surface. This FIGURE 1 Tools used in hand cleaning operations. An oblong type of wire brush is shown to the right of goggles and gloves; wide blade hand scraper; hand chipping hammer; long-handled, wide blade scraper; hammer and chisel used for removing rust scale. Hand-cleaning painted surfaces removes all loose non-adherent paint in addition to any rust or scale. If paint is thick, edges of the old paint should be feathered to improve the quality of the paint job. After cleaning, the surface is brushed, swept, dusted and blown off with compressed air to remove all loose matter. II. POWER TOOL CLEANING PLINTERS RUST CHISEL PAINTERS' SCRAPER Use of portable power tools -pneumatic and electric -is common for cleaning operations. Through careful selection and use of the great variety of power tools and accessories, many cleaning operations can be accomplished rapidly and produce satisfactory surface conditions with reasonable labor costs and good paint life. Power tools used for surface cleaning fall into three basic families: requirements. --`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--Impact cleaning tools FIGURE 3 Rotary cleaning tools Shop drawings of typical hand tools. Rotary impact cleaning tools Tools in each family have unique characteristics that type of tool adapts to irr egular surfaces. Needle scalers make them adaptable to different cleaning operations and are illustrated in Figu re 5. They are most effective on brittle and loose surface contaminants. Piston scalers are similar to scaling hammers, but the piston is also the chisel. This minimizes the axial dimen-

sion and permits use in operations with limited access. This type of tool is available in single and multiple piston types. Some makes can be mounted in groups for cleaning large surface areas. Cleaning surfaces with scaling and chipping hammers is comparatively slow. When considerable rust scale or heavy paint formation must be removed, it may be the best and most economical method. Impact cleaning tools are available with various handle and throttle styles. They should be selected for FIGURE 2 specific operations with consideration for operator safety, Non-woven abrasive pad attached to plastic backup holder. convenience and prefer ence. This minimizes fatigue and Courtesy of 3M Company. improves operator productivity. 69 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

SSPC CHAPTERa2.6 73 8b27740 0003504 737 FIGURE 4 A selection of various chipping hammers and the chisels they use. Courtesy of ARO Corporation. Great care must be exercised in using tools because of the tendency to excessively cut into the surface, removing sound metal and leaving sharp burrs where the paint will fail prematurely. The cutting action of sharp chisels is valuable for shaping sharp edges to a rounded or less sharp surface so paint does not pull away. It also removes imperfections from the surface. These tools may be used to remove tight mill scale and surface rusting, but they are not the most practical or economical tools because they gouge metal, which must be smoothed to do a thorough job. Tools must be sharp or they may drive rust and scale into the surface. IV. ROTARY CLEANING TOOLS Rotary power tools do most hand-cleaning jobs rapidly. Rotary power tools and the cleaning media that fit them are discussed. A. CLEANING MEDIA There are three basic types of cleaning media for rotary power tools: non-woven abrasives, wire brushes and coated abrasives. As subsequently described, these media can be used on two basic types of tools. FIGURE 5 Typical needle scalers. Courtesy of ARO Corporation. Non-woven abrasives and rotary wire brushes can be used to remove old paint, light mill scale, rust, weld flux, slag and dirt deposits. Wire brushes (Figure 6) can be composed of differently shaped and sized wire bristles. Bristles may be crimped or knotted. Non-woven abrasive products (Figure 7) can be composed of various grades of abrasive and densities. Wire brushes and non-woven abrasives come in cup and radial (wheel) form. Non-woven abrasives also are available in disc form. Selection of style and type of bristle or non-woven abrasive composition should be based on trials. Surface condition affects the efficiency of cleaning. Non-woven abrasives are particularly FIGURE 6 Types of brushes used with power tools. On the left is shown a wheel type of stiff wire brush; in the center and on the right are shown cup types of wire brushes of knotted construction; on the lower right is a wire brush with a crinkled wire construction. On the lower left is a wire brush used for cleaning corners, etc.; in use it is held in an adaptor illustrated in the lower center. advantageous in removing coatings because of lowered susceptibility to loading, as compared to coated

abrasives. Coated abrasives are used in several converted forms (Figure 8). Discs and flap wheels are used to remove loose mill scale, old paint, etc. similar to wire brush applications, but can remove base metal. Loading from old paints may make such applications uneconomical for discs. B. TOOLS Tools for the three above media are divided into two basic types: straight, or in-line machines (Figure 9), and vertical or right angle machines (Figures 10, 11). The straight or in-line machine style is used with radial wire brushes, coated abrasive flap wheels and nonwoven abrasive wheels. The vertical machine style is suited for cup wire brushes, coated abrasive discs, nonwoven abrasive discs, cup wheels and wheels. The type of machine varies with job conditions. It is advisable to have both types on hand and generally both are used on field jobs. Operator fatigue is an important factor in power tool cleaning. An operator s preference should be considered in selecting a machine. In some cases, where much overhead work is to be done, small lightweight machines may be used. Machines may be operated by pneumatic or elecCopyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 70

SSPC CHAPTERt2.b 73 8b27740 0003505 673 Non-woven abrasive wheels are recommended where base metal should not be removed but where wire brushes are not aggressive enough. Non-woven abrasive wheels wear at a controlled rate. Fresh working abrasive provides a constant rate of surface cleaning with minimal loading. Non-woven abrasive wheels are useful in removing light mill scale. In many applications, non-woven abrasives are a quicker and more effective alternative to wire brushes or coated abrasives. In power wire brushing it is possible to cut through some mill scale by using the toe of a very stiff brush and bearing down hard. It is impractical to remove tight mill scale by power wire brushing. Generally, removal of only loose mill scale and rust is required. Too high a speed must not be used with rotary wire brushes and the brush must not be kept on one spot for too long. Detrimental burnishing of the surface may occur. Under such circumstances the surface is smooth and develops a polished, glossy appearance that provides a poor anchor for paint. It is clear that doing too much surface work is detrimental. Rotary wire brushes are particularly notorious FIGURE 7 for spreading oil and grease over the surface. Oily or Non-woven abrasive products are available (from right to left) in greasy surface s must be cleaned with solvent before disc, wheel and cup wheel forms. power brushing. Coated abrasive and non-woven a brasive Courtesy of 3M Company. products are also vulnerable to oily or greasy surfaces. tric motors. Lightweight machines operated by high fre- Solvent cleaning, prior to power cleaning, is recomquency current are available. mended. The machine should be compatible with the size and Coated abrasives are particul arly useful for applicaspeed rating of the cleaning media and should produce tion where metal removal i s either desired or acceptable, enough power to perform the operation efficiently. Most such as weld grinding. T ight mill scale cannot be removed air powered machines contain governors to limit the free with such media, but lo ose scale can be. operating speed. Governors respond to tool load resulting from thrust applied to the work surface and supply more V. ROTARY IMPACT TOOLS air to the motor, increasing power output and maintaining Rotary impact tools op erate on the same basic princiits rated speed while under load. Electrically driven ple as other impact tools, through cutting or chipping machines operate at a fixed speed. action, but rotary tools use a centrifugal pr inciple where cutters or hammers are rotated at high speed and thrown against the surface. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from

IHS FIGURE 8 Coated abrasives disc (left) or coated abrasive flap wheels (right) are used for surface preparation. Courtesy of 3M Company. 71

SSPC CHAPTER*Z.h 93 8b27940 0003506 50T --`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--failure due to insufficient paint coverage. If these tools are used to remove all mill scale and rust from the surface, it is very likely that the surface will be too rough for satisfactory painting unless a very thick coating, such as coldapplied mastic, is applied. VI. TOOL SAFETY Safety is a very important consideration when using tools. It includes proper use and maintenance of tools, and protection from air-borne contaminants. Prescribed safety practices are published by various FIGURE 11 A non-woven abrasive cup wheel in use on a vertical power tool. Courtesy of 3M Company. organizations, including the American National Standards Institute, the National Safety Council, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency. Some publications are referenced at the end of this section to help users identify them, and include recommended operating procedures. Safety practices include the following considerations. Tool users and other people in the area should wear eye FIGURE 10 protection to guard against flying particles. Different Three air-powered vertical or right-angle power tools. types and requirements ar e prescribed in ANSI Z 87.1. Ear Courtesy of ARO Corporation. protection should be considered when impact tools a re 72 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

SSPC CHAPTER*Z-b 93 8627740 0003507 446 D FIGURE 12 Top left are four types of cutters or stars. Next is a heavy-duty rotary peening flap. Pictured below the row is a rotary hammer. Courtesy of Desco Manufacturing Co. used. Particular attention should be paid when using several tools simultaneously in close proximity. Hand tools should be properly selected for the purpose and properly maintained. Hammers should be properly heat-treated and striking faces maintained to eliminate mushrooming and flying fragments. Chisels must be maintained on the striking and cutting ends. All sharpedged tools deserve respect and proper consideration. Electrical tools should be run in dry environments. They should be grounded or double insulated. Power cords should be kept in good repair. Impact tools should be operated only when the chisel or scaling tool is in position and in contact with the workpiece. Tools should not be used if ejection of an accessory might endanger personnel. Rotary wire brushes should be run at or below manufacturer s rated maximum operating speed. Gloves and leather aprons are additional safeguards to avoid injury from loose wires. Recommended guards should always be used. Coated and non-woven abrasives should be run at or below manufacturer s rated maximum operating speed. Non-woven abrasive wheels should be operated in the proper direction of rotation. The wheel or disc should be put on the tool and tightened securely while the tool is disconnected from the power supply. Guards should be used. Protective clothing should be considered. Proper air pressure to pneumatic tools is important. Proper rpm should be checked with a tachometer on all tools before use. Rotary impact tools also should be operated at or below manufacturer s rated maximum operating speed. Proper guards should be used on such tools. When using Heavy Duty Roto Peen, it is important to have flaps loaded for direction of rotation as recommended. These media should be tightened securely and run only when contacting an appropriate work surface. Respirators should be used if contaminants in the breathing zone exceed applicable threshold limits. This is of particular importance when cleaning paints containing lead, chromate or coal tar products. Since the cleaning operations can produce sparks,

care must be exercised when cleaning in the area of combustibles and volatile vapors. When such conditions cannot be avoided, only special non-sparking tools should be used. For more complete information on the subject of safety, refer to the following: Standard for Safety of Portable Electric Tools , C33.49. American National Standards Institute, 1 1 West 42nd St., 13th Floor, New York, NY 10036-8002. (Also UL45, Underwriters Laboratory). Safety Requirements for the Design, Care, and Use of Power Driven Brushing Tools , 8165.1, American National Standards Institute. Standard for Occupational and Educational Eye and FIGURE 13 This electric tool (right) used a flap loading of heavy duty rcitary peening (left) to remove mill scale from carbon steel. Courtesy of 3M Company and Desco Manufacturing Company. 73 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

SSPC CHAPTER*2*b 93 8627940 0003508 382 Face Protection , 287.1. American National Standards Institute. Accident Prevention Manual for Industrial Operations , seventh edition, National Safety Council, 1121 Spring Lake Drive, Itasca, IL 60143-3201. Also, various Occupational Safety and Health As2;ociation regulations may be applicable. Reguiations are available from the Occupational Safety and Health Admiriistration, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: Dick Anderson, Duane Bloemke, William Mathay, Duke Mallory, Ben Nieters, Bob Roth, and Bill Wallace. BIOGRAPHIES Preston Hollister graduated from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana in Decernber, 1979 with a B.S. in chemical engineering. He worked as a technical service engineer with Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, Building Service and Cleaning Products Division, where he specialized in non-woven abrasive products for industrial applications. He actively represented 3M not only in the SSPC but on ASTM s D33 committee on Protective Coating and Lining Work for PowerGeneration Facilities and the Utilities Nuclear Coatings Work Committee. R. Stanford Short retired as Manager of Engineering Standards and Services at the Aro Corporation, Bryan, Ohio. He received a B.S.M.E. from Michigan State College (University) in 1950 and had been associated with The Aro Corporation and the pneumatic tool industry from 1953 to 1983. Mr. Short was engaged in the design, research and development of air tools and systems for 17 years. He holds numerous Datents for air tool inventions, has conducted numerous seminars, and has had papers --`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--published on various facets of pneumatic tools and their use. In addition to having served the Compressed Air and Gas Institute (CAGI) as its representative to the European Committee of

Manufacturers of Compressors, Vacuum Pumps and Pneumatic Tools (PNEUROP), he was chairman of the CAGI Pneumatic Tool Engineering and Safety Committees. Mr. Short was also a member of various committees of the American National Standards Institute, PNEUROP and the International Organization for Standardization. His professional affiliations have included membership in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Society for Testing and Materials, the American Society for Metals and the U.S. Metric Association. SUGGESTED READING V.M. Gin, 3M Brand Heavy Duty Roto Peen Flap Wheel Coating Removal System , BS&CP Division, St. Paul, MN, 1977. V.M. Gin, Mill Scale. Removal with 3M Brand Heavy Duty Roto Peen Flap Wheel , BS&CP Division, St. Paul, MN, 1976. P.S. Hollister, Surface Preparation Procedure for Repairs of Nuclear Grade Coatings on Steel and Concrete , BS&CP Division, St. Paul, MN, 1980. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 74

SSPC CHAPTERr2.7 93 m Bb279LlO 0003509 219 m September 1993 (Editorial Changes) CHAPTER 2.7 FIELD SURFACE PREPARATION COSTS bY Robert B. Roth The cost for surface preparation of carbon steel substrates varies with the degree of cleaning specified, the cleaning method and the efficiency of the organization performing the work. Designated surface preparation must be companioned with the selected protective coating systems, and the inherent, desired or designed performance. Direct costs include labor, taxes and insurances, materials, supervision, scaffolding, equipment and inspection. Indirect charges cover items such as engineering input, overhead, cost of capital, administration of the work, depreciation and cost of down time. The total cost is the sum of direct and indirect amounts. This chapter presents general guidelines for the individual who has to select cleaning methods, design specifications and establish budgets for painting and coating work. It also deals with the standards available and relative cost factors. I. DISCUSSION The individual concerned with surface preparation must research the assignment and select a degree of surface cleanliness and a coating system based on the criteria demanded by the type of service or exposures presented. Costs are escalating and warranties are essential. Unauthorized or capricious deviations can lead to failures; replacement or correction can be very expensive. To assure successful performance of the selected protective paint or coating system and to enjoy the guarantees available, recommendations of the paint or coating manufacturers must be followed. Specific circumstances may require variances, but variances must be authorized, in writing, by the manufacturer. Inspection and documentation are necessary for each phase of the job for the warranty to be valid. II. SURFACE PREPARATION There are nine formal surface preparation specifications as covered by SSPC specifications. Each specification is designed to define a degree of surface cleanliness and eliminate misunderstandings between vendor and purchaser. Cost of surface preparation should be based on workhours per square foot of surface area to be cleaned, based

on job records. The individual responsible for preparing the cost estimate or proposal for the work must recognize the type and degree of cleaning, type of cleaning equipment, steel configuration (plates, shapes, fabrications, etc.), sur75 face condition (mill scale, previous coating, degree of rust, and deleterious material), and accessibility (on shop floor, part of existing structure and adjacent hazards). 111. SSPC SPECIFICATIONS The following sections assume identical conditions of field work, supervision, crew experience, environment and new, mill scale-covered steel with light surface rusting. A. SSPC-SP 1 SOLVENT CLEANING For mildly contaminated steel substrates, an effective solvent cleaning at the rate of 500 square feet per workhour can be expected. Material use is approximately one gallon per hour. Use the cost of one gallon per hour, recognizing this quantity is conservative, to cover expendables, such as rags, mops, gloves, etc. B. SSPC-SP 2 HAND TOOL CLEANING It is reasonable to expect hand tool cleaning rates in the range of 250 to 300 square feet per work hour. Tool allowance costs at the equivalent rate of four units (scrapers or wire brushes, etc.) per person per day is adequate. C. SSPC-SP3 POWER TOOL CLEANING It is not reasonable to expect a worker to use conventional heavy, vibrating power tools or equipment continuously for an eight hour day. Experience shows that three to four productive hours per day can be expected. Power tools have other pitfalls: power wire brushes can polish or burnish the substrate; chipping hammers and power chisels can gouge the surface; and power sanders clean only the high areas leaving some areas untouched. It is reasonable to assume a cleaning rate of 100 square feet per hour in an eight hour shift or 400 square feet per person per day for power tool cleaning. It is also reasonable to expect a minimum of two items such as wire discs, cup brushes, sanding inserts, or chisels and varnox tip sets to be replaced per person per eight hour day. EXAMPLE: Assume 5000 square feet of steel plate, to be cleaned per SSPC SP 1,2 and 3. Experience indicates that 50% of surface requires solvent cleaning, 80% hand tool cleaning and 20% power tool cleaning due to some tight scale, etc. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

SSPC CHAPTER*2-7 73 m 6627740 00035LO T30 m Your estimate would allow: SSPC-SP 1 Solvent Cleaning 5 person hours SSPC-SP 2 Hand Tool Cleaning 14-16 person hours SSPC-SP 3 Power Tool Cleaning 10 person hours Allow for expendables of port ion. material in the same pro-

D. BLAST CLEANING (SSPC-SP 5,6,7, and 10) Most modern field practices use abrasive blast cleaning as a method of preparation, conforming to one of the above specifications. Sandblast cleaning can be the least expensive method of field surface preparation, especially if sophisticated equipment is used. When estimating for basic blast cleaning costs, consider three persons working an eight hour shift as a crew day . Two nozzles would be working leaving one person to handle hoses, move gear and to relieve occasionally the other nozzle operators. Table I presents cleaning rate data obtained by blast cleaning lightly rusted steel plate with a synthetic abrasive of medium hardness (30 to 40 mesh) using a #6 nozzle (J/ diameter) operating at a nozzle pressure of approximately 80 psi. These production rates allow for the stoppages and inefficiencies inherent in all such operations. Variables such as nozzle diameter, dead-man or automatic shut off and adjustments influence the rates on the guide chart , Table I. E. SSPC-SP 8 PICKLING Pickling employs large dip vats and large cranes or handling equipment and is a shop or fixed-facility operation. Costs are elusive, particularly since each shop employs a proprietary process and keeps divergent cost records involving equipment depreciation, discounted cash flow and related economic factors. In modern industry, pickling has been decreasing in volume practice. Expect lower cleaning rates when blast cleaning a pickled substrate. Depending on the pickling process used, field sandblasting rates can be reduced by as much as 50to 60 percent. TABLE 1 Cleaning Rate Data F. SSPC-SP 11 POWER TOOL CLEANING TO

BARE METAL This method uses power-tool driven abrasives to produce a bare metal surface. It is used when a roughened, clean, bare metal surface is required, but where abrasive blasting is not feasible or permissible. It differs from SSPC-SP 3, PowerTool Cleaning, in that SSPC-SP 3 requires only the removal of loosely adherent materials, while SSPC-SP 11 requires producing or retaining a surface profile. The equipment required for this method is relatively inexpensive, though slightly more expensive than traditional power tools. It is quite effective at removing paint, tight rust and mill scale from flat surfaces when used in conjunction with solvent cleaning. It is significantly less effective at removing these materials from irregular, hard-to-reach surfaces. The quality of the prepared surface for painting is suitable for most coating systems, with a minimum one mil surface profile. However, productivity is low. The technique generates more dust and debris than SSPC-SP 3. Dust levels can be reduced by using the tools inside a vacuum-equipped containment which surrounds only the tool. IV. WATERBLASTING Costs vary widely with conditions but a cleaning rate of approximately.3500 square feet per eight hour day (two be eliminated from the --`,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--person crew) using waterblast cleaning on lightly rusted steel plate can be expected. Abrasive blast cleaning of a surface that has already been hydrocleaned can be accomplished at a one-third greater production rate than that shown in Table I. Often the solvent cleaning step can specifications. V. COST REVIEW When making an estimate of surface preparation cost, consider these factors: 1. Labor (a) Rate classification

Abrasive Used Per Relative Crew Day costs 7. ft. 6 Commercial 2500 sq.000 Ibs.500 Ibs. ft. 5White Metal 1000 sq.000 Ibs. 10 Near White 1500 sq. ft. ft. 2+ 12. 3 /2 10.(b) Mechanics and Helpers (c) Field Supervision (d)Specialists (Riggers and equipment operating personnel and so forth) Average Cleaning Blast Cleaning Rate Per Three Specified Person Crew Day SSPC-SP SSPC-SP SSPC-SP SSPC-SP 7 Brush Off 5200sq. 5+ Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .000 Ibs. 1 8.

`--VI.. BIOGRAPHY Robert B. (b)Travel pay.SSPC CHAPTERU2-7 93 8627940 0003511 977 2. qualified and properly instructed. William Pearson. Labor (a) Health. Vacation. Equipment (a) Standard Blue Book or A.. Welfare.D. Assuming personnel are trained. items 1 through 6) 8. if applicable (c) Collect ive bargai ni ng addit ives 3. Inc. Jim Flaherty. Lubricants (c)Transportation and handling costs (d)Use taxes on above 6.. SUMMARY A successful protective coating operation starts with proper surface preparation.`. Fringes etc. Jack Oechsle. In following the cost projection guidelines presented. Site of Shop (a) Permanent personnel -Project Organization Managing and Administrative (b) Site of Shop Plant (c) Storage or Warehousing 7. Mr. paint failures are usually the result of faulty surface preparation rather than deficiencies in the coating material. Cannon and Son. Roth .E. Labor Burden (a) Payroll Taxes (b)Payroll Insurances (c) Bonding Costs 4. it is important to compensate for the specifics of each situation since no two assignments are ever exactly the same. Experience and good record keeping is necessary to enhance your estimating procedures..`. Overhead (Often expressed as a percentage of cost. items 1 through 7 above) An excellent aid in determining the cost of operating a blast cleaning crew in the field may be found in the current Estimating Guide of the PDCA (Painting and Decorating Contractors of America). Following graduation from Yale University. Profit (Often expressed as a percentage of cost plus overhead. Steve Pinney. --`. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: Wally Cathcart.. Joe Mazia. Lowell Hartman. Pension. thinners and diluents (c) Expendable supplies (d)Sales or Use Tax on the foregoing (e) Delivery costs on above 5. Bill Wallace. sources Rental (b) Fuels.`. Roth is Past President of Oliver B.. Material (a) Abrasive Media (b)Solvents.`-`-`.

the Utilities Nuclear Coatings Work Committee. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 77 . Cannon in 1948. Mr. Mr. advancing to Executive Vice President in 1956 and President in 1972. a position he held until his retirement in 1987. Roth is the author of the Painting Section in Plant Engineers Handbook and of numerous articles on protective coatings in professional journals. American Nuclear Society. National Association of Corrosion Engineers. and the American National Standards Institute Coatings committee. Roth was a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.joined Oliver B.

SSPC CHAPTERs2. corresponds to a . Keane I. water blasting. Several of these proposed new tech. for example. in separate chapters. Proposed revisions by the environment.breathing minute dust particles.disorder known as silicosis . chemical cleaning and pickling are covered and quantity of abrasi ves used for blast cleaning(*). This chapter describes the many new The Environmental Prot ection Agency (EPA) has approaches to surface preparation of structural steel that established limits on the total permissible concentration have developed from the need to protect worker health and of suspended particula tes in air(3). In addition the Occupational Safety and Health Ad.8 93 m 86279YO 00035112 803 m September 1993 (Editorial Changes) CHAPTER 2.EPA would impose restrictio ns primarily on particulates niques also offer the prospect of improving the quality.8 OTHER METHODS AND FACTORS IN SURFACE PREPARATION by Bernard R. Although no Federal locales because the paint and dust pollute the air and standards are in effect. hand and power other abrasive dusts. In the Ringelmann scal e. Silicosis is caused by face preparation to be the key factor in coating perform. OSHA is considering ance and protection. The more commonly used techniques establishing a standard f or worker exposure to silica and such as abrasive blasting. A rating of 2 on workers against silicosis and other respiratory diseases. This scale indicates the proporministration (OSHA) is concerned about protecting tion of light obscured by the particulates. INTRODUCTION of silica sand abrasives may cause a debilitating lung Most painting and corrosion scientists consider sur. with a diameter of less than 10 microns. The dust produced from sa nd blasting is also objecOpen air sandblasting is being restricted in certain tionable because of visu al p ollution. safety or cost of many surface preparation operations.the Ringelmann scale(4 ). Appleman and John D. which could greatly restrict the type tool cleaning. many states and municipalities use water.

provements. In addition. and adjacent ground. The National Ambient Air Quality based on non-mechanical forces such as xenon lamps. wa terways. ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH FACTORS abrasive. it may be necessary to reduction of 40% in visib ility. the paint particles are Several of the alternative methods are variations. permissible by the EPA. ultrasonic waves or plasma streams. Sand blastand criticality of structure. Standard (NAAQS) for lead is 1.5 micrograms per cubic lasers. categories are covered in this chapter( ).cleaning an existing structure. and chemical cleaning. Another potential problem associated with abrasive blasting of paint containing lead is the disposal of spent II. recover and dispose of old paint particles. some of which depends on a variety of complex factors such as location contains toxic lead and chromium compounds.lead and chromium to protec t the worker in the There is little hard data available on the cies and industry to recover the abrasive dusts and paints.borne concentrations of lead greater than the maximum genuity of owner and contractor. averaged over a 90-day period(5). particularly Environmental and occup ational health officials have those containing lead or chromium compounds. In this section we will Regulations require the u se of the Toxicity Characteristic . The extent to which these particles pose a health hazard such as water blasting or abrasive blasting. The 1980 Federal in the search for new methods. and modifications on existing techniques. Other chapters describe the latest advances in blast clean.levels of these comp ounds to which a sand blaster would ing. im. existence ing of paint cont aining lead will frequently produce airand enforcement of regulations.deposited on roadways. Others are has not been determined. Both of these meter (pglm ). and the experience and in. be exposed. power tool cleaning. Lead is one of the toxic substanc es covered Environmental and health problems associated with by EPA s Resource Conservation a nd Recovery Act (RCRA) abrasive blast cleaning have been among the major factors regulations on solid w aste disposaW. This chapter also The Occupational Safe ty and Health Administration describes some of the specialized equipment and has established standards for ai r-borne concentrations of engineering approaches attempted by government agen. availability of funds. been very concerned about the compo sition of the old The selection of the method of surface preparation paint being removed from stru ctural steel. workpla~e(~>~).

the material is classified as hazardous Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 78 . of leachable lead.describe briefly the specific hazards and the type of regula. If the concentration of lead is greate r than Health officials have expressed concern that the use 5 milligrams per liter.Leaching Procedure (TCLP) to determine the concentration tion being considered.

. It is useful to divide the technology into those methods which alleviate the air pollution problem and those which alleviate the dust and paint fallout into water.B 73 m 8627740 0003533 74T m Area of --`.`..SSPC CHAPTER*Z. the new techniques have had reasonable success in reducing the air pollution hazards associated with abrasive blasting.`--Concern Regulatory Agency Worker Health Federal: OSHA Worker Health Federal: OSHA Worker Health Federal: OSHA Worker Health Federal: OSHA Clean Air Federal: EPA Clean Air Federal: EPA Solid Waste Federal: EPA Clean Water EPA. Water-blasting alone. Recent blast cleaning of some bridges in Massachusetts has resulted in lead concentrations of up to 60mg/liter(g). States. 111.. The used abrasives (often several hundred tons) would then require disposal in a more costly and often difficult to find toxic waste disposal site. A similar standard exists for hexavalent chromium. conventional sand blasting and other paint removal methods may produce the detrimental effects listed above (Table 1).`. roadways. VARIATIONS ON WET AND WATER BLASTING The chapter on water blast cleaning describes the use of high-pressure water (up to 10.. . As will be discussed. Coast Guard waste.`-`-`. In summary. The problem of preventing dust and paint from being deposited into the ground and water is much more difficult and costly.. Let us consider the prospects for alleviating the above conditions and satisfying the regulations.`..000 psi) to prepare metal for painting. even at high pressure. etc. Fish & Game.

on the other hand. sand injection. A. average) 5 mg/L zero discharge in some locales against the surface to be cleaned by means of compressed air as in dry sand blasting. The main systems described include wet abrasive blasting. intact paint and heavy rust buildup from structural steel at acceptable production rates. In this method sand and water emerge from separate orifices. cleaning rates are much the same as with dry blasting(ID). average) 5 mglm3 (8 hr. the effectiveness and the cost depend strongly on the particular system selected. average) 1. CONVENTIONAL WET METHODS 1. the water forms a ring around the sand nozzle.5 pglm3 (90 day average) 150 pg/ms (24 hr. average) 50 pglrn3 (8 hr. can provide highly satisfactory results for these. and air-water-sand. . The sand is projected TABLE 1: MATERIALS REGULATED Material Regulated Silica (Respirable) Nuisance Dust (Respirable Fraction) Lead (Total) (Construction and General Industry) Chromium (Respirable) Lead (in air) Suspended Particulates Leachable Lead & Chromium Lead Residues ~~ Permitted Limits 100 pglm3 (8 hr. A separate hose delivers the water to the nozzle.will not remove tight. average) 50 pg/m3 (8 hr. There are several different types of equipment and approaches available. Wet blasting (the use of water along with abrasives). In the water curtain version. Sand Blasting with Water This technique incorporates water into a conventional abrasive air blast unit. There is little loss of abrasive velocity leaving the nozzle.

can be cleaned to white metal only by injecting the abrasive into the water stream. the most widely used being sand. In this way a surface can be cleaned of biofouling or other contaminants by water alone without disturbing the intact paint. Water Blasting with Sand Injection The abrasive is injected or aspirated into the water stream at the nozzle. Systems have been developed wherein the operator may selectively blast with or without abrasive injection. Figure 1 shows a typical abrasive injection unit. however. Corroded areas.2. FIGURE 1 A typical sand injection blast unit. Courtesy of Partek Corporatlon Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 79 . It must necessarily be introduced after the water is pressurized to avoid pump damage. The type and size of abrasive is directly related to the rate of cleaning and the surface roughness. Many types of abrasives can be used in wet blast cleaning. Particles too small or too large for the type of surface being cleaned can slow production.

8 93 8627940 0003534 686 = FIGURE 2 Typical marine use of the hydraulic equipment with sand injection. which sometimes has a tendency to stick to the work as a slurry. Also. operational technique. The most successful unit used pressures of about 2000 psi with two or more nozzles operated at the manifold( )(Figure 2). Sand or other abrasives may be added at 200 to 400 pounds per hour. surface condition and degree of cleani ng required. it involves a considerable amount of sand. wide-mouthed nozzle (0.SSPC CHAPTER*2. Each of the quantities -air. and water -is independently adjustable so that the system can be used without sand at low pressure merely to wash down the A U. inhibitor. coneshaped. This slurry is then allowed to dry and is washed off with an . 3. with reported removal of single coats of paint leaving the primer coat intact at rates as high as 300to 450 square feet per hour. this one entails remote control via micro switches of a seven-ton dry blast pot by the operator at the nozzle rather than by verbal communications with an operator. Several federal and state agencies have evaluated the performance of moderate to high pressure hydraulic cleaning systems. most of the systems failed to meet the performance requirements because of being underpowered (operated at 500-1200 psi using conventional pumps) or because of inability to meter the sand without clogging. Courtesy of WOMA Corporation The overall performance of water blasting with or without abrasives depends on the abrasive. Unlike the English system.S. A British version of the air-water-sand method includes a large volume of air (300 to 400 cubic feet per minute) into which one to two gallons of water per minute can be entrained with or without acorrosion inhibitor. In various trials the speed of cleaning has been estimated to be from 50 to 200 square feet per hour depending on the surface. In one evaluation. unlike the English method. and the mixture is delivered through an open-ended.5 to 1 inch in diameter) at pressures which can be varied from 15 to 100 psi. sand. Air-Water-Sand Some recently developed processes utilize a combination of air. and water to provide a highly versatile and efficient means of preparing surfaces. sand. version involves a somewhat similar unit which operates at about 1000 pounds per square inch water pressure with sand injection.

Sand Volume The sand injection method uses considerably less sand than dry blasting or water curtain. rather than disposed of as hazardous waste. Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate blasting is one of a group of wet blasting and waterjetting systems that employ water-soluble abrasives. B. Like most wet blast systems. The water curtain entails only the small amount of water necessary to contain the dust. typical flow rates are 5 to 15 gallons per minute (gpm). Sodium bicarbonate blasting has been shown to remove epoxies and urethanes. The air-watersand process typically uses 1-2 gpm. they produce less dust than dry blasting. The technique does not damage a substrate although it is very effective in scrubbing a surface.auxiliary nozzle at perhaps 1000 to 1500 square feet per h~ur(~~)(Figures 3a and 3b). Residue can be sent to a wastewater facility. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 80 . IMPORTANT FEATURES OF WATER AND WET BLASTING 1. The sand injection methods rely on water as the primary medium. oil. Water Volume The volume of water varies considerably among the techniques discussed. While sodium blast cleaning is more expensive than other methods. if paint chips. especially those containing lead. It will not remove tight rust or mill scale. the decreased costs of waste disposal when paint chips are separated must also be taken into account. can be separated from the wastewater. and does not impart a profile. grease and loose rust. Adhesion of various coatings after use of the system is still being evaluated. 2. The airwater-sand processes provide a greater degree of control of the abrasive and consume still smaller quantities of sand. so it is best suited for maintenance painting. 4. with the British version using the least.

Observed rates vary from 125 to 200% of the latter. For these operations. and production rates all vary and have not been well documented. the equipment costs are high compared to other methods.SSPC CHAPTERUZ.8 93 m 8627940 0003535 512 m FIGURE 3 Cleaning underside of European bridge with air-water-sand unit. Courtesy of KUE. Water Nozzle Thrust Conventional high pressure and sand injection units develop pressures up to 10. the higher equipment costs of wet abrasive blasting are more than compensated in lower labor rate costs per square foot. particularly when operated from a scaffold or other location of precarious footing. The total cost of wet abrasive blasting is in almost all cases higher than dry sand blasting. and higher production rates. The water curtain and air-water-sand units normally operate at 1000-2000 psi. The sand injection unit may be operated at lower pressure (2000-3500 psi) for removing loose paint and rust. Costs It is difficult to compare wet abrasive cleaning costs with other surface preparation methods. Dust The dust created by dry blasting can be controlled through the use of either a water injected system or a water curtain. thereby considerably reducing the safety hazard. which can be a significant safety hazard. The reduced nozzle thrust obta¡ ned with the ai r-water-sand un its also produces less operator fatigue. 4.000 psi and thrusts of 50 pounds. economics dictates that its use be limited to large scale appl ¡cations. the major safety consideration is pressure used to propel the sand. For the air-water-sand approach. Coauthor observed separate sections which were cleaned to white metal (passing potassium ferrocyanide test) and others involving spot removal of individual coats. . which is normally at about 1000 psi. surface conditions. 5. Compared to hand tool cleaning. Ltd. For several of the high pressure-high thrust units (both with and without abrasive) the operator could work only for one or two hours at a time. Equipment and labor costs. 3. a cleaner surface.

Inhibitors must also meet EPA requirements and be non-pollutants. reducing problems of liquid pollution. saving inhibitor. The air drying feature of the airwater-sand method is highly beneficial in minimizing flash rusting. Inhibitors include soluble chromates. when dry. Therefore. To prevent oxidation or flash rusting. Production Rate The production rate for achieving a specific surface condition (e. the inhibitor must be compatible with the paint system to be applied. leave salts that could produce adhesion problems for protective coatings. and molybdates(i4).g.81 Most of the examples reviewed have been directed at producing blast-cleaned surfaces (e. Certain inhibitors. the use of high pressure water alone or low pressure with sand might well provide higher rates and superior surfaces than either dry blasting or conventional hand and power tool cleaning. nitrates. near-white metal blast. and often running scant risk of excessive flash rust. 6. thereby minimizing operator exposure. phosphates. The air-water-sand units are the most sophisticated system concepts and would probably be most competitive with conventional dry sand blasting for a full-scale field operation. SSPC-SP 6 or SP 10). 7. SSPC-SP 10) depends on the type of system chosen. It is often preferable to apply the inhibitor solution after water blast. Flash Rustingllnhibitor Flash rusting can occur within minutes after blasting with water (Figure 4). Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . the proficiency of the operators and the original condition of the surface.g. It is important to use a rust inhibitor with a strong enough solution to retard rust after the final rinsing of the contaminants and spent abrasives has been completed. The sandFIGURE 4 Flash rusting of water-blasted steel rail. For situations in which it is necessary to remove only loose rust or paint. the particular unit. a suitable inhibitor is usually injected into the blast hose or applied after blasting.

numerous low pressure cavities or bubbles are formed. For a given water pressure and flow rate. The water curtain method should have little effect on the production rate. rock drilling. researchers developed the technology to control and direct the forces of cavitation. The technique has been successfully utilized in boiler tube cleaning. cavitation develops higher forces at the point of impact than conventional high pressure water blasting. C. Because of the lack of extensive field experience by the users and manufacturers.SSPC CHAPTER*Z. it could provide greater efficiency and higher production rates where abrasive blasting is restricted. most users concede that dry blasting is faster than a comparably-sized wet blast cleaning technique. The prospects for recovering the old paint or surface debris are therefore enhanced due to the much smaller volume of solids compared to conventional sand blasting or wet abrasive blasting discussed earlier. and collapse of the bubbles is known as cavitation(ls1. design of nozzle. The application of this technique to surface preparation is still . Cavitation blasting does not introduce any solid abrasive onto the substrate. and in removing underwater fouling from ship The technique of controlled cavitation also offers the possibility of certain advantages for surface preparation of structural steel. standoff distance and angle of impingement.NOVEL USES OF WATER 1. size of orifice. The formation. The energy and water requirements for controlled cavitation blasting are similar to those for conventional high pressure water blasting (Figure 5). etc. pumps. The collapse (implosions) of these bubbles is accompanied by the release of large amounts of energy. From efforts at countering these effects. transport. although some ad hoc or home built modifications have displayed considerably reduced rates. these techniques are expected to have a higher rate of malfunction and down time than conventional dry sand blast and high-pressure water units. Cavitation is well known as a destructive phenomenon which results in metal loss on or near propellers. The efficiency and productivity of cavitation jetting depend on the operating pressure and flow rate.B 93 m 8b27940 00035Lb 459 m injection method has been documented as producing from 50 to 125% of the cleaning rate of dry blasting. Controlled Cavitation Water Jetting Under certain conditions of rapid water flow. Thus.

vacuum or other auxiliary to the cavitation system. efforts are planned to develop high production units which would include features such as multi-nozzle arrays and automatic translation and thrust support. Incorporated on developing units which produce less than 50 pounds of operator thrust. A further objective of the sponsors is to devise a means for recovering the paint and rust removed from the surface using suction. and loose rust) will range from 50-200 square feet per hour. The goal is to provide hand-held devices for complex structures and inaccessible areas. Automated Water Blasting Highway officials from Texas have developed a water jet cleaning system which does not require an operator at the nozzle.in the early development stage. Courtesy of SEACO. ft. Additional research is directed at advancing the technology to achieve the more difficult task of removing hard rust and intact paint. The U. leaving the primer intact and avoiding damage to the aluminum substrate. paintable surface (¡. Air Force is investigating the use of cavitation to remove paint from aluminum. The technique s ability to control the depth of erosion could allow removal of the top coat alone. as well as related areas such as steel cutting and concrete rehabilitation. As with conventional high-pressure water jetting.S. removing loose paint. Researchers anticipate that rates for producing a clean. 100 sq. dirt. In addition to the hand-held units. A government-sponsored program is concentrating FIGURE 5 Controlled cavitation blasting of galvanized steel.lhr. Current research efforts focus on a number of different areas pertaining to surface preparation. The high pressure jet nozzle is attached to a rig clamped onto the bridge beam and remotely controlled by an operator on the Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 82 . and producing a surface profile at rates approaching those above (Le. These are based on the use of current technology nozzles.e. operator fatigue is a limiting factor.). 2.

3. First. Ithe cloud produced by the steam obscures the operator s view of the work. which severely limits his productivity. The unit offers several important advantages.B 93 8b27940 0003537 395 M FIGURE 6 Automated robot high-pressure water jet blasting. In addition. CARBON DIOXIDE PELLETS Preliminary work has indicated that it may be possible to use carbon dioxide pellets as a blast cleaning medium in those areas where clean-up of spent abrasive is a problemW No reports or accounts could be obtained. OTHER ABRASIVES AND MATERIALS Conventional and new metallic and non-metallic abrasives are discussed in separate chapters. with a hand-held unit. SteamISand Blast A technique which uses steam to propel the abrasive has been developed by the JapaneseW The use of steam instead of water results in a shorter drying time and a significant decrease in the amount of rust formation in comparison with other wet blast methods. and the need for modifications to allow use on different types of structures. The automated device should produce a more uniformly cleaned surface and permit more precise calculations of rates and costs. IV. three major obstacles seem . Some of the problems experienced are lack of maneuverability. In this section we consider several novel types of abrasives that have been proposed because of some special feature. however. cost and time for maintaining equipment. because of its high temperature and release of energy upon condensation. The developers are working to increase this percent and the unit s overall versatility. However. The operator can translate the nozzle along the beam and change the angle sideways and up-down to allow access to over 90% of the surface area. poses special safety problems. Secondly. A. The safety is greatly improved because the operator does not direct the nozzle or support the thrust. steamisand blasting is one of the most energy intensive methods of surface preparation. of successful use on structural steel under controlled conditions comparable with those in shop or ship- .to preclude its widespread use at this time. the operator becomes greatly fatigued in a few hours. in this era of energy consciousness.SSPC CHAPTER*Z. steam. The thrust. Courtesy of Texas Department of Highways and Public Transportation ground (Figure 6). could cause the operator to lose his balance on a scaffold or to blast himself or a coworker. which may be as high as 100 pounds. Third.

At the various meetings sponsored by the SSPC to discuss new surface preparation methods. Courtesy of Maxwell Laboratories Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 83 . visibility problems were presented by fogging at the nozzle. problems were foreseen in ventilation and condensation of water. The process is FIGURE 7 Xenon flash lamp for surface preparation. verbal reports were presented indicating a series of problems which appear to render this method impractical for structural steel applications: the pellets were not effective in removing mill scale. pellet-forming equipment was reported to be prohibitively expensive and difficult to maintain.building. B. HIGH VELOCITY ICE PARTICLES This approach has been reportede01 to be effective in removing fouling and paint from ships. Attempts to arrange a demonstration by the inventor were unsuccessful.

Both the one.05 mils (1. both the cleaning and the zinc deposition can be carried out together in a single stage operation.and two-stage processes have been demonstrated by the SSPC and cooperators with both nozzles and centrifugal wheel blast cleaning equipment. These islands of zinc are so thin that they do not affect cutting. Alternatively. of course. freshly-cleaned steel surface du ring blast ingIz2). Because of its pollution-free characteristics. Only a small portion of the zinc is transferred to the clean steel by each particle impact. welding. During the recycling. zinc dust fines are removed just as steel dust is removed in the shotlgrit blast cleaning operation. The zinc deposit can be achieved through either a onestep or two-step operation. particularly in the refurbishing of hulls. originated by the SSPCI22A) has been proven in both laboratory and pilot plant.3 microns) thick but is sufficient to prevent rusting during the days. the coating need not be continuous in order to protect the steel completely.SSPC CHAPTER*2*8 73 m 8627940 00035LB 221 m claimed to be more efficient than metallic shot in removing biofouling but less efficient in removing paint. ZINC SHOT BLASTING Zinc shot blasting (zincing) is a modification of the normal blast cleaning procedure in which metallic zinc particles are substituted for all or part of the shot. It is probably impractical for use on new steel. The result is a thin discontinuous deposit of metallic zinc left on the nascent. recycled just as the steel shot and grit are recycled. or months required for fabrication and construction. weeks. This deposit is only about 0. the use of ice may eventually assume a larger role in cleaning. or sand. grit. Since zinc metal is sacrificial to steel. The zinc particles are. To date the method. but not yet demonstrated on a full scale. or painting. but the two-step process appears to be the more practical. It consists of blast cleaning with steel (or sand) particles. The zinc deposit has been shown by SSPC to be com- . followed by a separate blasting with zinc particles (usually in the same equipment sequence). C.

One variation of the SSPC process.patible with conventional coatings. or vapor form during blast cleaning. however. D. toxicity. SSPC work has been reported in 1963-73 and subsequently. NASA approved a variation of the process in 1973(22c). it is not the only one. liquid. OTHER ABRASIVES SSPC work indicates that although zinc is the most effective inhibitive substance to date which can be applied in blast cleaning equipment. is applicable to a production construction or painting operation. would be necessary to demonstrate whether or not the new process. Another variation uses sand coated with zinc dust. is to the use of zinccoated abrasives. One investigator has achieved protection up to four months with the two-stage zinc blasting process in which conventional blast cleaning is used to remove rust and mill scale followed by blasting with zinc powder(24). safety. or avariation thereof. BACTERIAL CLEANING The Japanese127) have been experimenting with biological methods of cleaning steel. etc. handling difficulties. . Flintstone is also used. In early work a wide variety of other inhibitive materials were investigated but were found to be less desirable because of the complicated particle-coating process. cherry pits. and actually to lengthen their protective life. walnut shells. shorter protection period. Common practice for cleaning previously painted process equipment near machinery in industrial plants has been to use vegetable grit such as corn cobs. Scale and rust stains are removed by dipping or spraying the article with a solution containing a bacterium (thiobacillus ferrooxidans WU66-B or thiobacillus thiooxidans WU-79-A) plus an inorganic salt (iron sulfate or ammonium sulfate) plus glucose. Although the SSPC has explored several alternative inhibitive materials to be used in solid. reported in 1976 and developed in Denmarkcz31. E. Preliminary cost estimates indicate substantial savings in materials. This process has been shown to be environmentally acceptable. Additional work. however. additional work would be necessary in order to determine whether or not any of these have promise. Attempts have been made to combine inhibitive phosphating treatment with blast cleaning(26). Subsequent to publication of the SSPC work. Recently. a modification was investigated elsewhere using a stearic acid inhibitor which gave temporary protection but had to be removed from the surface before painting(25). or necessity of removal before coating. It is felt that this method might be applicable for those FIGURE 8 Navy hull cleaner. one process has been offered which uses zinc-coated abrasive and has been used in blast cleaning below water. time and manpower compared with conventional pre-fabrication primers.

Inc.Courtesy of Wheelabrator-Frye. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS a4 .

ultra-short pulses of light with sufficient energy to vaporize or chemically alter most non-metal substances.001 " in thickness. much developmental work needs to be done to make biological cleaning competitive or practical. F. EXPLOSIVES The detonation of an explosive charge has been used to project abrasive particles such as sand or metal powder onto the surface to be cleaned(*@. its impact on the blast cleaning trade will most likely remain insignificant. instead they rely on some form of radiation to remove paint and prepare steel for painting. intense pulses of light from Xenon flashlamps. under investigation by several government agencies.SSPC CHAPTERa2-8 73 8627940 0003539 3bA cleaning conditions where citric acid is now being evaluated. especially for large surfaces. V. with little or no effect on the underlying material. A typical FLASHBLASTTM system consists of a power supply and control module and of one or more flashlamp heads from which the light pulses are emitted. A recently developed proprietary system. Due to the short duration of the pulses. involves high intensity xenon light sources (Figure 7). CRYOGENIC COATING REMOVAL A new technique uses liquid nitrogen (-196" C) for cryogenic removal of organic coatings. The power supply provides intense electric discharges which are carried through flexible cables to the heads where they give rise to the emission of short. permitting work on fairly large surfaces or objects without moving the heavy power supply module. the effect is restricted to a layer approximately 0. LAMPS There are a number of techniques which do not use any water or abrasives. This system emits very intense. THERMAL AND HIGH ENERGY METHODS A. The stream of liquid nitrogen sprayed onto the substrate embrittles the coating. These produce temperatures of the order of 3000 F (1700" C)(29). Although this method shows some potential for cleaning the interior of pipes or other confined areas. The flashlamp heads must be in near contact with the surfaces under treatment since the intensityof the light drops rapidly with increasing distance from the lamps. However. Additional engineering efforts are under way to improve the versatility and portability of the equipment(21). and the flexible cables can be as long as 100 feet. has shown great promise for removing thin layers of paint from a surface(30). One such technique. known as FLASHBLASTTM. Applications which have been studied experimentally . it is then easily removed with recyclable plastic pellets. The weight of the flashlamp heads is only a few pounds. G.

`-`-`. 6. hard scale of magnetite (Fe. which could then be removed.. when they are subjected to thermal shock or chemical decomposition using a laser beam(31)..`--FIGURE 9 Vacuum blast unit. C. select removal of outer layers of materials without disturbing the inner substrate or paint layer..`. Courtesy of Pauli 81Griffin trol afforded. It may prove practicable to carry out such operations in a reducing atmosphere to produce a readily removable layer of metallic iron. the technique can allow precise.so far include removing thin paint layers from metal and underlying paint layers. Because of the high degree of con--`. the hydrated oxides were changed to a dense. Although it has been proposed for cleaning of larger structural steel. Additional work is planned to develop and evaluate full-scale systems and to determine the practicality and production rate for field applications. laser cleaning is not believed likely to have an impact on the cleaning of structural steel in the foreseeable future because of requirements of energy input and equipment development..).`. no Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 85 . ULTRASONIC CLEANING Ultrasonic cleaning is in widespread use in speeding the solvent cleaning of small parts. When rusted steel was exposed to laser beams of several kilowatts. etc.O.`. LASERS Preliminary tests have shown that scale or other adhering deposits can be removed. at least from small specimens. Although already applied to sculpture restoration...

Treatment of a paint film with the hot air blaster makes any remaining paint easier to remove by conventional sand blasting. the SSPC has dropped this specification. is sufficient to vaporize many organic paint films or at least to char them to the point where the high-velocity air blast can blow the surface clean. In preliminary field tests some problems were found with this Red lead primer is not completely removed by the hot air blaster and must be removed by FIGURE 10 Vacuum blasting of bridge beam. E. 3000" F (1700" C). D.SSPC CHAPTER*ZmB 93 = 8b27940 0003520 98T unit larger than about 75 gallons capacity has been reported(32). noise. Clearly. because of poor cost effectiveness and limited use. loose mill scale. For example. Courtesy of Massachusetts Pori Authority conventional sand blasting. this hot gas unit has the potential to solve specialized surface preparation problems. The surface is theh wire brushed to remove all loose materials. SSPC-SP 4-64. in some instances. and some tight mill scale by passing a flame over the surface. since the abrasive has a tendency to bounce off rather than fracture a thick flexible coating. Although currently limited in its use on steel structures. . However.) This technique can be hazardous or detrimental when used on previously painted surfaces. Surface preparation specification. and ventilation must be considered. it shows considerable promise in those situations where a heavy vinyl or thermoplastic coating is to be removed. Field work must be done to test this approach. The five-foot long handle. In addition. (SP 4-64 has been dropped from the new edition of Volume 2. necessitated by the intense heat and fumes. FLAME CLEANING The heat energy of a direct flame of heated gas has also been used for steel cleaning. The high temperature. PLASMA -HOT GAS A combustion unit that uses a mixture of liquid propane and compressed air to produce a blast of hot gas has been used extensively to remove road markings'33). Use of this unit in the surface preparation of previously painted steel structures is not widespread. limits its use in confined areas and contributes to operator fatigue. "Flame Cleaning of New Steel" described a process for dehydrating and removing of rust. the safety problems related to fire. the combined operation of first vaporizing or charring the old paint with the hot gas blaster followed by conventional sand blasting may. prove beneficial.

They may be impregnated with abrasive for more aggressive cleaning. both containment and personal protective equipment for workers are required. Productivity is low -from 1/4 to 1/2that of open blast cleaning. The impregnated sponges are effective in removing paint. tight rust and mill scale from both flat and irregularlhard to reach surfaces.7and 10when used in conjunction with solvent cleaning. COLLECTING ABRASIVES AND PAINT RESIDUES A. ABRASIVE RECYCLING In order to eliminate water and ground contamination. The abrasives must be metallic shot or grit or a recyclable non-metallic such as alumina or garnet. it is sometimes necessary to recover the spent abrasives and paint residues. 1. The sponges are effective in removing oil and grease from pumps and motors. automatic cleaning and greatly reduce the need to dispose of spent abrasives.VI. Despite the apparent lack of dust. The suitability and effectiveness in the field depend on factors such as the size of the operation. Portable Automatic Centrifugal Blasting Centrifugal (airless) blast cleaning machines have assumed an ever increasing percentage of the steel fabricating blast cleaning requirements.6. The technique has also been applied to field preparation. The equipment is cumbersome and expensive. They provide rapid. the technique produces much less dust and debris than open blasting. However. the configuration and accessibility of the structure. VII. SPONGE JETTING Sponge jetting is a recent surface preparation technique which uses compressed air and pieces of polyurethane sponge. and the necessity for collecting the . The equipment is fairly expensive. Several techniques have been developed based on recycling of the abrasives. uniform. It is also necessary to filter off the paint residues and degraded abrasive to maintain a constant abrasive particle size distribution. The method can achieve SSPC-SP 5. but for shop application the technique is extremely cost effect ive.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 86 .

The large units used by the Navy and industry have limited mobility and reach. They require large amounts of energy and support equipment. Portable Air Blasting with Vacuum Recovery the enclosure let the spent abrasi ve drop to a floating barge This technique has been widely used for pre-on the river erection surface preparation in fabricating shops Massachusetts Port Authority ( Massport) modified the and certain field facilities. A Enclosed blasting cages and residue collection system. they can often provide higher production rates. Massport also substituted metal There are several different types of vacuum sheathing for the enclosure sides to provide better wear recovery machines available. The tubing was connected to a dumpster equipped portable recovery units have difficulty in cleaning with a venturi water scrubbe r to separate the fine particles irregular surf ace feat ures. Flexible tubing at the bottom of 2.SSPC CHAPTER*Z=B 73 8627740 0003523 83b H residues and abrasives. particularly nuclear above arrangement in several ways(38). Massport reported that the abov . Additional photographs and examples are given in another chapter.Courtesy of Massachusetts Por t Authority plications is given in the chapter Centrifugal and canvas housing that the blaste r worked in. The portable centrifugal units are extremely effective in eliminating the environmental hazards and in producing highly uniform blast-cleaned surfaces. These include port. mobile cleaning heads which can clean a swath up to 48 inches wide(35). wheels along the handrail. able units with single-chamber collection tanks. this unit can clean most of the ship s hull from dockside (Figure 8). and emit them as sludge. Like the centrifugal cleaning units. Contractors for the US Navy have designed large.(Figure 11). more complete discussion of the principles and ap. it rolled on Blast Cleaning. Because of the 80 foot reach. In return. It has been most suitable for use on large accessible areas such as ship hulls and decks and storage tanks. and reduced labor and abrasive costs in comFIGURE 11 parison to conventional air abrasive blasting. Its application to existing field structures is mechanical suction to ex haust the dust fumes from the limited by the capacity and reach of the recovery enclosure to improve visibilit y and air quality inside the system. They provided plants. These are mounted on a boom connected to a large truck. the booth.

For large s tructures the tarpaulins arehave difficulty recovering the heaviest abrasives.onto the barge. However. and for the longitudinal girders and handrails captured 80 to 85 mobile truck units with single chamber collection percent of airborne dust and l ead paint particles in addition tanks. 87 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . used primarily for small areas or touch-up work In order to prevent old paint co ntaining lead from con(Figure 10). In many instances. sizes and costs (Figure 9). These machines differ in their degree of port. They are the collection of sand from road ways. This technique has proven satisfactory in volves the useof movable enclosures around the blaster.e enclosure system portable units with automatic discharge tanks. labor and utility support required. some of the problems are that a signifian early version. These drifting into populated or r ecreational areas. and girders. the California Department of Transportation has stationed barges beneath the bridge. The success suction (alternately called siphon) units sometimes has been varied.to virtually all the blast ing grit. BLASTING CAGES paulins and plastic sheets are used to funnel the particles Another approach to containing dust and paint in. the barge may sink or spill the residue.C. Several highway agencies h ave There are also available recovery units which used heavy tarpaulins to prevent t he dust from blowing or rely on suction to collect the abrasives(37). TarB. o ften torn down by strong winds. a California contractor built an enclosure cant amount of sand or paint particles may still be dropped that covered the handrail assembly and longitudinal in the water. A discussion of the relative merits of each as used for surface prepara. It consisted of a rigid frame around scaffolding the costs are apprecia ble. taminating waterways. The shroud has also been ability. hose used for paint spraying under high wind conditions. the use of tarpa ulins does greatly facilitate actuated vacuum units described above. as they create a sail efTheir production rate is much less than the pump fect. TARPAULINS AND OTHER DEV ICES tion of tanks is given in an SSPC report done for Various approaches have been u sed to collect and the Maritime Administration(? contain dust and paint.

Almost all of the newer techniques are more costly and less productive than sandblasting. it is essential that the regulatory agencies provide clear guidelines and policies for the standards governing air and water quality. is likely to remain complex. it would be necessary to use the less productive. For these conditions. For situations in which the major problems are those of air contamination. The scum that forms in the water must be contained by straw dams or flóating boom devices. e. worker health and safety. The overall regulatory picture. In certain locales. are not sufficiently developed to be applicable to most of the structural conditions encountered. The provisions also require contractors to collect floating paint wastes. Even these. however. most costly techniques such as vacuum blasting or closed cages. however. The future of many of these methods depends largely on the regulatory authorities. SUMMARY In this chapter we have described a variety of methods which have had varying degrees of success. equipment manufacturera. others are being considered for revision. To improve these techniques would require substantial commitment by users.SSPC CHAPTER*Z. In locales where sandblasting will continue to be permitted. and contractors. The State does allow alternate approaches when recovering and collecting are not possible because of bridge location and VIII. and other requirements. State . Several of the federal standards are not yet finalized.g. dust or lead paint particles.8 93 8627940 0003522 752 The Iowa Department of Transportation requires the use of covers or drapes to collect paint wastes if they contain lead. Several of these water methods are highly sophisticated and are able to reduce the airborne particulate levels by 80-90 percent. such as near sensitive machinery. in densely populated areas. the use of some form of wet-blasting technique appears to be the best choice at present. Thus. it will probably remain the most cost-effective way to clean structural steel. or over sensitive waterways. it may be necessary to eliminate any particles from contaminating the environment.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Much of the material in this report benefits from a survey --`..`--made by the SSPC for the US. It is therefore not likely that any set of uniformly applied regulations would be adopted in the foreseeable future.. frequently imposes the earliest and most severe restrictions. William Pearson. W.. Preston S. and Raymond Weaver. Theodore Dowd.. Hollister. Borch. the availability and cost of power and water. There are factors other than actual or anticipated regulations which influence the development of surface cleaning techniques. Keane appear at the end of the Foreword. Marshall McGee. There is a wide variation in the awareness and enforcement of existing federal and state regulations. California.`. Joseph Mazia. Jr. improved worker safety and comfort.. Thus. Wallace.`. Appleman and Mr. the efficiency and cleaning rate of new equipment. Maritime Administration through the Avondale Shipyard. A. The authors and editors also gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: Einar A.and local regulations vary enormously from one jurisdiction to another. for example. there is a continuing need to develop and evaluate new procedures and techniques for surface preparation of steel. These include the cost and supply of abrasives.`. BIOGRAPHY Portraits and biographical sketches of Dr. William J.`-`-`. Mallory. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 88 .. and the requirements of varied coating materials..

and S. A. Jr. 1991 Printin 15. 3. May 1967.SSPC CHAPTER*Z. 1973. 4. private communication. 4516 Henry Street. OSHA.F. Final Standard for Occupational Exposure to Lead . Evaluation of Commercial Blast Cleaning Systems . 220 (Section 1910. 1978. Federal Register Vol.F. Volume 2 Systems and Specifications . 12. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (1976).1000. and Raymond E. (Great Britain). Sub-part Z. December 1. 1980. Tunneling. Table 2-2 sets ceiling of 100 micrograms of chromic acid and chromates per cubic meter. L. Equipment Technology..12. CFR Section 50. July 1. Federal Register. (Report prepared by Steel Structures Painting Council for US.1981. Paint and Colour Journal.. Abatement of Pollution Caused by Abrasive Blasting: Status in Naval Shipyards . Survey of Existing and Promising New Methods of Surface Preparation . Private Communications. Washington DC. Inc. Ticker. Bruno. Department of Interior. DC 20590. OSHA. Massachusetts Port Authority. KUE: System 9-18 . 1981. pp. (29CFR1910. Number 84. 1981. Federal Highway Administration. 4549. Coast Guard. 13. and Mining with High Speed Water Jets Utilizing Cavitation Damage . Federal Highway Administration. Fracturing. See Proposed ANSI Standard A10.Polymers. Federal Register. NSRDC Report No. Massachusetts Department of Public Works and M. Suite 301. Weaver. 2. Paper . PA 15213-3728. 5. VA. Maritime administration through the Avondale Shipyard). and A. May 19. 202. llb. Volume 36. National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Lead . American National Standard Practice for Construction Abrasive Blasting October. OSHA. Joseph A. US. 1o. fohl. District.E.) 8.5 micrograms of lead per cubic meter averaged over 90 days) 6. Jr.E. 1979. Drilling. and Seventh Coast Guard District. April 30.. 1978.amended to limit exposure to lead to 50 micrograms per cubic meter averaged over 8 hours). lla.1976. National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards and Revisions of November 25. 1976. 1980. Fifth Coast Guard District. 5620 New Peachtree Road. Miami. Coventry. 7.A 73 Ab27740 0003523 699 W REFERENCES 1. R. England. GA. Report N-FHWA TS 81-xxx.October 5. V. Keane.Table 2-2. John D. and amendments.. FL. Steel Structures Painting Council. (Code G-EOE). March 9. Environmental Protection Agency. Appendix G (sets limits of 1. Chamblee. Portsmouth. Ringlemann Smoke Chart. 9.29. Johnson. Stevens. KUE Engineering Ltd. 43. Private Communication. 1975. February 8.. Environmental Protection Agency. Rodgers. Tobey. Pittsburgh. First International Symposium on Jet Cutting Technology. No. November 14. Title 40.1025. Bureau of Mines Informational Circular 8333. 14. 1977. pages 33127-33132. Washington. Standard for Abrasive Blasting . Title 29 -Labor . 79 pps. Conn. US.

Air Products and Chemicals. Engineering News Record. 5-6. I. Surface Preparation by Flashblasting .976 Babecki-Haehner to NASA. D Oria. Denmark. Hot Compressed Air (HCA) Equipment. Appling. and I. April 1964. 26. A. Keane.649 (September 19. Inc. 6. 27. 23. 34. Hemple Marine Paints. J. and T. San Diego.. Parrot Drive. August. August 1.754. Usami. Maxwell Laboratories. Pollution-Free Blasting . 27. Phosphatizing -A New Approach . 1976. Zinc Shot Blasting of Structural Steel . Wallis. T. Anonymous. Optics and Laser TechnÖlogy. Ultrasonic Cleaning and Vapor . Industrial Finishing and Surface Coatings. 6. Kozu.409. Materiais Perforrnance. Private Communications. 1980. 17. Surface Treatments by Laser . Nakamura. Vol. Barrillom. N. Pennsylvania. Iron Age. 19. 21. 33. Hosoda. Fong. 30. pp. T. Sandford. 1963.749 (March 1. 1975. Anonymous. 20. Sandwith. 1976. 18.. August 1. Burke. 25. L. Branson Cleaning Equipment Company. J. 326. 28. P. and H. Federal Highway Administration Reports FHWA RD-82-001 and FHWA RD-82-002. Zinc Coating Blasted on Steel . NJ 07054. 267-268. 1964. 31. March 1964. A Comparison of Inhibitive Abrasive Blasting Techniques . Japanese Patent 7533. 18105. McAuliffe. 11. S. Microbial Surface Treatment of Metals . Hill.H. Spalding. J.E. Lee. 1976.J. 1974) and Japan Appl. SSPC Report.J. 29. pp. Texas Department of Highways and Public Transportation. Development of System for Controlled Cavitation Blasting for Surface Preparation of Structurai Steel . Bright Ideas -Xenon Lamp s Intense Flash Burns Off Steel Truss Rust . Private Communication. 32. Shelton. C. Zinc Shot Blasting of Structural Steel . 1979. 7 pps. Vol.W. Parsippany. Geld. and J. 4th International Congress of Marine Corrosion and Fouling. 22c. Scientific Australian. 22. US. 197 3. Sand Blasting with High-pressure Steam . Beitelman. CT 06484. National Paint and Coatings Association 16th Annual Maine Coatings Conference. No. Deutsch. No. 22A. Shotblasted Zinc Primer Weatherproofs Steel Iron Age. 1974.D. private communica- .J. IL. Champaign. Dai Nippon Tokyo Company. An Investigation of a Combined Blasting and Coating Technique: A Patented Process .W. B. BenderChristensen. 2. G. CA. 1968. and F. 16. C. Saiki.121. Army Construction Engineering and Research Laboratories. High Velocity Ice Particles for Cleaning Ship Hulls -A Feasibility Study . Inc. May 31. M. Patent 3. Offen. pps. 1973).A3 and Supplement. 23. Technical Literature. Ger. Copenhagen. Briewick. M. 1980. Ltd. 24. Allentown. 228. US. Prismo Universal Corporation. Preservation of Materials in the Marine Environment -Analysis of Replies to the inquiry on Methodsof Surface Preparation in Shipyards . May. 1981.J. J.

Special Provisions for Repainting Bridges (Environmental Protection) . 1978. Maryland. February 15. F. December 10-1 1.A. Project Manager). A. Procedure Handbook: Surface Preparation and Painting of Tanks and Closed Areas.tion. 1979. pps. Paper presented 1978 Federal Highway Administration Research Review Conference. 1981. College Park. 38. Avondale Shipyards (J. October 3-5. 39. Ames. National Shipbuilding Research Program. Methods of Dust-Free Abrasive Blast Cleaning . Navy . Boyle. 1980. Peart. (J. 36. M. Tobey. SP-240. 35. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 89 .. Baldwin. Iowa Department of Transportation. Painting of Mystic River (Tobin) Bridge . Plant Engineering. New Methods of Surface Preparation by the US. IA. Inc. Paper presented 1980 Federal Highway Administration Research Review Conference. March 27. 1978. 37. B. Cooperative cost shared efforts by Maritime Administration. R&D Program Manager) and Complete Abrasive Blasting Systems. 116-125. Geis.

Without proper surface preparation the finest coating applied with the greatest of skill will fall short of its maximum performance or may even fail miserably. etc. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS While a perfect level of cleanliness may not always be possible to attain. heavy rust preventatives. these soils may be removed by alkaline cleaners. lubricating oil. every effort should be made to reach the maximum level of cleanliness under the specific operating conditions. Sandler and Samuel Spring The importance of surface preparation to the durability of any coating system has been emphasized throughout this manual. On more stubborn areas solvent cleaners may be needed because the longer a soil ages the more difficult it is to remove.9 93 8b27740 0003524 525 CHAPTER 2.9 CHEMICAL CLEANING by Melvin H. Semi-Solid Soils Examples: viscous oils. and when very viscous in nature. but also ensures a surface free of corrosion products and contaminants that might shorten the life of the film by spreading along the coating substrate interface and destroying adhesion. I. They pick up some foreign matter as corrosion products that must be removed before final finishes or refinishes can be applied. Other chapters of this manual cover mechanical surface cleaning. An adequately prepared surface not only provides a good anchor for the coating. oil-based rust preventatives. The removal of these contaminating substances is covered under the term cleaning . but in general they may be categorized as: 1. Oily Soils Examples: hydraulic oil. 2. light oil. greases. surfaces become soiled. fabrication. These soils are usually re- . etc.SSPC CHAPTERa2. or by actually breaking through the coating. especially under field conditions. During manufacture. the initial step in any finishing operation is cleaning the surface. There are countless contaminants (soils) to be removed. This chapter describes chemical cleaning materials and methods. and service. Thus. A coating can perform its function only so long as it remains intact and firmly bonded to the substrate. When present as thin films or small residues.

acid pickling. or chlorinated solvents such as triclorethylene or l. which may subsequently contribute to further corrosion or adversely affect coating performance. for other than small area cleaning the most commonly used cleaners are water-based.l-trichloroethene are used to dissolve and remove soil. In the cleaning process both the soil and the residues of cleaners. inhibitors. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 90 . mineral spirits. This acidity can etch the metal. corrosion products. They function by wetting. or spray cleaning and are efficient in removing oils and greases. Soils Containing Solids Examples: mud. Thus. ALKALI Alkaline cleaners are composed of highly alkaline salts such as sodium hydroxide. must be removed.l. and waxes. Chlorinated solvents are generally used in vapor degreasing units but may also be used at ambient temperatures by immersion or spray. soak. sequestering agents. They are effective in removing heavy oils. B. VM & P naphtha. Petroleum solvents may be used in hand. Regulations restricting the use of organic solvents havelbecome so stringent in recent years as to discourage their use. greases. Aged or impacted soils are generally the most difficult. The solvent cleaners offer the advantage of leaving the part dry after cleaning and eliminating the need for additional rinsing.moved with heavy duty alkaline cleaners or a combination of solvent followed by the alkaline cleaner. II. carbonized oils. alkaline pressure spray and scrubbing. These soils are usually the most difficult to remove and may require a combination of solvent. Chlorinated solvents should be inhibited against hydrolysis to prevent the formation of hydrochloric acid that may occur in the presence of water. either alkaline or acidic. TYPES OF CHEMICAL CLEANERS A. 3. and in the case of corrosion products. SOLVENTS Petroleum solvents such as kerosene. silicates. wetting agents andlor soaps. and carbonates along with surfactants.

dispersing and solubilizing the soils. DETERGENTS Detergent cleaners are composed of buffering salts. ACIDS Acid cleaners are usually composed of fairly strong acids with small quantities of surfactants. the principles governing cleaning are similar. but temperature is less important for organic solvents. However. dispersants.9 93 m ôb27740 0003525 461 FIGURE 1 Steam cleaning of large or assembled structures. large parts may require procedures that differ from small parts. They function by wetting. When the distance from the gun is small. They are generally used at temperature ranging from 150°F (SSOC) to boiling. emulsifying. Moreover. The steam cleaner may be directly fired or use plant steam as in the above photograph. emulsifying. inhibitors. dispersing and solubilizing the soil. or have toxic effect when 91 breathed in high vapor concentrations. The choice of cleaning method will depend upon the type of structure as well as other factors. water miscible solvents and organic wetting and emulsifying agents. cleaners are more effective at higher temperatures and at higher concentrations. There is no single method of cleanin that will roperly condition all surfaces prior to preservation. Acid cleaners remove a soil by chemical attack and by dissolving the reaction products. This is true both of organic. CLEANING WARNING -In the use of any cleaning method. They are generally used at elevated temperatures. appropriate safety precautions must be taken to protect personnel from materials and conditions which may present fire hazards. However. paint and rust must be removed in addition to other soils. Parts cleaned after assembly or in the field can require quite different methods from parts processed in a factory. C. 111. temperatures and turbulence may be prohibited for organic solvents since this would generate toxic . the temperature may be 160° to 180'F but a larger area is covered.and water-based systems. It is desirable to have application under conditions of high turbulence or force to dislodge the soil loosened by the action of the chemicals. The cleaning operation is under considerable control by the operator in terms of the time of exposure of the soil to the detergent spray and the distance from the gun. wetting agents andlor soaps. cause skin irritation. D. They are used primarily to remove corrosion products. the temperatures are close to 2OOOF so high melting soils can be removed more readily.SSPC CHAPTER*2. If parts being reconditioned are to be cleaned prior to repainting. In general. At more normally used distances of the gun from the surface. sequestering agents.

Where the complete structure is to be cleaned. Good. associated with hard water. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . Solvent cleaning is most effective for removal of oils and greases from limited areas of structures and for occasional cleaning prior to painting. every effort should be made to thoroughly rinse the surfaces. not only to minimize the amount of soil remaining. well supervised workers using clear solvent and clean wiping rags can do a reasonably good job. and those used in the field for cleaning large. etc.fumes. assembled units. Some soils may require more effective solvents such as xylene or chlorinated solvents other than those mentioned above. other methods are more practical. Mineral spirits and stoddard solvent are relatively convenient and inexpensive to use.S. This discussion will be limited to on-site cleaning of assembled or large structures. When cleaning with the alkaline or acidic materials. A. but also to remove residues of the cleaning materials that may adversely affect subsequent coating performance by providing electrolyte for the action of galvanic cells when moisture penetrates the paint film. government chemical cleaning specif ¡cations. magnesium. The quality of cleaning obtained depends largely upon the severity of the soiling and the expertise of the operator. water in some parts of the country also contains salts such as sodium chloride and sodium sulfate that are potent electrolytes in the corrosion process. Cleaning procedures can be divided into those used in the manufacturing process (factories). Table I lists U. regardless of the cleaning method used. Another consideration is the ionic content of the rinse water. iron. In addition to the calcium. SOLVENT WIPE Wiping with solvent followed by a second wipe with clear solvent or by removal of excess solvent with a clean cloth can be effective depending on the soil.

..9 93 W 862'7940 0003526 3TB W TABLE 1 Some U. P-c-111 MIL-STD 338 P-C-436 P-c-437 TT-C-490 MIL-(2-10578 MIL-C-11090 MI L-H-13528 MI L-C.SSPC CHAPTERl(2. Government Specifications for Chemical Cleaning* SDecification No.S. High Pressure (Steam) Cleaner Cleaning & Pre treatment of Ferrous Surfaces for Organic Coatings Corrosion Removing and Metal Conditioning Compound .`-`-`..`.14460 MIL-C-22542 MI L-C-38334 MIL-C-43616 MIL-'2-461 56 MI L-C-81302 --`.`--MIL-C-87936 Title Carbon Removing Compound Cleaning and Treatment of Aluminum Parts Cleaning Compound..`.. Alkali Cleaning Compound..`.

emulsion & phosphoric acid Phosphoric-acid base. RustRemoving Corrosion Removing Compound Cleaning Compound. Alkaline. Degreasing & Depreservi ng Solvent Acid.Cleaning Compound. . High Pressure Cleaner. Aircraft Surfaces Corrosion Removing Compound Cleaning Compound. Liquid Corrosion Removing Compound. for AircraftAluminum Surfaces Cleaning Compounds. Inhibited. Hydrochloric. Prepaint. Solvent Cleaning Compounds. Aircraft Surfaces Material Monoethanolamine Alkaline base Hot alkaline phosphate solutions Alkaline phosphate & non-phosphate Solvent.

spray or brush Immersion. brush or spray Soak Electrolytic or immersion High pressure steam cleaning machines. coil . spray or brush Soak. water dilutable Application Soak Immersion Immersion Immersion.6 types Esters and organic salts Hydrochloric acid Sodium hydroxide base Optional Phosphoric acid Opt ional Sodium hydroxide base Trichlorotrifluorethane Optional.

rust removing. For use in removing oils.type Spray or wash Spray. Hot soak tank cleaning of ferrous & non-ferrous materials. For use in steam cleaning machines for cleaning various ferrous & nonferrous surfaces. greases. tars & rust preventive compounds from metallic & painted surfaces. Cleaning aluminum prior to painting. asphalt. ultrasonics Purpose For use in softening and removing carbon gum & other contaminants. Cleaning methods are intended for cleaning. flushing. descaling or surface etching Rust remover. vapor degreasing. For use in removing heavy rust deposits from . brush or foam Immersion Spraying.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS *The following specifications have been removed from this table to reflect curre nt practice: MIL-C-25769. paint.steel surfaces. will remove rust. Painted and unpainted aircraft surfaces. Intended for cleaning painted and unpainted aircraft surface. For removing corrosion from aircraft aluminum surfaces. precision assem bl ¡es. Rust removal from bare and painted iron and steel. At elevated temperatures. MIL-C-27251. MIL-S-10561. oxygen assemblies & electronic equipment. scale. For use in cleaning space vehicle components. dirt. MIL-C-81533. asphalt & carbon. Painted aircraft surfaces. grease. MIL-T-7003 92 .

`-`-`.`--(1) NATURAL FIBERS TAMPICO FIBER PATENT FIBER PAYMYRA FIBER PALMETTO FIBER (2) ANIMAL BRISTLES HORSEHAIR BOAR BRISTLE (3) PLASTIC BRISTLES NYLON ACRYLIC PLASTICS (4) WIRE BRUSHES CARBON STEEL BRASS STAINLESS STEEL i\ c..`. fair water resistance. Excellent durability and very good water resistance. soft to medium stiffness Select grade of tampico._ Good durability and water resistance. soft to slightly stiff Very good durability... stiffer. resistance to alkaline cleaners but not to solvent..9 93 D 8627940 0003527 234 D TABLE 2 -TYPES OF BRUSH MATERIAL USED IN CLEANING --`. good durability.`..SSPC CHAPTERr2.`.. wide selection.._ . reasonably durable Very good durability and water resistance Soft to slightly stiff. stiffer and more durable than tampico Lower cost. excellent water resistance Excellent durability and resistance to chemicals .

tends to rust. This type of steam cleaner may be Div. water. durable Very stiff. The hot solution and steam are forced through the nozzles onto the surfaces to be cleaned. One type of steam cleaner stores the concentrated cleaning solution and mixes it with water at a constant rate to produce a uniform cleaning solution through a heating unit in which it is partially vaporized and put under pressure. expensive. The equipment required is a pressure jet steam cleaner (Figures 1 and 2). The same equipment can FIGURE 2 be used for cleaning with dry steam or with cold water Functional perspective of an oil-fired steam cleaner. and dirt by a combination of detergent action. They should be used selectively over painted surfaces to assure no damage to the paint if removal is not desired. with or without cleaning compound. heat and impact. high cutting action. heat resistant Very stiff. Courtesy Allied Kelite under high pressure. 93 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .Very stiff. oil. STEAM CLEANING A high pressure jet of steam. is used to clean ferrous. non-corroding B. Steam removes grease. A separate solution tank or drum may be required for preparation of the cleaning compound. durable. unless specifically inhibited against such action. Alkali cleaners used in steam cleaning will attack aluminum and zinc alloys. Richardson Corp. non-ferrous and painted surfaces. Chicago either portable or stationary.

HIGH PRESSURE-HOT DETERGENT The machines (Figures 3A and 3B) used to provide these sprays utilize pumps that develop pressures of 500 . The cleaning solution is mixed and stored in a container or tank that is not part of the steam cleaner. for spraying high pressure detergent solution. In the steam cleaning procedure a stream of steam. Courtesy Oxford Chemicals Div. is directed under pressure through a cleaning gun or guns against the surface to be cleaned. Dry steam may be used as the final step to aid drying. A round one is used for most cleaning. requires an outside steam source. Consolidated Foods Corp. Co. Consolidated Foods Corp. sometimes called a hydro steam unit. with or without cleaning compound. f b. The pressure should be adjusted so that the area can be cleaned without requiring repeated or prolonged spraying. FIGURES 3A and 3B Portable units that can be hooked into plant hot or cold water line for convenient cleaning. Courtesy Olympic Mfg. Flat nozzles are used for flat surfaces. No water is mixed with the solution in the steam cleaner. so the solution is made up at a lower concentration than that used for the other type of cleaner. The solution and steam are mixed in the cleaner and discharged through the nozzle of a steam cleaning gun. The material and surface finish of the surfaces determines whether drying is necessary after steam cleaning. Another type of portable pressure jet steam cleaner. Div. C.SSPC CHAPTER*2-7 73 W 8627740 0003528 170 a. The cleaning guns may be furnished with interchangeable nozzles. The same equipment can be used for cleaning with dry steam.

FOAM CLEANING Foamed detergent solutions are popular for cleaning food processing plants and automotive equipment such as trucks (Figures 6 and 7). The cleaning procedure is basically the same as in steam cleaning with the detergent spray directed under high pressure through a cleaning gun against the surface to be cleaned. the detergent solution is used at considerably higher concentration. (6) the unit that pumps diluted foaming Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 94 . In this process foam is generated by mixing a high foaming surfactant. As with solvent and steam cleaning. 58 and 5C)include (A) the small unit that has a tube to pick up foaming concentrate from a drum. There is an inexpensive unit that uses water line pressure for dispensing the detergent. the skill of the operator determines in large part how effective the procedure will be. usually 1 to 2 ounces per gallon. The detergent solution is metered into the water line before spraying. Variations in foam cleaning (Figures 5A. Sometimes a gel is sprayed onto the surfaces to achieve even longer contact time. with water and compressed air. The foam is normally used to cling to vertical surfaces long enough for detergency to take place. delivering 3-5gallons per minute. In general the foam is neutral SD that a limited residue may not adversely affect paint if rinsing is not complete. obviating the necessity for filling it with liquid. In order to obtain reasonably good cleaning. Volumes of detergent solution will vary with the larger machines (Figure 4). They are also used to acid clean the inside of towers under conditions in which the tower is actually filled with foam. often containing foam stabilizer and detergent builder.to 1000 psi. D.

including some with abrasive surfaces attached to one side. Consolidated Foods Corp. BRUSH CLEANING Brushes and sponges are useful for cleaning.. Variations in foam cleaning units include (A) the small unit with a tube that picks up foaming concentrate from a drum. IV. and (C) a self-contained unit in which foaming agent and detergent concentrate are mixed with water and air prior to spraying.. These units are quite mobile. Foam is generated by mixing a high foaming surfactant. often containing foam stabilizer and detergent builder. Table 2 lists the various types of brush materials. enabling the operator to reach areas difficult to clean.`-`-`.`. They can remove stubborn soils and spot clean highly soiled areas to complement other methods of cleaning..SSPC CHAPTER*2=9 93 8627940 0003529 O07 m agent and detergent from a drum and (C) a self-contained unit in which foaming agent and detergent concentrate is mixed with water and air prior to spraying.`..`--FIGURES 5A.`. .AIR INLET z FOAM OUTLET --`. 58 and 5C Cleaning by the use of foam. Courtesy. Fiber. wire or plastic brushes may be used depending upon the type of cleaning required. E. HANDLING THE CLEAN SURFACE Cleaned surfaces should be further processed with a prepaint treatment or painted as soon as possible after cleaning to prevent rusting or recoiling from the atmosphere. Sponges are also available in a variety of forms and compositions.. This provides a more predictable concentration of detergent and permits the spraying of a high volume solution of known detergent concentration. (B) the unit that pumps diluted foaming agent and detergent from a drum. FIGURE4 High pressure spray machines in which the hot detergent solution is made up in a reservoir rather than being injected into hot steam.. Oxford Chemicals Div. . with water and compressed air.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 95 .Courtesy DEMA Engineering Co.

7 73 8627740 0003530 829 Use of portable foamer. Consolidated Foods Corp. Portable Foamer. however. or Federal pollution regulations. Any of the chemicals and cleaning methods mentioned previously may be used. However.SSPC CHAPTERt2. FIGURE 6 Courtesy Oxford Chemical Division. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 96 . DISPOSAL OF CHEMICAL WASTES Chemical cleaning materials should be disposed of without violating of local. Consolidated Foods Corp. it may be possible to paint with little or no chemical cleaning. as well as corrosion that must be removed before repainting. to insure that the chemical and cleaning procedures used do not attack the sound paint. Care must be taken. it has undoubtedly accumulated some atmospheric contaminants. if the surface has been exposed for any period of time. VI. CLEANING FACES PREVIOUSLY PAINTED SURIf the painted surface has not been broken. V. state. FIGURE 7 Courtesy Oxford Chemical Division.

a group leader at Pennwalt Corporation from 1947-1956: laboratorv director at Kelite Corporation. with responsibility for new product development and other coat i ngs con su It ing servi ces.`. BIOGRAPHY Melvin H.S. Carroll.SSPC CHAPTER*2. 1963-1970. REFERENCES S. Aaron Greenberg. from Temple University in 1952... Robert McCormick. metal preparation prior to painting.`. Industrial Cleaning. Mr.D..J. inc.S..M. an industrial finishes manufacturer. Munger. William Pearson. a chemist at Frankford Arsenal from 1940-1947. 1974. Aberdeen Proving Ground. Spring. He has been President.`--- . and a consultant from 1977 until the present. from Columbia University in 1938 and his Ph. Dr. he was responsible for the development of coatings for the preservation of Army material. In 1976 he joined Lenmar. James Davis. Bennett. William Wallace. C.`-`-`. Prism Press. technical director at Oxford Chemicals. He was an instructor at City College of New York from 1936-1939. Inc. Spring.`. 1956-1963. Samuel Spring received his B. his A. Preparafion of Metais for Painting. Southeast Laboratories. During his service as a chemist and Division Chief at the former U.. from City College of New York in 1936. Reinhold Publishing of --`. technical director at Chemtrust Industries 1970-1973 and technical director at Gibson Chemicals. Ltd. Arnold Eickhoff. S.. Ted Dowd. Sandler has been involved in research and development and technical services on chemical coatings. and corrosion control for over 35 years. J. Sandler is the author of more than 50 technical publications and 20 military specifications dealing with coatings and corrosion and has served as a consultant to government and industry. Mark Kuchner. Army Coating and Chemical Laboratory. MD. (Australia) 1973-1977..9 93 8627940 0003533 765 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT BIOGRAPHY The authors and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: P.

Change 9 -March 15. Army. AFM 85-3. January 15. Navy. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 97 . 1-1-1. U.Corporation. Paints and Protective Coatings . Air Force Technical Manual No. Departments of the US. Cleaning Aerospace Equipment . NAVFAC MO 110. 5-618. T. 1976.S. 1969.O. Air Force Technical Manual No.

The types of phosphate cleaning of steel are outlined in Table 1. especially if the surface has been abraded and surface oxides removed.1 SPECIAL PRE-PAINT TREATMENTS: PHOSPHATING by Samuel Spring Most paints will adhere reasonably well to clean steel. as by impact. To improve corrosion resistance by providing a good base for waxes and rust-preventive oils. In addition. the most used method of evaluating the quality of these coatings is . provide the highest level of quality. and to protect surfaces against under-paint corrosion.SSPC CHAPTERm3-L 93 = 8627940 0003532 hTL CHAPTER 3. normally phosphate. especially in outdoor exposure or conditions where there is the possibility of breaking the paint film by mechanical action. such as cold extrusion. The pickling and etching action of acids also improves adhesion. 3. and for breaking in friction-bearing surfaces. that holds paint because it is compatible with paint components and often provides an extended or porous surface for retaining more paint. and nonconductive properties. Phosphate coatings in commercial use are crystalline zinc phosphate and microcrystalline (sometimes called amorphous) iron phosphate. To precondition surface for metal forming operations. Pickling removes oxides and etches by selective solution of the steel. by providing a base for drawing compounds and lubricants. This is also true for good iron phosphate coatings. A more sophisticated method of surface preparation is to apply a chemical deposit or coating. They are widely used in the manufacture of metal products for four principal reasons: 1. properly applied. They prevent or reduce the spread of corrosion from the exposed area. producing a larger surface area for contact with the paint. cutting or abrasion. and 4. By far the most widespread use of phosphate coatings is to prolong the useful life of paint finishes. To prepare surfaces for bonding with plastic coatings. As a matter of fact. To precondition surfaces to receive and retain paint. Phosphate coatings are transformations of metal surfaces into new surfaces having non-metallic. a coating forms from phosphoric acid treatment (occasionally modified by the addition of other chemicals to accelerate reaction with the steel). 2. Crystalline zinc phosphate coatings.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . cracking. In addition..`-`-`. but is integral with the surface rather than deposited on the surface. It is considerably thinner than zinc phosphate and essentially non-porous. i... ¡.to cut a line through the paint film to the metal below and 98 then expose the part or panel to an atmosphere of salt --`. a thin layer of adherent iron oxide. a fog of water droplets containing salt. The continuous structure consists of the steel substrate. and finally a crystalline zinc phosphate..e. Small crystals of limited porosity in such coatings provide the best performance.`--spray. Phosphate coatings function in the following ways: 1. Treatment with phosphoric acid does not provide much coating.. They put the surface in a non-alkaline condition: alkaline residues undermine paint finishes and thus promote corrosion.`. NATURE OF THE PHOSPHATE COATINGS The zinc phosphate coating is formed by crystallization onto the surface by chemical reaction. When paint is applied to this adherent surface. there is a substantial barrier to atmospheric moisture and considerable resistance to chipping. it is held almost as tightly as though it were in good contact with clean steel itself.. and underpaint corrosion. The thinner deposit allows more flexibility with paints that are intrinsically less flexible but more enduring. the surface area in contact is greatly increased. There are no sharply defined interfaces between the layers.`. but sometimes good results are achieved with certain highly impervious and inert paint systems. after which the distance of corrosion from the scribe line is measured (ASTM-B 117).. but microcrystalline would probably be more appropriate. The coating is a mixture of adherent iron oxide and iron phosphate with minor quantities of other components from the bath occluded in the crystals. then a mixed oxide-phosphate (iron andlor zinc). Residues from phosphoric acid treatment are less detrimental than those from sulfuric or hydrochloric (muriatic) acids. and often a heavier paint film can be held in position in a single coating. Iron phosphate coatings have been referred to as non-crystalline conversion coatings.`. and a high quality surface treatment is obtained. Thus. Prolonged treatment with phosphoric acid removes oxides and sometimes provides a light etch that is beneficial to adhesion.

7. and 8. 3. Consider for . 5. Characteristics Simple and effective. They create capillaries and micro-cavities to (a) provide mechanical interlocking of coatings with surfaces. They impose relative uniformity in surface texture and improved uniformity of post treatments such as paint. They cushion metals against scoring and scratching. 4. They prevent reaction between the oils in paint and sensitive metals. 6.SSPC CHAPTER*3-L 93 E 8627740 0003533 538 TABLE 1 TYPES OF PHOSPHATE CLEANING OF STEEL Spray 3 or 4 stage Non-crystalline phosphatelcleaning 5 or 6 stage Non-crystalline phosphate with separate cleaning 5 or 6 stage zinc DhosDhate Immersion Zinc phosphate Non-crystalI¡ne phosphate Alkali clean -preferably with acidic rinse Acid DiCkle Vapour degreaser Manual Wipe-on wipe-off phosphoric acid clean Steam clean and phosphate Solvent clean Mechanical Abrasion 2. Good quality. They insulate metals against electrochemical corrosion. and improve rust resistance. and (b) to hold drawing compounds. They increase the surface area upon which the systems of attractive forces causing adhesion can act. They inhibit the spread of corrosion from a damaged area to a sound area adjoining it. retain break-in oils.

Minimum performance.. however. are sometimes handled similarly.`-`-`. Good to excellent performance if done properly.. then assembled in the field.. Minimum performance on rusted steel Minimum performance. Table 3 lists U..`. ZINC PHOSPHATING PHOSPHATING Cost is an important factor in selecting a phosphating system.`--99 . government specifications for phosphating steel surfaces. Field application of phosphate coatings is sometimes done by manually operated steam cleaning or by machines using hot solutions at high pressures (see section on cleaning). iron phosphate systems are inexpenIn this method the steel is treated with a chemical solution prepared by diluting a proprietary concentrate to the 2 to 4% level. This schematic applies essentially to factory application in the manufacture of such items as cabinets. Satisfactory for non-critical work. reau ired. either as subassemblies or completely fabricated units. sive and for average performance not difficult to maintain. Adequate to good performance if operated carefully. expensive but no drv-off. The type of equipment and procedure depends on the number of parts to be processed and the size and shape of the parts. Generally. A schematic of phosphate process operations is presented in Table 2 to assist in making such decisions. cheap.S. SELECTION OF THE TYPE OF A. Adequate performance if done carefully. and automotive units. Expensive on low volume lines. II. Excel lent.. Minimum performance.`.steel appliances. including those treated and primed in a factory. Immersion baths are more concentrated --`. appliances.`.. Top quality. Components of other types of structures.

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Line speed 4 ftlmin minimum even if loading is very light. lawn mower housings) Very low output (10 unitslhour or less) Manual -if quality is a minor factor Immersion Low output (around 40 unitslhour) Immersion Moderate to high output (over 80 unitslhour) Conveyorized spray -line speed 3 ftlmin preferred but with careful design may go lower in some cases Tipping basket or conveyorized immersion -for maximum quality on internal sections than spray baths and are usually operated at higher with the formation of the co ating.`..g. automobiles or large cabinet assemblies) Very low output (1 unit per hour) Manual Low output (4 unitslhour) Manual -for low capital costs Conveyorized spray -only if high quality requirement justifies the high capital and running costs.`.g..`..`--Moderate to high output (over 12 unitslhour) Conveyorized spray Moderate (e..`-`-`.g. bench appliances. .g..SSPC CHAPTER*3-L 93 8627740 0003534 474 TABLE 2 PHOSPHATE PROCESS OPERATIONS Size Large: (e..... an assembled bus or large tank assembly) Manual Substantial: (e. domestic dishwasher or small filing cabinet) Very low output (4 unitslhour or less) Manual -if high quality is a minor factor Immersion Moderate to high output (over 25 unitslhour) Conveyorized spray -line speed 3 ftlmin minimum Conveyorized immersion -for lower line speeds or for maximum quality on internal sections Small: (e. Single chamber -multi spray -intermediate costs and performance --`.

and by having c onstricted areas in which sludge Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 1O0 . controls can be added as the system is applied. but onc e this is done. a phosphate from partially neutralized although stainless steel hea ders. This last ac. usually preferred in spray systems. performed by operators trained for the job. P rovision is made to allow this sludge same time is oxidized by the nitrite to water. while hydrogen gas formed at the of ferric phosphate. The essential components of a phosphating bath are Mild carbon steel equipment i s usually adequate a zinc salt. To obtain good coatings an accelerator is up a good system. risers. in crystalline form on the metal as the acidity is reduced by Sludge formed duri ng the process consists primarily reaction with the steel. Zinc phosphate is precipitated on all critical surf aces.be required to posi tion the work so that the spray impinges tinuously or intermittently. ingenuity may sodium nitrite (accelerator).temperature. When spraying. added in small quantities con. and nozzles are phosphoric acid. 150-170°F in comparison to 100 to 145°F for A considerable amount of ex pertise is required to set spray baths. nitric acid and an oxidant.to settle by having heat sources along the side of the tion avoids formation of a gas layer that would interfere tanks.

Zinc Base (for Ferrous zinc Met a Is) phosphate MIL-C-46487 Cleaning: Preparation Iron and Organic Coating of phosphate Steel Cartridge Cases may settle.. for Ferrous Metals DOD-P-16232 Phosphate Coatings. Oxide Black.SSPC CHAPTER*3-1 93 m 8b27940 0003535 300 m TABLE 3 Some Government Specifications on Phosphating Steel Surfaces Application Base for organic coatings. Zinc phosphate 4.`.. Manganese Heavy Manganese and phosphate. Spec.`. and prevention of galling. Clean -alkaline cleaner 2.`--Epoxy -used with phenolic varnish US.. --`. This will reduce re-dispersion as the bath is used. No.. Title TYPe TT-C-490 Cleaning Methods and Phosphate Pretreatment of Ferrous Surfaces for Organic Coatings MI L-S-5002 Surface Treatments Phosphate and Inorganic Coatings for Metal Surfaces of Weapon Systems MIL-C-13924 Coating. Paint base. Gov't.`-`-`.. Passivating final rinse An intermediate stage may be interspersed between stages 2 and 3 for the purpose of improving the crystal size .`. Rinse 3. Rinse 5. The zinc phosphate system is usually applied in a fivestage process as follows: 1. Corrosion protection resistant to alkaline environments.. corrosion protection Corrosion resistance for moving parts. Oxide.

Salt spray 1. which applies both to zinc and iron phosphate. organic nitro compounds. sait spray Salt spray Oxalic acid spot test and salt spray -96 hr. Concentrations normally range from '12 O/O to 2%. a three stage system is employed: (1)Cleaner-phosphater (2) Rinse (3) Passivating Rinse. it is preferable to have the first spray stage at higher pH and the second at lower pH.OTHER TYPES OF PHOSPHATING 1. for example. in part. There is more variation in quality of end result with these systems than with zinc phosphate. IRON PHOSPHATE PROCESSES Most iron phosphate coatings are produced by spray. this is done by adding proprietary salts. but occasionally phosphoric acid is used in addition. and metal ions such as magnesium. but this is not done frequently enough in industrial practice. hydroxylamine. Requirements Paint adhesion. In contrast with zinc phosphate. Often variations in performance are determined more by cleaning than phosphating. Best results are obtained at 120 to 150°F under spray application. More often. min. Salt spray 24 hrs.of the zinc phosphate by use of a colloidal titanium salt. to the widespread custom of cleaning and phosphating in the same spray system. there are few processes which operate successfully using immersion. There will be further discussion below of the final rinse. but most work is processed by dual-purpose chemicals to achieve the objectives of cleaning and chemical conversion. due. Ordinarily. C. When it is used.5-48 hrs. Maintaining two stages of cleaninglphosphating yields superior quality. "Activators" (a term used loosely here) may be. sodium motybdate. and manganese. There are many types of activators used with these baths. Better quality is usually achieved in the lines where cleaning is done prior to phosphating. Cleaners containing titanium may also affect the grain refining function. Maintaining the acidity within specified pH ranges is crucial. Low Temperature phosphating . tannic acid. B. Generally a salt of phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid is used at pH of 3 to 5. zinc.5 in conjunction with relatively small quantities of various activators.

room temperature.There are now available many iron and zinc phosphate materials which may be applied by spray or immersion at. or close to. These materials make possible considerable savings in heating costs through reduced fuel use. 60"-120"F (16"-49OC). The prinCopyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 101 .

Some machines spray detergent solution from one section and phosphating solution from another. This may be done with steam cleaning machines or machines originally designed to spray hot detergent solution for cleaning under field conditions. a reasonably good job. cabinets. 111. better working conditions d.SSPC CHAPTERJ3-II 93 8627740 O003536 247 cipal advantages of low temperature processing are: a. coating with an organic finish using trichloroethylene as the solvent. The same iron phosphate chemicals used in factories are often employed. and subsequent finishing. such as those which have been discussed up to this point. Solvent Phosphating The more widely used phosphating processes. dollar savings -less fuel b.vapor degreasing in a boiling bath of trichloroethylene at 188 F. less wear on equipment e. phosphating. can be achieved in the field by spraying a mildly acidic phosphate solution onto the metal surface. refrigerators. less sludge 2. b. These are available in a variety of designs and are treated in the chapter on cleaning. FIELD PHOSPHATING Zinc phosphate and iron phosphate coatings of highest quality are normally applied in the factory to items such as automobiles. are water-based. c. certainly one superior to no phosphate coating. assembled units and also to components that are subsequently asembled.phosphating by either spray or dip in the organic acid phosphates. However. There is also a system using trichloroethylene as the base for cleaning. washing machines. This method involves three stages and requires special equipment: a. There is also the problem of disposal of run-off . A considerable problem with phosphating in the field is the questionable adequacy of rinsing away the residues from the sprayed solution and the difficulties in supplying a passivating final rinse of chromic acid or acid chromate salts. shorter start-up time -because of smaller temperature differential c.

this limitation is compensated for by the application of inhibitive or sacrificial primers or quite heavy films of paint to reduce permeability to moisture and water vapor. While this is true of residues from alkaline detergents or hard water salts. Most paints can tolerate mildly acidic residues better than alkaline residues from cleaners. It may also be applied to reasonably clean and unrusted steel to form a light phosphate coating. it is also true of the chemicals of phosphating solutions that have not reacted with the metal. or indeed the iron oxide of rusted steel which also has an alkaline reaction. converted to an adherent oxide by the chromate). The section on cleaning pointed out that the presence of salts or electrolyte under a paint film can be very harmful in causing blistering and underpaint corrosion upon exposure to highly humid conditions. The awkwardness of supplying good rinsing or passivating rinses in the field is a severe limitation to obtaining high quality paint adhesion. This treatment may utilize hot concentrated phosphoric acid to remove mill scale or heavy rust or rather dilute phosphoric acid to modify light to heavy rust to improve paint performance.chemicals. this provides considerable improvement. especially if applied by brush. This type of treatment probably has been used to a greater extent in Europe than in the U. However. including thickeners (some being thixotropic agents) to reduce run-off. If done properly. which enhances penetration and removal of loose rust. Quite frequently. tanks. sometimes incorrectly referred to as phosphating involves treatment with phosphoric acid as contrasted with other mineral acids such as sulfuric or hydrochloric (muriatic) acids. loose rust which flakes off cannot be improved very much by such treatments. so that the result is an almost neutral system. or the tiny fraction of the surface that has not reacted to form a tight adherent coating is passivated (¡. especially resistance to underpaint corrosion. Another type of treatment. Under ideal conditions there is just enough rust to react with the amount of phosphoric acid applied. Of course. When a final chromic acid rinse is used. and to a lesser extent with ships. bridges. residues from phosphating solutions are insolubilized. Field phosphatizing has been successful with benefit to farm and construction machinery.e. There is also limited use of phosphates of zinc or other metals containing phosphoric acid with other ingredients. Naval jelly is a popular . and other structures.S. field phosphating by the procedures just described does provide a substantial improvement in coatings performance. or at least a surface receptive to paint.

We have emphasized the detrimental effect of electrolytic residues that prompt galvanic corrosion. the importance of an appropriate final rinse is neglected. A passive state is obtained and soluble residues are then flushed away. A final rinse containing chromic acid can minimize such corrosion. The chromate insolubilizes some of the heavy metal ions and oxidizes steel which was not properly coated. IV.American product. and reduces paint failure under outdoor weather exposure. especially if there is some rusting due to a delay in painting after blasting. PASSIVATING RINSES Occasionally. One common difficulty with chromic acid rinses is Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 102 . pickling with phosphoric acid offers an iron surface with less tendency to rust and improved paint adhesion. It is occasionally applied to abraded surfaces with good results. At any rate.

9. Melvin Sandler and William Wallace. A clear economic advantage of the iron phosphate method is that it usually requires few processing stages. Spring may be found at the end of Chapter 2. M.lack of adequate control of composition and concentration. This has resulted in the use of nonchromated final rinses. Robert McCormick. can result in blistering under highly humid conditions. BIOGRAPHY A biographical sketch and portrait of Dr.F. almost nil. Larry Drake. because cleaning and phosphating can generally be accomplished in one step. Pradel. Mark Kuchner. This means that the pre-cleaning and rinsing associated with other processes are not required. James Davis. Arnold Eickhoff. 2 to 4 oz/lOO gal) that small amounts of contaminant can reduce too much of the chromate to the chromic condition. Joe Mazia.M. Thus. Metal . for practical purposes. Kline. and require very close control. Ted Dowd. The low concentration of chromium in the chromic acid rinse makes it feasible to treat this effluent without high cost.F. on the other hand. the zinc phosphate coating process generally permits the application of heavier paint finishes with potentially longer life expectancy.. Maher and A. often merely very dilute phosphoric acid or de-ionized water. M. Lou Nowacki. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: Jim Bennett. Excessive concentration. the initial capital investment for the iron phosphate process is usually considerably lower. The rinse sometimes is used after excessive contamination by electrolyte salts. On the other hand. Maher. because of its crystalline structure and more absorptive characteristics. Jim Maurer. REFERENCES 1. The desired concentration is so low (e. These can be adequate for some purposes but are less safe to use than the chromic acid rinse. V. Some chromium-free rinses are almost as effective as the chromic acid type when used with zinc phosphate coatings. Another economic advantage of the iron phosphating process is that the special acid-proof equipment frequently associated with other processes is not required. H. Howard Lasser. Some of these also contain ions which have limited acceptance in effluent. COMPARING IRON AND ZINC PHOSPHATE TREATMENTS Maher and Pradel point out that both the iron phosphate process and the zinc phosphate process have inherent advantages for particular applications. William Pearson. Phosphate Coatings . Disposal regulations are another diffjculty: the amount of chromate that can be introduced into the effluent is extremely small. which are of limited value.g.

4. 1981. Vol. K. p. p. 1980. Volume 78. New York. 9. 1965. 5. Reinhold Publishing Co. No. Woods. and Samuel Spring. 6. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 103 . 674-687. K. Metal Finishing. Metal finishing. 6. Zinc Phosphating . 1981. 17. No. Samuel Spring and K. Metal finishing. 31. Phosphatizing with NonCrystalline Coatings . 2. No. 1979. Selection of a Paint Pretreatment System . No. 3. 56. Vol. pp. K. 24 and No. 77.finishing Guidebook. Volume 78. Samuel Spring. Mefal finishing. Chromating as a Prepaint Treatment System . 79. Preparation of Metals for Painting. p. Woods and Samuel Spring. Woods.. p. 6. Woods and Samuel Spring. 3. 4. 1980.

especially 300 and 400 series. because of its low cost. Research and Development Section. This chapter primarily concerns structural grade low carbon steels. W. sulfuric acid. high boiling point. They represent the bulk of tonnage pickled. is used extensively in pickling simple and low carbon steels. . Disposal problems result from environ men tal reg u Iat ions. Pickling in metal working industries is a process in which metals are immersed in acid solutions to remove oxides or scales.2 PICKLING STEEL SURFACES by D. The primary reference is the second edition of the Steel Structures Painting Manual. availability and general suitability.. nitric. Jr. Increased use of reclamation and regeneration of acids has made hydrochloric acid pickling prominent for most low-carbon steels. then Chief. can increase the susceptibility to pitting and stress corrosion cracking and must be used with caution. Waste can be prevented with suitable inhibitors. Hydrochloric or muriatic acid alone or in combination with sulfuric. hydrofluoric. Various acids used in commercial pickling are sulfuric. INTRODUCTION Pickling is the immersion of objects in dilute acids. Steel Structures Painting Council Surface Preparation Specification No.SSPC CHAPTER*3. hydrochloric or muriatic. Spruance.2 93 8627740 0003538 OLT CHAPTER 3. Christofferson I. Many excellent references are available1-16. Most of the basic technical data on pickling is valid and included in this chapter with appropriate changes. American Chemical Paint Company. Volume i on Chemical Surface Preparation by F. The same principles apply if the pickle solution is sprayed or flowed over the work or if the work is pulled through baths of acid as in the continuous pickling of strip steel. Pickling is usually done by immersing work into pickle baths in tanks. but a substantial amount may be wasted dissolving the metal itself. The use of hydrochloric acid with some grades of stainless steel. Acids suitable for pickling should remove only scale from base metal. nitric and hydrofluoric acid is used to brighten stainless and some alloy steels. phosphoric and mixtures of these. 8 covers several pickling processes. In the United States. Without acid regeneration and reclamation some batch plant operations are being curtailed due to the high cost of disposing of waste pickle liquors.P.

When pickling steel in sulfuric acid the diluted acid penetrates through cracks in the outer scale layer and dissolves some scale beneath and works through to the metal or the scale layers rich in metal and low in oxygeni6. annealing scale. when pickling with acids. brittle. On cooling. the action is much the same as that of sulfuric acid.O. mill scale. scale. The lack of uniformity is the difference in the amount of oxygen in various parts of the scale film illustrated in Figure l. forging scale. magnetic oxide.O. When muriatic acid is used. except all the scales are more soluble and some can be dissolved as well as blown off by the hydrogen evolutioni6. These dissolve rapidly. with about 28% oxygen. expands less than the iron from which it is formed and cracks on cooling. Also. the mill scale may be removed sooner than rust. there would be little preventable acid attack on the metal and little need for an inhibitor. evolving hydrogen between the scale and metal. The under layer or layers are more soluble and the metal itself quite sohble. which often exists on some local areas. The outer layer of scale is almost insoluble in sulfuric acid but slightly soluble in muriatic acid. This. such as oxide. . which contains about 22% oxygen. however. This is designated by various names. The outer layer is richest in oxygen. It is this hydrogen evolution that is responsible for removal of scale that is blown off in flakes of varying size. Beneath the outer layer is a material generally constituting the bulk of the scale and nearly corresponding to the formula Fe. adherent and usually black coating.For the rolling process steel is heated below the melting point. Beneath this may be a layer of mixed oxide and metal of still lower oxygen content. these oxides set as a hard. roll scale. Scale is removed from parts of the surface quickly. containing about 30% oxygen by weight. The uninhibited acid attacks and pits these exposed areas before scale is removed from other areas.. usually in open furnaces in which oxygen from the furnace atmosphere combines with hot metal to form oxides of iron and alloying elements. It may approximate the formula Fe. It is not uniform in composition. Next to the metal the oxide may approximate the formula Feo. etc. does not occur. Acids remove surface deposits other than mill scale.. Scale is brittle. If all the scale were blown off at one time and the metal immediately removed from the pickling solution.

unlike scale. Rust is a hydrated oxide of iron. therefore. It is more soluble in sulfuric. Rust. rust coatings are removed by being dissolved rather than being blown off. muriatic and phosphoric acids than are mill scales. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 104 .Rust is most generally encountered. continues to develop cyclically and if it were not removed along with chemicals that caused it.

A. A wide variation exists in successful procedures. This is required more or less regularly to remove oils. The coating most frequently encountered is oil. The latter method leaves metal free of oil but not from particles or smut held on the surface by oil film. etc. gas holders. Paint and other types of marking can normally be removed mechanically or with solvents. TREATING PICKLED METAL . etc. Inc. Alkali cleaning is relatively inexpensive and should be provided when cleaning prior to pickling. cutting or forming compounds. preparation and treating will be discussed briefly before considering pickling in more detail. Other contaminants that should be removed prior to pickling are heavy rust and paint. B. II. PICKLING PROCESS The pickling process is divided into three steps: Cleaning and preparation of metal Pickling Treating the pickled metal. Surface treatments and pre-treatments are more fully discussed in Chapter 3. C.O. bridge plates.. Courtesy of Amchem Products. mainly involves shop and mill marks. on new steel. most of which are volatile and leave a thin film. wire brushing or abrasive blast cleaning. Fe. greases. oil. that are too large and often too thickly encrusted with pitted rust to be pickled. Sand or shot blasting is more convenient for rust and scale removal from large assembled structures such as ship hulls. CLEANING AND PREPARATION OF METAL PRIOR TO PICKLING Cleaning removes from metal any material that would prevent pickling acid from contacting the surface and removing scale.2 93 8627740 0003539 T5b . B.-fRACKS IN SCALE7 FIGURE 1 Mili scale is composed of several layers: A. Cleaning. On smaller assemblies weldments are normally abrasive blasted or mechanically cleaned to remove welding scale prior to the pickling. only a few will be discussed.SSPC CHAPTERa3. Fe0 + Fe. Heavy rust that might prolong pickling can be removed by scraping.O. which. it would continue to form indefinitely even under coatings of paint. etc. Oils can be removed with oil solvents. Fe. Solvents can be applied by any convenient means and wiped off with clean rags. Fe0 D. The metal can be degreased by immersion in solvents or solvent vapors.

25% by weight of concentrated phosphoric acid to the hot rinse bath. Also. such as inorganic zincs. it should be oiled. metal must be suitably treated in preparation for operations that follow. actually stimulate rust formation and must be completely removed before they dry. other than inorganic zincs. There are exceptions when using special paints. Phosphoric or chromic acids.1. The alkaline surface does not rust rapidly. but it if is to be stored indefinitely or exposed to weather. In pickling processes for inorganic zinc applications. Preparing Metal for Painting Most paints do not adhere well and blister in a humid atmosphere if applied to an alkaline or neutral surface. previously described. which normally are applied to neutral surfaces. or mixtures. It is desirable to further clean and treat pickled and rinsed steel in a phosphoric acid solution prior to painting. no further treatment is normally used after the hot water rinse. If the film dries. For most paints. which may be accomplished by any convenient means. resulting from reaction of acid with metal. An ample supply of clean water must be available for rinsing. produce best results. clings to it. or concrete tanks provided with a skimming trough to take care of an ample overflow of water are generally used. such as '/ito ounce per gallon of sodium carbonate or trisodium phosphate. are used in a boiling rinse following a cold rinse. Treatment prevents steel from rusting and prepares it for painting. Alkali cleaning solutions are suitable for application of oil but are not suited for application of paint. Weak alkali solutions. Good results can be obtained by adding approximately 0. there are other treatments that can be used to prevent rusting. Pickled work should be rinsed promptly. For best painting results the surface pH should be slightly acid. particularly if the acid is hot. Best results occur when the surface has a pH between 3 and 5. wood. Muriatic or sulfuric acids should not be used because their residues stimulate rust under paint. with the exception of some produced from phosphoric acid. it is important that proper acid be used to produce the proper pH. con- . The acid and salts. Final (Hot) Rinsing -Neutralizing When pickling acid and iron salts are removed or diluted. 3. it is difficult to rinse away residues that can cause trouble in many of the following operations. Cold Rinsing When metal is removed from the pickle bath. although water can be applied liberally with a hose. a thin film of pickling acid and salts. Steel. 2.

tained in a steel tank. and maintaining this rinse Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 105 .

Table I includes acids and lining materials that resist them and that should be used to construct steam coils for heating. Even when properly adding concentrated sulfuric acid to water. but more permanent equipment.5% sodium chloride. 111. Tanks constructed of mild steel plate or wood can be used for both cold and hot rinse.2 73 8627740 0003540 778 at a pH of 3 to 5 by addition of acid as small quantities are needed. The cleanliness of the boiling rinse is important. ACID PICKLING Sulfuric. and provisions for introducing acid into the bath. Navy specifications call for the bath to contain 1. . muriatic. muriatic. making surface smut more of a problem. One method to help solve this is to add rock salt to the sulfuric acid bath. This is not practical for large scale structural pickling operations. hydrofluoric or phosphoric acids. water for diluting acid and for washing the empty tank. should be used to contain them. cannot be used to contain any of the acid solutions used in pickling. A pickle tank suitably lined and constructed should be equipped with a large bottom drain for rapid emptying and easy cleaning. and good painting results can be obtained by merely maintaining a water rinse temperature at 140°F (60°C) or higher and painting promptly while steel is warm and dry. Water should never be added to strong acids. Sulfuric acid is used most extensively for structural steel. heating coils or other source of heat. since it is here that a satisfactorily cleaned surface can be spoiled for painting. For best results the bath should be discarded daily and the tank cleaned before making a new bath. nitric and hydrofluoric acids are used for pickling ferrous metals. since steel composition also affects the time required for picklinglB. Some higher carbon and alloy steels burn in acid very easily. Typical sulfuric acid pickling for low carbon structural steels may not be suitable for some high strength constructional alloy and heattreated alloy steels. unlined. phosphoric. but ordinary steel. although hydrochloric and phosphoric acids are also used for structural and other steels. steel tanks lined with materials that resist the acids. Wood tanks can be used temporarily to contain sulfuric.SSPC CHAPTER*3. Test work is in order before pickling special steels for which prior experience or test data is not available.

It is desirable to provide adequate ventilation.`. It is advisable to have a tank for measuring the acid added to each pickle tank. For concentrated sulfuric acid the storage tank may be safely constructed of mild steel. some escapes into the air.. since it is not attacked.. Also.. .. The rate of attack of sulfuric acid solutions at TABLE I Acids and lining materials that resist them Acid ResisStainless tant masonry Wood Lead Rubber Steel (Brick) Vemporary) Sulfuric X X ... --`.. In large installations the acid should be transferred through a steel or lead pipe from the storage or measuring tank to the pickle tank.. However. . Pickle houses are usually filled with steam... Warm air and exhaust ducts located over or near the tanks are helpful in clearing the atmosphere of fumes and acid mists. In small installations steel chutes or pipes should be provided over or through which the acid is poured. X X Muriatic ..`-`-`.. and in spite of the ability of inhibitors to reduce acid fumes..... Workers should stay as far as possible from acid when it mixes with water in the pickle bath. other acids in concentrated form will attack mild steel.enough heat generates to boil and blow the acid about. IV.`. It must be diluted with water before it can be used. X . structural steel within an enclosed pickle house should be properly coated with an acid-resistant coating system..`. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 106 .. The acid storage tanks must use material or linings suitable for the acid involved. X X Phosphoric X X X X X Hydrofluoric X X .. ... OPERATION OF THE PICKLE BATH WITH ADDED DETAILS ON SULFURIC ACID A. ACID Concentrated sulfuric acid neither attacks steel nor removes scale.`--.... X Nitric X .

the attack decreases rapidly. B. as in the case of sulfuric acid. The 20" Be commercial grade contains only about 31O/O hydrochloric acid by weight. the attack in operating ranges is proportional to the acid's strength. . The activity of acid increases with its strength until it reaches 40% concentration. The greater the viscosity of the bath. such as iron sulfate (copperas). Sulfuric acid pickle baths are usually operated within the range of 2% to 15% by volume of 66"Baume sulfuric or its equivalent strength of other commercial grades of this acid. C. Even at a temperature of 120°F (49"C). The waste of acid in the spent bath prevents efficient use of acid at high concentrations.SSPC CHAPTERa3. however.PUURIG FIGURE 2 Rate of attack of sulfuric acid on mild steel. Courtesy of Arnchem Products. Not until it is diluted with an equal volume of water is there any appreciable action. Undiluted 20" Be muriatic acid attacks steel more rapidly than stronger solutions and. With further increase in strength. IRON SALTS A fresh pickle bath at a fixed temperature continues to remove scale from steel at the same rate. concentrated acid does not attack steel.2 93 8627940 0003543 bo4 M . Inc. and not at higher strengths approaching that of maximum activity. Muriatic acid is hydrogen chloride gas dissolved in water. With sulfuric acid pickling the effect of varying . the higher the dragout losses. making the bath act as though the amount of acid in it had been reduced. in solution. removal of scale is delayed. The presence of iron salts in the bath has a significant effect on pickling. TEMPERATURE While the activity of the acid solution within the usual pickling range is proportional to its strength. 120°F (49°C) on mild steel is illustrated in Figure 2. Figure 3 shows the relationship between acid attack and strength of 20" Be muriatic acid. as is shown in Figure 4 for sulfuric acid. pickle baths do not stay fresh. As salts build up. Small amounts of scale and large amounts of metal that dissolve in the acid form iron salts. the activity of a pickle bath is markedly affected by its temperature.

changes the solution rapidly and removes loose scale. or with a pickling machine of the type illustrated in Figure 6. TIME Time is an important factor in scale removal. D. and loses strength quickly. for example. AGITATION Baths of fixed characteristics pickle faster if agitated than if still. Agitation in pickle baths may be produced mechanically by moving the work through the pickling solution. Agitation also washes off scale particles loosened from metal to expose fresh areas to the acid's action. with brushes. Agitation may also be created by moving the solution past work that is stationary in the tank. as shown in Figure 5. This may either be discharged through holes in the lead pipe near the bottom of the tank or through an injector nozzle. and even more time is needed to undermine "rolled-in scale" or scale embedded in pits. as in the continuous and semi-continuous pickling of coiled strip steel. E. such as the sulfates with sulfuric acid pickling. the faster the pickling. causing violent Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 107 . Enough time must be allowed to remove scale completely. Some time is required for acid to penetrate the scale and blow it off. This same effect is accomplished by mechanical means as. in which the pickle bath is caused to surge up and down by a large plunger. or salts from other pickling acids. The faster fresh acid is brought to the surface and salt contaminated acid is dispersed throughout the solution away from the metal.amounts of sulfate in the bath is shown in Figure 5. The plunger pickler. As a result of the retarding action of iron sulfate. This is clear when it is realized that the acid in contact with any part of the surface picks up more and more iron salts. washes over the surface. The most common type of agitation is produced by the steam used to heat the pickle bath. the pickle baths should be discarded before they become saturated.

ANALYZING PICKLE BATHS 30--Acid strength cannot be determined by taste. substantial savings in acid can be made. It is at or near this point that most picklers discontinue adding acid. thus. 40-c Y F. and the bath is used as long as it ---I oe i--I pickles in a reasonable time. In this way acid strengths can be reduced markedly but continue to be used..SSPC CHAPTER*3*2 93 W 8627940 0003542 540 usual method is to keep acid strength constant and to increase temperature to offset the slowing action of the ac-. To offset weakening acid and accumulating ferrous sulfate.I RATE OF ATTACK OF HYDROCHLORIC / \ cumulating iron sulfate. ACID AT VARIOUS When a pickle bath has dissolved about 2% pounds of I ON MILD STEEL TEMPERATURE 120°FAHR iron sulfate per gallon. a oe method used by picklers years ago or by hydrometer.reading of which is affected by both the acid and iron salts 20 in solution. It is then discarded. The literature further discusses the influence of these IL i I O factors. useful pickling and so a minimum amount is left to be i discarded. the w > -I --'? . its scale removing property is appreciably reduced (Figure 5). bath temperature is gradually raised. so that which 1 I 1 remains can be consumed as completely as possible in I . eventually to the boiling point. Methods regularly used in the laboratory can .

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . MILD STEEL AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES II AI circulation of the bath through a nozzle usually located at one end of the pickle tub.`--onmild steam. As iron sulfate accumulates and slows pickling. Violent agitation and heat is provided by a submerged combustion heater. a reasonable method for operating the bath becomes apparent. Both methods are used. Inc. along with compressed air. ACID 5% BY VOLUME 66. are discharged into the solution. the action can be speeded either by increasing the strength or the temperature of the bath. From consideration of the effects of acid concentration.. For example.. and from which the products of combustion. as may be necessary to complete the pickling in the time allotted.`-`-`.. It is IO common in steel mills to install such apparatus near the 40 60 EQUIVALENT PERCENT OF 2C 4000i FIGURE 3 3600 RATE OF ATTACK OF SULPHURIC Rate of attack of hydrochloric or muriatic acid on mild steel. and the retarding action of iron salts... bath temperature.`. Inc. since increases in FIGURE 4 temperature in most installations require the use of more Effect of temperatureo nthe rate of attack of sulfuric acid --`. Courtesy of Anchem Products. The steel.d ON Courtesy of Amchem Products. agitation.`. a fresh sulfuric acid bath contains no iron sulfate and can be operated at relatively low temperatures with an amount of acid ranging from 2 to 15% by volume.. however. Agitation can be further increased by injecting compressed air through appropriate fittings. in which heat from burning gas is transmitted to the pickle baths through walls of a pipe-like combustion chamber located at the bottom of the pickle tank.`.be used to titrate pickle baths for both acid and iron. the agitation of the bath is also increased.

gives the desired quantity of 66"or 60" Be sulfuric acid or 20" or 18" Be muriatic acid. DETERMINING PERCENTAGE OF ACID Measure a 5 ml.0 normal sodium hydroxide.SSPC CHAPTERs3-2 93 m 8627940 0003543 487 Equipment required: 1 -5 ml. sample of the pickling solution Y a W CY BO a 2 . Determining iron Content Measure a 1 ml.1 normal potassium permanganate solution methyl orange -1 gm. pipette and transfer it to a clean 250 mI. of 1. beaker. Record the reading taken on the graduated burette. burettes 2 1 -5 ml.0 normal sodium hydroxide until the red color has changed to yellow. fresh tap or city water and 2 or 3 drops of indicator solution (methyl orange). sulfuric acid. 1. Stop adding this titrating solution at the moment the color of the test sample becomes pure yellow. Fill a burette exactly to the zero mark with 1./liter of H.0normal sodium hydroxide solution 0. 2.O c. Add about 100 ml (half a beaker) of clean. This is the number of mls.0 normal sodium hydroxide used. Calculation The number of mls. glass beakers stirring rods glass indicator bottle 1. Stir the test sample constantly with a stirring rod and slowly run in 1.p. of 1.0 normal sodium hydroxide used. sample of the pickling solution with a 5 ml. measuring cylinder 1 Reagents required: burette stand 250 ml. multiplied by the appropriate factors shown in Table 2 below. concentrated G. pipette 1 1 -1 ml. pipette 2 2 -25 ml.

... Poundspergal ...O53 1.612 19.....`-`-`........ WHICH ADDITIONS OFACID ARE USUALLY DISCONTINUE0 II pickle or measuring tanks and to have titrations made at regular intervals...... .`..........999 2.. 66O Be 60° Be Sulfuric SuIfuric 0..319 2........... Grams per 100ml.. who sees to it that acid is added in measured and recorded quantities to maintain the proper strength.. Poundspergal .........771 10... Percent by Volume .......573 0..796 --`....740 1 ....... usually by the pickle foreman...W o K 290 IOOL II ~SULPHPITECONCE~TRCIO~ I.`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 1o9 .........`...............`.......... Grams per 100ml ..263 8........353 21.TWHICH BATHS ARE USUALLY DISCARDED Il 1 I S~LPHATECONCENTR'ATIONS A........ TABLE 2 ICOL TABLE Percent by Volume .....288 2.525 20° Be 18O Be Muriatic Muriatic 1....

.

is to plot the data at regular intervals on a chart. beaker. Other pertinent data can be calculated. measuring cylinder and pour it slowly with constant stirring into the beaker. Measure 5 mls.2 93 m 8b27940 0003544 313 with the 1 ml. Record the reading taken on the graduated burette. of concentrated sulfuric by means of the 5 ml. Other records help in cost accounting or comparing one practice with another. equals the pounds of iron (Fe) per gallon of pickling solution. which persists at least fifteen seconds. Records With facilities to analyze the bath. 3. acid consumption. Data and calculation sheets provide for calculation of the necessary cost per ton.1 normal potassium permanganate used. etc. These records show consumption of acid per ton. equals grams of iron (Fe) per 100 ml of pickling solution. A simple procedure for recording strength and temperature of the pickle bath. The graph indicates whether the bath has been discarded with too much acid or before enough iron has been dissolved. etc. When this figure is compared for two or more pickling practices. V. An example is comparing the effect of an inhibitor throughout the life of a pickle bath. Complete records are essential. pickling can be efficient. of 0. its iron content.SSPC CHAPTER*3.0465. Add about 100 mls. Stop adding solution when pink is obtained. 4. Records like this show the effect of different pickling procedures over periods of time. Stir the test sample continuously with a stirring rod and slowly run in the permanganate solution until the color changes to a faint pink. Fill a burette exactly to the zero mark with 0. Pickling in uninhibited acid is a wasteful process because to remove scale it is necessary that acid dissolve some of .1 normal potassium permanganate used. when and how much acid is added. per 1000 square feet. advantages can be seen.1 normal potassium permanganate.. (half a beaker) of fresh. clean water. This is the number of mls. Calculation The number of ml of 0. multiplied by 0. the number of tons pickled. INHIBITORS Analysis and record keeping of tonnage. Pounds of iron (Fe) per gallon. make it possible to prevent careless waste. pipette and transfer it to a clean 250 ml. multiplied by 12. or preferably.

The less frequently the bath is discarded or the greater the tonnage pickled before the bath must be discarded. The result is that parts of the steel are usually badly over-pickled before all scale is removed. Brushing and solvent wiping or mechanical means of supplemental cleaning can be used as required. Acid tank is on the left. In a typical pickling operation. Saving 10or more pounds of metal per ton is common with a suitable inhibitor. This condition is corrected by use of a suitable inhibitor that prevents overpickling under normal and even under abnormal conditions. Uninhibited acid does not stop dissolving metal after scale comes off. Where harmful smut is formed on a steel surface. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 110 . The effect is minimized by use of a suitable inhibitor. FIGURE 6 Pickling machine in use for the pickling of mild steel. about 2% pounds of 60 Be suifuric acid is also saved. Dissolving less metal means less smut develops. it must be removed before any coating is applied. A practice suitable for pickling one lot of steel in an uninhibited bath might result in overpickling and ruining another. ranging from 1% to 10% by volume. A part of this is due to carbon particles that are left loose on the surface when iron dissolves. Other ingredients in steel are similarly exposed and dissolved in the pickling acid and subsequently plated out as a discoloration on metal surfaces. Courtesy of Arnchern Products.~ as well as methods of use and advantages2. This wastes good metal and acid. This is best accomplished by washing or rinsing. the less acid is lost per ton pickled. Waste of acid and metal is prevented by inhibiting pickling acids. The effects of suitable inhibitors have been tabulated and p~blished. which makes it possible to pickle alloy and simple steels in the same bath with less smutting. and nearly 7 cubic feet less hydrogen is evolved. when one pound of iron is saved.the underlying metalt8. Inc. while the rinse tank is on the right. The susceptibility of steels of different analyses and heat treatments to acid attack varies. is discarded with each spent bath. A minimum amount of acid.

The hydrogen gas. (nascent or atomic hydrogen) which quickly combine in groups of two to become molecular or atmospheric hydrogen . consists of single atoms. but it is absorbed. the breaking of both sheets and wire in drawing. that affects its flexibility and ductility. Foam-producing grades of inhibitors. etc. It is apparently atomic hydrogen. To old picklers this bubbling indicated the bath was working and fumes were looked upon as a necessary evil. prevent the escape of steam and loss of heat from the bath s surface. when evolved. It may be surprising that a seemingly innocuous gas can have harmful effects on dense. Many years of experience with a wide variety of steel plate structures and laboratory tests indicates that commercial pickling of low carbon structural steel. the embrittling and breakage of spring steels. a definite volume of hydrogen is produced. more consideration of brittleness and appropriate pickling procedures and inhibitor use is needed. the excessive wear on dies.SSPC CHAPTERa3. B. EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON THE METAL When metal dissolves in acid. and many demonstrations prove that hydrogen passes quickly and entirely through sheet steel. For stainless and other special steels. Bubbles of molecular hydrogen that form at the metal surfaceduring pickling are extremely light. does not present an embrittlement problem. EFFECT OF HYDROGEN IN THE PICKLE BATH Atomic hydrogen that does not enter steel combines to form molecular hydrogen outside the pickled surface to cause other objectionable effects.2 93 8627940 0003545 25T A. Normal combinations of acid strengths. in addition to eliminating acid spray. How and why hydrogen is absorbed into the metal is theory. This is hydrogen embrittlement or acid embrittlement . tough steel. They rise rapidly through a poorly inhibited bath. absorbed or dissolved in steel. While the almost complete absence of bubbles in an inhibitor-con- . bath temperatures and times are not conducive to this type of problem. in accordance with procedures set forth by SSPC-SP 8. Blisters on sheets or plate during pickling and galvanizing are from the same cause. These flaws continue in spite of elaborate precautions taken in the steel mills to prevent them. Inhibitors minimize acid fumes by reducing hydrogen that causes them. As they reach the surface. they break violently and throw a pickling spray acid contaminating the air with suffocating fumes that can affect the health of workers and rapidly corrode any metal work and masonry in the pickling room. The situation exists as proven by the rejections of galvanized and other sheets.

In England and Europe. Phosphoric acid is not as corrosive as sulfuric acid under normal conditions. This was followed by immersion in a 2% phosphoric acid solution at 85°C. Phosphoric acid pickling generally utilizes a solution of 10-50% phosphoric acid in water. a process utilizing sulfuric acid pickling for scale and rust removal and phosphoric acid solution for final treatment. pickling with phosphoric acid is preferable to sulfuric-acid pickling. where rinsing must be more complete. Pickling in a solution of sulfuric acid with sufficient inhibitor minimizes attack on the base metal. B. capable of producing a much heavier phosphate coating. PICKLING PROCEDURES A. the process also includes chromates. Inhibitors are recommended to prevent overpickling. Test work in- . The number of dipping and rinse tanks can be fewer than in a sulfuric acid pickling system. There are no obnoxious or corrosive acid fumes objectionable to operating personnel. A typical process involves a first bath of 10 to 20% by wt. Phosphoric acid first dissolves rust and mill scale and then forms a coating of iron phosphate on the surface. though the need is not as great as with sulfuric acid pickling. so less expensive construction and less maintenance is required. solvents. SULFURIC ACID PICKLING Details of sulfuric acid pickling are covered in general discussions and further discussed under Sulfuric-Phosphoric Acid Pickling. PHOSPHORIC ACID PICKLING In some respects. The intermediate water rinse bath was omitted. Various commercial phosphate coating processes use a solution with a lower free acid content. Here is the brief procedure: Preclean metal as detailed in the general discussion on Cleaning and Preparation of the Metal Prior to Pickling. With these solutions prior pickling with sulfuric acid is usually required.trolled pickle bath led many old picklers to think the bath was not working as fast as it should. phosphoric acid followed by a water rinse bath and finally a 1 to 2% phosphoric acid bath. The simpler version of phosphoric acid pickling is to pickle steel in a 10 to 25% by wt. Common pickling solutions contain 5 to 10 per cent by weight sulfuric acid at a minimum solution temperature of 140°F (60°C). phosphoric acid solution at a temperature of about 180°F (82°C)and then rinse with heated fresh water above 140°F (60°C). grease and oil. or detergents to assist in removing mill scale. phosphoric acid pickling has been used for years in batch pickling operations for processing structural steel. such a bath may actually pickle faster than one less inhibited. VI. Frequently. One of the earlier established processes utilized approximately 10% phosphoric acid at 85 C. Rinse adequately in clean hot water above 140°F (60°C).

dicates the procedure produces excellent results for paintCopyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 111 .

General blistering was evident within 17 hours and was more extensive with the 23. Details are explained by Paulson and Gilwood7. In contrast. Painting results are generally poor if the water rinse is omitted and paint is applied directly to phosphate residues from the pickling. C. the phosphoric acid bath is either drained . but with a water rinse after pickling. phosphoric acid. the panels were coated by dipping in a proprietary zinc-dust phenolic primer. The zeolite cation exchange resin is regenerated by sulfuric acid. After drying for 9 days the panels were immersed in distilled water. Phosphoric acid pickling has not been used as extensively as sulfuric because the acid is much more expensive. While still hot. when iron build-up in phosphoric acid baths is excessive. IRON CONTROL IN PHOSPHORIC ACID BATHS Iron is dissolved in phosphoric acid baths during steel processing. The dry film was approximately 2 mils. and the iron build-up in the phosphoric acid bath can lead to slowing the pickling rate. Shop and lab test results by Hudson & Waring found that pickling times using phosphoric are greater than with suIfuric acid 13. The latter is evidenced often by a brown discoloration of the surface when the work emerges from the water rinse following the phosphoric acid stage.2 73 = 8627940 0003546 196 ing.5% by wt.SSPC CHAPTER*3.5% phosphoric acid panels. Ihn steel panels were precleaned of all oil and grease and then pickled by immersion in 185°F baths of 13% and 23. panels pickled through the same procedures. Similar contrasts were obtained with a red-lead alkyd primer in a humidity exposure. which converts iron phosphate to phosphoric acid. showed no blisters after 10 months. but there are now processes that make phosphoric acid pickling more cost-competitive with sulfuric acid pickling. For instance. One successful process depends on continuous purification and reclaiming of the phosphoric acid pickling solution by means of an ion exchange unit. Normally. or cause difficult rinsing.

time available for phosphoric acid treatment. type and cleanliness of rinsing available. dry surface with an iron phosphate coating that improves the bond between paint and steel.0 x 0. It is also used to provide a --`. it is an efficient. Add 1 ml of 50% C./gal. Sulfuric-phosphoric acid pickling is particularly effective in removing mill scale from carbon steel plate. etc. Erlenmeyer flask.. channels.`.08 Ib. SULFURIC-PHOSPHORIC ACID PICKLING Originally called the Footner process in England and now used in this country for steel plate.. A titration requiring 12 ml of permanganate solution would equal an iron concentration of 1 Ib. iron in pickle bath. to be removed.`. sulfuric acid and about 25 ml of distilled water../gal. depending upon variables mentioned above. and other shapes produced by rolling. angles. The process consists of immersing material in baths of sulfuric acid. Calculation: Each ml of permanganate solution used is equivalent to 0. with stirring. a coat of priming paint is applied immediately after drying to all surfaces that require painting./gal.`.08 Ib. whereas others can be operated until the iron builds up to 1..`-`-`. It also provides a clean. Record number of ml of permanganate solution used.and a new bath charged or the contaminated bath is overflowed and partially made fresh. . The following factors determine the amount of iron that can be tolerated in a phosphoric acid bath: strength of the bath.24 Ib. iron in the phosphoric acid bath.0 ml were required to obtain the pink color then 3. to solution in the 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask until the solution first turns a permanent pink color.. D.3 pounds of iron per gallon..`--clean surface for priming coats of paint on pipe. Certain phosphoric acid pickling baths must be discarded when iron concentrations reach 0./gal.P. = 0.0 pound per gallon. Normally.18 normal potassium permanganate from titration burette. rust. DETERMINATION OF IRON IN PHOSPHORIC ACID BATHS: Take 1 ml phosphoric acid bath sample measured accurately with pipette and add to 125 ml. Add 0. economical means of removing mill scale from steel5. If 3. and phosphoric acid.. type of scale. rinse water.

112 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . MATERIALS. In the original Footner process the bath was FIGURE 7 Immersing steel plates in sulfuric acid pickling tank.E. SULFURIC ACID BATHS The initial concentration of sulfuric acid is 5% to 10% by weight.

SSPC CHAPTERa3-2 93 8627940 0003547 O22 FIGURE 8 Pickling set up for sulfuric-phosphate pickling. Either way. The bath should be discarded when accumulation of sediment and the concentration of iron in the solution interferes with pickling and causes the plate to come out dirty. rinse tank in the middle.20 with an iron content of about 6%. Successful results can be obtained with immersion of approximately one minute. with plates immersed at least 3 to 5 minutes.5% of iron. pickling time for heavy plate. The bath was originally charged and maintained at approximately 2% free phosphoric acid and 0. DILUTE PHOSPHORIC ACID BATH In the original Footner Process this bath was maintained at a temperature of about 180°F (52"C). After lifting from the acid bath. CLEAR WATER RINSE The normal temperature is 140-149°F (60-65°C) but excellent results are obtained without heating.5% free phosphoric acid and operate closer to the 1 YOconcentration by occasional additions of phosphoric acid. G. Now a temperature in the range of 160 to 170°F (71-76°C) is common. Though results are successful within all mentioned ranges. If bath conditions are the same. Sulfuric acid tank is on the ri ght.18-1. It is possible to determine the necessary flow of water after using the process a short time. Further additions of sulfuric acid should be made when pickling time increases appreciably. for an extended period of time. maintained at about 140-149°F (60-65°C). but varies with scale and thickness of plate.3-0. It is not necessary to hold immersion time to a minimum of three minutes. such as a fabrication shop. even though the thicker phosphate film might be more rust inhibitive by itself. This condition of the bath corresponds to a specific gravity of about 1. A pickled plate is being withdrawn from the sulfuric acid bath. from exceeding 0. the film of iron phosphate prevents surface rusting in a sheltered exposure. steel should be allowed to drain into the acid bath for 15 to 30 seconds before immersion in clear water rinse. the lower phosphoric concentration and shorter immersion tends to produce thinner and less porous phosphate coatings. F. even though primer is . as determined by titration with phenolphthalein. It is now common and important to maintain the high temperature and to charge the bath in the range of 1 to 1.1 gram of sulfuric acid per 100 mi. The plate and other work being treated should be dipped in this rinse before passing to the final bath. and phosphate tank on the left. such as 1 '' to 1?h". may be 30 to 40 minutes. There should be a very small flow of water through the rinse bath to prevent total acidity. This type of coating is an excellent base for most paints. Normal pickling times to remove all scale and rust is approximately 15 to 20 minutes.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 113 . This eliminates any danger of the surface becoming moist or dirty before paint is applied and improves considerably coating adhesion. steel wool.normally applied while the steel is warm. Dipping steel in clear water to rinse off residual sulfates.. etc. After drying. immersing steel in hot phosphoric acid with small amounts of iron added. painting with priming paint while the steel is warm and placing it in racks to dry. H. The dilute phosphoric acid bath may be used over a number of runs provided that the pickled material when taken from the bath is clean and free from loose deposits. A coating of iron phosphate is deposited on the steel surface. should be dissolved in 8-10% phosphoric acid heated to 176°F (80°C) and then diluted with water to the required concentration. METHODS The sulfuric-phosphoric pickling process can be summarized as follows: Immersing steel in hot sulfuric acid until the mill scale and rust are removed (Figure 7). To prepare this bath the necessary amount of iron in the form of steel drillings.

since the bath makes up considerably from the live steam used for heating. Grade C steel. steel pipes. PAINT PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS PICKLED AND BLAST CLEANED SURFACES Pickling has been used for years as an alternate to blasting for certain exposures. Traces of sulfuric acid in this bath do not seem to affect the efficiency of the iron phosphate film on the pickled plate. The amount of sulfuric acid carried over into the dilute bath is. In one. are required and their dimensions are determined by the size of plate to be pickled. and other miscellaneous structures. Also. involving 23 different water-immersion paint systems applied to 4 x 10 x panels of A283. small and need not be considered at all. A full strength concentration of sulfuric acid in the descaling bath is not usually maintained in acid-pickling work. With a single installation of three baths. and as the amount of iron going into the solution is small. standpipes. The panels were immersed in . The waterwashing bath requires no lining. I. A wood framework is fitted inside the baths to prevent mechanical damage to the lining. but careful time control may be required to prevent pitting. all of which can be steam heated.SSPC CHAPTER*3-2 73 W 8627740 0003548 Tb7 W Equipment for this pickling process is similar to that normally used in industrial acid pickling. CONTROL The control necessary is simple and rapidly becomes routine. which contains the usual small amounts of impurities. it is possible to pickle 500 tons of average tank plate per week. Plants are now in operation where plate measuring approximately 8 feet by 40 feet are pickled without difficulty (Figure 8). Near-White. elevated tanks. the concentration never exceeds the maximum specified. In fact. of course. it is always worthwhile to verify them by tests. each system was applied to panels prepared in a commercial shop by blasting with Ottawa Flintshot Silica Sand to SSPC-SP 10. It is desirable to add a suitable inhibitor to the sulfuric acid bath to reduce the attack of the acid on good metal. each system was applied to a panel prepared in commercial baths for the 3-bath Sulfuric-Phosphoric Acid Pickling Process. The iron content of the dilute phosphoric acid bath almost controls itself. Many tests have been run. floating roofs. The most successful lining material for sulfuric acid descaling baths and the dilute phosphoric acid baths is rubber. Typical structures where steel is processed in this manner include oil and chemical storage tanks. water storage tanks. J. which is cheaper than lead in first cost and in certain instances gives longer service. Though field results have been very good. including inside and outside surfaces of water storage tanks. the higher concentration tends to produce a cleaner plate in less time. Technical phosphoric acid can be used. although there is no objection to the concentration being increased up to 10%. Three baths.

In this zone. were: 1. Ratings were tabulated from the three exposure zones. phenolic. 2. 1966. Of the three systems showing a difference related to surface preparation.November. ELECTROLYTIC PICKLING Electrolytic pickling of iron and steel is used to avoid difficulties encountered in still pickling. Results with paint systems were far more attributable to the coating system characteristics than to the pickling vs. The removal of rust is comparatively easy with still pickling methods. which is slowly soluble in sulfuric acid. asphalt and coal tar epoxy systems. Above Fluctuation Zone All systems were rated the same on both pickled and blasted panels with 22 out of the 23 systems rated good. K. The one failed system primarly involved intercoat adhesion. as well as several of the standard systems from AWWAD102-64. Electrolytic pickling is usually much more rapid than .O. One zinc dust-phenolic failed to metal over both surface preparations. ¡. All paint systems are not detailed other than to say they were various manufacturer s proprietary systems. The remaining four systems had miscellaneous failure without significance to surface preparation. epoxy. is difficult without the use of electrolytic methods. 3. blasting surface preparation. two systems involved multiple coats of zinc-rich chlorinated rubber and the remaining one was an amine-epoxy. Even the two zinc-rich chlorinated rubber systems with inferior results for pickling in the fluctuation zone showed equal and good results in the immersion zone. These included vinyl. especially as related to surface preparation. chlorinated rubber. Only eight systems were rated good on both pickled and blasted panels while eight others suffered intercoat failures on both types of panels. the vapor zone above the high water level. 1970. the fluctuation zone and below the fluctuation zone or continuous immersion. Fe. The results. and formal observations were last reported after 44 months. Continuous Immersion Zone Only one amine-epoxy showed a better result over the blasted panel.. 11 systems showed good results with eight others suffering intercoat failures.e. in July. The remaining three systems showed miscellaneous degrees of failure without notable difference in surface preparation. but 20 of 23 systems showed essentially equal results over pickling and the SP-10 blasting. Fluctuation Zone The overall system results were not as good. but removal of the black magnetic oxide of iron.

there is Iittle difference between electrolytic pickling and inhibitedCopyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 114 .still pickling because of greater evolution of hydrogen during electrolytic pickling. reduces scale. which agitates the pickling solution. In acid consumption. and tends to pry off scale from the surface of the steel. however.

S.A. For pickling structural steel it is not certain how much hydrochloric acid pickling is being done. than does the phosphoric acid-iron phosphate solution. especially if the temperature is allowed to be a little low. hot or cold solutions of hydrochloric acid as well as sulfuric and phosphoric acid are used along with a heated water rinse. A number of processes are availableB but are not used for structural steel. However. The sodium dichromate-phosphoric acid bath produces more complex surface deposits.P. as well as spraying processes. MISCELLANEOUS ACID PICKLING PROCESSES A. without attempting to judge the overall merits of the two types of surface films for the wide variety of paints and exposures involved. HYDROCHLORIC ACID PICKLING In accordance with SSPC-SP 8. Absorption of hydrogen. occurs in both electrolytic and still pickling. Also. it is necessary to drain.Navy has often required this process for shipyard steel.2 93 Ab27940 0003549 9T5 acid pickling. Hydrochloric acid pickling lines at steel mills were commonly used in the past. This is followed by an ambient water rinse by spray and a final neutralization by bathing in a 2% solution of phosphate soda at 53% minimum and ammonium phosphate at 10% minimum plus water and other additives. The U. it can be said that the use of the sodium dichromate in the solution presents problems of operation and added cost. SULFURIC -SODIUM DICHROMATE/ PHOSPHORIC ACID This process is essentially set forth in SSPC-SP8. The sodium dichromate solution tends to give excess powdery deposits. which may lead to embrittlement. but there are installations in the US. One process involves from four to six hours immersion or one to two hours spraying of an inhibited solution of 28% minimum hydrochloric acid at ambient temperature. the main item of difference from the sulfuric-phosphoric process is the addition of sodium dichromate to the final passivating bath. But more recently. several of these pickling processes have been closed due to E.5 to 2% . believed to be chromium phosphate and chromite phosphite complexes.SSPC CHAPTER*3. and overseas where immersion bath processes are used. VII. and such lines are thoroughly discussed in reference article^'^^'^. restrictions. clean and refill the bath in a matter of days as compared to months for the more common sulfuric-phosphoric process. Another plant operation has involved pickling in 10 to 25% HCI at 120°F (49°C) for 30 minutes or less plus a heated water rinse and a final immersion in 1. The effects of absorbed hydrogen can be removed by baking the work material for about one hour at 300°F or a shorter time at higher temperature. with excess precipitation. B. and even though some variation in concentration of various materials may be used.

there was no failure of the three different inorganic-zinc primers over pickled or blast cleaned surfaces. C. William Wallace. primarily for atmospheric exposure. Christofferson was a continuous employee of Chicago Bridge & Iron after graduation with a Bachelor of Science Degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Wyoming in 1942. most systems suffered failure between the epoxy and vinyl top coats and the zinc primer. PICKLING FOR INORGANIC ZINC PAINT AND GALVANIZING When pickling as surface preparation for inorganic zinc paint. The minimum water rinse temperature of 140°F (60%) is a necessity to insure rapid drying of the plate. Larry Drake. pickling is accomplished in the galvanizer's shop. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: Jim Bennett. This type of pickling and priming is widely and successfully used on a variety of tanks. Most operations use an inhibited sulfuric acid bath of 5% to 6% by weight at 160" to 170°F (71-76°C). This is more important than when a third high temperature inhibitive bath is used. In one water immersion test.phosphoric acid at 175 to 180°F (80-82°C) for 5 minutes. Mr Christofferson IS a Registered Professional Engineer in the State of Illinois and . Jim Maurer. William Pearson. pickling and SSPC-SP 10 blasting were used on panels testing four inorganic zinc topcoat systems.W. Satterfield. The galvanizing shop should be consulted for pickling or other surface preparation recommendations. as per SSPC-SP 8. A. Mallory. He has worked on all aspects of surface preparation and protective coatings used in the steel plate fabrication industry. and other miscellaneous structures. Pickling also is used successfully to prepare the surface for coating systems to be used in immersion service. G. Normally. BIOGRAPHY D. However.W. Results are expected to be about the same as for the sulfuric-phosphoric process. C. especially if the phosphoric bath conditions are the same. refinery vessels. After 44 months of immersion. Munger. it is common to use sulfuric acid pickling plus hot water rinsing. The recommendations and pickling processes used in surface preparation for painting are not normally directly applicable as surface preparation for hot-dip galvanizing and should not be specified for such.

He is also a Certified Nuclear Safety Related Engineer Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 115 .a NACE Accredited Corrosion Specialist.

1973. June 1963. Spruance. H. Metal Finishing. June 1980. Walter R.G. New York. and ASTM D33. and J. 8. NACE T-6 Committees. Chemical Cleaning Needn t Cause Corrosion . Corrosion Handbook. The Electrochemical Society. The Making. Jr. Eldredge. Chapter Three. Special Report No. Warner. 15.`. Inhibitors and Passivators . Removing Hot-Mill Scale with Phosphoric Acid . 9. G.. Warning. Sulfuric Acid Batch Pickling Process Promises No Waste. March 4. Shaping and Treating of Steel. Jr. Recent Advances In Pickling Technique with Hydrochloric Acid Compound Iron & Steel Engineer.B. August 1966. Chemical Surface Preparation .D. 4. 13.Inhibited Pickling in Production Steel Processing.. Francis. 11. EX/9/73/47 Evaluation of Scalamil Descaling Solution . Griffith. REFERENCES 1. ASTM D01. and C. Metals Handbook. 2. April 1954. R.J.C. New York. Sixth Edition. Pickling and Descaling Stainless Steels and High Temperature Alloys . American Chemical Paint Company.P. Metal Progress.SSPC CHAPTERU3. Fred H. and L. Gurklis. and maintenance and painting of steel water storage tanks. 5. 14.F. Metal Finishing. November 1977. Pickler s Pickle -Sulfuric or Hydrochloric . 1963.2.. --`. and Charles L. Christofferson has been active on various other technical committees such as AWWA D102. R. McGraw. American Chemical Paint Co.2 93 8b27940 0003550 bL7 A member of the SSPC Research Committee since 1958. 1963.. J. London. and Cid. S.M. Gilwood. 10. June 20.E. 13.. 1952. New Process Slashes Cost of Phosphoric Acid Pickling . Camp. F.O. 16.. September. Efficient Pickling with Rodine . Volume 1. Meyer. ANSI N101. McGranahan.M. and M. British Steel Corporation Report No. -Steel. Inc. Magazine of Metals Producing. R. Paulson. Bulletin No. The Iron and Steel Institute. 3. C. shop surface preparation and painting. NFPA #22. Footner. John A.W. Steel Structures Painting Manual. Hudson. The Electrolytic Pickling of Iron and Steel. Hudson. 1966. September 1965.B. 1948. 12. and C. Bailey . 6. Warning. 21.`-`-`. John M. Factors Influencing The Pickling Rate of Hot-Rolled Low Carbon Steel in Sulfuric and Hydrochloric Acids . No Pollution. Fifth Report of the Corrosion Committee. The Oil & Gas Journal.l.`--116 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . November 23. He is the author of a number of papers on corrosion.. A Modern Method of Pickling Steel.`. McCurdy..M. Mr. 7.`.43.

INTRODUCTION Knowledge of the many types of paints available to coat structural steel is useful in understanding the capabilities and limitations of these products. They may also be added to intermediate and even finish coats to enhance corrosion resistance. the condition of the steel.e. or binder. PIGMENTS Here is a list of several reasons for adding pigments. 3. roller or spray. adherent coating. METHOD OF CURE Paint binders vary in their method of curing or drying. 2. There are reasons for the variety of paint systems offered that become apparent with insight into their basic composition.SSPC CHAPTER*4. Coatings for use on structural steel are pigmented either with anticorrosive pigments to produce primers or with opaque. Extender pigments. A. to increase viscosity and to decrease cost. Levinson and Saul Spindel I. After application of the paint in a relatively thin film. painting conditions. as well as the total cost for material and application. II. for example. If no pigment is used. PAINT INGREDIENTS Paints are composed primarily of pigments dispersed in a film-former. (See chapter on pigments. 1. Such knowledge facilitates making the best choice for a coating system to meet painting requirements and service. which is either dissolved in solvent or emulsified in water to make paint fluid enough to apply by brush. the coating is clear as.. Anti-corrosive pigments are used in primers to prevent or inhibit steel corrosion. ¡. The information presented in this chapter helps explain which paint or paint system is best for the particular combination of conditions present or anticipated. coating properties desired. Aluminum and zinc are by far the most common metallic pigments. are added to reduce gloss (to produce semigloss or flat finishes). Metallic pigments are added to produce metallic finishes. 4. Knowledge of various ways paint binders cure is helpful in . These materials are available in various colors. which are not opaque.1 PAINT MATERIALS Sidney 8. colored pigments to produce various colored topcoats.) B. Opaque pigments are added to enable the paint film to obscure the surface painted. the solvent or water evaporates and the remaining film dries or cures to form a tough.3 93 8627940 0003553 553 September 1993 (Editorial Changes) CHAPTER 4. a varnish on wood surfaces. to aid intercoat adhesion properties. and the environment to be withstood by the applied finish.

Many alkyd resins. although after the film has coalesced they are essentially resistant to water. the solvent evaporates. the coating can generally be softened or dissolved with strong solvents or solvents similar to that in which it was dissolved originally. is called air drying.understanding comparisons among binders discussed in this chapter. 2. When the paint is applied. Often called emulsions. 3. (See Solvents. for example. or absorption of oxygen from the air followed by polymerization. they are actually colloidal dispersions or suspensions. since two-component paints do not rely on oxidation to cure. lacquer coatings can be applied at relatively low temperatures. leaving a dry film that does not undergo further change.) When applied. On the other hand. 4. Since the reaction continues whether the mixed paint is in the container or applied. some formulations can be applied in relatively thick coats. A coalescing solvent in the paint softens the particles and causes them to form a continuous film. Consequently. as the water evaporates. Since drying depends only on solvent evaporation. usually a working day or less. Oxidation. the paint has a limited pot life (useful life). However. 1. Coalescence Latex binders are made of synthetic colloidal latex polymer particles dispersed in water. Oxidation Oxidation is a method of curing solvent-thinned paint film. Latex coatings tend to allow movement of water vapor through the coating. Coatings that dry by solvent evaporation are called lacquers. Solvent Evaporation The binder is dissolved in a mixtureof solvents. latex paints can be used on Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 117 . Chemical Reaction The paint is supplied in two packages or two components: a base and a hardener. When mixed. dry by oxidation. Epoxypolyamides are typical of this type of coating. Vinyl or chlorinated rubber coatings are examples. the two react to form a final coating. latex particles begin to press together or coalesce.

non-adherent. On the other hand. Alkyd finishes are of the general purpose type.g. be used on surfaces that have been only moderately cleaned. Epoxy Ester These are vegetable oil-modified epoxy resins.1 93 m 8b27940 0003552 49T m damp (not wet) surfaces. 3. are economical and available in a wide range of colors and gloss levels. Alkyd Alkyd binders of coatings used on structural steel are vegetable oil-modified phthalate resins that air dry by oxidation. The binder is the cement or adhesive that binds pigment and provides adhesion to the surface. Consequently. latex pains will generally not coalesce well at temperatures under 50°F or at either very low or very high relative humidity. The more commonly used paint binders are discussed below. but are only fair in marine or corrosive environments. they are similar to alkyds except they are more expensive and produce films that are harder and somewhat more alkali resistant.PAINT BINDERS The paint binder is the major ingredient in the paint and determines the major performance characteristics of the coating.e.05.) They are sometimes used in organic zinc-rich primers .00 and 2. they will produce undesirable. 2. they have less gloss retention when exposed.SSPC CHAPTERt4.. They are listed in alphabetical order. e. Generally. ¡. SSPC-SP 3. nonresistant films. if necessary. Alkyd finishes have excellent durability in rural environments. Epoxy esters are sometimes used where slightly more alkali resistance than provided by alkyds is desired. Typical specifications are SSPCPaints 101 and 104 as well as the SSPC-Painting Systems 2. Epoxy Epoxy binders are available in three types: epoxy ester. They are relatively easy to apply and can. steel or previous coat of paint. d iscont in uous. (See Solvents. Instead.. epoxy lacquer resin and two component epoxy. Epoxy Lacquer Very high molecular weight epoxies can be formulated as lacquer-type binders by solution in a mixture of strong solvents. but at a lower cost than twocomponent epoxies. from high gloss to flat finishes. I. 4. C.

since the color of the resultant coating is generally brown or black. SSPC-Paint 22 is a typical specif icat ion.01. They are often used on submerged surfaces where color is of no importance. 118 (See Chemical Reaction. equal size packages. Epoxycoal tar paints are almost as corrosion and chemical (not solvent) resistant as epoxy-polyamide paints.because they dry quickly at low temperatures and can be recoated with topcoats. superior flexibility and durability. but are less expensive.) The epoxy is generally combined with either of two types of hardeners: polyamine or polyamide. 75% minimum by weight of total solids. Epoxy-polyamides exhibit longer pot life. such as two-component epoxy paints. Epoxy-polyamide paints are the most popular of all epoxy binders for use on structural steel. 6. 7. at least SSPC-SP 6. The two-component epoxies contain strong solvents that will soften the primer slightly and improve intercoat adhesion.* Zinc-rich paints contain a relative ly high concentration of zinc dust. They are reviewed in depth by Munger in a separate chapter. Epoxy-polyamine blends are more resistant to chemicals and solvents and are often used for lining tanks. (See Chapter 4. they produce extremely hard. Furthermore. Typical specifications are SSPC-Paint 16 and SSPC-Painting System 11. Epoxy-coal tar finishes have high build.2) When properly used. Inorganic Inorganic binders are used with zinc dust in zinc-rich paint where galvanic protection of steel is desired. sodium. but retain their excellent chemical resistance properties. so substrates must be relatively rigid. EpoxyCoal Tar Epoxy binders are often combined with coal tar where color is not important. they enable packaging of the epoxy and hardener in separate. Two-Component Epoxy Epoxy resins of this type cure by chemical reaction. ethyl alkyl. abrasion resistant films that are very . 5. they chalk quickly. Inorganic (silicate) zinc-rich paints must be applied to blast-cleaned surfaces. Common inorganic binders are silicates. When exposed to weathering. which provides intimate contact between the steel and zinc dust when the coating cures. or quaternary ammonium. to obtain proper adhesion. potassium. and have adequate chemical resistance under most conditions. either lithium. but tend to lose flexibility as they age.

8. They are relatively easy to apply and dry by coalescence of the latex particles to form tough. durable coatings.resistant to corrosive environments. Latex paints have little odor. ethylene vinyl acetate. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . SSPC-Paint 20 and SSPC-Painting Systems 12.01 deal with both organic and inorganic zinc rich. A typical specification for zinc-rich primer is SSPC-Paint 29. polyvinyl acetate. Latex Latex paints are based on emulsions (actually colloidal dispersions) of very high molecular weight. are non-flammable. and generally meet air pollution Ethyl silicates are not true inorganics but are generally included in this group.00-12. such as acrylic. acrylonitrile or styrene butadiene and their copolymers.

They are used in lacquers that dry rapidly by solvent evaporation to form coatings resistant to water and mild chemicals. 9. Oil-based paints dry by oxidation. latex paints will not coalesce properly when applied at temperatures below 50°F or at either very low or very high relative humidity and require careful surface preparation on chalked. Styrene-butadiene can be combined with silicone resins (see Silicone Resins) to produce heat resistant aluminum paints. and they tend to darken further during exposure.Oil Vegetable oils (especially linseed oil) are the oldest paint binders with the longest history of performance. They wet the surface better than any other binder discussed and therefore need less careful surface preparation. but more slowly than other binders. vinyl toluene-butadiene (VTIB) and styrene-acrylate (SIA) are similar in characteristics. exhibiting less chalking and much better color retention. Typical specifications are SSPC-Paint 1 and the SSPC-Painting System 1. Styrene-butadiene (SIB). Oil-based paints are easy to apply and are adequate for rural environments. 11. glossy or dirty surfaces.01 and 24 are concerned with latex paints. On the other hand. . Rubber-Base There are two major commercial types of rubberbase binders: styrene or vinyl toluene copolymers and chlorinated rubber. Latex paints are relatively porous and allow moisture vapor through the film and thus can be used on damp (not wet) surfaces. Typical specifications are SSPC-Paint 5 and SSPC-Painting Systems Guide 3. They are not recommended in corrosive environments.00 series. 10. phenolic coatings are relatively dark (except in aluminum paints). SSPCPaints 23 and 24 and SSPC-Painting System 18. Phenolic Phenolic resin binders are varnishes made by processing vegetable oils (usually linseed or tung. The limited flexibility of these copolymers restricts their use on exposed structural steel.L 93 m 86279YO 0003553 326 m regulations.00.SSPC CHAPTER*4. also known as chinawood) with phenolic resins. Phenolic coatings are very hard and need care to ensure proper intercoat adhesion. they can be used in humid and wet areas. They make excellent aluminum-pigmented paints and have resistance in humid environments and to immersion in fresh water. They are economical and somewhat more durable than oil paints (see Oil Paints) in rural environments. Therefore. On the other hand. since they do not contain solvents that will readily wet or soften these surfaces.

01. They produce the hardest. Typical specifications are SSPC-Paints 17. and resistant to high temperatures. as well as improved heat resistance. which . Oil-Modified Urethane These also are called uralkyds. b. Two-Component Urethane Urethanes can also be reacted with products such as polyols. method of cure (oxidation) and use. c.00-15. Typical specifications include SSPCPaint 21 and SSPC-Painting System 16. so they are used primarily as clear finishes. They can be pigmented. 13. especially when pigmented with aluminum. pigmented uralkyd coatings are not durable enough to be used on exposed structural steel. However.12.Silicone Resin Pure silicone resins are expensive. They can be added to styrenebutadiene resins or polyacrylates to reduce cost but are still very good heat-resistant aluminum paints. b. polyesters or acrylics to produce extremely hard.01. toughest coatings available in one package. resistant and durable coatings. These are binders of major interest for use as topcoats on structural steel exposed in marine or corrosive environments. Chlorinated Rubber Chlorinated rubber resins can be used in two ways: a. Unfortunately. d . provided moisture-free materials are used and proper precautions are taken during manufacture and use. and 19 and SSPC-Painting Systems 15. Urethane Urethane or polyurethane binders are available in three types: a. Moisture-Cured Urethane These urethanes react uniquely with air moisture to cure. especially in marine environments. although uralkyds have excellent durability as clear finishes. they produce coatings that are harder and more resistant to abrasion than alkyds. since they are similar to alkyds in processing. a . b. Silicone Silicone resins are available in two forms for use on structural steel: pure silicone resin and siliconemodified alkyd resins. but extremely durable. which have improved durability. which are highly chemical (not solvent) resist an t. They can be plasticized to form fast drying lacquers. polyethers. 14. They can be combined with alkyd resins to speed drying of the alkyd resins and increase their chemical resistance and durability. 18. Silicone Alkyd Alkyd resins produced with some silicone resin result in silicone-modified alkyds.Aromatic YS Aliphatic Urethane -Urethane polymers can be made from isocyanates. Pigmentation is extremely difficult because of their moisture sensitivity.

Aliphatic urethanes are preferred for exterior use.are either aromatic or aliphatic. despite their high cost. because of their outstanding Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 119 .

They generally are not brushed. Pigmented aromatic urethanes are extremely hard.Polyvinyl Chloride and Polyvinyl Acetate Vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate resins produce lacquers that dry rapidly by solvent evaporation to form extremely durable coatings for use in marine or corrosive environments. total solids are higher. Where blends are used. Vinyls are extremely resistant (except to strong solvents). tough. SSPC-Painting System 17. color and gloss retention. It is possible that blends or formulation modifications can change the characteristics and performance of any of the binders resulting in a different performance level than the generic binders. as many as 4-6 coats may be applied in a 24-hour period. One spray coat of vinyl may yield only one mil of dry film thickness. so multiple coats are usually necessary and surface preparation is critical (see polyvinyl butyral resins). and exterior durability is excellent. outstanding properties and limitations. they improve adhesion of the paint system tremendously. and chemical resistant. b . When combined with basic zinc chromate pigment and phosphoric acid. 15. Vinyl-Alkyd-A compromise. However. 9. c. they are not recommended for highly corrosive environments. Wash primers are also used as metal treatments for galvanized steel and aluminum. Vinyl Vinyl binders are available in three types. as well as in SSPC-Painting Systems 4. and 106. is to combine hydroxylmodified vinyl and alkyd resins. Surface preparation requirements are slightly less critical than for vinyl binders. a. which have excellent resistance and durability but may be sensitive to surface conditions with respect to adhesion.00 through 4. Brush application can be easier. . However. but can be sprayed.00 is a guide to urethane painting systems. durable in most environments and can also be used for lining tanks for water immersion service. Low-solids. which is effective for most environments. It must be kept in mind that these tables compare the binders used alone in top quality formulations. COMPARISON OF PAINT BINDERS Properties of the most popular binders for use on structural steel have been summarized in Tables 1-4 to facilitate comparison of their characteristics. because vinyls release solvents so rapidly. They are low in solids. D.05. high-polymer vinyls are covered in SSPC-Paints 8. but chalk rapidly when exposed to sunlight. This can be critical for some vinyl paint systems. due to rapid drying.SSPC CHAPTER*4-L 93 8627940 0003554 262 durability. PVB -Polyvinyl butyral resins are the binders used in wash primers.

`. chlorinated rubber. epoxy (epoxy-polyamide-two component). Flash -Flash Point in OF (Tag Closed Cup). the faster the evaporation rate. When pigment is added. This data is presented under the fol lowing head ings: Evaporation Time -Relative time to evaporate the same amount of solvent.. This is an 8-hour day with no ill effects. Solvents. Paint binders are polymerized to accelerate drying or curing and to produce as tough acoating as possible. brush or roller applications require relatively slow solvent evaporation.`-`-`. or cleanup after painting. with the exception of water. TLV -Threshold Limit Values in parts per Million (ppm).`. The lower the number. and vinyl (polyvinyl chloridel acetate copolymer). in the case of latex) the pigment/ binder and to make its viscosity low enough to enable application by brush. the major functions of solvents are to dissolve (or disperse. Common binders described in the tables include alkyds. Slower evaporating solvents improve applications and leveling during hot weather. linseed oil..`. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 120 --`. phenolic varnish. urethane (aliphatic two-component). acrylic latex. as discussed in the chapter on that subject. Therefore. roller or spray. SOLVENTS The third major ingredient in paints is the solvent. E. Inorganic silicate binders are not included because these materials are used only in zinc-rich paints. Note that some of these solvents are also used for cleaning before painting. the viscosity of the mixture is increased sharply to a point that would make the product incapable of application.average the data given for each binder in the blend.`--- ... For example. Table 5 compares the major solvents used in paints and lacquers... can also be chosen andlor blended to produce the desired rate of evaporation during application. while spraying is improved with fast solvent evaporation.

SSPC CHAPTERx4. Oxid. Surface Preparation* SP 3 SP 6 SP 6 SP 2 SP 6 SP 6 SP 6 Stability During Use EX F EX EX EX EX F EX Brushability G F EX VG G F G P Method of Cure Oxid. Evap. Chem. Coal. Speed of Cure 50 OF-90 OF* * G EX F EX EX EX 35OF-50OF* NR NR P G G G Film Build per Coat VG F G G VG G Use in Primers EX F EX G G G Use on Damp Surfaces G VG P P G G *SSPC Surface Preparation Specifications "Painting should not be done above 90°F or below 34°F 'Usually used in topcoats TABLE 2 APPEARANCE PROPERTIES 2-Can Acrylic Linseed Chlorinated Aliphatic Alkyd Epoxy Latex Oil Phenolic Rubber Urethane Use as Clear Finish (Varn ish) VG F P NR VG NR EX Use in Ready Mixed Aluminum Paint G F NR F EX F F Pale Color VG G EX G P VG EX Ability to Produce High Gloss EX EX F G EX VG EX TABLE 3 PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES 2-Can Acrylic Linseed Chlorinated Aliphatic Alkyd Epoxy Latex Oil Phenolic Rubber Urethane Hard ness G VG F P VG VG EX Adhesion G EX F VG G VG VG Flexi bi Iit y G G EX VG F VG VG . Oxid.L 93 = 8b27940 0003555 lT9 TABLE 1 APPLICATION PROPERTIES Alkyd 2-Can Acrylic Linseed Chlorinated Aliphatic Aliphatic EPOXY Latex Oil Phenolic Rubber Urethane Vinyl or Solvents Aromatic Lacquer Water Aliphat ic Aromatic Aromatic Lacquer Lacquer*** Min. Chem. Evap.

....Resistance To A bras ion VG F P G VG EX VG Water EX F P EX EX VG EX Strong Solvents EX F P G P EX P Acid VG F P EX EX EX EX Alkali EX G P G EX VG EX Heat -200°F G F F G NR G NR Vinyl NR G EX F Vinyl G F EX --`.`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 121 .`..`-`-`.`.`..

Chem. -Solvent evaporation (lacquer) Following are the most common types of paints used on structural steel. -Coalescence (latex) ether solvents (See Solvents) Evap.SSPC CHAPTER*LI-L 93 W 8b27940 0003556 035 Moisture Permeability Normal Exposure Marine Exposure Corrosive Exposure Color Retention Gloss Retention Chalk Resistance CODES EX -Excellent VG -Very Good G -Good F -Fair P -Poor NR -Not Recommended 111. etc. TYPES OF PAINT 2-Can Alkyd EPOXY Mod Low VG VG F EX F EX G P G P G P SOLVENTS TABLE 4 DURABILITY Acrylic Linseed Chlorinated Aliphatic Latex Oil Phenolic Rubber Urethane Vinyl High Mod Low Low Low Low VG G VG EX EX EX F F G EX EX EX F NR G VG EX EX VG F P G EX VG EX P G G EX VG VG P G G EX VG ABBREVIATIONS Aliphatic -Mineral spirits Oxid. -Chemical reaction (two component) Lacquer -Aromatic plus ketone. . -Oxidative polymerization or oxidation Aromatic -Xylene. ester. toluene. or Coal.

Furthermore. it usually is best to apply three coats.A. are not formulated to be exposed to the environment. the total minimum dry film thickness (dft) should be 5-6 mils. red or shades thereof. INTERMEDIATE COAT When a coat of paint is applied. which contains an anti-corrosive pigment (basic zinc chromate). This may be grey. METAL TREATMENT Wash primer is discussed under vinyl. intermediate coat and topcoat.5 mils) and is used primarily over galvanized steel or to improve adhesion of paints. but require a topcoat for protection. yellow. Since the primer and topcoat perform different functions. In repainting. other than the color produced by the anti-corrosive pigment. However. which are sensitive to surface conditions and surface preparation. Consequently. PAINTING SYSTEMS The paint system is the combination of surface preparation. Zinc-rich primers are durable and can be used without a topcoat in normal environments where there is no danger of reaction with very acidic or very alkaline chemicals. with the exception of zinc-containing paints. it is best to apply multiple coats. Details of the painting system are described in Volume 2 of the SSPCManual. For most painting systems. depending on the pigment used. the painting system consists of surface preparation followed by application of the touch-up primer plus the topcoat (see SSPC-PA 4).3-0. Use of this product is designated as SSPC-Paint 27. it may have more or less than 3 coats to achieve the desired thickness. white. Metal treatments do not replace anti-corrosion primers. D. TOPCOAT The topcoat provides color and protects the primer from the environment so the primer can perform its function without being degraded. except when used over wash primer. such as vinyls. Three coats usually are needed to achieve the desired conventional total dry film thickness. It is sometimes considered a metal treatment (or etch primer) rather than a primer. primers must be in direct contact with steel. ANTI-CORROSION PRIMER Anti-corrosion primers prevent or inhibit corrosion or rusting of steel if moisture gets to the steel surfaces through missed spots. B. . Furthermore. since it is applied at very low film thickness (0. It should be tinted slightly so its color can be discerned both during application and topcoating. primer. and both may have the above defects. increased film thickness decreases permeability and improves performance and durability. To be effective. In Min. they are rarely colored. -Minimum C. breaks or pinholes in the coating. The intermediate coat may be primer or topcoat. it is likely there will be missed spots (holidays) and pinholes. E.* Primers. orange. for best results on exposed structural steel.

safety and environmental requirements in rich primers..`. handling or disposing of these materials.`.*Chromate pigments are toxic substances... applying.. the latter exposure. Follow all applicable health.`--122 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . they must be topcoated.`-`-`. SSPC-PS Guide 8 provides more information on choosing topcoats for zinc--`..`..

SSPC CHAPTERm4.* Flash TLV** Time (OF) (ppm) Aliphatic Hydrocarbons (Petroleum Solvents) VM&P Naphtha 20 50 300 Mineral Spirits 1O0 Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Stronger than Aliphatics) Toluol (Toluene) 20 45 1O0 Xylol (Xylene) 35 85 1O0 Esters (Lacquer Solvents) Ethyl Acetate 8 40 400 Isopropyl Acetate 10 50 250 Butyl Acetate-N 30 90 150 Amyl Acetate 50 1O0 1O0 Ketones (Lacquer Solvents) Acetone 4 5 750 Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) 8 30 200 Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK) 20 65 50 Methyl Isoamyl Ketone (MIAK) 70 115 50 Diacetone alcohol 200 145 50 Glycol Ethers (in Lacquers and Latex)*** EGMEE 1O0 104 5 EGMEEA 66 124 5 EGMBE 500 141 25 Alcohols Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanol) 20 60 O00 Isopropyl Alcohol (Isopropanol) 25 65 400 Butyl Alcohol (Butanol) 70 105 50 Amyl Alcohol 1O0 115 1O0 Water 100 None Safe Nitroparaffin 2-Nitropropane 30 1O0 10 Chlorinated Solvents l.L 93 8627940 0003557 T7L TABLE 5 PAINT SOLVENTS Evap.l-trichloroethane 5 None 350 Methylene chloride 2 None 50 Evaooration Time.l. Ether = 1 * *American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (1991) * * EGMEE -Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether EGMEEA -Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate EGMBE -Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether REFERENCES .

1. Melvin Sandler. PA 1978.`. Handbook of Organic Industrial Solvents. Organic Coatings. Washington. D. Washington. Properties. National Bureau of Standards.C. D. (now Alliance of American Insurers). 11. Blue Bell. Painting . 1969.B. Lawrence E. M. Garland. 6. 9. 6. Levinson. Paints and Coatings Handbook. the Scientific Committee of the National Paint and Coatings Association. Federation of Societies for Coating Technology. L. W. Federation Series on Coating Technology. Sherman. 2. Paint/Coatings Dictionary.. His professional associations include: the Association of Consulting Chemists and Chemical Engineers. Farmington. David Litter Laboratories and DIL Laboratories. Cincinnati. National Fire Protection Association. Wint. Department of Commerce. A. R. July 19.. Banov. N. Litter Company. the American Society for Testing and Materials. US. 1979. Hartman. Paints and Protective Coatings. Selection and Use .. Dan Nemunaitis. the Washington Paint Technical --`. Roberts. S. Marshall McGee. Alex Chasen. PA. US. OH. Fire-Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids. 1991.. John Perchall. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: AI Beitelman. Building Science Series 7. J. IL. Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology. C. 8. A. Washington. Army TM 5-618. Air Force AFM 85-3. Structures Publishing Co. G. 4. 7. Leondard Haynie. AdcO Chemical Company. Haldeman... Schaumburg. Mass. Technical Guide No.`--123 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Joseph Mazia. Blue Bell.C. McGraw Hill Book Co. the Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology. Raw Material Index.H.G.Y. Munger. 5. Dave Eskra. John Montle. S.. Dan Gelfer. Guobis. Garland Company.C. Michigan. Drake. Solvents. National Paint and Coatings Association. D.`-`-`. Boston. L. Industrial Consulting Laboratories.. 10. D. Joseph F. American Paint Journal.B.. 1973. Levinson. Facilities and Plant Engineering Handbook. J. Todd. W. V. TLVs Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Workroom Environment. Duane Werkman and Rufus F. Arnold Eickhoff. Government Printing Office. Richter.`. the American Chemical Society.`. A. American Mutual Insurance Alliance. New York. 3. 1966. the National Association of Corrosion Engineers. NAVFAC MO-110.

the Technical Advisory Committee and the Planning Committee of the Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology. surveys. making him a Fellow of that organization. of which he is a past president. the Commercial Development Association and Steel Structures Painting Council. a graduate of Brooklyn College. and he is a 50-year member of the American Chemical Society. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 124 . During these years he has held office as President of the New York Society for Coatings Technology. the National Paint and Coatings Organization and the New York Society for Coatings Technology. He is a certified Corrosion Specialist and a licensed Professional Engineer in corrosion. At present. is also a member of a number of coatings and sealant organizations. he is an honorary member of the New York Society for Coatings Technology. the Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology. marine and in-plant industrial coatings. He has received the Award of Merit from ASTM. preparation of specifications and manuals and laboratory personnel training. He has presented numerous talks and has authored a variety of articles on paint technology as well as hundreds of private reports. and as Chairman of Committee D-1(Paintings and Coatings) of the American Society for Testing and Materiais (ASTM) for three consecutive terms. Spindel has been engaged in a variety of operations in the coatings industry involving testing. maintenance. who has served as chairman of the Corrosion Committee. has over 40 years of plant and laboratory experience in production. expert testimony. Spindel.L 93 8627940 0003558 908 Group. As president of DIL Laboratories. He is especially active in the American Society for Testing and Materials. formulation. and the National Paint and Coatings Association. formulation.SSPC CHAPTERa4. as well as both ASTM and its Committee D-1. technical service. testing and customer service for the development and application of trade sales. He was recently made an honorary member of ASTM Committee D1 (Paint and Related Coatings and Materials) and was elected its chairman. He is a former president of the New York Society for Coatings Technology and received their highest award. BIOGRAPHY Saul Spindel. field inspection. legal assistance. the TaVaC. the maximum allowed.

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workability. tanks. towers.. and offshore drilling equipment are examples of the multiple uses of steel which contribute to the well-being of humanity. Without protection. Of all of the materials tried for steel protection. The simplest process to provide protection using zinc was dipping a piece of steel in molten zinc and providing a complete layer of zinc over the steel surface. This procedure gave birth to the galvanizing industry. which has been a growing one ever since. skyscrapers. and the concept of zinc-rich coating was as different in each place as the places were far apart. corrosionresistant coating from zinc dust. steel structures tend to revert to their natural state of iron. and there have been thousands of materials used on steel surfaces in an effort to resist change from usable metal to its non-usable oxide. The movement started in two different places. The first record of its use dates back to 1840 when a French engineer. iron oxide or rust. zinc has been the most successful.and it wasn t until the 1930 s that anyone gave a great deal of scientific thought to making a long-lasting. The idea of incorporating zinc dust into an organic vehicle coincided with the time that the more sophisticated synthetic resins became available. automobiles.SSPC CHAPTER+4=2 93 m 8b27940 0003572 288 m CHAPTER 4. ¡. HISTORICAL From earliest time. Sorel. 150 million tons of zinc are used annually. Bridges.2 ZINGRICH PRIMERS by Charles G. and the use of zinc increased until.Munger Since the invention of steel. patented a process for coating steel with zinc to prevent rusting. it has been a primary structural material used for all critical structures in modern society. railroads.e. ships. adaptability. cast or welded into any conceivable shape and. will last for centuries. where the inorganic zinc-rich materials were conceived. These more resistant materials were needed since zinc reacted readily with most of the . when properly protected. Most of this expansion has come since the 1920 s and ~O S. keeping steel in its usable form was the goal of all who used it. The key words are properly protected . It may be rolled. I. pipelines. at the present time in the United States. A large percentage of this is for protection of iron and steel either as galvanizing or in zinc-rich coatings. The English started with the idea of using zinc dust in organic vehicles to provide a zinc-rich coating while a completely different concept was started in Australia. There are many reasons for this strength. There are increasing references to zinc in coatings in the early 19OO s.

surprisingly. was that if he could make a coating that would closely simulate chemical characteristics of willemite or zinc silicate. Finally. even though millions of square feet of the zinc silicate coating had been applied on above-ground structures in Australia up to that time. which was unique.using the zinc silicate. They provided protection to steel surfaces that was not available by other coating means except through the galvanizing processes. This was determined by the amount of zinc used in the coating Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 125 . the rapid silication of sil ica-zi nc iron. There was no premanufacturing of inorganic zinc coating at that time. would form a hard. since it was rather reactive and left for any period of time would solidify in the bucket. the expansion of zinc-rich coatings was rapid and continuous. it was rinsed with dilute phosphoric acid to prevent rust forming on the steel pipe before the coating could be applied. His basic idea. In Australia. and as the epoxy resins entered the coatings field after World War Il. the coating was mixed by weighing about 10 pounds of sodium silicate and a small amount of sodium bicarbonate into a bucket. as he states it. was stoved or baked to bring about. adherent. The aim was to apply approximately one ounce of zinc per square foot. the steel surface was scrubbed with fiber brushes to remove the black pickling deposit and washed with dilute sodium hydroxide to remove sulfuric acid. brushes. He studied the ore and came up with a mixture of zinc and sodium silicate which. the organic zinc-rich products were born. however. Victor Charles Nightingall. All of it. Only very alkali-resistant resins could be used effectively for zinc-rich coatings. Twenty pounds of zinc dust and about three pounds of red lead followed. Following pickling. to start and incorporating high-loading of zinc into the vehicle. was to pickle steel free of all mill scale and all other contaminants. The whole mix was stirred vigorously with a stick. After mixing the coating. The coating was worked well into the surface to eliminate holidays and. It was made and used within a few minutes. spent several years studying ways a chemical compound could be made with high durability and long-lasting corrosion protection. By using very resistant synthetic resins. an engineer. he would be able to accomplish the goal. The procedure used to coat steel in the late ~O S. As soon as the surface was prepared. when applied to clean steel surfaces and heated to 250°F or above. such as chlorinated rubber. This was the state of the art up to 1950.oleoresinous products that were used for coatings prior to this time. painters applied it to the steel surface with large 6 in. corrosionresistant coating. a relatively even coat of zinc silicate was obtained.

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! The first well documented field test of this product was in 1942.000 miles of above-ground pipeline. Manyat- . the coating was dry. hot air and combustion products into the pipe at one end and out the other. was entirely borne out by the guarantee period. Woronora pipe and Morgan Whyalla pipeline were the beginning of an era for inorganic zinc coatings. As soon as steel was brought up to temperature. The water-base coatings dried within a few minutes and then the coated steel was moved into either a large stoving area. The result of McKenzie s convinction. This was done with little more than the Woronora pipe section to go on. was negotiated in 1941-42 and completed in 1944. The process is still being used in Australia today. using the same exterior coating. and very metallic. and before he could see the revolution in coating technology that his ideas created. A section of the original line at Whyalla was inspected firsthand in 1972. McKenzie. The Morgan Whyalla line. The pipe was in perfect condition and showed no evidence of rusting. G. The early research set out to find a way that the coating could be formed without heat and yet obtain all of the excellent characteristics of the zinc silicate. which is thefamous250-mile pipeline in inorganic zinc silicate history. on a section of steel pipe in the Woronora pipeline. whose leadership in the inorganic field helped create the worldwide use of zinc coatings. The pipe was inspected in 1950 and it was in perfect condition. The negotiations included a 20-year guarantee on coating performance. The line ran above ground.SSPC CHAPTER*4-2 93 m 8627940 0003573 114 = and applied to the steel surface. the pipe was moved in front of large burners that blew flame. It had both a mild marine atmosphere and an industrial atmosphere to provide corrosive conditions. which passed in 1965. This particular area was adjacent to Spencer Gulf and a steel plant. showed no corrosion. close to the bay and a few feet from some large oyster beds. which were touched up and allowed to dry. the heat curing or stoving process has been used on some 3. Presently. chalking or any change from the long exposure to the atmosphere. His work was carried on by another engineer with the same drive and single-minded approach. Victor Nightingall passed away in 1948. very hard. II. It still exists. the South Australia government duplicated the original Morgan Whyalla line. In 1970. long before the guarantee was up. that a zinc coating was a permanent one. where the temperature was brought up to 200-300°F or. if the coating was applied to the pipe exterior. M. AMBIENT CURING It was recognized early that for this material to be entirely effective the stoving or baking step had to be eliminated. Even the field welds. which was part of the water system for the city of Sydney. and heat curing provides a very fast method of in-plant coating with water base inorganic zinc products.

which would surely be part of the reaction products. Lithium silicate was the base for one of the more successful commercial inorganic zinc silicate coatings.S. with many sodium oxide to silica ratios. Actually. While not perfect. none of these procedures worked satisfactorily. insolubilized the zinc silicate coating enough so the resulting product had all of the good characteristics of the stoved inorganic zinc as originally conceived by Victor Nightingall. pipe racks. Colloidal silica. onshore installations of all types including tanks. silica colloids in solvent. bridges. including sodium silicate. along with offshore platforms.tempts were made to cure the coating with various salt solutions. aluminum chloride. except under very limited and control led conditions. etc. + 2NaOH + 2H. Potassium silicate provided a somewhat faster cure and eliminated much of the white deposit. One attempt was to use a wash primer developed by the U. Finally. Ammonium silicate systems are not as hard as some of the zinc silicates and do not possess the glasslike properties of alkaline metal silicates. Lithium silicate produced a faster cure and harder product. This was the post-cure inorganic zinc coating that started the revolution in coating steel structures in most areas of difficult corrosion. was proven effective only in more recent formulations. the coating did stand up and prevent corrosion for many years under a very difficult industrial atmosphere. research was instituted by many U. Hundreds of ships were coated with this material. heater treaters. wellhead structures. applied after the zinc silicate coating had dried. and particularly in marine atmospheres. east coast. The zinc oxy chloride. zinc chloride. Once the postcured inorganic zinc demonstrated the efficiency of this coating procedure. high humidity. it was determined that a solution of dibutylamine phosphate. These trials had some basis in fact. some soluble phosphates. is practically insoluble. and silica gels were all tried . could provide sufficient insolubility to the silicate matrix to hold it until the zinc silicate reactions could take place. 2 Zn + 2NaCI + 3H. as both a cure for the zinc coatings and a primer for organic coatings to follow. and chemical plants.S. or basic zinc chloride. Using sodium silicates with higher silica ratios helped eliminate white deposits that formed on the coating surface during cure. Such an attempt was made on a very badly corroded naphtha tank at one of the refineries on the U. This compound.O -ZnOZnCI. Many materials were tried.S. One manufacturer recommended washing with sea water. refineries. as this over-simplified chemical diagram suggests. bulkheads. Quarternary ammonium silicate. companies. complexed with zinc hydroxide or zinc carbonate. These primarily were fairly concentrated water or alcohol solutions of magnesium chloride. while tried very early in the various research programs. Navy and Union Carbide during the war. Many attempts were made to use various salt solutions.

alone and in combination with other silicates. borates. titantates. zinc oxychlorides. and similar materials were also formed Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 126 . Basic inorganic materials such as phosphates.

.. sodium dichromate B 2.3 dichromate Self-cure silica sol Silica sol.2 ratio potassium silicate.9 manganese dioxide.9 ratio potassium silicate.8 quaternary ammonium hydroxide. silicate was used to produce effective zinc coatings. sodium Zinc dust + iron oxide 3.5 quaternary ammonium hydroxide..2 ratio sodium silicate. 32% SiO. carbon black Self-cure Iithi um si Iicate Lithium-sodium silicate. 15% 30. The alka li hydrolysis product of the ethyl being tried. soluble amine. carbon black D 3. Acid-hydrolyzed ethyl also added to silicate vehicles in an effort to provide im-silicate combined wit h powdered zinc was one of the proved coating characteristics. Zinc dust + red lead 4 ...4 ratio potassium silicate. Zinc dust 3. 24% SO.. earliest. and one of the first successful self-c uring zinc During this time many other inorganic materials were silicate products.8 sodium dichromate B 3. cellosolve silicates.. Zinc dust 2. Zinc dust + red lead 2. Zinc dust 2. 19% 90.SSPC CHAPTERU4-2 93 m Ab27940 0003574 050 m into coatings with somewhat fewer properties.0 acrylic emulsion C 2. 14% SiO.25% SiO. 9. soluble amine.1 . alone and in combination Table 1 for some interes ting combinations of silicates ~~ TABLE I Typical Examples of Various Zinc-Rich Paint Formulations Type* Vehicle Pigment Weight Ratio pigmentvehicle IA Post-cured Water Based Inorganic Zinc-Rich Paints A 3. 22% 30. Some were with many materials list ed above.2 ratio sodium silicate. 18% SO. (See and similar organic silicates.2 potassium dichromate IB Self-cure potassium silicate A 2.. Zinc dust + red lead 2. soluble amine. Zinc dust 2. such as ethyl silicates.8 ratio potassium silicate.

..5 B Quaternary ammonium silicate. 10% SiO. Zinc dust + iron oxide 2. 22% SiO. Zinc dust 2. 15% SiO.potassium dichromate.4 C 127 --`. Zinc dust 3.5 silicate. 20% SiO.`..`... sodium Zinc dust 2... Zinc dust 2.2 clay fillers B Partly hydrolyzed ethyl silicate.`. Zinc dust 2.2 'As per SSPC-Paint 20 -Zinc-Rich Paint Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .4 clay fillers D Polyol-Alkyl Silicate.`-`-`.`--Basic hydrolyzed ethyl silicate. carbon black Self cure-quaternary ammonium silicate A Quaternary ammonium silicate. Solvent Based Inorganic Zinc-Rich Paints IC Self-cure A Partly hydrolyzed ethyl silicate. 20% SiO.. 32% SiO.

Inorganic zinc coatings. 111. Zn + 2H. Galvanized surfaces or pure zinc react with carbon dioxide and oxygen in air to form zinc carbonate or zinc oxide on the surface almost as soon as it comes out of the galvanizing bath. including galvanized metal.O -Zn" + 2eThis is the normal corrosion reaction for zinc. colloidal silica. Zn + H. or inactivated by an accumulation of zinc salts on the coating surface. industrial or rural. 2 Zn + 2NaCI + 3H. and. increase the life of the organic topcoats several times. will accumulate a substantial quantity of white salts on the surface. are in a state of constant change. particularly when overcoating with organic coatings is a requirement. -.) Following development of self-curing ethyl silicate zinc coatings was a great amount of research to produce selfcuring coatings from all other silicate materials. Some. This change depends on their exposure -marine. + 2NaOH + 2H. in a single coat. provide protection in severe atmospheres that is better than a galvanized surface.SSPC CHAPTER*Y-Z 73 m 8627740 0003575 T97 m some have proven to be most practical and successful. Research has progressed to the point where there are a number of single package zinc silicate products on the market that are not only fully combined into a single package. as well. the various organic silicates and even galvanizing. lithium silicate.O + -. to the point where the finished product in a single package may be used essentially like paint.O + CO. + H. The inorganic zinc coatings are somewhat more complex. but are self-curing. turns dull gray. after a few days in weather. + H. Progress has been made in the last thirty years from the original product. when overcoated. continuing process until the zinc is practically consumed in protecting the steel it is applied to. The first reaction is the .ZnOZnCI. It is a slow. are reactive materials from the time they are applied. potassium silicate. The original bright zinc surface. Others. MECHANISMS Inorganic zinc coatings. They are composed of powdered metallic zinc mixed into a reactive silicate solution.Zn CO. including those formed from sodium silicate. which was made by mixing the individual ingredients just prior to application. A number of these have proven to be excellent products.Zn (OH). These products have caused a coating revolution.O -. Some of these typical zinc reactions are: Zn (metal) + H. at times.

This makes for a high density. durable. The slightly acidic water helps to hydrolyze organic silicates to silicic acid and to hydrate water soluble silicates to form silicic acid. In every case. Most coatings at this point are somewhat porous. or organic solvents. Once initial drying has taken place.) to ionize some zinc on the surface of zinc particles. The reactions described are taking place during formation of the coating. Humidity and condensation of moisture on inorganic surfaces plus carbon dioxide continue to create a very mild acid condition that results in continued hydrolysis of the vehicle and ionization of zinc. and substantiated from a practical standpoint. the reactions will be those that take place over a long period of time and ones characteristic of the environment in 'which zinc coatings are placed. or somewhat soft with little abrasion resistance. In either state. The solvent can either be water. Iron ions are formed reacting with the silicate vehicle at the iron surface in the same way that zinc does. . Removal of the curing agent is necessary prior to topcoating. environmental reactions such as those described previously take over and chemical curing of the coating begins. from the air (H. This is due to penetration of organic solvents into the zinc coating creating a vapor pressure that causes bubbling of material applied over the zinc coating.CO. Inorganic zinc coatings which are post-cured have much less porosity due to the immediate formation of zinc phosphate on and within the pores of the coating. In many cases where inorganic zinc coatings have been overcoated with organic coatings. largely because of the compacting quality of spherical zinc particles. in the case of the organic silicates. regardless of the environment. it is uncured and may be sensitive to water. The initial reaction is for water and CO.concentration of silicate zinc mixture by evaporation of most of the solvent. in the case of water-base products. This zinc silicate cement is hard. At this point the coating may be hard and abrasion resistant. The ionized zinc then reacts with silicic acid groups on the silicate molecules in the silicate gel structure. At this time there is also some reaction of the silicate vehicle with the iron surface to form a chemical bond. Zinc ions diffuse deeper and deeper into the gel structure until there is a zinc silicate cement or matrix formed around each of the zinc particles binding the coating together and to the steel surface. relatively pore-free coating. leaving a non-reacted deposit of a silicate gel and zinc powder. and rock-like in character (Figure 1). within a short time after application bubbling of the organic coating takes place.O + CO. This can be seen in scanning electron microscope photographs. From this point on. This insolubilizes the coating and provides its initial properties. the original reactions of either the water-base or the organic base silicates are essentially the same.-H. insoluble.

If water and CO.Since zinc coating is porous. it provides electrons that protect the underlying steel from corrosion (Figure 4). zinc hydroxide and zinc carbonate also are present. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 128 . ionization of zinc on the surface of zinc particles can occur any place within the coating. In so doing. are present.

2 93 8b27940 000357b 923 Coating Surface 2 inc Discontinuous Surface silicate a But Interface of Steel and Coating: Chemical Bond FIGURE 1 Inorganic zinc coating inc Particle Sand Blasted Surface Interface Between Cnatinn nnd _. Because of this. more dense. OH I -Si4 I P SC .a-Steel accounts for zinc silicate coatings gradually becoming harder. since it increases the effectiveness. and more adherent. du rab¡ Iity and chemical resistance of the inorganic zinc coating with age.SSPC CHAPTER*4. One very important characteristic of inorganic zinc coatings is the electrical conductivity of the matrix. Particle-to-particle contact of the zinc pigment is not required for conductivity in inorganic zinc coatings. organic. This process continues for many months and years. since it is in a conductive. and with the formation of every zinc ion. electrons formed by ionization of zinc at any point within the coating can migrate to the steel substrate and provide cathodic protection to any steel area that may be exposed. This is a very important react ion. zinc-rich matrix. electrons are released. which protect the iron substrate from corrosion.

zinc carbonate and zinc hydroxide.0 Ratio -Na-O2 Na 9I YH Y Na-O-Si-O-Si-O-Si-OH dH h OH ++ I II on OH JH Na .silicate polymer continues to grow ad eventual :. are more voluminous than the zinc silicate. This Na 1 Na O/Si02 @ 1/3. saturates with zinc. This fills the pores and seals the surface to create a very hard.r --% O Q t -di-oI OI :i-o-diOH .ion zinc dcst. They can form within the pores of the coating as well as on the surfaces. These reaction products. abrasion-resistant metallic film.-N Zn kn I c N Witn excess Zn++ f.

Sodium in polymer removed by reaction with CO2 from air ++ . Potassium and Lithium Silicate reactions substantially same as for sodium From Air ia and Water P Na-O-Si-+ H2C03 +OH-i-+ Na CO H 23 White deposit on coating surface removed by weather. Ammonium.+ Fe++ 1 ++ 7 TH PH + Pb -)Na-O-Si-O-Si-O-Si-OH ++ III + Zn tT? Fe Pb Zn I II O 00 I II Na-O-Si-O-Si-O-Si-OH I O (! I ¿H 1 Na Fe++ from Steel Substrate Pb++ from Red Lead Additive Zn from Zinc Dust Silicate polymer complexed with Iron. Lead and Zinc.

.`.`.`.`-`-`.... 129 + 2H2Q FIGURE 2 Chemical Reactions within a Zinc Silicate Coating -Water Base --`.. Type IA or 16).`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS ..Excess Zn carbonate Zn++ reacts with CO and H O to form insoluble zinc 2 2 + 20H + H2CO3+ZnCO3 (SSPC-Paint 20.

`-`-`. (Silicate Zinc Polymer. calcium.. 1 OH in I . Zinc reaction within a porous inorganic coating Immediate insolubility in water is the goal. with the conO0 acid II CH + HsO*-+Et-O-Si-O-Si-O-Et + Et OH 23 CH3CH2 Tetra Ethyl Silicate Some other organic silicates may be added to or substituted for ethyl silicate with similar II It It Ethyl Silicate Polymer I $ + H2O and CO from humid air 2 QH 0" ++ + Zn --`.. etc. either water or solvent based. magnesium. barium. The effectiveness of the end product depends on the skill of the formulator and his addition of minor ingredients that insolubilize the matrix around the zinc particles...2 93 W 8627940 0003577 4bT W The chemistry of these inorganic coatings is very complex.`--end results.. The primary heavy metal is zinc derived from ions dissolved from zinc particles mixed into silicate solution.`. Minor quantities of many heavy metals may be reacted into the silicate matrix FIGURE 3 -lead. aluminum. iron.`.SSPC CHAPTER*4. It is believed that all of the truly inorganic zinc coatings ultimately have matrices composed of heavy metal silicates.`..

130 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . FIGURE 4 N Chemical reactions within an ethyl silicate zinc coating. OH Final Ethyl Silicate Zinc Polymer similar to Sodium Silicate Zinc Polymer.4PH HO-Si-O-Si-OH I1 OH .

It is a water-based material. to make an electrically conductive path through the organic matrix. V. The second important consideration in organic zinc-rich primers is that the vehicle or carrier of zinc pigment be alkali resistant. Type 2 -Organic zinc-rich. It may be applied under cool or warm and dry conditions. Because of . particularly under chloride environments. with very little addition of other pigmentation. phosphates and modifications thereof. such as iron phosphide. IV. Type 1-A has a very broad area of application. this product can be used. The primary organic resins used to make organic zinc-rich primers are chlorinated rubbers. involve very little chemistry in formation. Description of the various zinc-rich paints available are outlined in the above specifications as follows: Type 1-A Inorganic post-curing vehicles. and.SSPC CHAPTER*4-2 93 = 8b2794O 0003578 7Tb tinued long-time reaction of zinc finalizing the insolubility. Without this particleto-particle contact. Type 1 -Inorganic zinc-rich. these are the principal ones applied to steel structures. ORGANIC ZINC RICH Organic zinc-rich primers. Figures 2 and 4 indicate the possible reactions that take place within the coating to form the insoluble matrix. in order to provide the cathodic protection required by zinc-rich coatings. or catalyzed epoxy resins. which would not allow the zinc to go into solution and provide the cathodic protection. There are two requirements essential for effective operation of organic zinc-rich coatings: 1. reacts to form a strong alkali that would adversely effect any alkali-sensitive resin or binder. include alkali metal silicates. Unsuccessful efforts have been made to use both metallic aluminum and mag nec iu m. in contrast to the inorganic zinc-rich products. 2. While there are a number of other materials that can be used. These products are simple mixtures of zinc dust or metallic zinc pigment into the organic vehicle. phenoxy resins. which must be subsequently cured by application of heat or a solution of a curing compound. and wherever water will evaporate from the coating. which are water soluble. Zinc in the vehicle. There are two basic types. zinc in the coating essentially would be inert and surrounded by the organic vehicle. Zinc is the primary pigment in these organic zinc-rich coatings. No other common metal powders react to form an insoluble silicate polymer in the same way. must be in particle-to-particle contact or contain a conductive filler. This is important since zinc. SSPC CLASSIFICATION The specification for SSPC-Paint 20 includes the types of zinc-rich primers common at this time.

forming the polysilicate. they all primarily follow the same chemical reactions shown previously (Figure 4) to form the final coating. the water evaporates rapidly from the coating. Again. since removal of the curing agent residue is essential when topcoats are to be applied. which are water reducible. dry conditions. Post-cured inorganic zinc coatings are most effective when used alone. It is not effective in freezing conditions or in very high humidity when water will not evaporate from the system within a short period of time -a matter of a few minutes to one or two hours. application wise. include titanates. and polymeric modifications of these silicates. since the coating must be cured with the curing solution before additional water contacts the coating. reasonably humid conditions. Several water-based silicates are included in this category -and many are most effective when applied during warm. these materials are not effective under cold. many are more subject to overspray under warm. dry conditions.C Inorganic self-curing vehicles. These systems primarily are dependent on moisture in the atmosphere to complete hydrolysis. organic silicates. which are solvent reducible. There are a number of other organic silicates used or combined with ethyl silicate to provide specific coating characteristics. windy conditions than water base products (1-6).the post-curing agent it will form an effective coating under this wide span of atmospheric conditions. The majority work best. Type 1-B Inorganic self-curing vehicles. Then it continues to cure to full hardness and adhesion by the above chemical reactions. Since they are solvent based materials. quaternary ammonium silicates. Type 1. . leaving a hard metallic coating. Moisture from the air is required for a complete cure and many formulations will not cure well or completely under hot. under cool. include water soluble alkali metal silicates. These coatings cure by crystallization after evaporation of water from the coating. making a poor coating with little resistance. After that length of time zinc tends to separate in the vehicle. Some formations require more humidity for a complete cure than others. In this case. A rain shower on a Type 1-A coating prior to application of the curing agent will break up the silicate gel film -and the coating becomes useless. since water will not evaporate from the film within a reasonable period of time. without topcoats. It is also difficult to use where rain showers are frequent. highly humid conditions. which becomes insoluble to water in a short time. phosphates and modifications thereof. Because of variation in properties and application characteristics this class of inorganic primer is used widely throughout industry as a base for high performance coatings. There are too many variations to outline the specific properties of each product in this chapter. most of which are based on an ethyl silicate vehicle. Nevertheless. This category covers many different formulations.

131 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .There are two specific types of solvent base inorganics (1-C) that are variations from the standard twopackage products.

with some of the good properties of each appearing in the modified product. By using organic zinc-rich primer. easy and rapid overcoating. usually a vinyl butyral. they also are subject to the basic problems inherent in organic vehicles. Advantages claimed for this material are improved application properties. Most single-package products are used in areas where topcoats are to be applied. one container to handle during transportation and storage. The second is the modified inorganic zinc primer. release of adhesion from water absorpfion. The product characteristics are a compromise between completely inorganic zinc coating and organic zinc-rich primers. and one container for painters to work with on the job. The product characteristics are similar to the two-package material. The organic vehicles covered by this specification may be chemically cured or may dry by solvent evaporation. the zinc base coating is maintained over the bare steel area while the organic vehicle is compatible with the organic topcoats. Under certain conditions heat may be used to facilitate or accelerate hardening. This product usually is used where topcoats are to be applied. With the many different formulations of both inorganic and organic zinc-rich primers -some with high . urethanes. This product combines the ingredients of the coating including zinc into a single package.SSPC CHAPTER*4-2 93 W 862 7940 O003579 632 m The first is the single-package inorganic. which is soluble in alcohol solvents. Any deficiency would be due to the life of the organic resin incorporated into the system. vinyls and other suitable resinous binders. allowing it to be feathered out over the edge of the existing organic material. undercutting. One good use of organic-based zinc-rich coatings is as a repair primer for inorganic zinc primers and galvanized surfaces that have been topcoated and have been damaged during use. adhesion to most clean steel surfaces and good repair properties for previously zinc primed and overcoated surfaces. There is good reason for the number of different types of zinc-rich primers. Here the solvent base (IC)inorganic is modified by the addition of a compatible organic resin. catalyzed epoxies. styrenes. The main advantage of this product is simplicity in handling a single container that only requires stirring prior to use. a smooth film. Type 2 organic vehicles include phenoxies. blistering and so forth. such as weathering. as are the basic chemical reactions that forms the films. chlorinated rubbers. ready for application directly from the container. Type 2 primers can be applied under most conditions where an organic vehicle applies effectively. silicones. however. The basic use of the material -as well as the conditions under which it is applied -dictates what types of formulations should be used.

it is suggested information be obtained on the total solids content. not the cheapest. in many ways. Recently. Without this. Galvanizing is an amalgamation or mutual absorption at the iron-zinc boundary. it will do the same things an inorganic zinc-rich coating will. preconstruction primers have been formulated with an iron phosphide additive that improves the weldability and resulting weld. however. Steel with preconstruction primers applied must be capable of being cut with manual and automatic gas torches and welded by manual and automatic welding equipment. These materials are applied under controlled conditions and have proven very effective in providing a corrosion-free surface during construction. It may be either 1-B or I-Ctype. PRE-CONSTRUCTION PRIMERS One additional type of zinc-rich primer should be mentioned: the preconstruction primer. type of binder and scope of duration of actual field applications or field tests of the several materials considered. Galvanizing can be considered an inorganic zinc primer and. They may be over-coated directly with organic topcoats or recoated with additional zinc-rich primers. VI. only the best material. It is formulated to be applied as a very thin material. without any loss in cutting speed or weld strength.zinc loadings and others with a minimum. There are many similarities. there are also many differences. has been added without apparent changes in the corrosion-resistant characteristics of the primer. The information above can be a good basis for comparing various zinc-rich coatings offered for a project. while the inorganic zinc matrix forms a chemical compound of iron and silica at the interface of . If there are requirements for high-performance coating. VII. COMPARISON WITH GALVANIZING Zinc-rich primers have often been compared directly with galvanizing. The above information allows the corrosion engineer and applicator to select material most effective for particular requirements. some with additives and others without -some precautions should be taken in selecting a product. the best is none too good. depending on coating requirements. percent of zinc in the dry film. The best insurance is to use a material with an extensive background of good performance for similar use. Both galvanized and inorganic zinc coatings are chemically bonded. In many shipyards the preconstruction primer is applied to all plate as it comes into the yard. approximately one mil in thickness. should be selected. As much as 40% iron phosphide. There it goes through an automatic blast-cleaning operation followed immediately by application of inorganic preconstruction zinc-rich primer. and is usually applied to steel prior to fabrication. Each type of zinc-rich primer has specific areas of use where it is most effective. based on total pigment content. theoretical and practical coverage. Since material cost is only a small part of the completed coating job.

however. Both types of coating provide protection to the steel surface by cathodic protection. The inorganic zinc-rich coating has. some basic differences: Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 132 .the coating and metal. so there are many similarities.

and in certain full-scale exposures where the two materials were used side by side. and the inorganic zinc silicate coating was coupled with iron. Type II. Eventually. These points generally indicate a longer life span for inorganic zinc silicate coatings. surrounded by and reactive with an inert zinc silicate matrix. Since it is unaffected by weatheroriented factors. VIII. such as zinc hydroxide arid zinc carbonate. scratches or scars heal by formation of zinc reaction products. It is unaffected by weather. sunlight. It is made up of zinc particles. ultraviolet radiation. many of the inorganic zinc silicate coatings end up much harder. rain. any minor holidays. This has been proven by actual measurements where zinc was coupled with iron. The inorganic zinc film remains intact with essentially the same thickness. However. even after many years of exposure.2 93 8627940 0003580 354 Zinc in the coating is not continuous. The zinc on the galvanized surface went into solution much more rapidly than the zinc held within the matrix of the inorganic silicate coating. The inorganic matrix is conductive and allows zinc to go into solution in a controlled manner. bacteria. The inorganic binder chemically reacts with the . The actual potential of the two coating materials was essentially equivalent. the current flow or amperage between the galvanized surface and iron was practically double the current flow between the inorganic zinc silicate coated panel and the steel panel. and more abrasion resistant than the metallic zinc in galvanizing. dew. the organic zinc-rich primer. CHARACTERISTICS -INORGANIC (TYPE I) The outstanding characteristics of inorganic zinc-rich primers are: Cathodic protection is provided by inorganic zincrich coatings. except for strong acids or alkalies. the coating does not chalk or change with time. is inert to most environmental conditions where coatings would be used. This has proven true in tests. Because of the formation of the coating by zinc particles in an inert matrix. This matrix is very inert and. making it anodic to steel and able to cathodically protect any breaks that occur in the coating.SSPC CHAPTER*4. As surprising as it may seem. the coating controls reactivity and conductivity. fungus or temperature. should not be compared directly with galvanizing because of the organic nature of the binder. pinholes. compared to galvanized steel.

chlorinated hydrocarbons. tanks. This property of the inorganic zinc base coat multiplies the effective life of an organic topcoat. High speed production welding cannot be accomplished with a full thickness of zinc rich. an inorganic zinc-rich primer can form a base coating that does not undercut or allow underfilm corrosion. lube oil. With this bond. they may be used alone or in the connection with topcoats for continuous exposure to such chemicals. diesel oil. and therefore may be used as a coating for faying surfaces (the friction interface between structural steel sections) on buildings. forming a permanent chemical bond. This is an important property. This reaction occurs at the interface between the steel and the coating. etc. starting at small breaks in the coating. Battelle Memorial Institute and several foreign laboratories have confirmed that inorganic zinc coated steel may be welded without any reduction in strength of the steel joint. The very strong rock-like film and chemical adhesion of inorganic zinc coatings form a base with outstanding friction characteristics. Inorganic zinc materials are relatively unaffected by temperatures above the melting point of zinc. since it prevents the undercutting of coating by corrosion.underlying steel surface in a similar way to its reaction with the surface of the zinc particles. towers. They are also unaffected by gasoline. the inorganic material follows the configuration of the surface. This is due to the method by which the film is formed and is a major advantage in overcoating rough. Inorganic zinc coatings are unaffected by organic solvents. The . aromatic hydrocarbons. the combination has provided protection even at temperatures of 1000°F. This is because the zinc silicate matrix reacts with the welding flux and prevents zinc occlusions in the weld. jet fuel and many similar refined products. Nevertheless. such as ketones. even the very high strength ones. Once applied. This has been shown by test and field experience. This property cannot be overemphasized. etc. bridges. Porous welds may result. corroded surfaces or rough welds. A comparison of the coefficient of friction for various surfaces highlights this outstanding property. The majority of organic coating failure under severe corrosion conditions is by underfilm corrosion. This being the case. Used as a primer and topcoated with silicone base topcoats. One of the most important characteristics of inorganic zinc coatings is that they do not shrink while drying or curing. pitted. like organic coatings do.

higher the friction coefficient. the less the chance of joint slippage. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 133 .

providing the formulation maintains particle-to-particle zinc contact.30 Galvanized surfaces 0. since even though the topcoat may be abraded away. This is due to the inorganic matrix surrounding zinc particles.11 Red lead paint 0. Organic zinc-rich coatings provide cathodic protection.51 Post-cured inorganic zinc 0. where many types of surfaces are involved and all require excellent corrosion protection.52 Rusted and wirebrushed surfaces 0.48 Water-based zinc coatings 0. The basic surface formed by inorganic zinc coatings is very hard.without any change in properties. the chemical resistance of inorganic zinc coatings is excellent. the inorganic zinc base remains and prevents serious corrosion.25 Rust-preventative paint 0. Inorganic base coats have excellent resistance to undercutting when overcoated with chemical resistant organic coatings and subject to very corrosive industrial atmospheres.47) usually is not acceptable for steel construction.48 Rusted surfaces 0.06 Any coefficient of friction less than a sandblasted surface (. IX.47 Mill scale surfaces 0. These coatings have been exposed to atomic radiation up to and beyond 1 x 10IDR.2 93 8627940 0003583 290 H Coefficient of Surface Conditions Friction Solvent-based inorganic coating 0. This has proven extremely important on ship hulls above the water line where abrasion due to docking can cause severe coating damage. This is an important property as a base coat.SSPC CHAPTER*4. This is extremely important in coating repair and may be important during original construction. metallic and abrasion resistant. . CHARACTERISTICS -ORGANIC (TYPE Il) The outstanding characteristic of organic zinc-rich primers is their compatibility with organic and steel surfaces. Inorganic zinc coatings are unaffected by gamma rays or neutron bombardment. Compared to metallic zinc. This has been proven in test and by use in industrial areas where acidic fumes or fallout have caused rapid galvanized failure.47 Sandblasted surfaces 0.

or slowdrying and curing conditions can vary widely. light rust coloration on the steel surface may be more easily tolerated by an inorganic zinc coating than by an organic based material. However. which were thoroughly clean but did not have the advantage of the surface profile of a blast-cleaned surface. much depends on the severity of the exposure and the type of metal (corroded. This is due to the possibility of the inorganic thoroughly wetting the oxide and reacting with it. depending on their formulation. Many claims have been self-serving with little basis in fact. mill scale) to which the coating is applied. There have been many claims about advantages of organic zinc-rich from a surface preparation standpoint compared to inorganic zinc-rich. such as lithium base materials. Inorganic zinc coatings should never be applied over old paint. As with all high-performance coatings. the very best possible surface preparation should be used and. On the other hand. A binder in an organic zinc-rich primer may be chemical-resistant. which require the best surface preparation and substantial surface profile to provide maximum adhesion. irrespective of the coating.With an organic binder. SOME LIMITATIONS Much has been discussed about application of zincrich products to steel surfaces. the application of organic zinc-rich coatings covers a very wide range of application conditions. the inorganic zinc-rich materials will not tolerate organic materials and will immediately check. new. The primary difference is in the ability of organic zinc-rich to be applied over some organic material. crack and chip off organic surfaces. On the other hand. In many ways it is a controversial subject. some Type l-B and C materials can be applied to pickled surfaces. This may be true for initial application. There are. X. the better the coating performance will be. It is often claimed that the organic zinc-rich primers are less subject to critical surface preparation than inorganic zinc materials. the original Australian formulation was applied over pickled surfaces. since they would be less subject to problems from organic contamination. depending on the binder and its use requirements. There are different adhesion characteristics among various inorganic zinc-rich products. differences in adhesion characteristics of organic and inorganic zinc-rich materials. Organic binders may be very fast. Organic zinc-rich primers. are more compatible with oleoresinous topcoats than are inorganic zinc coatings. depending on requirements of application. There are some. Also. eliminating the organic contamination factor. however. . such as old coatings. paint or slight oil contamination. On the other hand. the better the surface preparation.

Type 1 materials cover the whole gamut of surface preparation and each has proven to work well over surfaces they are specifically adapted to. All work well over SSPC-SP 5 (White Metal Blast) and SSPC-SP 10 (Near White) types of surface preparation. that is. As previously mentioned. Organic zinc-rich primers also have specific limitations. For preparation less than this. organic-based materials will tolerate some organic material on the surface. the manufacturer s literature should be consulted for each product and each type of surface. Organic Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 134 . SSPC-SP 6 (Commercial Blast) or SSPCSP 8 (Pickled) surfaces.

These products have been applied to objects as small as nuts and bolts and to the interior and exterior of the largest ships in the world.01. or in the marine industry. geothermal energy plants. XI. This means they are subject to undercutting.SSPC CHAPTERm4. Some specific applications that indicate the versatility of zinc-rich products follow. barges in the fjords of Alaska. The uses of zinc-rich coatings are almost too numerous to detail: they cover almost any use of steel structure where high-performance coatings are required. Singapore.R.2 93 m 6627940 0003582 127 m zinc-rich coatings may be applied over SSPC-SP 6 (Commercial Blast) providing the application is to new steel or a non-corroded previously coated surface.S. sewage industry. in Steel Structure Painting Council PS 12. This is well covered by most manufacturers literature for specific products and. Twenty-three years under these conditions illustrates the . EARLY TESTS Some of the earliest tests of inorganic zinc coatings in the U. atomic energy facilities. on pulp and paper plants. Western Australia. Organic zinc-rich primers are subject to the difficulties of any organic material applied directly over steel surfaces. in Japan. Zinc-rich primer has been applied on floating equipment and stationary marine structures in tropical rivers in South America. Korea.S. New Zealand and many areas in Europe and the Middle East. stacks and an infinite variety of other onshore steel surfaces. The first test panels were heat cured and of essentially the same composition as Australian material of the. A second test set also exposed 23 years is one of the first trials of a non-baked or stoved inorganic coating. Some of the original panels were there with the inorganic coating still fully protecting after 23 years. blistering and similar adhesion problems not normally encountered with the inorganic zinc-rich primers. One Coat Zinc-Rich Coating System . same period.S. in general.00. refineries. These materials are a worldwide answer to severe marine coating problems. They have been used in the waterworks industry. (early 1950 s) were located on the 80-foot lot of the International Nickel Company s testing area at Kure Beach. zinc-rich materials are standard primer for all surfaces subject to severe seawater corrosion. the East Coast of Australia. A. Offshore. Also. CASE HISTORIES It is not intended that detailed application instructions and surface preparation methods be outlined here. as previously noted. tanks. Guide to Zinc-Rich Coating Systems and SSPC Paint System 12. The 80-foot lot at Kure Beach is recognized as one of the most corrosive of the marine test areas. North Carolina. chemical plants. organic zinc-rich may be used for spot repair to provide a zinc-based coating directly over bare steel and yet provide a tie between the old and new organic coating. pipes. are coated with inorganic zinc primers. Many icebreakers in the U.

This platform was coated with inorganic zinc from the mean low tide line up. PRODUCTION PLATFORMS Offshore petroleum production platforms are an area where corrosion protection is imperative. E. where its high temperatures and humidity provided a need for new protective coating. Heater-treaters were field tested. onshore and offshore.outstanding resistance that one coat of inorganic zinc provides. Well heads and Christmas trees were some of the first to receive the coating. These were somewhat larger in size and followed by other equipment on the offshore production platforms. It was well protected after 15 years by a single coat of Type l-A inorganic zinc coating. C. from highly humid tropical areas of Indonesia. B. the ODECO Ranger. The largest semi-submersible drilling rig in the world.PORTABLE OFFSHORE DRILLING RIGS One of the early applications was the first Mr. The inorganic coatings applied alone. One of the new bridges in Australia is a very interesting structure. These were pieces of equipment that were subject to severe corrosion and small enough to make good tests. are providing maximum protection for these essential pieces of equipment. This bridge was coated in 1956. was coated with inorganic Type l-C. edges. Alaska. It is the Batman Bridge with a main span of 675 feet across the Whirlpool Reach on the Tamar . with all of the corners. It was recently built in Japan for use in the North Sea. crevices and surfaces defects that are inherent in such shapes. where tides are very high and ice in the winter continually flows past and against the structure. Type l-A or 1-B or overcoated Type l-C for additional protection and for safety coloration.e.. Gus. perhaps more so since many bridge structures are formed from structural steel shapes. Singapore and the Persian Gulf to the United States Gulf Coast and Mexico. FIRST FIELD TESTS Some early applications were in the marine field and the Gulf Coast. BRIDGES Bridges. This was a large. D. like offshore structures. A later and possibly more spectacular drilling structure was the Monopod installed at Cook Inlet. portable offshore drilling platform responsible for many offshore wells in the Gulf of Mexico. The SSPC Zinc-Rich Committee has also had panels under test at both the 80 and 800 lot since 1963 (18 years). extending into the Arctic areas of Alaska and the North Sea. with the open grill work being the most difficult part of the structure to protect. ¡. are extremely vulnerable to corrosion. Applications were primarily in the oil industry. The corrosive conditions for such structures are most severe and many hundreds of stationary drilling and production structures have been coated with inorganic zinc. One of the earliest bridges of this type to be coated was a drawbridge across a tidal river in Florida.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 135 .

but it is providing longer life for the reddish-orange topcoat. G. coal-tar epoxies. due to winds and temperature changes. 15 ft. primarily those transporting refined fuel. were connected on the site by high tensile. without repair. The tank was inspected in 1965. A massive 320 ft. It is subject to as corrosive an environment as any existing bridge. The inorganic zinc coating Type 1-B was first applied in 1962. One major use has been lining the interior of tanker tanks. It is not only protecting the metal of the bridge and providing safe passage for 80. The bridge is also designed to move. Since 1961 the SSPC has cooperated with the management in evaluating several series of coatings. high. The bridge across Golden Gate in San Francisco is probably the world s most famous bridge. many that have been fully protected since erection with zinc-rich primers. There are hundreds of miles of pipe racks in the US. epoxies. There are only thirty days or so a year when the sky is clear and the temperature above 60°F. high sections.000 ton clear span of 45 ft. This was applied in 1954 to a previously heavily corroded tank surface.. section and a top section 23 ft. the historical color of this bridge.2 93 = 8627940 0003583 Ob3 = River in Tasmania.940 ft. high back-anchored cabled A-frame tower leans out at an angle of 20 degrees and supports a 3. Each leg on the A-frame comprises eighteen.SSPC CHAPTERaY. 1 center tank in the UTAH STANDARD. there was no rust or loss of metal. chlorinated rubbers. and is in very nearly original condi- . Another refinery and chemical exposure difficult to maintain is pipe racks. REFINERIES Cooling tower piping is a problem area in most refineries because of the heat and continual wetting and drying of the surface. It was one of the applications where inorganic zinc coatings first proved effective. span. and with the exception of holidays or missed areas in the original application. after 11 years. F. One of the oldest documented applications of inorganic zinc coatings is to the No. alkyds and urethanes. INTERIOR TANKER TANKS There have been many and varied uses of inorganic zinc coatings in the marine field. It sways as much as 24% feet and may rise and fall as much as twelve feet. The 3 mil inorganic coating Type l-A was applied to all steel surfaces on this bridge.000 cars a day across its 8. not only 22 zinc-rich systems but also other generic types such as vinyls. friction grip bolts. It is still in service today. long deck trusses. The bridge is exposed to extreme atmospheric conditions of the salt and fog. It is constantly wet and damp. some weighing up to 32 tons each. All tower sections. one 18 ft. and the faying surfaces of the individual members were provided the optimum coefficient of friction by use of an inorganic zinc coating.

The pipe was coated with a very crude product in a crude manner. grassfires. The total footage coated with inorganic zinc in these six vessels was over 18 million square feet. also stoved. A second line has now been installed with the same type of l-A coating. I. inorganic zinc coatings Type l-C are used to protect steel in the containment shells at most nuclear power plants that have been or are being constructed. corrosion was evident anywhere except for isolated pinpoints of rust showing in some brush marks in the coating. 40 years. ATOMIC POWER PLANTS Inorganic zinc is unaffected by radioactivity or radiation. and in the most critical areas. VERY LARGE CARGO CARRIERS (VLCC s) The six Universe class tankers. if any. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from . H. The touch-up and repair areas on the VLCC s were extensive. normal weathering. Little. One coat of inorganic zinc Type l-A over a previously heavily corroded surface has provided this protection. and almost every severe condition conceivable. This was Morgan-Whyalla Pipe Line. Many Japanese and European shipyards use Type 2 zinc-rich primers for preconstruction primers. Nevertheless. They are epoxy-based and applied by either brush or air spray. marine exposures. except at severely abraded areas. The new medium-size crude carriers built for Alaska crude transportation on the Pacific Coast are coated with Type l-C inorganic zinc primer.tion after more than 20 years of continuous use in refined oil products.000 tons each. All spots where the final coatings had been applied were coated with Type 2 organic zinc-rich primers. From hundreds of tests and years of actual exposures it is expected that the inorganic zinc will protect the containment vessels for their entire design life.coat of inorganic zinc Type l-A. after it had been in service for 30 years. to transport water 240 miles across South Australia. found it in practically the same condition as when inspected in 1950. MORGAN-WHYALLA PIPE LINE No discussion of zinc-rich coatings is complete without mention of the earliest large application of any zinc-rich product in the world. These ships were first coated with an inorganic preconstruction Type l-B primer. Almost 10 years of service shows no corrosion on the exterior. which was originally constructed between 1940 and 1945. a 1972 inspection by the author. This being the case. almost complete protection has been maintained in the face of sandstorms. 320. with a full. J. This is the structure containing the atomic reactor. subject to high levels of radiation. are a good example of ships constructed in Japan protected both on the interior and exterior with inorganic zinc. During the 35 years the line has been in service.

IHS 136 .

Dan Gelfer. Igriatius Metil. Mr. Tom Ginsberg. BIOGRAPHY C. Walter McMahon. He has been affiliated with Ameron since 1935. and has received several patents on corrosion . He has also authored over 100technical articles on coatings. International of Ameron. as well as a Registered Corrosion Engineer in the State of California. He holds a BA in chemistry from Pomona College. He is the author of the book Corrosion Protection by Protective Coatings and co-editor of the NACE Corrosion Engineers Reference Book. In 1993 he was elected as a NACE Fellow in recognition of distinguished contributions to the field of corrosion and its prevention. Previously. Joseph Guobis. He is a member of the Steel Structures Painting Council and received their John D. C. and corrosion control. Dr. and they have proved effective in hundreds of areas of severe corrosion. M.G. Their use now can be expressed in acres rather than square feet. Monterey Park. Munger is Past President of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers. Mr. and did graduate research work for two years on resin formulation and polymerization at Claremont College. Intorp. Sid Levinson. as well as inorganic coatings for marine and industrial structures. of which he has been a member for over forty years. one of the two highest awards presented annually by NACE for outstanding contributions to the science and technology of corrosion. He is also a registered professional chemical engineer. Hendry. Claremont. Norbert B. and a member of the Los Angeles Section since its organization. Walt Pregmon. and David Sealander. Their continued use will provide longer life and less maintenance for both new and existing structures in the foreseeable future. Munger is a Fellow of the American Institute of Chemists and a member of the American Chemical Society and the federation of Societies for Paint Technology. He received the 1968 Frank Newman Speller Award during the NACE conference held in March 1969.SSPC CHAPTER*4-2 93 = 8627940 0003584 TTT Inorganic zinc coatings have come a long way since originally conceived by Victor Nightingall in Australia and the organic zinc-rich primers about the same time in England. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: Alex Chasan. he was Vice President. California. and President of Ameron Corrosion Control Division. California. He pioneered in the development of plastic and synthetic resin materials for combating corrosion of steel and concrete surfaces. corrosion. Munger -consultant in coatings and corrosion -has been engaged in corrosion control activities for more than fifty years. Keane Award of Merit in 1986.

1964. Ignatius Metil. 23. October 1950. Modern Paint & Coatings. Rapid Topcoating of Inorganic Zinc-Rich Primers -A Case for Improved Productivity . 1975. C. 14. G.control materials and methods.E..A. 1976. Comparison of Self-curing and Post-Cured Inorganic Zinc Coatings as Permanent Primers for Steel. N. Paper #114. G. 1949 -December 20. C.E. Present and Future. 4. Munger.A. Washington Paint Technical Group. 54. Delahunt and N. Rio de Janeiro. Corrosion 80. C. Journalof Protective Coatings and Linings. Munger. Corrosion 80. 11. 1976. Report of the Inspection of Di-Met Products Used in Australia. Munger. Munger. Inorganic Zinc Coatings -Past.. Recent Developments In Inorganic Zinc Coatings. J. Western Regional Conference. May 22. Brazil. N. No. Modern Paint and Coatings. Current Technology Review -Zinc-Rich Coatings . Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings.. C. Enhanced Zinc-Rich Primers . Zinc Silicate Coatings -40 Years Experience. 2. 3. 10. Norbert B.M. 3. Materials Protection. D. G. Amercoat Corporation file. December 1979. Zinc Institute. Solvent Service Corrosion in Tanker Ships. France. N. Dean M. 1957. G. Inc. 15. Septem ber 1974. 7.E.C. 21. C. 6. Vol. Antibes. BritAssociation Advancement Science 10. Modern Coatings for Tankership Compartments. 5.A. Inorganic Zinc Coating Protection of Marine Structures . 12. 1974. R. Munger. Background Notes on Dimetcote No. 8. Munger.C. G. Long-Term Economic Protection with one Coat of Inorganic Zinc-Rich. Washington. Nakachi. July 1957.C. Annual Tanker Conference. REFERENCES 1.A. C.F. Toronto. G. D.Publication. C. p. C. G. G. 221-388.C. National Zinc-Rich Coatings Conference. 1971. Petroleum Industry Use of Zinc-Rich Coatings . G. 1949. 3. Seventh Annual Symposium. Munger. 16. 48-53. Coatings for Nuclear Plants. lndustrial & Engineering Chemistry. Dimetcoat #3 Story . Munger. . American Petroleum Institute. Walter W. Dr. H. published in the proceedings of II Simposio Sul-Americano de Corrosao Metalica. A Revolution in Industrial and Marine Coating. Inorganic Zinc Coatings . Presented at N. G. Zinc Rich Coatings Technology. Munger. 20. 1840. C. C. Environment -Its Influenceon InorganicZinc Coatings . G. Munger.A.E. 1967. May 1972. Amercoat Corporation file. 2. March 85. Ameron. Marine Corrosion Prevention With Inorganic Coatings . C. February 89. 19. 22. 34-44. 17. Berger.C. G. Munger.E. October. November 17. 18. D. C. Munger. Daniel H. Cranmer. 9. Review of Zinc Dust Coatings -presented at Washington Paint Technical Group at annual symposium. Fourth International Congress of Marine Corrosion & Fouling. 1975. May 12. G. C. Gelfer. 1974. Intorp. Mallet. N. Berger -Gilbert Associates.C. March 1964. 13. June 1975. p. Gelfer. p. Munger.

. U. N. 27. presented at the International Ship Painting and Corrosion Conference and Exhibition. O. Di-Metalization for the Prevention of the Corrosion of Iron. Chapter IV.440. H. N.946. Victor Nightingall. SSPC 87-06. 1967. 1976. 1939. H. 25. H. Netting.E. Victor Nightingall. E. Pourbaix. R. Victor Nightingall. Organic and Inorganic Zinc Filled Coatings for Atmospheric Service. M. March 10.Patent 2. Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions . May. 1987.S.A.S. 1976.A.462. Tech. 39. U. Organic Zinc Coatings .A. Corrosion. Environmental Impact on Inorganic Zinc Coatings .1.C. Patent 2. Derolf. 32. 33. 37. Topcoats for Zinc-rich Coatings. 40. N. Ohio. Munse. Static and Fatigue Tests of Bolted Connections Coated with Dimetcote. 29. publication 68173. Committee T-6H. February 22. 36. G. Inorganic Zinc Coatings -Some Disadvantages & Remedies . Division of Environmental Chemistry. Report. International Marine Corrosion Conference. 1961. Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings.969. 31. Victor Nightingall. Section 51. 26. May. 1949. E. CoLumbus. San Francisco. Weldes.A. Aqueous Quarternary Ammonium Silicate Vehicles for High Performance Zinc-Rich Primers and High Temperature Resistant Paints . A. 30. Munger.S. 28. 1974. Steel Structures Painting Council. N. Zinc Dust Metal Protective Coatings . 38. G. 34. 35. D.763. Rochow. E. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 137 . A. 1940. H. Australia. Hot Dip Galvanizing as a Protective Coating in Atmospheric Corrosion. Walter H.C. Steel & Concrete. Victor Nightingall.P. 1948. Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry.. May 1974.710. I. Battelle Memorial Institute. Research report on effect of Dimetcote Coatings on Weldability of Selected Steels . Chemistry of Silica . April 19. British Patent 505. Melbourne. Chapter XV. Patent 113. New Jersey Zinc Company. Roebuck.E.24.C.E.E. 1980. Patee and R.C. Pergamon Press. Velsboe. Aust. Monroe.C. Marcel. C.

The corrosion of steel is retarded by several mechanisms: By anodic inhibitors such as red lead. also contains a reference to iron. and not the vehicle. Many investigators consider only the pigment. White lead and fatty acid pitch also is mentioned for use as a protective coating. Homer s Iliad. Most pure metals are unstable and tend to return to original form. written about 1900 years ago.SSPC CHAPTER*4. iron is mentioned in connection with construction of chariots. Immersion tests showed lead and calcium soaps of formic acid were corrosive.3 CORROSION INHIBITIVE PIGMENTS AND HOW THEY FUNCTION bY Arnold J. SUGGESTED INHIBITIVE MECHANISMS reported in 1954 that water was noncorrosive after contact with paints prepared by grinding basic pigments in linseed oil. written about 1200 B. There is evidence that an iron tool was found inside the great pyramid of Khufu at Gizeh. I. Lead and calcium soaps of azelaic and pelargonic acids were inhibitive.3 93 = 8b27940 0003585 936 September 1993 (Editorial Changes) CHAPTER 4. One method to prevent corrosion is to incorporate inhibitive pigments in the protective coating applied to metallic substrates. Hebrews and Greeks. He describes how iron workers used bituminous materials for varnishing iron. Undoubtedly. A broken axle on a chariot in 2000 B. An early reference to protecting iron or steel against corrosion is in the writings of Pliny the Elder . Corrosion is essentially the formation of a more stable compound of metal. Their purpose is to impart corrosion inhibitive properties to the organic or inorganic binders or vehicle portions of the primer coatings.C.C. Eickhoff Metal corrodes because of one or more environmental factors and gradually disappears or disintegrates through physical and chemical processes. dated about 3100 B. In the Book of Judges of the Old Testament. zinc . when they attempt to evaluate a corrosion inhibitive pigment.. was as embarrassing as a corroded water tank in the twentieth century. corrosion plagued early Egyptians.C.

etc. strontium chromate.9 for oiticica oil. electrochemical reactions that take place when coated steel substrate is exposed to high humidity or condensed moisture (dew). alkyd resins. zinc rich coatings. By cathodic inhibitors or cathodic polarization By cathodic protection -e. and Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 138 . followed by oiticica oil and finally alkyd resin.5 for alkyd resin.yellow. 0 chemical reactions that may occur between pigment and the vehicle while paint is in the container before it is used. Based on inhibitive properties. in a marine or chemical environment. such as environment. by the use of thick (10 to 20 mils) relatively impervious films. 3.9 for linseed oil. alkyd resin.e.1 for tung oil. To obtain optimum substrate protection the protective coatings system must be carefully evaluated considering many factors. linseed oil. 0 electrochemical reactions that occur at the anodic and cathodic areas or interface between the dry paint film and the steel substrate.e. and 1.g. 8. Tung oil had the poorest inhibitive properties. In this instance. ¡. Partial immersion tests of mild steel coupons confirmed the analyses of the aqueous extracts. in form of zinc dust in the paint film. tung oil) suggests that their metal protective properties may be evaluated by their ability to form lead soaps of azelaic acid. electrochemical reactions that take place when the coated steel substrate is exposed to salt spray (fog) e. These films have extremely low moisture vapor and oxygen transmission. The degradation products were identified by vapor phase chromatography.g. the metal. Extending this to the other three vehicles (¡. is the anode and sacrificially corrodes to protect steel from rusting. oiticica oil. Mayne and Ramshaws showed azelaic acid was the principal degradation product of linseed oil fatty acids. and tung oil. By mechanical protection. 0 physical chemistry of pigment-vehicle combination in different environments. The relative amounts of degradation products were 11. linseed oil was best. Appleby and Mayne4 reported on the degradation products of four red lead paints formulated with linseed oil.

(anodic reaction) The 8 electrons are consumed by reacting with water and oxygen to form sodium hydroxide viz: 8e-+ 20. the overall reaction is repeated. They confirmed Evan's views.O + 8e-80H-(cathodic reaction) By combining these two reactions we obtain: 4Fe" + 20. . + 4H2O-4Fe(OH). + 8Na' + 4H20+8NaOH (cathodic reaction) When products at the anodic and cathodic areas combine in the presence of excess oxygen.(anodic reaction) 20.H. Mayne expressed it in simple chemical equations: 4Fe" + 8CI.-2Fe.O. when steel panels are coated with films that are not alkali resistant. Evans pointed out that sodium hydroxide can soften oil-modified films and lead to their disintegration and a type of film failure not encountered in a salt-free environment. Misleading information can be derived from salt spray (fog) or salt water immersion tests.O. the final product is rust or Fe.O.H. If only oxygen and water are present (no corrosive salts) the electrochemical dorrosion of iron (formation of rust) is as follows: 4Fe "+4Fe++ + 8e.O + 2H.R.-+2Fe.1 to 1. Fancutt6 and Hudson tested 127 paint systems on steel immersed in sea water. + 8NaOH + 0.SSPC CHAPTER*4-3 93 8627940 0003586 872 electrochemical reactions that take place when coated steel substrate is immersed in fresh water. Mayne' reported that panels coated with polystyrene and immersed in sea water for 46 days showed rust nodules at the anodes and liquid filled blisters at the cathode areas. and in the presence of moisture (water). (yellow rust) In the presence of excess oxygen. The above reactions8 describe the corrosion process if salt (sodium chloride) is present. U. Liquid in these cathodic areas was 1.-+4FeCI. it is self perpetuating. + 0. Once corrosion has started. 4Fe(OH).H. red rust forms. + 8e.O.O This reaction shows that water is a by-product of corrosion. + 4H. 4FeCI.3 normal sodium hydroxide.O + 8NaCI + 2H20 With the indicated reformation of sodium chloride..

. These authors showed there is a minimum of rusting and blistering when PVC is slightly less than CPVC.e. Usually these paints rely on thick films (10to 20 mils) and freedom from pinholes to protect the substrate. corrosion may not only continue at the exposed sections of the steel. Thus. If the surface to be protected is not completely covered with a film free of pores. pigment and binder present in the coating. Paints specially prepared for application in strong acid and alkali environments provide effective mechanical protection. The evaluation of an experimental anticorrosive pigment can be very misleading. PVC is the ratio of pigment volume to the volume of nonvolatile material. EFFECT OF PIGMENT VOLUME CONCENTRATION Pigment volume concentration (PVC) and critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC) of anticorrosive primers are very important. Chemical inhibition. CPVC is that level of pigmentation in dry paint. Mechanical protection is simple: the paint film acts as a waterproof coating or an electrical insulator between the anodic and cathodic areas. Also. It is usually expressed as a percentage. Asbeck and Van Loo9 showed how formulating can affect the parameters of permeability.as long as oxygen can penetrate the paint film.5% to 42. The PVCs varied from 17. moisture permeability does not have to be as low to ensure useful film life.0%. Various film properties are greatly affected by variations in PVC. The 42% PVC primers were very blister. CPVC is especially significant in flat paints. The pigments in inhibitive paints act as a source of a passivating agent. if the primer formulator merely substitutes the experimental pigment for a pigment of proven performance on an equal volume basis.and corrosion-resistant. low oxygen and moisture permeabilities are very important film properties -especially if a steel surface must depend only on mechanical or barrier protection. Eickhoff'O also demonstrated this with a series of epoxy-polyamide primers applied to cold rolled steel panels and exposed at tide range. but also accelerate due to concentrated anodic attack. rusting and blistering. even erroneous. Paints prevent corrosion by various mechanisms: Mechanical protection or thick films. Chemical inhibitive films are useful because they are not as sensitive as the mechanical film to undercutting when small breaks or pores are present. ¡. II. and Galvanic or cathodic protection. where just sufficient binder is present to fill the voids between the pigment particles.

LIFE EXPECTANCY OF A PAINT FILM How long will a paint film protect a steel substrate? A discussion of corrosion inhibitive pigments is not complete without mention of four important variables: Environment. Steel specimens were primed with two coats of red lead-linseed oil and topcoated with two coats of iron oxide-linseed oil. England). The Protective Coatings Sub-Committee of the British Iron and Steel Research Association11 published some very interesting results.PVC and CPVC are extremely important when formulating anticorrosive primers and subsequently interpreting their behavior in various environments. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 139 . The panels were exposed in an industrial atmosphere (Sheffield. and 0 Dry film thickness of the paint.. Other studies of a similar nature have been reported by Liebman'. Surface preparation. 111. 0 Composition of the pigment and vehicle.

6 years Intact Mill Scale 8. In this case oxygen in the air acts as a depolarizer. the covering is destroyed. There are two reaction sites between the pigment and nonvolatile portion of the vehicle. IV. weather resistance) of paint when it is spread over an area in a thin film and allowed to dry. If it occurs on the cathode.3 years Pickled 9. A. they have an important bearing on liquid properties (viscosity. SITE ONE: REACTIONS IN THE PAINT CAN What reactions occur between the pigment and the nonvolatile portion of the vehicle while paint is in the can? Regardless of the chemical reactions. POLARIZATION Polarization has been described in technical literature for ears'^. During World War II everyone was in a hurry. etc. Due to shortages of materials. This is called polarization. collects on the cathodic areas of steel and acts as a blanket to reduce corrosion. It is for this reason that water or moisture with a high oxygen concentration is more corrosive. it is called cathodic polarization. Practically all water or moisture has some dissolved oxygen.3 years Weathered & Hand Cleaned 2. flexibility. as shown above. In corrosion prevention its usage is becoming more common. Moisture or water makes iron or steel corrode." The linseed oil was heatpolymerized. .3 73 8627940 0003587 707 Effect of Surface Preparation on Paint Life Relative Surface Preparation Durability Sand blasted 10. someone developed a product calted "linseed replacement oil. Hydrogen ions from the water or moisture corrode steel and one product is hydrogen gas. Following is a very preliminary discussion of polarization.^^. V. is self-evident.SSPC CHAPTER84.'^. as bubbles. Hydrogen. CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN PAINTS A can of liquid paint is a chemical factory. This applies to the same paint when it is spread over an area in a thin film that changes from liquid to solid film. It was then blended with raw linseed oil and mineral spirits and used to replace raw linseed oil.) of paint in the can and the physical properties (hardness. A more detailed discussion appears in references 16 and 17. adhesion. The result is that corrosion continues unabated. more water is formed and polarization starts again.3 years The effect of surface preparation on paint life. Oxygen combines with the covering of hydrogen. drying time.

It describes the effects of varying the true red lead (Pb. A study of the chemical reactions of a pigmentvehicle combination that occurs in a closed container is discussed by Eickhoff. acetic. Metallic soaps formed in the dry paint film from different basic pigments impart different physical properties to the dry paint film. Spec. and solubility of the reaction products in the vehicle. TT-P-86. al. Sometimes if the gelled paint aged 7 to 15 days it would de-gel. SITE TWO: REACTION IN THE FILM What reactions occur between pigment and the nonvolatile portion of the vehicle after paint is spread in a thin film? It is common knowledge that when a mixture of raw linseed oil and metallic driers is spread in a thin film and allowed to dry. flexibility. An example of paint film that becomes hard and brittle when aged is a zinc chromate primer.) content of the pigment. the dry paint film is tougher and more flexible than zinc chromate pigmented film. revert to its original viscosity. The study concluded that red lead pigments containing 92% or more Pb30. between the paint and the substrate. It is easy to understand how basic pigments in oxidizing oilmodified. This is an example of a factor that should be considered when the formulator selects a pigment-vehicle combination for a given purpose. ketoxy. and adherence of paint to the steel substrate. et.''. . color retention. alkyd resins can readily affect dry film properties of paint. made according to Federal Specification TT-P-645. B. etc. package-stable red lead primers were easily obtained.O. If a similar primer is made with the zinc chromate replaced by an equal volume of basic lead silicochromate. toughness.Sometimes Fed. If the polymerizing temperature was 575 to 585"F (302-307 OC). O'Neill and Brettz0 studied reactions in paint films between the paint and the atmosphere. Other factors to consider include drying time. time. and be suitable for use. temperature. and chalk resistance. the red lead paint gelled. do not react with alkyd resin vehicles to form lead phthalate. Type 1 red lead primer had excellent viscosity stability and sometimes it would gel in 24 hours. After extensive laboratory studies18 it was learned that when the oil polymerizing temperature was 625 to 650°F (330-343"C). a wide variety of organic acids are formed. and between the medium (binder or vehicle) and the pigment. The only conclusion was that the nature of the linseed oil polymer formed at the higher temperature was the offending factor. These physical properties influence hardness. moisture. These include formic. propionic. The acid number of polymerized oil was not a controlling factor.

iron oxide and calcium carbonate very much less so. and anatase titanium dioxide showed Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 140 .They showed red lead and zinc oxide are appreciably reactive in the dry film.

..SSPC CHAPTER*4.. SOME COMMON INHIBITIVE PIGMENTS chromate..... .. Characteristics of common inhibitive pigments are 3Pb0 + Pb0..............) Temperature is increased and the tetrabasic lead A........5 Specific Gravity ......35 Color ....... the drying time was shortened. .34... PbSiO.......PbCr04) + 3Si02+4(Pb0.........+4Pb0...4.. ..) + 3(3Pb0....... cadmium and zinc substrates have an appreciable effect on the percent metal in the H20 various films....3 93 W 8627940 0003588 b45 W no detectable reactivity.55-1... .........White Specific Surface Area ..) by fusing sodium borate and barium chloride....PbCr0. Particle Size. ... .. .......10 to 18 Av. ..10 Refractive Inäex............ HzO. Iron was considerably less and aluminum 2Pb0 + CrO-PbO'PbCrO.30 Oil Absorption .................. Both active ingredients contribute to the corrosion inLevin and McMurdieZ3 reviewed these early studies and hibitive mechanism of basi . ... Lead.......... .O..) Physical Properties Specific Gravity .. Orange Pounds per Solid Gallon .........O...B. substrates.. BARIUM METABORATE chromate reacts with silica to form monobasic lead Commerciallyz1.. none..Anodic In 1874 Benedikt2* prepared barium metaborate (BaO... If the percent metal in the dried linseed oil film was relatively high... 4(4Pb0..60 Pounds per solid gallon ........PbCr0........3.. .... ...1 Oil Absorption ....... .27.. They also reported on the percent The initial reaction takes place in a water slurry of litharge metal in films of linseed oil dried on different metal and chromic acid... The theoretical chemical formula is: BaB... .4 ...3 mz/cm3 Type of Inhibitor ...8 micrometres Color. this pigment is known as modified chromate and tri-basic lead si licate. In a rotary kiln unreacted lead monoxide (PbO) reacts with the monobasic lead chromate to form tetrabasic lead VI...1...1.. copper......24-3...... barium metaborate......PbCr04d iscussed in alphabetical sequence (see Table 1..........

the tribasic lead silicate pigment is very reactive and has a very brief This pigmentz5 is a chemical complex that results package stability.. This indicates the material is highly complexed....... is stable with a wide variety of coating vehicles... but they do not have as effective inhibitive modified barium metaborate are due to alkalinity and the properties as the produ ct made by calcination. monobasic lead chromate-tribasic lead silicate.vehicles. The filtered product is furnaced at about 600°C and lead silicate in com bination with monobasic lead ground to a size suitable for use in paints.. .. Gamma Tri-basic Lead Silicate .. et.29% that practically all of the silica core surface is covered with Silica .25% Microscopic examination of the mill ed pigment reveals Monobasic Lead Chromate ... 46% a very thin coating of basic lead chr omate. typical composition: The kiln product... BASIC LEAD SILICO-CHROMATE*'* * formulated alone in an oleoresinous vehicle.... chromic acid and silica in a water It is not fully underst ood why the kiln-formed tribasic slurry2'. For this reason small amounts of red iron oxide (5 to 10% by weight) are ideal for improving the hiding power... Tribasic metaborate ion which passivates the anode in essentially lead silicate has defin ite anticorrosive properties when forthe same manner as the chromate ion.......... It also is more effec tive as an anticorrosive pigmonobasic lead chromate and gamma tri-basic lead ment than either monobasic lead chromate or basic lead silicate -on a silica core.. X-ray and chemical analyses silicate alone or a mech anical mixture of monobasic lead show basic lead silico-chromate pigment has the following chromate and tribasic lead silicate. The resultant chromate is a package -stable product in many paint product is a mixture of two chemical compounds . mulated with drying oils or oleoresinous ve hicles. from mixing litharge........ Mecha nical mixtures of these coating barium metaborate with silica. _-This pigment has relatively low hiding power.. When B.... active ingredients are monobasic lead chroma te and gamThe modified barium metaboratez4 is prepared by ma tribasic lead silicate.c lead silicochromate...... These confirmed the findings of Benedikt. According to two compounds plus silica ha ve some corrosion inhibitive Buckman.... the corrosion inhibitive properties of properties. Low 141 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from .

IHS .

0 -41. calcium borate and silicates are recognized corrosion inhibitors. Most of them are relatively insoluble in water. A commercial grade of this pigment is described in ASTM Specification D-1648. These pigments form metallic soaps with oil or oil-modified alkyds. C. and strontium types.2 7. 44.8 -39.9 9.5 -17. acting on the barrier coat and function improvement in adhesion. B. magnesium.1 38. they permit a wide selection of tint and color.0 Calcium barium DhosDhosilicate 37.1 6.9 boro.O.9 -46. BASIC BOROSILICATE AND BASIC PHOSPHOSILICATE COMPOSITE PIGMENTS These essentially white or colorless pigments'27) are silicate composites of basic phosphates of calcium.8 Calcium strontium DhosDhosilicate 37. Their specific gravities and tinting strengths are low.7 Zinc DhOSDhOSiliCatB 46.O* sio.1 38.5 8. the cathodic protection is the more pronounced. or zinc. Complexing these crystalline pigments and changing them to amorphous pigments improves their anticorrosive pro pert ¡es. . barium. Corrosion is inhibited by direct and indirect functionality.5 hiding power also facilitates use of this pigment in pastel primers and topcoats.9 silicates 43.SSPC CHAPTERm4.4 33. Calcium phosphate.1 -39. Calcium Dhosohosilicate 44. The hydrolytic products resulting from the hydrolysis of the metallic soaps inhibit corrosion. Because they are white or colorless. However. Boron and phosphosilicate pigments include the calcium.O Calcium 44.9 -10. barium. zinc. These pigments function as anodic and cathodic depressants.3 93 D 8627940 0003589 581 W TABLE 1 TYPICAL PIGMENT COMPOSITIONS Ca0 P.9 -10. soap formation.

D.6 55 The suggested mechanism of corrosion inhibition is SrO ZnO -----11. Sp. lead soaps are formed in the presence of water or water vapor. Extracts of lead suboxide are depositedz8 on the anode and insulate the anodic areas from the cathodic areas.`--that of anodic passivation.6 7 2.7 -5.. page 2: .9 5 2.. The following is quoted from Sherwin Williams Bulletin No.`..5 -3. (Moo.5 -5.6 34..8 5 2.6 7 2.6 5 2. Even with the high metallic content of lead in the lead suboxide pigment.6 7 2.7 -5.9 67. The molybdated zinc oxide pigment has the general formula (ZnO).6 32.0 13.6 5 2.4 -10.96 54. The molybdated zinc oxide pigment is used for oleoresinous-organic solvent types of anticorrosive primers.86 69 -4.`.on the metal surface.. Oil Ba0 lanition Size Microns Gravity Absorption -4. X-ray diffraction indicate that a series of relatively pure pigments can be produced ranging from 1:l to 1O:l molar ratio of ZnO to MOO.6 34. Lead suboxide functions as an anticorrosive pigment by reacting with the oxidation products of the vehicle. It is not a true chemical compound but a mixture of lead and lead oxide on a core of metallic lead.. The basic calcium zinc molybdate is specifically for water-borne and latex metal protective primers3'. concentrate on the steel substrate and are adsorbed .2 3. LEAD SUBOXIDE** Lead suboxide is a gray amorphous pigment manufactured from agitated molten pig lead in an electric furnace. E. thus preventing under-film corrosion.). 343. For example. Mayne and RamshawZ9 discuss in detail the formation of lead soaps in paint films applied to Steel Surfaces.`. with linseed oils or oxidizing alkyds. MOLYBDATE PIGMENTS This class of pigments is commercially available in two types of compounds.`-`-`. This results in anodic passivation.. A typical composition is: Loss on Mean Part. The basic calcium zinc molybdate is suggested for use in latex and other water-borne anticorrosive primers. it does not function as a cathodic inhibitor similar to zinc dust. where y is greater than x..2 --`. hydrolyze. The molybdates inhibit corrosion by anodic passivation.

This complex offers no protection. molybdate ions in competition with these ions adsorb on the surface and form a complex with divalent iron ions.The mode of passivation is believed to occur as follows: as iron corrodes in a solution containing chloride and sulfate. However. the Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 142 .

.....Anodic While red lead has the longest history of use as an anti-corrosive pigment. heat 2PB + 0... the ancient Roman writer pl in^^^ mentioned that a painter called Micias used red lead as a pigment about 320 B..Gravity .. Prolonged shows that the corrosion in- ..0. the remainder is lead oxide or PbO.... ... 25.SSPC CHAPTERJV-3 93 8627940 0003590 2T3 W divalent iron is oxidized by dissolved oxygen to the ferric or trivalent state... all of the corroding surface is covered with a protective film of ferric molybdate and the corrosion ceases........ RED LEAD** Red lead probably has the longest history as an anticorrosive pigment... Oil Absorption ... it also has the longest history of controversy regarding its corrosion inhibitive mechanism...06 3...... Thus...... Pure red lead is the lead salt of ortho-plumbic acid (plumbus orthoplumbate). the ferrousmolybdate complex on the surface of the metal is converted to a ferric molybdate which is insoluble in neutral or basic solutions. 42.... Physical Properties Color ..C. ....5 microns Specific Resistance (Ohms) .. Orange Specific Gravity .-2Pb0 6Pb0 -heat 2Pb....... per Solid Gal.....1.. such as 85%. In 77 A........D.....~ ~__ F. 5.....00 Wt........1 Oil absorption (gl100g) ......lto 3 micrometres Type of Inhibitor . white white Sp.. red lead is available in various33 grades... Other than small amounts of trace elements. ...... 500 5000 ~... Eventually...............6 to 9 Av.. 14 18 Av..1 Ibs...74........95% and 97% PbJO.35microns 2.......0 Ibs.. The structural formula is: Red lead is made by heating metallic lead in an excess of oxygen.....9 Pounds per solid gallon ........... Particle Size ....8........ particle size .... Today. Physical Properties Basic Zn Molybdate Basic CaZn Molybdate Color..

More extensive work showed that oiticia oil and tung oil metallic soaps had poor rust inhibitive properties relative to linseed oil metallic soaps. Mayne's studies in combination with studies by Hawke & indicate that inhibitive or passivation of steel under a red lead paint film can occur by three mechanisms. so that one supplements the other. As early as 1951 Mayne38 showed that water was non-corrosive after contact with linseed oil fatty acid soaps of lead. + Na. G. Anodic adsorption of organic acid molecules. 1. Mayne40 also stated that the soaps of saturated acids such as palmitic and stearic do not render water non-corrosive. Mayne has shown that soaps can inhibit corrosion of steel. . In addition to its oxidizing properties. STRONTIUM CHROMATE* Strontium ~hromate'~ is readily prepared by mixing a solution of strontium nitrate with sodium chromate. soluble lead compounds will inhibit corrosion.). linoleic and linolenic degraded to yield rust inhibitive compounds.CrO. After some involved laboratory procedures Mayne39 concluded that in the presence of water and oxygen the lead soaps of the linseed oil fatty acids yield soluble inhibitive degradation products. red lead forms soaps in the dry film. 3. On the other hand. Sr(NO.hibitive powers of red lead are not because it is an alkaline pigment or because it acts solely as an oxidizing agent over anodic areas. lead soaps of oleic. These soaps undoubtedly enhance the mechanical properties of the film and in the presence of moisture. None of the hypotheses fully explain all of the observations. barium. Mayne and Ramshaw41 showed that lead salts were more efficient inhibitors than fatty acid soaps of calcium or sodium.+SrCrO. They showed that azelaic acid was the principal degradation product of linseed oil fatty acids. Anodic precipitation by oxidation. The result is a yellow pigment. zinc. 2. + 2NaN0. either singly or in combination. A provocative survey of the action of metal protective paints was prepared by Elm43. Optimum efficiency occurred when both the mono-basic and di-basic acids had a total chain length of 8 to 9 carbon atoms. hydrolyze to release organic acids and soluble lead compounds. the inhibitive action of red lead is complex. A water extract of linseed fatty acids (no lead compound present) has a definite corrosion-inhibitive effect. Anodic adsorption of soluble lead compounds. Under certain conditions. ferrous compounds are oxidized to ferric compounds and precipitated on the metal. In conclusion. etc. In the presence of red lead.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 143 .

..0% (minimum) Chloride as CI .2% (maxi m u m) Sp............ Many years ago strontium chromate was used for making artists colors.........~describe the use of SrCrO............ Patent 3.....77 Pounds per solid gallon .. ..... .3........... As an anticorrosive pigment SrCrO. .... .. Babcock and Reth~isch..Anodic H............41.......33 Particle Size (microns) .248..41....10to 15 Type of Inhibitor .....0% (minimum) Chromium as CrO.Yellow Strontium as SrO........... is used in coatings for the light metal alloys. .........4 Oil Absorption . TRIBASIC LEAD PHOSPHOSILICATE* * This is a corrosion-inhibitive white pigment described in US..... Strontium chromate can be purchased to meet ASTM-D 1649........ It can be modified with chromic acid to make a light orange lead silicate-lead chromate ..080. .. Typical Properties Color ...67 to 3. .............0..........6 to 31.... ......1 /0 (maxi mum) Sulfate as SO.SSPC CHAPTER*4.30.......) is part of the anticorrosive pigment.0.... Gravity .....8% in order to minimize blistering when it (SrCrO........... in combination with aluminum pigment as an aluminum flake corrosioninhibitive coating....3 93 8627940 0003573 L3T The residual sodium nitrate content should be kept below 0............ . Organic pigments have now replaced it as a color pigment....

... .... Cartledge46 studied the behavior of inorganic ions and molecules of the general formula X0.... The inhibition depends upon the maintenance of some minimum concentration of pertechnetate.... molybdenum..pigment...50.. -INHIBITORS This group of pigments is of scientific interest......... The nuclear properties of technitium make it useful in studying the mechanism of inhibition....... ........ The metals include salts or oxides of vanadium.... ... Physical Properties Color.....4... technetium.9% Water of Hydration . .. Technetium was especially interesting........1 to 7....00 Pounds per Solid Gallon .. they do not appear to have any practical application in coatings except as chromates...83 to 87% Phosphorous Pentoxide . but to date..5 to 5.25 micron Typical Composition Lead oxide as PbO....... In this case it was potassium pertechnetate (KTcO...... This material conforms to ASTM-D 2744.. tungsten. rhenium. ruthenium and osmium........12 to 16 Mean Particle Size. ......... X0.. .6...........25% Silica as SiO.....5 to 2.. ......1... phosphates and molybdates... The atomic number is 43...... It was the first of the previously unknown elements to be artificially prepared in 1937 by Perrier and Segle4 ...0.. chromium... Its radioactivity is so low that dilute solutions can be handled without special precautions....).....n-derived from the elements of the VI to VIII groups of the periodic table. .7.White Specific Gravity ....0 Oil Absorption ..................5% I44 I. niobium.....

. per liter of water..Not all X0.. Cartledge4g proposed the necessity of looking within the inhibitor particle for the property responsible for its unique action..... J...1 Type of Inhibitor .46 Pounds per Solid Gallon ....... . These wash primers are two-compoCopyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS ..=. ... BASIC* Basic zinc chromate is also known as zinc tetroxy chromate. Gravity ...... The assigned chemical formula is 4Zn(OH)................1 g.. it is difficult to understand the great difference between the sulfate and chromate ions.............. According to Pryor and the phosphate ion is an active inhibitor if oxygen is present.. per liter.Yellow Oil Absorption .. ....... It is well known that the sulfate ion accelerates corrosion. .97 Color ..... .. For comparison. A popular wash primer formula is described in Steel Structures Painting Council Specification SSPC-Paint 27 and also in Military Spec. If inhibition by chromates is due to the unreduced ion...... Zn CrO......3 to 33... Physical Properties Sp. CrO....02 g CrO..n-1 type ions are inhibitors.. The mechanism of inhibition becomes more complex due to differences in behavior of the SO..87 to 3... DOD-P-15328... The principal use for this basic pigment is in the production of a wash primer50 or etch primer...Anodic The water solubility is very low -on theorder of 0. ZINC CHROMATE...ions... and led to the hypothesis that a suitable degree of internal polarity might be the distinguishing feature of inhibitors of the XO. It is the most popular of the oxychromates..32.= and Mn0. the common potassium zinc yellow is about 1.... PO. type..3. . CrO..

5 mils. The chemistry of wash primers is more fully discussed by Rosenbloom5'. Whiting52 published an excellent history and review of the uses and types of wash primers. The non-reactive type is a one-package product. The essential components of wash primers are phosphoric acid. He believes they function in three ways: 1. GardneP promoted the use of zinc dust in primers. by preventing or retarding corrosion. chromate pigment and a polyvinyl acetal resin -usually a vinyl butyral resin. etc.0 mil dry film thickness do not develop good adhesion or adequate toughness. by providing a base that improves the adhesion and integrity of subsequent protective coating systems.3 93 6627940 0003592 O76 m nent products and are mixed together just prior to use. However. 2. Any wash primer that cannot be used within a maximum of eight hours after mixing with the acid diluent must be discarded. 0. Some investigators say a small amount of rust is not objectionable. The reactive type is a two-package product described in SSPCPaint 27. Films over 1. There are two general types -the organic and inorganic binder types.SSPC CHAPTER*4. Ei~khoff~~ studied many variations of the reactive or two-package wash primer. It must be applied directly over a metal substrate. K. Wash primers can be reactive or non-reactive. by forming both an inorganic and organic film on a metal surface.g. but is not effective if applied over another primer. mill scale and rust must be removed to produce a near-white to white metal surface. If optimum results are required. The thinnest coating that forms a continuous film is recommended -e. reported that metallic zinc would sacrificially plrotect steel immersed in sea water. in England. . In 1916. The overall performance of these variations was considerably less than the original two-package wash primer developed by Whiting52. From the mid-1940s the development of zinc rich primers has progressed rapidly. the metal surfaces must be clean and free from dirt. Wash primer is especially effective when applied to galvanized steel or aluminum. grease. any visible rust will detract from wash primer performance especially if the painted steel object is continually submerged in either fresh or salt water. ZINC DUST Almost a century and a half Davy. If the metal is steel. This one-package type does not adhere to metals as well as the two-package type. and 3.

.. ... The development and use of zinc-rich primers is discussed by Charles Munger in a separate chapter.......4 to 6% Type of Inhibitor ............6 Weight per Solid Gallon ..Cathodic electrical contact and also electrical contact with the steel substrate... formulators' ideas vary as to which particle size is preferable..... Color..5.94% Zinc Oxide ......... Many of the zinc rich paints are supplied in two containers and mixed for use at the time of application........ ..............97% Metallic Zinc (as Zn) .. Physical Properties Sp........... ...... Gravity .... using a method which came to be known as the American process.46................10 to 25 Commercial zinc oxide is available in either acicular ................ ZINC OXIDE Zinc oxide was known long before Cle~patra~~...... It is a product of copper as well as zinc ore smelting.... ......Gray Total Zinc (as Zn) ... Zinc dust in zinc rich coatings acts as the anode and corrodes while protecting the iron or steel substrate... .. L.......... Accordingly..7 Ibs.Gassing in the container can be a problem unless the paint manufacturer is careful in formulating... . Zinc as an element was discovered by Paracelsus in 1520.. Zinc dusts vary in particle size......... ...... The zinc in inorganic zinc coatings is held in a conductive medium so that particle-to-particle contact is not required................... In 1850the New Jersey Zinc Company produced zinc oxide from the metal...... . . Organic zinc rich paints depend on particle-to-particle Properties of Zinc Dust Color... Zinc rich paints are also supplied in one-package containers.White Oil Absorption ..

Zinc yellow as it is known today is a basic potassium zinc chromate with the assigned formula 4Zn0. in this treatise only its use in metal protective coatings is discussed. 3H. In 1829 Lampadi~s~~ suggested its use as a paint pigment.4Cr0. ZINC POTASSIUM CHROMATE* Zinc potassium chromate or zinc yellow. Brizzolara60 et al pointed out that zinc yellow is a unique compound and varies slightly in composition. in its crude form. For many years zinc oxide has been used in combination with zinc yellow-alkyd primers to improve the film-forming properties of the zinc yellow. Mayne5' and Van Rooyen have reported on the passivating action of various metallic soaps of linseed fatty acids -including zinc. With the advent of water-borne (latex) metal protective primers.. was prepared in the early part of the 19th century. Commercial zinc yellows contain very small amounts of Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 145 . zinc oxide has shown some excellent metal protective properties.K20. While zinc oxide is used in many types of coatings. M. zinc oxide is not considered a corrosion inhibiting pigment.or nodular form.O. EvanP classifies zinc oxide as a cathodic inhibitor. Normally.

...... The slightly soluble chromate ion is definitely a factor.... Color.. the corrosion-inhibitive mechanism of zinc potassium chromate is not readily explained.. Chromates also precipitate ferrous salts even in the absence of alkali to give a mixture of ferric and chromic oxides -a protective matrix which binds the pigment particles to the metal....0..... . Chromates are essentially anodic inhibitors....34 Type of Inhibitor .... ZINC PHOSPHATE Zinc phosphate is one of the more recent non-lead.. Harris~~-~~~ and his associates.. Like other pigments..3 73 H Ab27740 0003573 TO2 sulphates and chlorides. According to Jordan and Whitby3 chromates can inhibit corrosion by keeping the primary invisible oxide film in good repair. corrosion inhibitive pigment developments.......3.. . Zinc yellow-alkyd primers have a tendency to become brittle with age.. See ASTM Specification D-478. Color ....... low chloride type...)....... Type 1 for a description of the low sulfate.... With the development of fast drying vehicles... The pigment is excellent for use in the water-resistant. One formula assigned for zinc phosphate is Zn3(P0...2H. Early work done in England was reported by J... ..... the pigment undergoes partial decomposition and releases potassium chromate and potassium dichromate...... Yellow Specific Gravity . N.. perhaps due to the common tendency of formulators to include some zinc oxide along with the zinc chromate...2 Ibs...... This type of zinc chromate is not suitable for making wash primers or etch primers............ .Anodic There is some difference of opinion whether or not this pigment is a true chemical compound. oil-modified. non-chromate.5 Weight per Solid Gallon ....White ....... Further theorizing is intere~ting~~ newly but designed aríd carefully conducted experiments are needed to more fully explain laboratory and field observations.. zinc chromate is used extensively in aircraft primers..29........ synthetic resins.........SSPC CHAPTER*4......... When mixed with water.B.. Oil absorption . Zinc yellow is not recommended for use in linseed oil vehicles because linseed oil films are not sufficiently water-resistant.

.......... Gravity ..15 Wt. per Solid Gallon ...... ................ ........ His report gives a schematic diagram showing the reaction process for zinc phosphate........ According to Davidson70.. it is an oxide of phosphorous acid and zinc -sometimes called a zinc phospho oxide complex....White Sp.. .... MayneB8 has established that... white anticorrosive pigment......06 Wt.... Physical Properties Color.. aqueous extracts from zinc phosphate ground in linseed oil are inhibitive and behave similarly to an extract from zinc phosphatelinseed oil fatty acid soaps...........33..... PantzerB8 promoted the idea that phosphate pigments build up protecting films in the anodic areas..... Mayne also believes that during soap formation a small quantity of phosphoric acid is liberated and possibly improves the protective properties of paints containing this pigment....... Ibs.........8 Oil absorption . Barraclough believes further supporting evidence for phosphate ion donation is shown by using the capacitance ce1I tec hnique6 .40 to 60 Zinc Content (as Zn) ....... even though zinc phosphate has very low water solubility........ ..30 Specific Gravity ...... Lamel la One of the producers of zinc phosphate cautions the formulator that salt spray and high humidity diminish outdoor performance.26.........3....... O.... BarracloughB6 and Harrison propose that zinc phosphate protects steel by phosphate ion donation.. .......4....... .......61O/O ...... ZINC PHOSPHO OXIDE This is a relatively new.... per solid gallon.....2 Particle shape ... ..Oil absorption .

ZnHP0. US.... Patent 3..... chromate-free... This pigment has low hiding power.Av. the development of lead-free.. P.5 to 10.).. Pantzer reported on a zinc organic nitrocompound (Sicorin). ZINC SALTS OF ORGANIC N ITROCOM POUN DS With the imposition of more and more environmental restrictions. --`...`..293 describes this complex as a basic zinc phosphite (XZnO.`. By using the proper proportions of zinc oxide.less than 1 micrometre According to Davids~n ~this pigment is a compound made from zinc as a cation and a phosphite anion... anticorrosive pigments is important. Particle Size. and phosphorous acid.) where X varies from 0....`. .Zn HPO. water. tribasic zinc phosphite can be formed (3 ZnO .... enabling its use in pastel primers and topcoats..`--146 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .`-`-`.969..

.7 Oil Absorption ...... There is magic about research..SSPC CHAPTER*4-3 73 8627740 0003594 949 Physical Properties Zinc Content . Clay and Ashworth and Evans79......21... Uhligs2 ascribes the inhibitive mechanism to the effects associated with absorption of the unreduced ions. . colorless Resistance to temperature............. A~pleby~~.... various schools of thought have developed their own theories and explanations. .... VIL SUMMARY From the efforts of investigators to understand the secrets of corrosion inhibition..powder Color ... When improperly planned it is extravagant and wasteful... VIII....... Maybe Shakespearea4 was peering into his crystal ball when he wrote.. O for a Muse of fire that would ascend the brightest heaven of invention...... In summary...........about 300°C (572 OF) Sp. calculating progress.. even though the molybdate and tungstate ions are weaker oxidizing agents than the chromate ions.....about 45% Organic components ....6 Pounds per Solid Gallon ......... The list of scientific contributors has become long and varied......... Pryor and Cohena3 ascribe the action of molybdate and tungstate ions as arising from film repair....2.. most industries are experiencing numerous and rapid changes..... many of them influenced by concerns about pollution and toxicity......a bo ut 50O/O Nature of the compound... Barraclough and HarrisonBo and MayneBi performed physicochemical tests that often included some type of organic or inorganic binder to form a protective coating that will protect our bridges. ...... It is planned.... Gravity ...... tanks....35 to 40 Pant~er~~ Sicorin is electrochemical instates an hibitor and suggests its use in combination with zinc phosphate..... Of necessity it cannot ignore the effect of the binder. automobiles and the myriad of other items..... ... . or resin.. Elm76. or oil that carries the pigment...... Evans considers the chromate ion to act because of its oxidizing power. but the one item more costly than . CONCLUSION Today.. The coatings industry must maintain a certain practical attitude toward the results from these investigators.....

*Chromate pigments are toxic substances that are closely regulated. *Based on their toxicity and the precautions required by law for their use and disposal. how many molecules combine to make initial units to precipitate from liquid or gas. The water solubility or water dispersion of alkyds. Much of our knowledge of the mechanism of anticorrosive pigments is based on studies of oleoresinous film formers. Barnetta5 aptly stated the problem when he wrote Probably the weakest point in our knowledge of pigments is that we do not know how our pigments are formed. Users are urged to follow all applicable health. In the next five to ten years we will see the development of a whole new class of commercially available. after you think you know it all. SSPC has proposed to withdraw all SSPC specifications for paints which use lead pigments. anticorrosive compounds. Equally important is the issue of pigment toxicity. The present non-lead or non-chromate pigments leave much to be desired. It s what you learn. creates a new class of film formers and as a result will require new studies to explain their pigment-vehicle anticorrosive mechanism. epoxies. non-chromate pigments in aqueous media is extremely limited. Paul Hogan said.research is no research. Our knowledge of the corrosion inhibitive mechanism of nonlead. etc. J. So what does the future hold concerning new pigments for anticorrosive paints? For one thing waterthinnable binders and pigments compatible with them will be large market factors. safety and environmental requirements in applying. These compounds now exist -it is just a question of some modifications in order to put them to use. or whether these continue to grow by addition of single molecules or by aggregation of the precipitated units. that counts. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 147 . handling or disposing of these materials.

Huckle. Oct. D. pp. J. and D. 154. Eickhoff was a consultant for the Steel Structures Painting Council and chairman of a committee to develop specifications for a latex metal primer and latex topcoat. Mr. the Federation of Societies for Paint Technology.R. Robert C. K. Alex Chasan. J. 4.O. He first became interested in protective coatings at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington.C. J.M. p. Raye Fraser. Carl Fuller. He holds memberships in the American Society for Testing and Materials. Anticorrosion.J. Applied Chemistry.C. Hank Stoner. 59. 1973. Marshall McGee. After 26 years with NL Industries he became Head of the Pigments and Coatings Section at the Research Laboratory. Theodore Dowd. L.E. V. 5. William Wallace. March 1957. William Spangenberg. Hudson. Gordon D.J. BIOGRAPHY Arnold J. Leonard Haynie. Lewis. Lother Sander. Simpson. Tom Ginsberg.. House. Charlie R. J. 9. W. 3. Oct. John Montle.S. McClelland. Eickhoff. Appleby. Werkman and Rufus Wint. 1946. Duane T. 8. Armand Stolte. He graduated from the University of Arizona with a B.E. Sid Levinson. Van Rooyen. and E. p. 1932. F. Chuck Munger.. Mayne. Corrosion Technology. 384-394. Edward Arnold. 4. Journal of Oil and Colour Chemists Assoc.E.P. J. 2.. 553.H. and J. pp.O. Ray McMaster. 3-8. The Mechanism of the Protection of Iror and Steel by Paint . 69. 61. Ramshaw. Vol. Journal of Oil & Colour Chemists Assoc. A. 1963. 6.G. p. During World War II he was concerned with marine corrosion problems. The Elder Pliny s Chapters on Chemical Subjects. who has retired. 101.SSPC CHAPTER*4. 7.E. He is accredited by NACE as a Corrosion Specialist.O. July 1954. the American Chemical Society.E.O. Asbeck and Van Loo. Stephen G. Verne J. Mayne.O. Bailey. Mayne. Cantrell. London.3 93 m 8627940 0003595 BB5 = ACKNOWLEDGEMENT REFERENCES The author and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: AI Beitelman. pp.O. Jr. 286-290. 183-199. Todd. in chemistry. 1.C. 13. A. pp. Journal of Applied Chem. was a technical consultant in surface preparation and steel painting problems. 1976. Critical Pigment Volume Relation- . Mayne. 1954. McLeod. pp. John Perchall. 3. Mayne. Joe Mazia. and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers. Fancutt. Journal of Iron and Steel lnstitute.E. and J. Sherman. Mayne.

Teddington. Chem. Chem. 1945. 1941. 20C AD 77. The Work of the Protective Coatings (Corrosion) Sub-Comm: British Iron & Steel Research Assoc. Ibid. 2. Ramshaw. H. Vol. On Some Salts of Boric Acid. 12. Brett. 23. J. 1874..033. J. pp. 18.. R. 1963. Faraday Soc. J. . New York. Oil & Colour Chem. 17.122. O Neill.J. 31. Angew. Vetter. 1951. Deut. Vol. 27.E. Eng. 700-704.M. 1969. 37. W. 1944.O. 51. Bockris. Trans. and J.F. Eickhoff. 16. 1973. April. J. Bosich.049. New York.B. 3. 473. Colour & Varnish Mfgrs. 20.A. Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry Butterworth Scientific Publications.. 1960. and J. Wills. Eickhoff and Pitrot. 1949. Pliny. Harvey Bennett. for CoatingTechnology. 221. Vol. Principles of Protecting Metals with Organic Coatings . L. 19. 30.J. Eickhoff... and R. pp. Vol. p. p.C. 45-52.G. 729-734. Reaction Change of Red Lead Films Schweig. 1948. 1. New York. No. 1978. Arch. London. Appi. The System BaO. 57A. Kebrich. Red Lead-Alkyd Resin Reactions. Applied Chem. A.783. p. A basic zinc molybdate. Patent 3.060. K. 33. 1936. p. Mechanical Surface Preparation See/ Structures Painting Council Manual. S. John Wiley and Sons. Pat. 1962. 553. Federation of Soc. p. Vol. Historia Naturalis.A. Spangenberg.J. p. Unpublished information. 1954. Chemistry. 21.353. Oct. Liebman. 180. Chem. J.C. 24. J. Ber. Assn. Vol. August 1959. Clive Hare. Corrosion Prevention for Practicing Engineers Barnes and Noble Inc. Mayne and Ramshaw. A. Jordan & Whitby. 34-54.. 396. Unpublished information. A. Vol. Chemical Reactions in Paint Films Journal of Oil & Colour Chemists Assoc. E. 1. pp. Patent 3. 35.. Industrial 8. 35. Vol. 1942.700 and 3. Chem. 3-8. Anticorrosive Pigments.V. Vol 32. Benedikt. and H.O. 1470.J.. A. ti W. Chapter 4 of OrganicProtective Coatings by Von Fischer & Bobalek. 8. US. and E.E.. 14. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from . 20.O. Ges. 1954. Private communication. J. Corrosion and the Preparation of Metallic Surfaces of Painting.668. 37. 419. Unit 26. Hudson. McMurdie.979. Korrosion & Metalschutz. Beck. 13. US.M. Aug. pp. 34. et al. 32. 40. 26.O. 38. Vol. 39.A. 25.677. Eickhoff. US. 11. Levin. 10. Fancutt. pp. Ceram. Shaw. Mayne. pp.J. 35.M. L. W. Oct. Vol. 8. J. Electrokinetics Academic Press. Journal of Oil and Colour Chemists Assoc. Basic Lead Silicochromate Anticorrosive Pigment.J. Anti-Corrosion. Sixteenth Bulletin Res. Am. Patents 3. 7. p.E.. 935-946. 52. Corp. Corrosion. of British Paint. Mayne. F. Wiss. 28. 41. 3-8.O. lnd. Jour. Assoc. pp. Tech. 1924. Eickhoff. Society. figment Handbook. No. Private communication. England. 1967. Wagner. 399.ships Industrial & Eng.. & Eng. Vol. 41. 36.E.. Butler. pp. 10. p. 1970. Vol. 29. 1052-1 074. The Mechanism of the Protection of Iron & Steel by Paint. 15. p. Mayne.. 19. Vol. 99-105. US.E. Reinhold Pub. Vol. 22. 13. 34. Buckman.

IHS 148 .

Rustless Coatings for Iron & Steel . US. pp. How Paints Prevent Corrosion . Assoc.E.P.J. 524. 57. 299-301.H. Metallurgy. pp. Communications to the Fifth Meeting of the British Association. 712. 10. 1835. Tech.K. Corrosion. 851-859. Vol. Chem. J.L. Percy. 1937. pp. & H. Oekon.. Oil and Colour Chem. 443.. 3-7. London. 74.. Vol. Chemistry Phys. John Wiley and Sons. New York. G. 1955. 1954. p. Jour. of Physical Chemistry. pp. August. Pantzer. 69. 1954.A. H. 43. Unpublished observations.E. 203.G. J. Am. 1945. 13. 1953. 53. Electrochemical Soc. June-July. 46. Harrison. p. J.107. 34. Mayne. Eng. 59.. Wash Primers. J. M.. W. 106. Protective Coatings for Metals. Burns & Schuh. & W. 1957. Unpublished information.. & E. 5..C.. D. Applied Chemistry (London). 1950. Chemistry. 1955. 1959. Vol. 1953. Oil and Col. 1939. Trans. 435-442. Passivity and Protection.A. H. Vol. al. 58. Journal Appl. 64. U.C. 571.C. Cartledge. 183-199.C. 68. Vol. July. 73. Chem. 1970. Jour.O. 51. E. p. pp. 1965. 341-355. p. Oiticica and a Long Oil Alkyd Varnish . 66. p.SSPC CHAPTER*4*3 93 = 8627940 000359b 711 = 42. 1955. 5. 384. US. A. 67. 656. June. 1948. Mayne and Van Rooyen. 149. Magazine Corrosion. Rosenbloom. 47. Chem. John Murray. J. p. 65. Patent 2. A. Vol.H.C. No. Cartledge. 50. p. . S.772 (Feb.. Evans. 59. 54. p. J.O. pp. L. New York. 46. Mayne. 75. March. R. et. 535.. R. 71. 48. Corrosion Technology. p. 45. Tung Oil. 1975. Vol.O. 1. A. Le Brocq. Hawke. 1861..O. 4. 4. The Relative Protection Afforded by Red Lead Dispersed in Linseed Oil. E. Paints for the Protection of Steel: A Review of Research into Their Modes of Action British Corros. Davidson. 70. 19. 1975. June. 44. J. Anticorrosion.A. Assoc. Unpublished data. Aug. 979.B.. Elm. Anti-Corrosion. et al. 49. Perrier. G. 55. 1829. p. Mech.C. Eickhoff. 100. 3-7. pp. Shaw. Wood. Oct. 16-32. Industrial and Eng. 671.. The Pertechnetate Ion as an Inhibitor of the Corrosion of Iron and Steel. Mayne. 38. Scientific Section Circular. Vol.. p. Paint Oil ¿t Chem.J.. Anticorrosion Paints for Steel Hulls . 63. 61. Industrial 8. 1895. J. J. p. Brizzolara. Pigment Handbook. 5. Lalor. 29. 286-290. 58. J. Pantzer. Current Views on How Paint Films Prevent Corrosion J. 72. Gentles.701. July. 62. pp.O. 49. J. p. Vol. 45. 335t-342t. Oil and Colour Chem. New York. p.A. Longmanc Green and Co. Gardner. Pryor and Cohen. 850. pp. Whiting.R. R. 45. Lampadius.O. Einige Berner Pungen fur Farbenfabrikanten. 60. 1975.A. Pantzer. June 1937. Eng. Metallic Corrosion. 1975. 11. April. 1955). Eickhoff. Chem.525. Assoc. Vol. C. 1963. Patent 2. Nov. 1962. Appleby and Mayne. Segre. Vol. Cole. Vol.C. pp.E. 2561. 56. Oct. A. Deutsche Farben-Zeitschrift. Barraclough et al. 59.R. 16. The Mechanism of the Inhibition of Corrosion by the Pertechnetate Ion . 52..J. J. Davy. p. Rev. Soc.L. Vol.

. Aug. Mayne.`-`-`. 1965. Metals. Metal Inter-Interfaces .. The Mechanism of Action of Metal Protective Paints Paint. 78. The Mechanism of the Protection of Iron and Steel by Paint . 80. 1976.. pp.E. Chapter X. 203. U. Vol.. Prologue. p.. Line 1. 1973. C. 82. Vol.. 1953. Industrial and Eng. 76.. Electrochem. Jour. J. Clay and Cox Chromate and Phosphate Pigments in AntiCorrosive Primers . 312-335. Ashworth and Proctor. H. Am. A Symposium. Uhlig.C. 100. J.R. 13-16.. 1951. 3-8. p.O. Oil and Chemical Review. pp. 272. 1949. and M. --`. Feb.. 41. pp. pp. 77. Vol. 83. J. A. Soc. 56.`. Assoc. Metallic Corrosion. April. 341-355.B. Assoc. New Leadless Anticorrosive Primer .`. Anticorrosion. Journal. pp. Barnett. 1948. 478-490..E.`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 149 . Passivity and Protection. Pryor. Harrison. 81.69-71. Cohen. 56. King Henry V. Oct.. Soc. Oil and Colour Chem. Barraclough and J. J. Oil and Colour Chem.H. 84. The Role of Coatings in Corrosion Prevention -Future Trends. Evans. Assoc. 19. M. Chemistry. 1973. 85. 1973. Elm. 79. Oil and CoIour Chem..`. Vol.

Field and Maintenance Painting . Weather conditions are very important for good results. Avoid painting below 45°F or above 95 F. Surroundings may prohibit use of spray application because of fire hazards or potential damage from overspray. such as vinyls and chlorinated rubber.SSPC CHAPTER*5-L 93 8627940 0003597 658 CHAPTER 5.during rainy weather. Therefore. which are much less sensitive to application variables. Brush or roller application may be extremely difficult. may offset the advantages of the rapid area coverage of spraying operations. if the relative humidity is above 8O%. Therefore. This takes time and. as outlined in Table 1. High performance paint systems are especially sensitive to misapplication and may fail drastically. However. it is imperative that instructions be followed explicitly. Roller coating is most efficient on large. are used. Spraying is most suitable for large areas but works just as well on irregular shapes such as bridge steelwork. and certain other systems as recommended by the coating manufacturer. Shop. relatively flat surfaces. If lacquer coatings. such as those based on vinyl or chlorinated rubber resins. when wind velocity is above 15 miles per hour or if freezing will occur before the paint dries. The surface should be completely dry and between 45°F and 95°F before painting. even more so than conventional paint systems. Brushing is ideal for small areas. Each method of application has a different effect on dried coating. . which dry rapidly. proper application of the paint is a critical part of the complete paint system. damp (not wet) surfaces may be painted with some water-base or latex paints. Brushing tends to leave brushmarks and 1o. if extensive. especially in warm weather or outdoors on breezy days.1 PAINT APPLICATION by Sidney 5. Parking lots and open storage areas are common examples. Adjacent areas or objects not to be coated must be masked before spraying and the masking material must be removed afterwards. particularly when applying expensive and sensitive high performance paint systems. should be applied by spray. edges or corners. 11. A detailed specification covering the general requirements of high performance paint application is given in SSPC-PA 1. Levinson and Saul Spindel Paint is not a finished product until it has been applied to the substrate. Lacquer products. they may be applied at temperatures as low as 35°F.

Compatibility.. Factors Affecting Application of Paint 4.Drying & Handling 12.3 Surface Preparation 3. Field & Maintenance Painting 1. Touch-Up.2 Brush 5..1 Conventional Types 9..4 Air Spray 5.`--rolling may cause stipple marks.8 Roller 6.`. when done properly. etc.`. Shop Painting (Types.4 Pretreatments 3. Spraying. Scope 2.6 Striping 4. Definition 3.) 9.5 Mixing & Thinning 4.) 7.9 Recoating 4.7 Continuity 4.6 Hot Spray 5. Inspect ion Safety --`. Pre-application Procedure 3. Contact.) a. Records. Maintenance Painting (Cleaning. Welding.1 1 Intercoat Adhesion 4. Field Painting (Cleaning.8 Thickness 4.7 Hot Airless Spray 5.3 Humidity 4.12 Contact Surfaces 5.`-`-`.1 General 5.5Damage 4. gives the smoothest and most uniform paint film.2 Storage of Paint & Thinner 3.3 Spray -General 5.`. Procedures.10 Tinting 4. etc...1 Temperature 4. Coats. Damage.2-9.6 Other Generic Types Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 150 . TABLE 1 SUMMARY OF SSPC-PA i-Shop. Application Methods 5.4 Cover 4.. etc.1 Materials Handling & Use 3.2 Moisture 4.5 Airless Spray 5. Special Coatings 9.

The liquid component might separate and form a thin layer at the surface. Rolling is the easiest. which is more dense than the vehicle. dispersing the settled supernatant liquid. containers at intervals to prevent settling. The paint. should be brought to a moderate temperature for application. the pigment. MIXING A mechanical mixer is preferred because it is faster and produces a uniform mixture. if stored at cold or hot temperatures. tends to settle and sometimes cakes at the bottom of the container. The degree of training and experience of the personnel may influence the choice of method of application. Mixing is required to make the paint homogeneous and uniform before use by stirring the vehicle. PAINT PREPARATION Since paints are pigmented they can become nonuniform during storage. Inc.SSPC CHAPTERUSOL 93 = 8627940 0003598 594 though sagging can occur if too heavy a coat is applied. Rotate stock and use older material first. If manual mixing is . Check seals to be sure there is no leakage. A. Spraying requires the greatest degree of skill. HEAVY-DU~YELECTRICS Al R \ \ FIGURE 1 Drum Paint Agitator Courtesy of Quick Spray. Paint should be stored at a moderate temperature. lumps and other large particles. Also.Union. Two and three component paints must be carefully mixed just prior to use. . During long periods of storage. don t use cans larger than two gallons. Inc. especially in a partially full can. and removing all skins. such as for use as an intermediate coat. reverse eFIGURE 2 Paint Shaker Courtesy of Red Devil . I. Check dated products and replace outdated materials. necessary. or it could form a skin. The paint also may be tinted with some added color.

Most paint distributors have these units. such as drums. It can cause foaming. from attachments for hand drills to large portable units. carefully remove before mixing to avoid the formation of lumps or gelled particles. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 151 . Speed should be set as low as possible to create moxement of the paint with only a slight vortex. When mixing stops. at the surface. air or portable drills. the blades collapse allowing removal through the bung opening of the drum.P. to achieve uniform mixing (Figure 1). Paint shakers can be used to remix containers of five gallons or less without opening the cans (Figure 2). A large vortex should be avoided. Most of these attachments are propellers with the following typical dimensions: Shaft Length -11 to 36 Propeller diameter -2 to 8 Horsepower -Up to h H. since this will result in drawing in air and foaming. (two or more stacked on the shaft) are also used in larger containers. These mixers may be powered by electric. especially with latex paints. or central depression. which can be used to mix 55-gallon drums of paint.If there is a skin on the surface of the paint. They operate by an eccentric cam which shakes the can vigorously. Some propellers are of expanding type so that they can be inserted through the bung opening of the drum. Multiple propellers. Avoid shaking partly full cans of latex paint. Avoid splashing. During mixing they open to a diameter of 8 inches. Depending on the size of the container. mixers are available.

B. Follow the paint manufactu rer s directions explicitly since colorants may not be compatiFoam is extremely difficult to eliminate and will result in ble with all types o f coatings despite the designation bubbles or craters in the applied paint film. FIGURE 3 Rapid Paint Strainer Tinting colors may be recommended to achieve Courtesy of The DeVilbiss Co. If the paint is cold. e. Observe safety precautions. If manual mixing is necessary. bring the paint to 50-90 OF. When thinning the paint. Follow the same precautions as in mechanical mixing with regard to the bottom and . zinc. Instead. Be sure to use a thinner that is recommended for the product. When mixed. THINNING Do not thin the paint unless recommended by the supplier or needed for spray application. pour some of the paint into another clean container. Universal . Avoid the formation of lumps.TINTING Do not tint paint unless recommended by the supplier or tinting is necessary to change the color for an intermediate coat. Do not use more than the maximum recomScrape the bottom and lower sides of the container to mended by the manufacturer . Then continue mixing until the paint is uniform in consistency. Mix mechanically and continue until the paint is uniform in color with no streaks on its surface. after which the removed paint can be poured back and mixed in. aluminum or bronze. Paint heaters can be used to reduce viscosity for spray application. do not add thinner to make application easier. Follow manufacturer s instructions as to whether pigment is added to the liquid component or the liquid component is added to the pigment. be sure that the liquid component is completely uniform before proceeding. disperse all settled pigment.SSPC CHAPTERxS-II 93 m 8b27940 0003599 420 m Discard all paint beyond that time. first be sure that it is well mixed before adding the thinner. Add very slowly while mixing continuously until the paint is smooth. desired topcoat colors. C. thus avoiding the addition of thinners. showing no striations or color streaks on its surface. The type and maximum amount should be determined by the paint manufacturer.g. Do not apply warm paint to cold steel. which may cause clogging of spray equipment. The balance of the paint can then be readily mixed. Make sure the tinting color is compatible before adding. first premix the paint. If tinting is done. the paint should WALL look uniform from top to bottom. When one component is a powder. Results are best if both are similar in temperature..

Be sure to use the paint tween batches. When mixing two-component paints. Often.sides of the container. Do not mix more than a few gallons at a time since Try to use the same ba tch number of topcoat in any the exotherm caused by the mixture may be so high as to one area since there can be a slight color difference bemake the paint solidify in the can. the two components are supplied Courtesy of E 2 Painter Corporation in different colors so that a good mix can be readily determined. If d ifferent batches are needed. Then blend the two comFIGURE 4 ponents at low speed until the mixture is completely Typical Paint Brushes uniform in color. batches as much as possible to avoid the possibility of Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 152 . combine within the pot life recommended by the manufacturer. check and remix each component individually.

brushing is slower than other methods and should be used mainly for small areas and for cutting in corners or edges. color particles or foreign materials.L 93 m Ab27940 0003600 T72 m -LENGTH OUT STRIP OR FILLER FERRULE HANDLE FIGURE 5 Paint Brush Construction. Only the brush has to be cleaned. if colors of the topcoat are found to be slightly diffferent from one batch to another. A. II. paint pads. However.SSPC CHAPTER*S. Whatever method is used. warm or cool the paint to a temperature of 50-90 OF before mixing and use. Alternatively. Courtesy of American Brush Manufacturers Association color differences. E. BRUSH APPLICATION Brush application requires the least amount of preparation before use and cleanup afterwards. D. varying in width from 3 to . The choice of method to be used depends on the type of coating being applied. APPLICATION METHODS There are five methods of paint application: brush. finish using one batch at the edge or corner so that batchto-batch color differences will not be as noticeable. adjacent areas that might be damaged by overspray and degree of skill of the personnel. Strain after completing all mixing. STRAINING Paints should be strained after mixing if there is any evidence of skins. tinting or boxing. thinning. mitt and spray. Brushing is also useful to improve wetting of primers on difficult-to-paint surfaces. lumps. Straining is especially recommended if paint has been previously used and allowed to stand for any length of time or if the paint is going to be sprayed. roller. TEMPERATURE Temperature of paint may be excessively high or low depending on storage or shipping conditions. If so. tools should be of first quality and should be maintained in top condition. The most common brush used on steel structures is the conventional wall brush. Strain through a fine sieve (80 mesh) or a commercial paint strainer (Figure 3). There are two general designs of brushes which may be used in painting steel: conventional and flat brush.

This makes painting easier. Strips or fillers are inserted inside and at the bottom of the bristling. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 153 . Irregular surfaces are best painted with oval brushes up to 2 in diameter (Figure 4). Inc. The brush is constructed by cementing the bristling ends in a setting compound then adding a handle. This forms a cavity that holds more of the paint and also reduces the total volume of bristling. This allows for wider contact with the surface being painted. A metal grip is attached to the other side of the base. The flat brush is made up of short nylon or polyester filaments. The setting compound and flat end of the handle are fastened together with a metal ferrule. Bristling is controlled in length so the longest bristles are in the center and their length is tapered toward the outer bristles. This brush holds about twice as much paint as a conFIGURE 6 Industrial Paint Roller and Tray Courtesy of Arcco Paint Rollers. making it easier to spread paint and reducing cost (Figure 5). Small areas require narrower sash brushes. about 4 x 7 . 1 long. 2 to 3 wide. attached to a flat base.6 and with bristling varying in length from 4 to 7 .

`.. Avoid brushes with horsehair or with . or naturally split so they hold a considerable amount of paint.`.. Nylon loses stiffness in lacquer solvent and alcohol and should not be used with paints containing those solvents..SSPC CHAPTER*S-L 93 8627940 0003601 907 M a FIGURE 7 Use ventional --`.`-`-`. and are more difficult to clean.`. Two general types of bristling are used: natural bristles and synthetic filaments. adding to clean-up problems. have been used but generally are inferior to hog bristles. Nylon is much more water-resistant than natural bristles and works better with water-thinned (latex) paints since nylon bristles do not soften excessively after prolonged use. It also can be used with an extension pole.`--of Roller Extension Poles on Water Tank Courtesy of the National Paint & Lacquer Association & E z Painter Corporation brush and applies paint more rapidly. Unfortunately. Traditional paint brush bristles come from Chinese hogs. They appear more water resistant than nylon and soften less after prolonged use.. Many brushes are made of blends of natural. Other animal bristles. nylon andior polyester to combine the application qualities of bristle. The oldest synthetic filament is nylon. These produce excellent paint bristles since the ends of the bristles are flagged .. It is especially effective in forcing paint into crevices and around projections. Polyester filaments are widely available. the wear resistance of nylon and the resistance of polyester to water and high humidity. such as horsehair. hog bristles are very expensive and are not practical foi hot water-thinned paints. Flagged ends are produced by artificially splitting the filament tips. It is important toase high quality brushes and keep them in top shape. Flat brushes require roller tray. FIGURE 8 Pipe Paint Roller Courtesy of E ZPainter Corp.. A flat brush also drips more. They also are less affected by lacquer solvents. are ineffective inside angles.

Finally.PAINT PADS Paint pads hold more paint and are faster than brushes. Paint the adjacent area. use the end of the brush and twist it slightly to get the bristles into hard-to-reach areas. The brush should feel solid with a good quantity of bristles and still be flexible. Hold the (conventional) brush at an angle of about 75 to the work. All bristles should be firmly set with no loose bristles. which can result in lap marks. Flat and oval brushes are used in a similar manner but are held so bristle ends directly face the work. then withdraw at the edge of the container in a partial wiping motion or shake to remove excess paint. Make several light strokes to transfer paint to the surface. they can be discarded Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 154 . Spread the paint evenly and uniformly. Dip the brush into the paint to about half the bristle length. 8. cross-brush lightly to eliminate any sag or brush marks. Conventional brushes should be tapered from side to center. Do not press down on the brush. Because of their relatively low cost.filaments that are not flagged. This prevents excessive pileup of paint in the lapped areas. completing the brush strokes into the edge of the previously painted area. They are almost as versatile for covering small areas but require a tray and are more difficult to clean. Instead. Avoid poking the brush into corners and crevices. Pressing can create excessive brushmarks or cause wiping off some of the paint.

SSPC CHAPTERx5. length. The handle is threaded to accept extension poles. Inc. Diameter: Roller cover diameters may be 1% or 2% . Roller Covers Roller covers vary in diameter. twice as much paint as a 1 Ir x 7 155 roller and a 2% Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . roller handle and paint tray or grid.g. Inc. Their use on structural steel is limited. hand cleaned. Paint Mitts FIGURE 10 Length: This may vary from 1 to 18 . Roller cleaning is not critical since they are economical enough to be discarded..`. The 1 diameter is most common. C.`-`-`.. They require the use of trays (or grids in large containers)...`..L 93 8627940 0003b02 845 --`.`--FIGURE 9 Pressure Paint Roller Courtesy of Thomas Industries after use. The 9 length is most common. FIGURE 11 Paint Mitt in Use Courtesy of Bestt Roller. The fiber length is about 3/tsrr. A 2 x 9 roller will hold Courtesy of Bestt Roller. They hold much more paint than a brush and are two to four times faster. 1. e.. Paint rollers consist of three major units: roller cover. are more difficult to clean and are not as effective in applying paint evenly and with good wetting on difficultto-wet surfaces.ROLLER APPLICATION Paint rollers are excellent for large flat areas and do not require the skill of spray application.. A spring-loaded handle keeps the pad parallel to the work.`. They consist of roller-type synthetic fabric attached to a foam backed flat pad about 4 x 7 in size. type of fabric and fiber length (Table 2). rusted or pitted steel.

.HORNS OR.SSPC CHAPTER*5=1 93 W 8627940 0003603 781 TABLE 2 CHOICE OF ROLLER FABRIC AND NAP Type of Surface Smooth Rough Flat finish-oil or Polyester Polyester water-based -Y2n y2 -y4 r Paints containing Special stapled covers strong solvents Enamels and gloss Woven Lambskin paints %8 -Y2I 1k -y. Construction of Air Spray Gun Courtesy of DeVilbiss Company Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 156 .`.. Courtesy of DeVilbiss Company NEEDLE V4LYE SrEu ANNULAR R NG AROUND THE FLUID NOZZLE TIF (2i CONTAINMENTHOLES 1 I 0 0 WINGS:. ABCDEF -Air Valve G -Pattern Control H -Gun Body (or Handle) I-Fluid Packing Nut --`.. @ SIDE-PORT HOLES @ ANGULAR CONVERGINGnaEs FIGURE 14 Air spraying at oil refinery.`. provides control in FIGURE 12 spraying small structural shapes.EARS. with pressure pot..`..`-`-`.`--FIGURE 13 Conventional air spraying with lh inch fluid hose and X inch air hose..

Core: The core of the roller may be made of plastic impregnated fiber or wire mesh. Suction Hose Type Courtesy of Graco. vinyls. They shed fewer lint particles. Fabric: The most common fabrics are polyester. Fiber Length (Nap) or Pile Height: The length of fiber in roller fabrics used on steel surfaces varies from IA to 3A . F FIGURE 18 Airless Spray Unit With Two Guns-Air Drive + Agitator Courtesy of Nordson Corporation Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 157 . as shown in Table 2. FIGURE 17 Airless Spray PumpAir Operated. Therefore. as much as a quart if a long fiber fabric is used. The choice of fabric and fiber length (nap) depend on the type of paint and the condition of surface. Courtesy of DeVilbiss Company x 18 roller will hold up to 4 times as much paint. are designated all paints or Enamel on the label and are better than knit fabrics for gloss paints. they are used on rougher surfaces with faster drying paints. Be sure the core is resistant when using epoxies. verel. urethanes and other materials that contain strong solvents. but do not give as smooth a finish. mohair and lambskin.FIGURE 15 Air spray painting at electrical power plant. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF AIRLESS SPRAY TIP MATERIAL FLOW RAY UNDER HYDRAULIC j GLE PRESSURE (Controls Flow-Creates High Velocity from Pressure) FIGURE 16 Airless Spray Action Courtesy of the Aro Corporation Woven Fabrics (as opposed to knit) are available. nylon. Inc. Longer fibers hold more paint.

.

l/4 " in diam. The roller (on the handle) is partially inserted into the paint. Extension poles as long as 16 feet are available to avoid the use of ladders (Figure 7). Paint Tray Paint rollers must be worked in when loaded with paint.`--Dolly Mount.). Some are large enough to hold several gallons (Figure 6). 3.. An alternative method is to use a large paint FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 Airless Spray Unit -Suction Hose.`.. of paint. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 158 . The end of the handle is hollow and threaded so an extension pole may be used. then rolled on the ramp until uniformly coated.`-`-`. Roller Handle --`.`. The angle end has a spring wire or metal attachment to enable slipping the roller on and off.. Air Drive Courtesy o1 Binks Manufacturing Co.SSPC CHAPTER*S-L 73 FIGURE 19 Airless Spray Unit 2. Most trays hold about '/2 gal. yet holding it firmly during use..`. Air Drive Courtesy of Alemite Division of Stewart-Warner The handle is made of stiff wire (app.. with a comfortable handle for holding the roller at one end and bent at the other end to form an offset right angle..

Flow Control Valve 3.SSPC CHAPTER*S. direct hose lines 1. a 5-gal. They readily conform to contoured surfaces. The size of the pipe determines the number of segments required. Regulatorto control pump operation 3. 4.L 93 m 8627940 bucket. on which the roller is worked in. Basic Pump Unit 2. e. High Pressure Fluid Hose 4. This allows the use of rollers on ladders and scaffolds. The threaded handle allows the use of extension poles (Figure 8). Fluid Hose to guns 5. Air Hose from compressor 1 For heavy and filled materials 1. Pipe Roller This special roller is made up of 2 to 5 narrow rollers on a spring spindle. Pump Unit 2. Fluid Outlet fittings for required hoak-up . can with a roller grid. 1 s 3 For long hose lines 1..g. Air Supply Hose FIGURE 22 Portable and Maintenance Painting Hook-ups O003606 490 m PUMP UNIT 1. Fluid Header (removed from pump) 4. Air Hose from compressor For shorter. Fluid Hose to guns 3. Pump Unit 2. Fluid Hose 3. such as piping. Pump-to meet delivery and pressure needs 2.

fill it half full with the premixed paint.. 8. Application Roller application requires a very different technique than that required for brushing.. Loading by Roller If a tray is used. Pressure Roller Pressure rollers allow continuous painting by steadily supplying paint from a pressurized tank directly inside the roller. roll the first load out on scrap paper to eliminate any air bubbles trapped within the roller cover fibers. 7. Liftconvenient. place it into the can (usually 5 gals. The long nap surrounds the wire and coats it on both sides at once.) of paint.`-`-`. Drum Lidfor mounting pump 5..`. Dip the roller cover into the paint until completely wet with paint.`. setting it at an angle from one side of the bottom of the can to the other side of the can at the top. Airless Pump With Agitator Courtesy of DeVilbiss Company 5.`. quick change of drums --`. Fence Roller Roller covers with extra long naps (1'1'4 ") enable rapid painting of wire fence from one side. A valve controls pressure either on the roller handle or the tank (Figure 9). 9. The roller cover is made of a perforated metal core that enables paint to pass from inside the roller.. Before starting to paint. Agitator-for continuous agitation of material 6. If a grid is used.`--FIGURE 23 Air Driven. Drum Mount. Then roll it up and back along the tray ramp or the grid until the paint is completely worked in. 6.4.. Applying the Paint Place the loaded roller against the surface to be Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 159 ..

SPRAY APPLICATION The fastest way to paint large structural areas is by spray. In fact. when spray painting is not feasible. It consists of a lambskin glove with or without a thumb. Heat ed Courtesy of H. will cover an area about 3 x 3 feet.. Finish with light vertical strokes in the direction which produces the smoothest finish.`-`-`... e. such as pipes and railings. A 7-inch roller. Table 3 gives some idea of the relative efficiency of different methods of application: TABLE 3 TYPICAL AVERAGE AREA COATED PER DAY Method Square Feet Brush 650 Roller 1. doing so will cause foaming and possible cratering by entrapping air. A moderate rate of speed is best.`.`. Two-component application equipment painted and roll the paint out in the form of a V or W.`--FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 Gasoline Operated Electrostatic Airless Spray Unit -Dolly Mount.600 Air Spray 2.000-8. Fischer & Co..200-2. E.000-6. Courtesy of Nordson Corporation .. PAINT MITTS A paint mitt is ideal for painting odd-shaped objects. G. for example. Its size depends on the square area that eventually will be filled in around the V or W. do not roll too rapidly. Also. Air spray (conventional) b.000 Airless Spray 3. since doing so will cause the paint to spatter. It is not necessary to press hard on the roller.. Airless spray -Ambient and heated c. Airless Spray Unit Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--`. It is dipped in paint and applied to the surface (Figures 10 and 11). Electrostatic spray -Air and airless Airless Spray Unit -Electric Drive Courtesy of Binks Manufacturing Co.L 93 8b27940 O003607 327 D. Then roll out the paint to fill in the square area. Air Drive. Heated spray -Air and airless FIGURE 24 d.`. Moderate pressure is all that is required.000 Spray equipment also is versatile as shown by the variety of equipment available: a.SSPC CHAPTER*S.

160 .

Paint is usually kept in pressurized containers. electric motor or gas engine is used to operate a pump to produce pressures of FIGURE 27 FIGURE 29 Extension Spray Gun Air Driven... not only must adjacent areas and objects be covered. Heated...`. 0003b08 263 D EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON A TYPICAL ENAMEL AND A TYPICAL LACQUER --`.`. A compressor supplies air under pressure via an air hose to a spray gun that atomizes the paint to produce a fine spray which is projected onto the surface.`--I O FIGURE 28 Effect of Temperature -Paint Viscosity vs Temperature Courtesy of Nordson Corporation 2. Airless Spray Airless spray relies on hydraulic pressure rather than air atomization to produce the desired spray.L 93 8627740 1.. The painter must wear some protection to avoid breathing paint mist. From there compressed air forces the paint to the gun via a fluid hose (Figure 12).`-`-`. but also paint losses may vary from 20% to 40% on structural steel.SSPC CHAPTERx5. Airless Spray Unit with Compressor Courtesy of Nordson Corporation Courtesy of Nordson Corporation Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 161 . Air atomization of the paint can result in considerable overspray. Air Spray The original method of spray application was by air atomization. An air compressor..`. Consequently.

which are forced through a very small orifice resulting in atomization of paint without the use of air.000 psi. a single paint stream is divided into separate streams.M Mx) PARTS AIR i. The following comparison (Table 4) demonstrates the differences between conventional and airless spray: Airless spray usually is faster. The absence of atomizing air prevents potential contamination from oil or water in the compressed air. 9. This recuits in more rapid coverage with less overspray (Figure 16). or from the cooling effect of atomization in humid atmospheres.000to 6. HOT AIRLESS 'NERGY REQUIRED . more economical and easier to use than conventional air spray. Inc. Within the gun.P.1 HOT SPRAY HYDR&ULIC SPRAY COLD AIRLESS :NERGY REQUIRED IIHPIGPM VISCOSITY 22 @ 59~~ 70' .SSPC CHAPTER*S=L 93 6627940 0003609 LTT 1.3 H P / GP. FIGURE 31 Electrostatic Spray Units -Electric Drive Courtesy of Graco. TABLE 4 CONVENTIONAL VS AIRLESS SPRAY VISCOSITY 150 @ 70'mT * :* VISCOSITY 150 d 70" . cleaner.M.1.32 H. Paint is delivered to the spray gun at this pressure through a single hose.P. I G. Airless spray is for large areas and the airless gun has fewer adCONVENTIONAL AIR SPRAY ENERGY RMUIREO **.

YO Portability Direct drive units Hoses Masking Penetration of corners & voids Thinning before spray Film build per coat Moisture (Compressor) Versatility Paint clogging problems Safety during cleaning Conventional Airless 4-8...000 6-10.ft/day Overspray.''SF' 25 @ 150 22 @ 170' FIGURE 30 Comparison of Spray Methods Courtesy of Nordson Corporation Coverage.`..000 20to 40 10 to 15 Fair Excel lent No Yes 2 Usually 1 Considerable Moderate Fair Good Usual Sometimes Lower Higher Possible None More Less Slight Possible Excellent Poor 162 --`..`. sq...`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .`.`-`-`.

SSPC CHAPTERw5-1 73 = 8b279LiO 0003610 711 followed.g.g. It is excellent for larger containers. drum (Figures 18. Dolly-Mounted Unit -The spray unit is mounted on a wheeled dolly which also supports the paint container. 10.. Hectric Driven Unit -The unit is selfcontained with its own explosion-proof electric motor.. Pail-Mounted Unit -The spray unit is mounted directly onto the paint container. d. e. Immersion Tube Unit -The wheeled spray unit . justments than conventional spray guns..`--FIGURE 32 Wraparound Effect of Electrostatic Spray Courtesy of Graco. Gas Driven Unit -The spray unit is operated by a gasoline engine for use in the field (Figure 25).. Air Driven Units -The hydraulic unit is driven air using an air compressor FIGURE 33 Two-Component Spray Gun Internal Mix Courtesy of DeVilbiss Company FIGURE 34 Two-Head Spray Gun Courtesy of Binks Manufacturing Co similar to that used in conventional spraying (Figure 17-23). e. Different spray patterns may require a change in nozzles.`-`-`. Power Sources --`. paint must be thoroughly screened to prevent clogging of the nozzles.. which handle two guns yet can be wheeled by one man up or down stairways (Figure 24). b. c. can or 55-gal. c.. of power sources: by compressed 3. b. Mounts Airless spray units vary in mounting or the method used to admit paint to be sprayed. 20 or 30 gals (Figure 26). and paint is aspirated in a hose or pick-up tube that sucks paint from any container. Because of very high pressures.`.. and cleaning the equipment may be extremely hazardous unless proper precautions are Airless spray units are available in a wide variety a.`. Sizes vary from small units weighing about 40 Ibs to large units. 28). Suction Unit -The spray unit is mounted on wheels. 24. including drums (Figures 21. 20). a 5-gal. 4. a. Inc.`..

e. which can Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 163 . can of paint.has a rigid tube at the bottom. Drum-Mounted Unit -Large units. Some units are modified so a unit and a can of paint can be maneuvered together (Figure 24). The unit is tilted so that the tube can be inserted into a 1-to 5-gal.

or drum-mounted units have built-in agitators that keep the paint uniformly mixed during the spraying (Figures 18. Self-Contained Unit -The container is part of the spray unit the paint must be poured into before use (Figure 25). long.Thinning is reduced and paint solids are increased. I I STROKE PULL TRIGGER PULL TRIGGER STROKE HOLD GUN PERPENDICULAR TO SURFACE BEING SPRAYED \'l RIGHT e --r FIGURE 35 Correct Handling of Air Spray Gun Courtesy of Binks Manufacturing Co. Agitators Many pail. b.I CORRECT. a. drum of paint (Figure 23).OpOpsi Can spray at lower ambient temperatures but . are mounted on a 55-gal. up to 26 ft. Some have swivel heads to enable spray coating of inaccessible areas (Figure 27). Heated Spray Heating paint before spraying reduces viscosity (Figure 28). Caution must be observed because most solvent-thinned paints are flammable. Equipment -Spray units which preheat paint to 12O0-2OO0Fare available. They are portable but tend to be cumbersome because of the added preheating unit (Figure 29). almost all airless spray units have built-in strainers. Strainers Since paint cleanliness is critical in order to prevent clogging of nozzles. enabling application of thicker coats. are available to reduce the necessity of scaffolding or staging. f. Condensation at the interface may adversely affect adhesion. Avoid applying heated paint on cold steel. Extension Guns Airless spray extension or pole guns. Advantages -Heated spray units have a number of advantages over unheated units: Faster application if viscosity is reduced Lower pressure required -under 1. handle up to 4 guns. 5. 23).

(c) formulation critical. which causes sprayed paint to coat all exposed conductive areas more uniformly. and (h) as yet unsuitable for LARGE steel structures. 10. Advantages include (a) complete coverage of odd shapes. It has a number of advantages and disadvantages vs. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from . (f) possible shock hazard.000volts. (9) expensive servicing. Its disadvantages include (a)vulnerable to wind. conventional spray equipment. including edges and areas opposite the object (the wrap-around effect). Electrostatic Spray Portable electrostatic spray units are ideal for spraying odd-shaped metal objects like wire fence. 32). channels. The method has not yet been adapted for use on exteriors of large steel structures. angles. (d) very uniform finish.avoid cold steel Less overspray and bounce back from corners 9 Less solvent fumes 9 Increased thickness per coat if solids are increased Faster dry Smoother finish (No pinholes) Improved paint adhesion possible except on cold steel Less power and air required INSiOE I U3!!! &1 'I \ Il FIGURE 36 Spraying Inside Corners Courtesy of DeVilbiss Company 9. Comparison of Spray Methods Figure 31 demonstrates the advantages of airless and heated spray. cable and piping. (b) lowest paint loss of all spray methods. (c) less overspray. up to 60. (e) only thin coats can be applied. Portable units use a transformer that can operate on 115 v (Figures 31. (d) slower operation. These units produce a very high electrostatic charge. (b) equipment expensive.

IHS 164 .

34). which have very short pot Iives. They are either made of two guns attached or a single gun with the two components mixed together while they are sprayed. THICKNESS FIGURE 38 Elcometer Dry Film Thickness Gage Courtesy of Gardner Laboratory. . This prevents reaction of the two components within the equipment (Figures 33. 21. The following description for conventional air spraying is essentially similar for all. Spray Technique The procedure for spray painting varies slightly for each type of spray equipment and type of paint. Inc. Inc. 11. separate hoses are used and no mixing takes place until the two spray streams merge just beyond the nozzle. 13 I &ofnew 15. In both types. r11-MANCHESTER -II9 INSTRUMENTS LTD ENOLAM . FIGURE 39 Inspector Dry Film Thickness Gage Courtesy of Gardner Laboratory. 12. Two Component Spray Guns These are special guns that enable the use of twocomponent coatings.SSPC CHAPTER*5-3 93 = 8627940 0003632 794 -* Li 1 . 7 3 FIGURE 37 Wet Film Thickness Gage Courtesy of Gardner Laboratory. Inc.

If it is too far away. the result will be dusting . sagging. start at one side of the near edge and spray to the other . the pattern can be adjusted by changing the tip or adjusting the Adjusta-Tip. but with airless spray it will be slight. Stop 1 to 2 inches from the edge. Air Pressure -Always use the lowest air pressure that produces the desired finish. spray each side separately. hold the gun facing the edge of the corner. causing non-uniform coating. When spraying horizontal surfaces. hold the gun at the following distance from the work: Conventional -6 to 8inches Airless -10 to 12 inches Holding the gun too close will cause sagging and irregularities in the film from spray pressure. c. With airless spray guns. Some solvent will evaporate before paint reaches the surface creating virtually dry paint particles which cannot flow to the surface. then return. overlapping the first area just enough to form a uniform coating. insufficient hiding and inadequate protection. insufficient film thickness. (except for the edge). d. Paint Viscosity -Adjust paint viscosity only when necessary. pulling the trigger after beginning the stroke and release it just before the end of the stroke. sweeping along the corner. Move in a straight line. Spray Pattern -Conventional spray guns enable an adjustment of the spray pattern by turning the air control valve. With conventional spray.a. The gun must be perpendicular to the surface at all times and should never be tilted. parallel to the surface. Turn it clockwise for a round pattern and counter clockwise for a fan pattern. When painting a large area. Use a free-arm motion. On inside corners. b. 36). When spraying an outside corner. turn off the atomizing air valve and adjust the paint valve at the pot to achieve a solid stream of paint about 24 inches from the gun. It may be necessary to increase pressure when paint is viscous or the hose is longer than normal. then sweep along the corner to cover both sides. and follow the manufacturer s instructions. Gradually open the air valve to achieve the desired finish. With conventional spray this will be almost half of the first pattern. Spraying Technique -To achieve desired coverage with a uniform coating with no sag. Apply the paint to all edges prior to painting the entire surface (Figures 35. Excessive pressure will increase overspray. Excessive thinning results in more overspray. start at the top corner and spray to the end of the top area. Tilting will cause one side of the pattern to be closer to the surface than the other side.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 165 .

When each coat has dried. Finally. Dried paint in the equipment will ruin it. it may be more economical to discard them (keep the handle). clean and wash the paint tray and partially fill it with solvent (or mild detergent in water for latex paints). wash the paint mitt used for solvent paints in three changes of solvent or warm mild detergent depending on the type of paint. IV. use a dry film thickness gage to check the actual thickness of the number of coats applied versus the required thickness. Well cleaned tools and equipment will last longer and always be in prime condition. Clean two or three times with fresh solvent (or warm mild detergent solution).SSPC CHAPTER*S-L 73 6627740 0003b13 b20 W side of the near edge. This can make the bristles shorter and less flexible. FILMTHICKNESS To do the job correctly. This requirement is most important for the complete system (Figures 38 and 39). Remove as much paint as possible. If a roller is used. Repeat twice with clean solvent or detergent. then reverse direction work. Then work in the solvent (or detergent) and roll on the tray ramp until worked in. wrap in paper or place in a brush keeper and lay flat until dry. twirl to remove excess water and comb to straighten the bristles. Use a detergent solution with latex paint. clean thoroughly with a compatible solvent. After washing. With solvent paints. A practice area is recommended. then wipe clean and dry. Measure the film thickness as the job progresses using a wet film thickness gage (Figure 37). Also see chapter on inspection.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ing away from the near edge. Again roll out on newspaper until all the solvent is removed. since paint tends to dry in this less visible area. CLEANUP All paint application tools and equipment must be carefully cleaned. Stand roller on one end until dry. The solventcleaned mitts should then be washed in mild detergent . Since some roller covers are relatively inexpensive. 111. Be sure to clean brushes down to the heel. Never allow a brush to rest on its bristles. Take care to discard the paper used to clean the roller because of potential fire hazard. it is necessary to apply each coating at the wet film thickness recommended by the paint manufacturer. This can cause permanent damage. Work the roller out on newspaper until most of the paint has been removed. Using a large container.

Tnemec Co.W. the Engineered Approach. 7.B. Duane T. N. Jay Leanse. and Joseph E. Robert L. Safety Precautions for Use of Airless Spray Equipment. All About Painting Tools. N. M. Marshall McGee. Joseph Mazia. Industrial Painting. Franklin Park. Karr. Reinhold Book Corp. Franklin Park. then hang up to dry. Werkman. Fraser. 3. Roger Garland..Y.H.. Sherman. Reynolds.. Levinson. VA.Y. Rinse in clear warm water. McGraw Hill Book Co. Williams. such as alcohol. Otherwise.F.Y. 111. 111. Levinson and S.Buss. MO.. Virgil P. Alex Chasan. Rufus Wint. 9. 10. Lawrence Drake. Army TM 5-618. McGraw Hill Book CO. 12. Federation of Societies for Paint Technology. OH. Spray Painting Guide Thomas Industries. The DeVilbiss Co. Paints and Protective Coatings. Kramer. Painting . W. 13. 11. Toledo. N. Kansas City. Melvin Sandler. Then dry.. Sisler. Clint Ryno. 15. C. Facilities and Plant Engineering Handbook. Arnold J.W. Contract and Plant Force Painting.B. Hooker. Naval Construction Battalion Center. AI Beitelman. K. Gross. Dan Gelfer. Ziegeweid. R. 2. 4. Washington. Martinson and C. Raye A. The DeVilbiss Co.Air Force AFM 85-3. Henry Stoner. be sure to finish rinsing with a water miscible solvent. Russ Harmon. L. Be sure to remove the tip from airless spray guns and wash separately. Civil Engineering Laboratory. US.C. Painting and Decorating Contractors of America. Airless Spraying. Ted Tomlin. Philadelphia. Spray Gun Motion Study. The authors and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: Earl G. Conomos.Navfac MO-110. PDCA Craftsman Manual and Textbook. R.Y. Never immerse the gun in solvent because this can ruin the packing. Place clean solvent (or detergent solution) in pots and pass through hoses and spray guns. Spindel. William J. Make sure that all hoses are flushed thoroughly. Surface Preparation and Application Guide. Toledo. Wisc. Applications Manual for Paint and Protective Coatings.. REFERENCES 1. OH. Sheyboygan. PA. 5. S. Anderson. CA. Eickhoff. Binks Manufacturing Co. The ABC S of Spray Equipment. Port Hueneme.. some parts of the spray equipment may rust. Verne J.. Government Printing Office. Tom Ginsberg. Todd. Clean with three changes of solvent (or detergent). John B. D. Fairfax. Leonard Haynie. 8. N. Advantages and Disad- . Blue Bell. S.R. PA.. 14. American Brush Manufacturers Association. N. Binks Manufacturing Co. John Montle. Recent Developments in Architectural and Maintenance Painting. Equipment Selection for the Painting Contractor. 6. Wallace. When cleaning after spraying water-based paint.solution. J.

17. Fairfax. pp 39-42. 16. Popular Mechanics booklet. How . How to Care for a Paintbrush.Painting and Decorating Contractors of America. Popular Mechanics booklet. Try to leave the solvent in the system when possible to avoid build-up of paint in the hose. Materials Protection.to Pick a Paintbrush. VA. 19. Popular Mechanics booklet. 2. Vol. July 1972. No. *Completely non-rusting spray equipment should be used with water-base paints to prevent rusting. PDCA. How to Use a Paintbrush. 1968. Preserving Quality Paintbrushes. 7. 18.Feb. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 166 .vantages.

. D.`.`-`-`. Kit. American Brush Manufacturers Association. 23.. 111. Federal Specification H-R-5506.C. Those Costly Paint Brushes. E. Steel Structures fainting Manual.`. --`. Caring for Your Investment. Painting and Decorating Contractors of America. PDCA. Paint Brush Buyers Guide. BIOGRAPHY For biographies of Sidney U. Homewood.SSPC CHAPTER+S=L 73 8627740 0003bL4 567 20. 1975. 24. Washington... Fairfax. Anderson.`. 21. General Services Administration. see the chapter on Paint Materials..`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 167 .Levinson and Saul Spindel. Paint. Volume II. Roller. VA. Nov.. Philadelphia. 22. fainting and Decorating Encyclopedia. PA.G.

nor are they effective much beyond 20 feet. Ladders are made of wood.2 SCAFFOLDING by Sidney B. Aerial supports: Rigging supported from above or attached to the steelwork. However. Fiberglass ladders are light. Therefore. some type of support or rigging must be used. aluminum or fiberglass. These may be much more efficient. e. Step Ladders These are made of two straight ladders hinged at the top so they are self-standing when opened and locked in place. Aluminum ladders are lighter but electrically conductive and subject to corrosion. no ladder higher than 12 ft. Stepladders are not as sturdy as straight ladders resting against a structural surface. on a bridge.. especially if stored in damp areas. portable and self-propelled systems are available. Consequently.g. Wood ladders are sturdy but heavy and subject to rot. I. straight ladders and extension ladders. should be used. safe from electric shock and resistant to corrosion. depending on the job. 2. GROUND SUPPORTS The most common ground supports are ladders and scaffolding. A. 1. Although higher ladders are available. 3.2 93 8627940 0003635 4T3 CHAPTER 5. Straight Ladders Straight ladders are available in lengths up to . when opened. their use also introduces hazards that must be recognized and prevented. Ladders There are three types of ladders: step ladders. Levinson and Saul Spindel Some type of support or extension must be used when painting operations are beyond normal reach. Often these operations can be accomplished with extension poles with paint rollers or extension spray guns.SSPC CHAPTER+5. TYPES OF SUPPORTS The two major types of supports are Ground supports: Supports or supporting systems that rest on the ground or roadway. Extension devices are not feasible during surface preparation. aluminum ladders should never be used near sources of electricity. and should be used only at relatively low heights. Although they provide access to otherwise unreachable areas and improve efficiency. nor should they be stored or used in corrosive environments.

about 24 feet. which can be raised to support a horizontal plank or trestle. The use of a trestle ladder on each side of a plank provides a stable support. x 28 in. Double Stepladder: The ladder has steps on both sides so that either side can be used. Ladder Shoes: All ladders should have special shoes attached to the legs to prevent slipping. Special Ladders Ladder modifications are available to make these ladders more useful: a. They are used when working at low to intermediate heights. Planks and Stages: Planks and stages. Combination Step-fxtension Ladder: The same ladder may be used either as a step or extension ladder. Trestle Ladder: A double stepladder has a center vertical section. Ladder Jacks: These lightweight folding jacks hook onto the rungs of the ladder and support trestles or planks. b. Work Platform: A one-man platform can be attached to rungs of the ladder enabling work in comparative safety (Figure 1). Pail Shelf: A working shelf can be hooked onto the ladder rungs. rest on the jacks. Ladder Accessories The following accessories make ladders more useful and safe: a. to 39 ft. Extension Ladders The most common type of extension ladder is made of two or three straight ladders connected so they can be adjusted in length from that of a single ladder to the combined length. Pole Straps: The top of the ladder can be rested against or strapped to a vertical pole. The maximum height available is about 20 ft. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 168 . usually made of aluminum to decrease weight. f. d. less about 3 feet of each that overlap. Cable Hooks: These are attached to the end of the ladder and can be hooked onto a cable or any projection on the structure to improve ladder stability. They are available up to 48 ft in two sections and 60 ft in three sections. g. They are available in size from 8 ft x 12 in. e. c. its height is limited to about 8 ft when used as a stepladder and 14 ft when used as an extension ladder. c. b. piping or beam. However.

.

. eliminating the necessity of using portable ladders. or high strength (electrically welded) galvanized steel tubing. They are easily assembled to almost any shape and height. aluminum or expanded metal.`-`-`.SSPC CHAPTERr5.. b.2 73 = 86277LiO 0003636 33T --`. They can be hooked onto horizontal frame members to form the work floor and add to the rigidity of the scaffold. Stationary Scaffolds Scaffolds were formerly constructed of wood at the site.. or more (Figure 2). are faster to erect. Outriggers: These are adjustable and attached to high scaffolds to increase stability by increasing base dimensions. If this can be done. connectors and accessories. 169 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with .`--Ladder Platform 7. They can be adjusted to create a horizontal work surface on a stairway but can be made narrow enough to be moved through a doorway. There are two major types: stationary scaffolds and portable scaffolds or lifts. c. 9. the time saved can be considerable. Stationary Scaffold Accessories The following accessories improve the usefulness and safety of these scaffolds. if desired. They must be locked in place while painting. Scaffolding Built-up or portable scaffolds are much safer than ladders.`. safer and more economical since scaffold units can be used again with no danger of splitting or waste. Scaffolds are usually constructed of specially designed aluminum. They also make work easier and faster. Portable Support Systems With some jobs it is possible to use a selfcontained ground or roadway support system. They are available in lengths up to 10 ft and widths of 24 in... Locking Casters: These make the scaffold a portable unit. Decks: These may be made of plywood. 8. based on use of metal tubular construction.`. New types. There are two major types: boom lift and scissors lift. IO.`. Ladders and stairways can also be constructed as part of the unit.. Either may be self-contained and propelled up Two Stow Scaffold with Casters Courtesy of Perry Mfg. a. Co.

SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .

This is especially true when the work is too high to be reached with ground supporting systems.. but some are articulated in two booms to avoid obstructions.g. They work at almost any angle horizontally. Rigging Systems It is often necessary or expedient to support the work platform from above rather than below. The boom is usually lifted hydraulically. The lift is operated by a worker riding the support and can be raised or lowered at will.000 Ibs at up to 40 ft (Figure 4). often called a cherry picker. in effect. diesel fuel. 11. is very fast and versatile. e. Scissors Lift: The lift is raised from the chassis either hydraulically or electrically. and some work at angles well below and up to 75" above the level of the truck. FIGURE 4 Scissors Lift -Self Propelled Courtesy of Fulton Industries Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from . larger than a boom lift. The work area is as big as 6 ft x 13 ft. and even greater loads at heights up to 45 ft. Their major limitation is the work area. limiting its utility. which usually is large enough for only two people. b. Boom Lift: The one-or two-person boom lift. Cable Supported Scaffolds: These scaffolds are suspended by one or two lifts which. 12. Power Source The vehicle carrying a boom lift or scissors lift may be operated by a variety of engines. depending on the type of work required. Gasoline. a. a.000 Ibs at heights up to 85 ft. Some scissors lifts are mounted on portable trucks that can be moved by other power sources. There are two major types: cable supported units and suspended scaffolds and st aging. Some units carry a load of up to 4. It can be moved only vertically. above 80 feet. propane or electrical units are available. ride up or down a cable suspended from above. This is compensated for by manueverability (Figure 3). It is self-contained and can be driven or towed from job to job. Units are available that support up to 2.SSPC CHAPTER*5-2 73 m 8b27740 O003637 276 m FIGURE 3 Hydraulic Boom Lift -Self Propelled Courtesy of JLG Industries to 3 mph for job-site mobility. or they may be mounted on a truck for mobility.

IHS 170 .

Supports:The support used depends on the curvature of the surface to be painted. The worker has full control of the operation but has no room for any special equipment. c. opening.g. It is usually supported by two cables. Swinging Platform: The use of four cables. one at each corner. Equipment must be tied to the chair (Figure 5). and can be as large as 39 ft x 28 in. There are some systems with no limit to the height of the cable since the cable of these units runs through the hoist assembly. (Figures 8 and 9). can be made small enough to allow only one person to stand or even small enough to pass through a 20 in. in a tank. Operation: Three methods of operation may be available: Manual: Hand manipulated ropes are used. Electric: Either 110 or 220 volt motors are used. Three general types are used: Bosun s Chair: This chair holds one person and is used where only one person can operate.SSPC CHAPTER*5. depending on the load. also called a work cage. Some motors enable change of speed up to 30 FPM. Air Motor: The air may be obtained from the compressor used for blast cleaning or spraying (Figure 5). depending on current available at the site. Addition of sections on each side widen the cage. . Extendible Scaffold: Some scaffolds can extend beyond 40 ft. one at each end.. Some units enable changing from one to the other. allows the use of large working platforms (Figure 10). which also rides on a single cable. e.2 73 m 8627740 O003638 LO2 W FIGURE 5 Bosun Chair-Air Drive Courtesy of Sky Climber b. Single Point Stage: This support. enabling two men to work comfortably (Figures 6 and 7). Swinging Scaffold: This is also called a power scaffold.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 171 . Sometimes... overpass..g. CHOICE OF SUPPORT OR RIGGING The choice of supports depends on a number of considerat ions: The construction steel to be painted.`. FIGURE 6 One Man Work Cage Under Bridge Cable Courtesy of Spider Staging Sales Co. e. Supports with flat horizontal bars are attached to the bottom flanges of the overhead beams. The scaffold planks rest on and are attached to the horizontal bars of the supports (Figures 10 and 11). a bridge or overpass.`. Difficulty in getting to the work surface and moving --`.`.`--from one area to another.. etc. building...g. wheels are attached to these supports to enable the scaffold to be moved along the beam without dismantling. II. e.`-`-`. Suspended Scaffolds: Suspended scaffolds are often used beneath structures to be painted.. bridge. tank.. cables.d.

Provide access ladders to all work areas. 5. not cable or rope. if necessary. wide. Inspect all sections before use. 6. Often it is more economical to use mechanical devices instead of labor to install support systems. Anchor scaffolds to the structure if possible. Use galvanized steel. Steel Structures Painting Manual. 4. Also see safety references 1.8. and local safety codes. 3. Follow equipment manu fact urers instruction and comply with federal. on the full length and the ends of the scaffold along with mid-rails where required. Be sure that all planking is of correct grading and at least 18 in.6. 2. Reject any defective or rusty parts. the initial and operating cost of some mobile equipment is very high and warranted only when it can be used extensively. 7. especially with mob¡ le equipment. If independent of the structure. SAFETY Because support systems are dangerous. guy Scaffolds at intervals no more than 25 ft horizontally and 15 ft vertically.2 93 = 8627940 0003619 049 The height of a structure above flat ground or highway. However.SSPC CHAPTERx5. and 9 at the end of this chapter including SSPC-PA Guide 3 Guide to Safety in Paint Application. 4. FIGURE 8 Swinging Scaffold Courtesy of Spider Staging Sales Co. A. high carbon steel or aluminum tubing of equal strength in diameters up to 2 in. rigid. Add supports at the center of the plank. sills or underpinnings. Place supporting members on firm. The upright legs must be plumb and securely braced to prevent swaying. They should be made of tubular fittings. . high. Provide guard railings 42 in. STATIONARY SUPPORTS The following precautions apply to scaffolds: 1. 5. smooth FIGURE 7 One Man Work Cage on Water Tank Courtesy of Spider Staging Sales Co. Use cross bracing as required by law. Make sure it is fastened in place and will support the load with no significant deflection. proper precautions are of the utmost importance. Test by using twice the anticipated load. The relative cost-effectiveness of the support. state. 111. regardless of height. Use horizontal diagonal bracing at the bottom and every 25 ft in height. Volume 2.

14.. When using scaffolds. Allow only authorized and trained personnel to --`. Do not climb on the braces.`. 9. B. 10.`. Casters on movable scaffolds should be at least 6 inches in diameter and must have breaks. never over-reach or stretch beyond the unit s limits.. Move the unit to get to another location. Do not attempt to move the scaffold without sufficient help. 13. 11.`-`-`.`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 172 . 12. Avoid operations within 10 ft of a power line.. Lock the casters when the scaffold is stationary. Keep scaffolds as dry as possible and free of any material or equipment that will make them slippery or unsafe. unless it has been shut down. Do not ride on movable scaffolding while the unit is in motion...`.8.. PORTABLE SUPPORTS lifts: The following precautions apply to boom and scissor I.

17. Inspect the equipment completely before use. Do not tow on highways. 5. 11... Do not attach any cable to the platform.`-`-`.`. personnel or equipment in the way before extending the boom or moving equipment.7. 20.`--SSPC CHAPTER*5*2 93 8627940 0003620 860 = operate the equipment. Do not walk or climb the boom or scissors to do so. 3. 19. 12. Always read instructions before use. 13. Post a lookout when reversing direction or when the user s view (on a boom) is obstructed. Maintain a distance of at least 10 ft from power lines. Do not move the machine unless the lift is down and locked in position and all outriggers and jacks have been retracted. Keep both feet on the deck. 18. Do not operate the lift until the machine is stable and any outriggers or jacks are fully extended until they are in contact with the ground. Avoid tipping the machine when moving over grades.. Do not use a ladder on the platform to reach a higher elevation. Do not allow personnel to go underneath a raised lift. Use extreme caution when entering or leaving the platform. 14.`.. 10. Chock the wheels. 6. 8. 9. Never use a boom as a crane. Stay below rated .. Shut off all power controls before making any adjustments on the equipment. Be sure equipment is in good operating order. FIGURE 10 Swinging Platform Courtesy of Spider Staging Sales Co. C. Set jacks on a firm surface or use shorings on a soft surface. Be sure there are no obstructions. 16. Do not exceed the --`. Keep the platform deck clean and free of oil. Use the gate and be sure the platform is no more than one foot from a secure structure. rated capacity of the lift. If towing a mobile. 15. Never operate a malfunctioning machine. 4. Always keep your attention on the direction of travel of a boom. keep speed below 10 mph.RIGGING The following precautions apply to cable-operated rigging: 1.`.. Never stretch or over-reach beyond the side of the boom or scissor lift. 2. but not self-propelled lift. mud or any slippery substance.

wide. Apply twice the rated loa d. Note any slip page. 2. Courtesy of Spider Staging Sales Co.capacity of the rig. lift about 1 ft above ground. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 173 . Stages. except when necessary to pass through a FIGURE 9 manhole. Swinging Scaffold on Bridge 3. Check cable before use. should be at least 27 in.

Hartman. Guard rails shall be placed on eit her side of the speed is exceeded.. Working surface must be at lea st 27 in.`--- . Bower. It should be atta ched to a lanyard and entire length on both sides and at both ends. 6. No more than two men should work on a stage or The authors and editors gratefully acknowledge the active scaffold designed for a working load of 500 Ibs. Do not over-reach the side of the guard rail. wide.SSPC CHAPTERb5. in case of power failure. Alex Chasan. Wear a safety belt at all times when using rigging.`. operates automatically when normal descent 3.. Lowell designed for a 750 Ibs working load. 4.`. It must not move when the power is off.. end. high toe 5. 9. Robert C.boards at toe level along i ts entire length and either ing. 4. at about 42 and 20 in. Guy or brace suspended scaffolds to prevent sway. driven units must have an emergency brake that 2. high). Inspect all equipment ca refully before use. Suspended scaffolds should have a guard rail (app. scaffold. In addition to the normal brake. Wear a safety belt at a ll times when working on a 42 in. an intermediate and toe rail along the scaffold. Paul Knobloch..`.. Richard C. SUSPENDEDSCAFFOLDS well as manual controls. with 6 in. The machine should be worm-geared and powered folds: The following precautions apply to suspended scafin both directions. power 1. Cletus Junk.2 93 m 8b27940 0003621 7Tï m FIGURE 11 Suspended Scaffold under Highway Courtesy of Spider Staging Sales Co. Kramer. Equipment should have free-fall safety devices as D. Don t over-reach or stretch beyond the rigging s sides. 7. fall-prevention device that is att ached to a lifeline. 174 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--`.. and participation of the follow ing in the review process for this no more than three men should work on a scaffold chapter: AI Beitelman.`-`-`. and Mark Patterson. 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 8. The belt should be attached to a lanyard and fallprevention device attached to a lifeline.

.1. Volume 2. NAVFAC MO-110. REFERENCES 1. Scaffolding Safety Rules . SSPC-PA Guide 3 A Guide to Safety in Paint Application .Levinson and Saul Spindel. Spindel. OH. 9. D. Paints and Protective Coatings . 6. Levinson and S. Paint Materials . Blue Bell. see Chapter 4.Y. Safety Requirements for Suspended Power Scaffolds .`-`-`. Shoring and Forming Institute. 3. N. Spider Staging .. Government Printing Office. JLG Industries Inc. SSPC Manual. PA. Cleveland. Operation and Safety Handbook . Washington. 2. Painting and Decorating Contractors of America.`. Army TM5-618. Wash.C. S. 5.. 7.SSPC CHAPTER*5-2 73 = 8627740 0003622 633 Others contributing to this chapter are listed under the illustrations and in the Reference section. Recent Developments in Architectural and Maintenance Paintings.E. Fairfax. Scaffolding. Air Force AFM 85-2. BIOGRAPHY For biographies and photos of Sidney B. Spider Staging Sales Co... Safety Requirements for Scaffolding . Scaffolding i3 Shoring Institute. 8. PDCA Craftsman Manual .`--175 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS ..`. Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology.. PA.. American National Standards Institute. New York. McConnellsburg. VA. 4.`. Cleveland. OH. --`. Renton.

Steam Cleaning The high temperatures and pressures reached during steam cleaning can be very hazardous but are quite safe if handled properly. If supervisory personnel and workers are always aware of potential hazards. Blast Cleaning Without proper precautions the high pressures used in blast cleaning can cause injuries. The extremely high pressures associated with water blasting can cause serious injury if not treated with respect.3 SAFETY IN PAINT APPLICATION by Sidney B. This chapter describes in general terms some typical hazards painters are exposed to and precautions that can be taken to minimize risks. falls. represents a hazard in itself. SURFACE PREPARATION Equipment and materials used for surface preparation can be hazardous if used carelessly. Levinson and Saul Spindel I. explosion.3 93 m 8627940 O003623 57T W September 1993 (Revised) CHAPTER 5. hazards to health can result from using toxic materials. Each SSPC specification has a section on safety. they minimize risks and improve morale and efficiency. The nature of the environment. or the hazard may be caused by operator carelessness or lack of information. II. in addition to accidents. Typical examples follow. It is not intended to provide specific answers to specific questions of safety that arise on painting jobs. suffocation. and continuous exposure to the dust may result in lung disease. and SSPC-PA Guide 3 presents a safety checklist. and from publications listed in the reference section at the end of this chapter. A. The products and equipment used always present a potential hazard. 3. for example the inside of a tank. KINDS OF HAZARDS Painters are subject to many kinds of accidents: electric shock. INTRODUCTION Every painting job exposes personnel to conditions and situations that represent actual or potential danger to themselves and others in the immediate area.SSPC CHAPTER*5. Abrasive materials may cause harm at high or even moderate pressures. 2. 1. Detailed guidance is available from a qualified safety engineer or industrial hygienist. inhalation of solvent or other chemicals and fire. Paint Removers . falling objects.

such as support equipment and mechanical equipment in the work area. and other support equipment may be used to reach inaccessible areas. Painting a bridge railing at street level presents a relatively minor hazard. Some also are very flammable. 2. Solvents can accumulate to dangerous levels within an enclosed area. Other hazards are always present. 4. but using an airless spray on a scaffold suspended 100feet in the air or preparCopyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 176 . B. work platforms. C. 4. Support Equipment Ladders.Paint removal compounds may contain toxic and dermatitic solvents or highly acid or alkaline compounds. Paint Materials Most paint solvents. lifts. and defective parts may lead to serious accidents. However. Environment Painting conditions may be more hazardous than anticipated. bosun chairs. all solvent-thinned paints also are flammable. 3. and may be flammable. This equipment can be extremely hazardous if handled carelessly. inadequate Set-ups. many pigments and some binders are toxic. Spray Equipment Paint application is carried out rapidly with pressure spray equipment. scaffolding. most paint materials are quite safe if used with proper precautions. staging. Improper use. Airless spray equipment uses pressures that can be as high as thousands of pounds per square inch. Local contaminants may also be present. may be dermatitic if allowed to remain on the skin. Essentially. PAINT APPLICATION 1. especially with solvent-thinned paints. DEGREE OF HAZARD Risks faced in any paint job vary considerably. depending on the job location and the materials and equipment required. Cleaning Solvents Cleaning solvents may be toxic if vapors are inhaled.

inexperience or inadequate knowledge of hazards by any painter can result in a threat. Safety schools are recommended. SAFETY MEASURES A. Careless people should not be on painting crews. they should be protected by whatever devices. No safeguard can guarantee safety where there is ignorance or carelessness. Proper precautions must be taken to reduce the possibility of an accident or over-exposure to solvent vapors. Illness increases susceptibility to health hazards. Before workers enter an area. The degree of respiratory protection required depends upon the kind and concentra- . GENERAL HEALTH. and safety precautions should be taken before starting work. All personnel must be made aware of hazards and the precautions against them. 111. D. not only to himself but to other workers in the painting area. B. the water-based types. D.SSPC CHAPTER*5.e. every worker must be made aware of all hazards and the proper precautions necessary. RESPIRATORY PROTECTION In hazardous areas workers must wear face masks or helmet respirators approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and HealthlMine Safety and Health Administration (NIOSHIMSHA). Thus. It is important to be aware that hazards exist. lack of training. Anyone sensitive to heights should not be allowed to work on elevated structures or equipment. ¡. Anyone sensitive to paint materials should avoid the use of cleaning solvents and paint removers and should use less irritating paints. PAINTING CREW There is an element of risk even with well trained workers. GENERAL A continuous and enforced safety program is mandatory to provide protection against potential hazards. SENSITIVITY AND ATTITUDE All personnel should be in good health and required to have a periodical physical checkup. or clothing are necessary to enable safe work in complete confidence. ENVIRONMENT The general environment and working conditions in any work area should be evaluated for hazards. procedures. However.3 73 8627940 0003624 406 ing the surface inside an enclosed area may present a much more serious hazard. Short cuts should be avoided because time saved will very often be more than lost if one accident occurs. Disregard of any safety measure increases the potential danger and the odds that an accident will occur or health will be impaired because of excessive exposure to an unsafe environment or situation. C.

as well as the duration of their exposure. FIGURE 1 Abrasive Blasting Helmet Courtesy: SoGo-JOSafety Hood Co. Abrasive Blasting Helmet The helmet covers the head and shoulders. (See Figure 4. (See Figure 3. The respirator covers the head and shoulders and fresh air is pressure fed. chemical fumes and vapors. (See Figure 2. Ventilation is supplied by fresh air blowers so the worker is not exposed to abrasive media or dust. It enables personnel to work in confined areas. (See Figure 1. such as tanks. Keep diesel engine exhaust at least 25 feet from compressor intake.tion of contaminants that workers will be exposed to. To choose respiratory protection appropriate for a given contaminated environment.) Chemical Cartridge Respirator The face mask either contains removable cartridges or is connected to containers with activated carbon cartridges. dry and free of oil or carbon monoxide. A separate air supply should be used. Do not attach air respirators to the same supply of air as spray guns. Compressed breathing air should comply with FEDSPEC BB-A-1034.) Air Fed Helmet or Respirator This respirator is similar to but lighter than a blasting helmet because no protection against blast media under high pressure is needed. consult an industrial hygienist.) Air fed to the blasting helmets and air fed to respirators must be clean. Specifications for respirable air should be taken from FEDSPEC BE-A-1034.) Dust Respirator The face mask has removable cartridges that remove dust only. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 177 . The cartridges absorb solvent.

nausea and fatigue. fumes. It should be laundered or disposed of. This varies . that an operator may be exposed to during an 8-hour working day with no ill effects. HEALTH HAZARDS A. swallowing or even absorption through the skin. FIGURE 3 Safety Helmet. Acid-proof clothing when handling acid cleaning materials in enclosed area. TOXIC MATERIALS Typical toxic materials are solvent vapors or dust from blast cleaning of spraying operations. Goggles are not necessary if a helmet is used. Do not store protective clothing that is saturated with chemicals. loss of appetite. dizziness. rapid heart beat. Rubber gloves or plastic protection. Non-skidsoles when working in enclosed areas or where flammable vapors may be present. Safety goggles should fit well and allow adequate peripheral vision. expressed as parts per million (ppm) of solvent to air.Solvenìs Most solvents are toxic to some degree. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING Protective clothing should be worn whenever there is a chance of a hazard. This enables one to help the other in the event of trouble. BUDDY SYSTEM Never work alone in a hazardous area. The degree of toxicity can be measured by the Threshold Limit Value (TLV). Symptoms of excessive ingestion or absorption include irritation of the nasal membrane. At least two people should work in the same area. Chemical Cartridge Respirator Courtesy: Mine Safety Appliances IV. and one should be visible to the other at all times. G. depending upon exposure. Safety helmets (See Figure 3). or water under pressure striking the eyes during surface preparation or paint application. F.SSPC CHAPTERI5. Steel-toed safety shoes. i.3 93 8627740 0003625 342 FIGURE 2 Dust Respirator Courtesy: Mine Safety Appliances E. Protective clothing includes: Coveralls -including fireproof clothing. EYE PROTECTION Safety goggles should always be worn to reduce the possibility of dust. which may enter the body by breathing. headache.

000 for ethyl alcohol to a low of 50 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 178 .from a high of 1.

1. red lead.= SSPC CHAPTER*5. chrome yellow and chrome green. 2. chapped and sensitive to infection. Precautions should be taken when applying or removing paints containing these pigments. 4. are not as irritating as stronger aromatic hydrocarbons or oxygenated solvents such as toluene. Once a person is sensitized and has an allergic he shouldnot be subject to further exposure to these vapors. then respiratory protection becomes necessary. as determined by an industrial hygienist. such as the organotin Or organomercurial comPounds used to fungicidal properties. Solvents Solvents have a tendency to dissolve and remove natural oils and fats from skin.D. . leaving it dry. Pigments Some pigments are toxic.) If permissible exposure limits. DERMATITIC MATERIALS Dermatitic materials affect the skin. polyurethanes and polyesters. are exceeded. acrylics (not latex). Bullard Co. such as mineral spirits. are toxic if inhaled. The skin becomes irritated and can become infected if left untreated. Additives . which is used in nonflammable paint removers. amine hardeners. (See chapter entitled Paint Materials . for alcohol and as lowas for Orne glycol ethers.g. Aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents. absorbed through the skin. 3. e..3 93 W 8627940 0003626 289 FIGURE 4 Air Fed Respirator Courtesy: E. or ingested. basic lead silico chromate. B.%?x? Paint additives. Binders A few binders are toxic to some degree if exposure is excessive. methyl ethyl ketone or especially methylene chloride. The most common contain lead. Polyurethane paints that contain certain isocyanate compounds are strong sensitizers with very low permissible exposure limits. Typical of these are epoxies.

where possible. Some toxic materials do not take full effect for days.2. Binders Some epoxy resins. a. and for showering and changing at the end of the shift. regardless of the apparent seriousness of the injury. Report all Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 179 . * Use ventilation. D. Provide areas for washing before meals. 3.The acid or catalyst component of wash primers . If this not possible. Use the material in conformity with the manufacturer s directions. to keep exposures to airborne contaminants below the TLV. Any worker who becomes ill or is injured on the job should be examined by a doctor as soon as possible. All personnel should be able to give emergency first aid. b. amine hardeners. polyurethanes. * Use surface preparation techniques that minimize dust whenever possible. Prohibit eating and smoking where ingestion of toxic materials is likely. Other Chemicals The following chemicals are corrosive and must be handled with particular care. Consult the Material Safety Data Sheet provided by the manufacturer. C. solvent-thinned acrylics (not latex) and polyesters may also irritate the skin to some extent. use respirators and other personal protective equipment recommended on the MSDS.PREVENTION OF HEALTH HAZARDS The following precautions should minimize hazards. They describe a common approach to avoiding contact. FIRST AID Keep a first aid kit available. c. Paint removers and brush cleaners containing phenol.Acid and alkaline cleaners for surface treatment. It should be stocked with fresh materials.

TX. Alex Chasan.0 for more information on federal health and safety regulations. TLVs -Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Workroom Environment .. Justrite Manufacturing Co. Painting and Decorating Contractors of America. National Fire Protection Association. Lowell Hartman. C. flames. Shoring and Forming Institute. 11. OH. Shoring and Forming. Technical Guide No. REFERENCES 1. Houston. OSHA material safety data sheets should be available for all materials used. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: AI Beitelman. Safety Requirements for Suspended Power Scaffolds . Fairfax. American Mutual Insurance Alliance. 1991. CA. National Association of Corrosion Engineers. MA. JLG Industries. GENERAL PRECAUTIONS A. Paul Knobloch. 2. Ben Nieters and Preston Hollister. 9. Handbook of Organic Industrial Solvents . A Manual for Painter Safety . Scaffolding. 1991. Hughes. IL. Operation and Safety Handbook . Naval Construction Battalion Center. SSPC-PA Guide 3. 10. PA. Des Plaines. Quincy. Scaffolding. OH. VA. McConnellsburg. Vol. 7. GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS Be sure that all safety requirements. B. Painting and Decorating Contractors of America. Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) Reference Manual . 2. American Conference of Governmental Hygienists. etc. 4. V. BIOGRAPHY Biographical sketches and portraits of the authors appear at the end of the chapter entitled Paint Materials . See Chapter 26. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with . How to Handle Flammable Liquids Safely . OH. PDCA Craftsman Manual . IL. Cleveland. Cincinnati. A Guide to Safety in Paint Application Steel Structures Painting Manual. 6. Morris L.mishaps to the foreman or first aid station. equipment and supplies conform to all applicablefederal. Civil Engineering Laboratory. Institute. state and local regulations. MANUFACTURER S INSTRUCTIONS Follow the manufacturer s specific instructions and precautions for the handling of his product or equipment. 5. Scaffolding Safety Rules . VA. Safety Precautions for Use of Airless Spray Equipment . 12. Chicago. Cleveland. Port Hueneme. 6. 8. SIGNS AND BARRIERS Use signs and barriers to isolate the work area and to warn against smoking. Fairfax. Fire-Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids .

SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .

it is impossible to determine coating thickness or.SSPC CHAPTER*b. it is estimated that approximately 75% to 80% of all premature coating failures are caused in whole or in part by deficient surface preparation andior coating appl ¡cat ion. in many instances. critical applications such as tank lining coating work. choice of the wrong coating or paint for a given environment. Inspection. Unfortunately. or a service environment more severe than originally anticipated. formal coating inspection. Furthermore. While there may be potentially many other reasons for premature failure such as poorly written specifications. in its simplest form. and be allowed sufficient time to complete his inspection work. Even during the performance of the work. Often this must be done at the expense of . Tator and Kenneth A. fundamental inspection requires time. occurs when a painter stops after a certain portion of his work is completed and examines it for adequacy. Where the consequence of failure is expensive. However. formal inspection can often be justified. and the quality of work witnessed and documented on a periodic (often daily) basis. it is exceedingly difficult to verify the adequacy of surface preparation -especially blast cleaning. It must be recognized that any inspection. is mandatory on many large projects (such as nuclear power plants) and is often a requirement on smaller. following established guidelines or procedures.O 93 8627940 0003628 051 m September 1993(Revised) CHAPTER 6 INSPECTION bY Kenneth B. without the use of appropriate instrumentation. the coated steel is inaccessible after erection or the magnitude of painting great. pitting. It is said that a painter covers his mistakes. are there any loose mill scale or rust deposits remaining? Formal inspection is more costly. is an expense. during the course of application. Trimber An analysis of the reasons for premature coating failure -deterioration of a coating system resulting in rusting. The inspector must have access to the work area. Has he missed any areas? Are there any runs or sags? Is the blast cleaning pattern uniform and the cleanliness adequate -or in the case of hand or power tool cleaning. even the number of coats applied. coating misinformation. even the most casual kind. This is unquestionably true. Inspection procedures must be written. Accordingly. chemical attack or other deterioration in most cases leads to a finding of either improper surface preparation or deficient coating application. these items as well as many others that might affect the ultimate coating quality -can be readily witnessed and easily verified. after the surface has been coated.

a thorough coatings inspector provides a job documentation including a commentary on the type and adequacy of equipment at the jobsite. the net result is that the more stringent the inspection requirements. the rate of work progression. or engineer in charge of the job. The purpose of this chapter is to outline the inspections required to assure quality coating work. Besides specification enforcement. His function is analogous to that of a policeman: he enforces the rules (specification) without exception even if he deems them to be inadequate. the painter s foremen. In addition. information regarding ambient conditions and controls. The direct costs of inspection must be considered because the inspectors are specially hired. contract administrator. calibration and use. or other persons directly involved with the coating work. and . The authorization to deviate from the specification is the responsibility of the judge. The inspector s purpose is to ensure that the requirements of the coating specification are met. paint inspection equipment is described and summarized. inspection is often considered as an insurance against the possibility of a highly expensive premature coating failure. this type of inspection shall not be considered in the course of this discussion. Accordingly. While informal inspection may be done by the painter. including advantages and disadvantages. and equipped with expensive instruments in order to verify the quality of the work. but cannot unilaterally deviate from the specifications at the working level. usually the specification writer. This chapter is presented in the chronological order of the inspection sequence beginning with pre-surface preparation inspections and continuing through final dry film thickness and holiday testing. the longer it takes to complete the coating work.continuing coating operations -and although other tasks can be done during the inspection period. The inspector certainly may venture his opinion and give recommendations to the engineer. trained. THE FUNCTION OF THE COATING INSPECTOR Throughout this discussion the term inspector shall be used to indicate an individual or a group of individuals whose job it is to witness and document the coating work in a formal fashion. Inspection of the paint itself is covered in the two separate chapters on quality control. I.

verification that the surface preparation. coating application. coating thickness and curing are as required. This is Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 181 .

INSPECTION SEQUENCE Inspection often begins with a pre-job conference at which the ground rules are set. While an evaluation of the equipment. The instrument is spun in the air to reach temperature stabilization. ble for witnessing. Inspection under a fixed price application contract may be oriented to ensure that the contractor does not cut corners in order to hurry the job. Other safety concerns are addressed more specifically in SSPC-PA 3. and documenting FIGURE 1 SLING PSYCHROMETER -used for measuring wet and dry bulb temperatures in order to establish relative humidity and dew point. fixed price and costplus will be addressed. work procedures. the appropriate safety personnel should be notified. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS Safety is paramount on any job. Coating inspectors should be aware of basic safety requirements. verifying. The knowledgeable inspector will assure himself of the safety of these appurtenances before he becomes involved. but for simplicity two general categories.0 93 ab27940 0003b29 T98 supplemented with any other information he deems of consequence to the quality and progress of the work. is important. To paint these areas requires elaborate staging or the use of spiders or swing scaffolding for accessibility. Although the inspector is not expected to be proficient in all safety codes and regulations. The following points . the equipment and methods by which the contractor accomplishes the job are essentially at his discretion. a knowledgeable inspector must be able to evaluate the contractor s equipment for adequacy and must be able to assess whether the rate of progress is reasonable. or equipment malfunctions present safety hazards. FIGURE 2 ELECTRIC PSYCHROMETER -utilizes a fan to draw air across thermometer bulbs.SSPC CHAPTERUb. Paint application inherently presents some dangers because the solvents used are flammable anù because many objects to be painted are relatively high or inaccessible. When performing inspection services for a costplus application contract. The amount and type of inspection will vary according to the size of the project and the type of application contract. There are a number of types of contracts. providing the wet and dry bulb temperature readings. and sequence. provided the requirements of the specifications are met. inspecting. II. The inspector is responsi. 111. A Guide to Safety in Paint Application and the chapter on Safety in this volume. common sense should certainly prevail. scaffolding. If lighting. the work at various inspection points. etc.

and. Determination of Surface Preparation Cleanliness and Profile 5. The specification may require that weld splatter be ground or otherwise removed and that sharp edges be rounded. Witnessing Coating Mixing 7. Evaluating Cure IV. dust. I. Determination of Dry Film Thickness 10. if detected prior to blast cleaning. Solvent Cleaning . dirt. if sufficient deterioration has occurred to the structure. Inspecting Coating Application 8. Heavy deposits of grease. Inspection of Application Equipment 6.will be reviewed along with the appropriate instruments used for each. If deep enough. Determination of Wet Film Thickness 9. Pre-Surface Preparation Inspection 2. it may be necessary to inspect to determine if the work is ready to be prepared and painted. Removal of such large oil and grease deposits prior to blast cleaning assures that they are not redeposited onto freshly cleaned surfaces. Evaluation of Compressor (Air Cleanliness} and Surface Preparation Equipment 4. Evaluating Cleanliness Between Coats 11. they may require weld filling. cement splatter and other contaminants must be removed. Pinhole and Holiday Testing 12. replacement of some Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 182 . blast cleaning methods are used so that the abrasive itself does not become contaminated. Adhesion Testing 13. Measurement of Ambient Conditions 3. PREWRFACE PREPARATION INSPECTION Prior to the commencement of surface preparation or other coating activities. This is particularly important when abrasive recycling. Laminations in plate steel. should be opened. Such contamination would be deposited onto any steel subsequently cleaned with the same abrasive. This removal is accomplished by following the steps outlined in SSPC-SP 1. soil.

based on work done by the US. It should be made in accordance with SSPC-Vis 2 Standard Methods of Evaluating Degree of Rusting on Painted Steel Surfaces . MEASUREMENT OF AMBIENT CONDITIONS While this is not specifically an inspection hold-point. it is implicit that surface preparation and coating work be done only under suitable ambient conditions of temperature. referenced by NACE RP O178. is a test patch application of the new coating over the old. Although there is no quick fool proof field method for determining the type of coating present on a structure. a determination of the percentage of rusting in an area will be helpful. and perhaps best. may be used for inspection. NACE S Visual Comparator for Surface Finishing of Welds Prior to Coating. lifting. taping. the coating type should be ascertained in order to assure compatibility with subsequently applied coats. fish plating or other repair may be necessary. Many zinc-rich coatings require certain minimum humidities as well. is available for general field studies. 183 V. inexpensive determination of generic type (by infrared spectroscopic analysis).O 93 W 8627740 0003b30 70T FIGURE 3 DIGITAL HYGRO-THERMOMETER -gives instant readout of air temperature. Other ambient conditions that might affect painting operations should be noted such as potential industrial or . The test patch is then examined for adhesion.SSPC CHAPTER*b. structural members. humidity. specific minimum temperatures must be met. relative humidity and dewpoint. If the work involves maintenance painting. Responsibility for such repair should be specified in procurement documents but is not ordinarily considered to be part of the coating contract. signs of wrinkling. Alternately. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory. a chemical test series referenced by ASTM test method D 5043. masking and protection of adjoining surfaces not to be painted must be accomplished. or other evidence of incompatibility. As a prelude to most painting operations. For most catalyzed coatings. In addition. two weeks or more in advance of production painting. and dew point. The inspector should be cognizant of weather forecasts. particularly if coating work is to be done outdoors. A more conclusive approach is to send coating samples to laboratories for quick.

a heater or dehumidifier is used to control ambient conditions for painting operations. if required. Measurements with these instruments are taken before the work begins each day and periodically throughout the day. water spray downwind from a cooling tower. Most solvents are heavier than air. the ambient conditions of air temperature. 2. This includes psychrometers (Figures 1. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .chemical airborne contamination. Often. While much of the above is inspected visually with the acceptance criteria governed by safety requirements and common sense. A suggested minimum frequency is every four hours. a heater should be indirect fired so it does not contaminate the surface with products of combustion. leaking steam or chemical lines. relative humidity. The psychrometer consists of two identical tube thermometers. should provide for sufficient air flow and adequate ventilation of all areas where work is being performed. Ideally. Control of airborne contaminants such as dust and abrasive must also be effective in order to prevent contamination. and 3) or instruments that give direct read-out recording of humidity (Figure 4) or dew point. Ventilation. and contamination from normal plant or adjacent operations. and dew point are determined using instrumentation. thus. the dangers of explosion and flammability are greatest in low-lying areas. one of which is covered with a wick or sock that FIGURE 4 RECORDING HYGROMETER -relative humidity and air temperature are recorded on strip charts to provide permanent daily or weekly records. or sooner if weather conditions appear to be worsening.

this will take place during the whirling of the instrument. The wet bulb thermometer will drop below the 32 degrees Fahrenheit temperature to a certain point (e. The faster the rate of water evaporation. the accuracy of the readings is questionable. However. and a reading of the wet bulb quickly taken. At this time both the dry and wet bulb temperatures are recorded. and the fan or motor-driven psychrometer.S. When using the sling psychrometer. There are generally two types of psychrometers: the sling psychrometer. 27 degrees Fahrenheit) then "heat up" rapidly to the 32 degrees Fahrenheit freezing point. When using the motor-driven psychrometer. the wet bulb sock is saturated with water. This could be accomplished by obtaining the humidity on a direct read-out instrument using . the ambient conditions will have to be established by other means. stabilizes. then rise rapidly to 32°F.FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B U. the instrument whirled rapidly for approximately 20 seconds. and one need only observe the wet bulb thermometer and record both temperatures when the wet bulb temperature remains unchanged. When using the fan-operated psychrometer. The cycle is repeated (spinninglreading without additional wetting) until the wet bulb temperature FIGURE 6 SURFACE TEMPERATURE THERMOMETER -for establishing temperaturesof substrates during blast cleaning and painting. The covered thermometer is called the "wet bulb" and the other is the "dry bulb". the wet bulb sock is saturated with water and the fan is started. the lower the humidity and dew point. the low value may still be incorrect. Stabilization occurs when three consecutive readings of the wet bulb remain the same. Quite often when using a sling psychrometer.g. When the instruments are used in air temperatures less than 32 degrees Fahrenheit. FIGURE 7 DIGITAL THERMOMETER for direct readout of surface tempera ture. is saturated with water. one can observe the wet bulb temperature drop below freezing. shown in Figure 2. The dry bulb gives the ambient air temperature while the wet bulb temperature results from the latent heat loss of water evaporation from the wetted sock. Approximately two minutes are required for stabilization. a wet bulb temperature of 32 degrees Fahrenheit may always be obtained. therefore. WEATHER BUREAU TABLES -a book of tables for converting dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures to relative humidity and dew point. Thus if the temperature is below 32"F. shown in Figure 1.

Department of Commerce Weather Bureau Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 184 .sophisticated equipment or even inexpensive humidity indicators available for home use. Charts require plotting the dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures on different lines and interpolating the relative humidity and dew point from their intersection. After the dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures are determined. The ambient temperature will still be obtained using a standard thermometer. a psychrometric chart or table is used to determine the relative humidity and dew point temperatures of the air. These two values can then be used to determine the wet bulb and dew point temperatures by plotting out this information "in reverse" on the charts or tables described below. The US.

Dew point is important in coating work because moisture condensation on the surface will cause freshly blast cleaned steel to rust. a surface temperature just infinitesimally above the dew point will not permit moisture condensation. theoretically. Final blast cleaning and coating application should not take place unless the surface temperature is at least five degrees Fahrenheit higher than the dew point. the industry has established an arbitrary dew pointlsurface temperature safety factor. One of the most common is a surface temperature thermometer (Figure 6). which consists of a bimetallic sensing element that is shielded from drafts. resulting in a direct temperature FIGURE 9 SSPC VISUAL STANDARDS -Photographic reference standards for abrasive blast cleaned . NOAA-WSTA B-0-6E(5-72). often invisible film of moisture trapped between coats may cause premature coating failure. Department of Commerce. Accordingly. Two or three minutes are required for temperature stabilization of this instrument. FIGURE 8 Nozzle Orifice Gage (right) measures nozzle orifice and indicates CFM of air required for the size. Other field instruments for determining surface temperature are direct reading thermocouplelthermisters (Figure 7). depending upon which table is used. The instrument includes two magnets on the sensing side for attachment to ferrous substrates.SSPC CHAPTER*b-O 93 8627940 0003632 582 Psychrometric Tables (Figure 5) consist of individual tables for relative humidity and dew point. or a thin. Different field instruments are used for determining surface temperature. To use the table. include the relative humidity and dew point on the same table. These instruments have a sensing probe touched to the surface. Dew Point is defined as the temperature at which moisture will condense. The dry bulb temperature is found down the left column and the intersection of the two is either the humidity or the dew point. Hypodermic Needle Pressure Gage (left) measures air pressure at nozzle by inserting needle through sandblast hose. Other tables. the safety factor of five degrees Fahrenheit has been established to allow for possible instrument inaccuracies or different locations where readings are taken. Relative Humidity and Dew Point Tables . Although. the wet bulb temperature is subtracted from the dry bulb temperature and the difference found along the top row of the table. such as the U.S.

Accordingly. Only a few seconds are required for a temperature reading to st a bi Iize.`-`-`.. Air and surface temperature considerations are also important to ensure that coatings are not applied outside of their temperature limitations -in areas too cool or too warm.`. FIGURE 10 SURFACE PROFILE COMPARATOR -consists of a lighted magnifier and reference disc (shown) for visually comparing the anchor pattern of blast cleaned steel. Color print standards illustrate four degrees of blast cleaning (SP7. SP6.. readings for this purpose should be made at the coolest or warmest areas. one should consider the coldest point on the structure because a surface temperatureldew point relationship problem will occur there first.`--are given in SSPC-PA 1. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 185 . Reference discs are available for sand.`. or shot abrasives.. Typical requirements for ambient painting conditions --`. however... With any of the instruments used for determining ambient conditions and surface temperatures.`. readout. the readings should be taken at the actual locations of the work. SP5) over four rust grades of steel.steel. SP10. grit. For general readings..

Adequate moisture and oil traps should be used on all lines to assure that the air is sufficiently dry and oil-free so it does not interfere with the quality of the work. handkerchief. blowdown. The air is permitted to blow on the blotter paper for a few minutes followed by an inspection for signs of detrimental amounts of moisture or oil contamination on the blotter. and so forth. and spray application should be checked for contaminants. but should be familiar enough with it to determine its suitability. Courtesy: Elcometer. which is measured with a spring moisture or oil contamination should be made and these micrometer. or paper). but more detailed information is available in the chapters on Surface Preparation in this FIGURE 13 volume and in the Commentary on Surface Preparation in DIAL SURFACE PROFILE GAGE -a depth micrometer that Volume 2. measures the depth oí valleys on the steel surface after blast cleaning. A simple test for determining air cleanliness requires holding a clean white piece of blotter paper approximately 18 inches from the air supply downstream of moisture and oil separators. In ad- . FIGURE 11 Keane-Tator Comparator in use to measure surface profile. Unfortunately. A brief summary is provided below. The inspector need not have an extensive technical background on the equipment. A thorough FIGURE 12 TESTEX PRESS. The compressed air used for blast cleaning.O 93 8627940 0003633 419 ment -the compressor should be appropriately sized and have a suitable volume to maintain the required air pressures. Equipment suppliers have charts and data available which are excellent aids for determining required sizes of compressors. if there is no discoloration on the blotter. However. by use of the blotter paper (or a clean cloth.O-FILM TAPE -used to make a precise reverse inspection of the surfa ce after blast cleaning for signs of replica of the surface profile. Obviously. results correlated with the results of the blotter test.SSPC CHAPTER*b. the quality of the air is excellent. one can make his own judgments as to the air quality. air and abrasive lines. while streams of moisture and oil running down the sheet indicate unsatisfactory air. the point where good air becomes bad is difficult to determine. Inc. nozzles. EVALUATION OF SURFACE PREPARATION EQUIPMENT The air compressor and other equipment used for blastcleaning and any hand or power tools should be inspected. Courtesy: KTA-Tator VI.

A. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 186 . the proper functioning of in-line mo isture and oil traps can be evaluated on a comparative basis from the When an air compressor is used -for blast cleaning.ly no moisture or oil b e permitted in the compressed air. or the operation of spraying equip. For work requiring that absolutepower tool cleaning. AIR COMPRESSORANDAIR CLEANLINESS dition. results of the blotter test.

whereas most metallic abrasives. Generally. a teaspoon full) into a small vial of water (pill bottle size) and The blast cleaning machine mixes the abrasive with shake vigorously. and hardness of the abrasive have a significant impact on the surface profile and speed of cleaning.inspection must be made to assure that it is not damp or ment are available. are also widely used. a simple test for the presence of oil or grease contaminaB. Although there is no inspection apparatus for determining the cleanliness of the abrasive used.g. due to lesser hazards from silica. The washing should be done using fresh water only. a visual oil-less compressors and sophisticated air drying equip. because they can be recycled. if brackish water is used. Abrasives should be stored off the ground. The size. too much abrasive is injected into surface tension at meniscus. BLAST CLEANING MACHINE tion should be made. and expensive abrasives such as glass beads can be recycled if fines. protected from moisture and the elements. The abrasive metering valve regulating the grease or oil which w ill be present if the abrasive is conflow of abrasive into the air stream is perhaps one of the taminated. Small abrasive fines will be held by the the the use work rate. such as iron and steel shot and grit. type.SSPC CHAPTER*b. paint. water-soluble . resulting in both decreased production and color the water or ca turbidity. Inspect the top of the water for a film of the air stream. rust and mill scale can be adequately separated from the abrasive stream. contaminated.O 93 = 8627940 0003634 355 C. are most commonly used for rotary wheel blast cleaning. particularly in tanks. Drop some of the abrasive (e. Only sand or slag that has been washed at the manufacturing and packaging plant should be used. sand is a very common abrasive for most field operations. plication. Metallic and nonmetallic abrasives are reviewed in detail in other chapters of this volume. Various slag abrasives. Dirt and d ust in the abrasive can be assessed most overlooked but important considerations affecting in the same manner. It is most important that all abrasives be clean and free of moisture. ship holds and other relatively confined areas. Steel shot and grit. ZAHN CUP -for measuring the viscosity of coatings prior to ap. Sand and slag are disposable abrasives and should not be recycled. aluminum oxide.with subsequent r ust bloom in humid environments. When abrasive recycling systems are used. Where permitted by law. However. and a dirty abrasive will air stream. FIGURE 14 chloride contamination of the cleaned surface can result. ABRASIVE There is a great variety of abrasives available for blast cleaning.

If water-soluble con taminants are present. it dicate the presence of ch lorides. allow the should be constructed according to pressure vessel codes. a litmus down from the nozzle in the event the nozzle is dropped. D. FORCED AIR AND ABRASIVE HOSES Sharp constrictions or bends in these lines should be eliminated. and the blast hoses should be equipped with FIGURE 15 static wire grounding. internal couplings should be avoided. alkaline. the couplings should be wired together to assure secure closure. add a drop of 5% silver nitrate solution or external separators should be provided. The machine should be contaminants such as salt will not be detected using this equipped for dead man capability so that it can be shut test. If neutral. Since the tank to the water. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 187 . WET FILM THICKNESS GAGE -measures coating thickness during application by progressively deeper steps marked in mils. and they should be kept as short as possible to avoid friction and loss of pressure. For safety purposes.increased abrasive costs. water to evaporate and look for salt crystals. The form ation of a white precipitate will inof the blast cleaning machine is a pressure vessel. Alternatively. For the same reason. It paper test of the wa ter in the vial will tell if they are acid or should also be equipped with moisture and oil separators.

The direction of needle placement should be toward the nozzle. As a rule of thumb. the larger the orifice and the faster the cleaning rate. a nozzle that has been worn beyond 25% of its original inner diameter (I. the longer the barrel.0 93 8b27940 0003635 291 E. types. Venturi type nozzles provide a higher abrasive velocity than straight barrel types of the same orifice size. ROTARY WHEEL BLAST CLEANING MIKROTEST MAGNETIC PULL-OFF DRY FILM THICKNESS EQUIPMENT GAGE -non-destructively measures the thickness of coatings applied to ferrous substrates. and lengths are available for cleaning purposes. T he blasting air pressure should be determined at the nozzle rather than at the gage on the compressor because there will be pressure drops in the system due to hose length. Pressure readings are taken with the nozzle in operation (abrasive flowing).D. Many fabricating shops and painting sites are equipped with rotary wheel blastcleaning equipment in order to effectively prepare a surface for painting. The rate of speed through the machine determines the degree of cleaning. The number etched on the nozzle housing indicates the size when new. and the type of structural shapes that can be cleaned. Therefore a Number 8 nozzle is equivalent to '12 inch. the FIGURE 18 ELCOMETER 211 THICKNESS GAGE -operates on the same principle as the Mikrotest for non-destructive coating thickness FIGURE 19 . The amount of air pressure at the blast nozzle is a FIGURE 16 determining factor in cleaning rate production. will reduce the rate of blast cleaning. the slower the material goes through the machine. The specific nozzle chosen will depend upon the specific cleaning job. BLAST CLEANING NOZZLES AND NOZZLE PRESSURE A great variety of nozzle sizes. At the same time. The number of wheels directly affects the area that can be cleaned. The needle of the gage is inserted through the blast hose as close to the nozzle as is practical. FIGURE 17 F. restrictions. Air pressure at the blast nozzle can be determined using a hypodermic needle air pressure gage (Figure 8).) should not be used. Nozzles are designated in sixteenths of an inch. blast pot.SSPC CHAPTERxb. The opINTERCHEMICAL WET FILM THICKNESS GAGE timum nozzle pressure is 90 to 100 psig. A nozzle orifice gage (Figure 8) is available from equipment suppliers for determining the orifice size after use. and moisture traps. even if not cracked. Adjustments can be made to direct the blast pattern from each wheel to the desired location in order to provide a uniform cleaning pattern. all other pneumatic equipment using the same compressor system must be in operation. bends. Cracked nozzles and worn nozzles. In general.

188 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .measurements. ELEKTRO-PHYSIK PENTEST (Top) and ELCOMETER (bottom) PENCIL PULL-OFF GAGES.

the pattern and degree of prior rusting and numerous other factors unique to each project. Complex structural shapes are particularly hard to clean using automated equipment.SSPC CHAPTERWb-O 93 8627940 0003636 128 the abrasive used. percentage of the surface area to be cleaned. and so face prior to painti ng. hand and power tool cleaning will not be discussed here. enclosed shapes. particularly the fine film of dustforth. FIGURE 21 VII. G. jobsite standards are often developed to reach agreement. unless cleaning is done prior to fabrication. In many instances. Cleanliness after surfa ce preparation is also very imThe SSPC Surface Preparation Specifications describe the portant. As a result. Residual trace s of abrasive must be blown. in order like spent abras ive often held to the blast-cleaned surface to avoid any rusting of cleaned surfaces prior to priming. It is important that this inspection be timely. Sections of the structure (or test panels of a similar nature) are prepared and all parties involved ultimately select one of the panels or areas that is representative of the desired end result. water blasting with or without sand injection. DETERMINATION OF SURFACE PREPARATION CLEANLINESS AND PROFILE A. A complete listing of available standards is provided in the Commentary on Surface Preparation included in Volume 2. the intent is that it be employed over 100% of All surfaces should be inspected after surface the area. and shielded members can not be cleaned. appearance of various types of surface preparation or vacuumed from the surface prior to prime coating. preparation to assure compliance with the specification. CLEANLINESS When a certain surface preparation method is specified.OTHER METHODS OF SURFACE PREPARATION Methods such as vacuum blast cleaning. not just the readily ac cessible areas. It is methods. fabricators will employ handheld blast cleaning equipment in tandem with the automated equipment to reach the inaccessible areas. wet blast cleaning. FIGURE 20 COUNTERWEIGHT\ POSIPEN PENCIL PULL-OFF GAGE REFERENCEMARK greater the degree of cleaning. by static electricity . swept. also important to ensure that dust is removed from the surtype of residues permitted to remain on the surface. Details are given in the chapter on centrifugal blast cleaning in this volume. The interior of box girders.

but closely related to. cult to achieve because of shadows and hues caused by surface cleanliness. or later contaminating the freshly primed scale and rust conditions of steel (Figure 9). The standards surface. and the surf ace.cleaned substrate is different than. Note that the profile or roughness of a blastsurface using commercially available standards is often diffi. Other visual standards for surface isolated to preven t contamination of the freshly painted cleanliness evaluation include the NACE coupons. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Stan-The surface profile sh ould also be measured or dards.cleaned to prevent a brasive dropping onto the freshly ance of various grades of blast cleaning over four initial mill cleaned surface. Concurrent blast cleaning and painting should are visually compared with the prepared surface to determine not be permitted un less the blast cleaning is adequately the degree of cleanliness.. Agreement on the desired appearance of a cleaned estimated. which photographically depict the surface appear.steel above the area to be coa ted must be blown down and Vis-1-89. staging or support The written definitions are supplemented by SSPC. Any scaffolding. 189 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .

A simple water extraction test. 1.. This may indicate that the use of abrasives or the surface preparation process itself has imparted chemical contamination to a surface. such as the use of boiling deionized water to extract salts from a steel sample. a review of existing conditions prior to or immediately after surface preparation can identify areas where contamination may be present. Second. splash or spillage of chemicals and salts in an industrial plant. abuse of the structure by chemicals or salts. free of salt contamination. heavy blistering of a lining. Cell retrieval methods.0 93 8b27940 0003b37 Ob4 D B. The use of deicing salt on a bridge is also likely to lead to salt contamination. the rerusting is more uniformly distributed. one of several methods could be used to sample the surface after surface preparation so that the extent of salt contamination can be estimated. First. Sampling Techniques -Several techniques are available to acquire samples for analysis in order to determine if an abraded surface is chemically clean. . Most often such flash rusting will be associated with pitted or previously rusted areas on the structure. Review of Conditions-Existing conditions before surface preparation that would lead an inspector to suspect that salt contamination is present include: heavy rusting and pitting at locations where the coating film has broken down. NSPECTING SUF FACES FOR SALT cor TAMIN AT1 ON An inspection of the surface may be required to determine if it is chemically clean. The first two methods can be used in both laboratory and field settings. are generally only useful when performed in the laboratory and will not be discussed further. A common indicator of salt contamination which occurs after the surface is prepared is rapid rerusting in the absence of condensing-moisture.g. a. ASTM D 4940. Evaluating the Surface Two approaches are described. and. can be used to help determine if an abrasive is contaminated. while total extraction methods. All depend upon a surface extraction of soluble salts. In some cases. Salt retrieval methods used to determine surface concentrations of salt on ferrous metals fall into three general classes: Swabbing or washing methods. In almost all instances a pure deionized water supply is used to extract the salts from the steel surface. Identifying areas of concern before surface preparation can help limit the need for subsequent sampling of the surface to those locations believed to be contam inated .SSPC c IAPTERxb. e. b. Total Extraction Methods.

All run-off water is collected and analyzed. Surgical grade cotton swabs moistened with deionized water are used to remove salts from a known area of the structure. An area of corroded steel has been marked off after abrasive blast cleaning of the surface. The FIGURE 22 The swabbing method for obtaining samples to determine the extent of salt Contamination. The cell shown adheres magnetically to the structure. This method typically involves rinsing a prepared area of steel of known dimensions with deionized water until no further increase in the run-off water is noted. FIGURE 23 Using a magnetically attached limpet cell to obtain a sample. 190 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . surface can also be cleaned by scraping or chipping off heavily rusted scale and cleaning with abrasive embedded discs. The method requires that the operator wear surgical latex rubber gloves to prevent cross contamination of the surface or the retrieved sample by salts naturally present on the surface of the skin. a washing technique may be used. The cell itself is constructed of machined plexiglas plastic plate and includes a conductivity meter to permit immediate reading of fluid conductivity and a syringe to pump fluid into and out of cell.1) Figure 22 shows the swabbing method. 2) Figure 23 shows an extraction using a limpet cell . As an alternative to swabbing.

Commercial test kits are available for full extraction and analysis of these species. the performance characteristics of each method and the conversion of retrieved salt levels to actual surface concentration estim ates. the water is withdrawn from the cell and stored for further analysis. Samples may also be collected using a Bresle cell. Factors that affect the amount of salt retrieved include the method of retrieval. 2. . The proportion retrieved varies from method to method. Specific Ons Of greatest interest are chloride. sulfate or ferrous. Based on retrieval studies conducted in the SSPC laboratories the following performance characteristics are suggested for each extraction met hod: a. The liquid is then retrieved from the patch and tested.û 93 = 8627940 0003638 TTO FIGURE 24 Bresle cells can also be used for sampling. a small adhesive oatch which expands when filled with sample liquid. Rigid Limpet Cell Method -Between 45 to 60% of all surface salts extracted. b. see the bibliography at the end of this chapter for articles on this subject published in the Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings. For more information on these tests. normally about one to two minutes. The cell surface area is known and a set volume of deionized water is flushed in and out of the cell space to wash the salts from the steel surface. Figure 24 shows a Bresle cell. 3. using a simple cell arrangement or an analysis to identify the presence of individual ions can be performed. Interpreting the Results None of the methods described will retrieve all the salt present on a contaminated surface. Swabbing Method -Between 15 to 35% of all surface salts extracted. Analyzing the Samples Water samples from either swabbing or cell extractions can be analyzed in one of two general ways. There are no published reports yet on the effectiveness of the cell. After a short period of time. The samples can be assayed for conductivity. Distilled water is injected into the cell with a hypodermic needle.SSPC CHAPTER*h. The cell can hold only about 5 ml of sample. less than can be obtained with some other methods.

__ 191 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . 2.`.`--of the profile requirement.c.. The IS0 has also been developing standards for assessing and quantifying surface cleanliness.. a Commercial Blast can have a 1.. FIGURE 25 Inside of Mikrotest Gage with components corresponding with those in Figure 21. 3. Specifying a certain blast cleanliness says nothing --`. Bresle Method -Between 45 to 60% of all surface salts extracted. likewise. A White Metal Blast can have a 1.`.`. A draft technical update covering salt recovery and identification methods is being developed by SSPC and other levels of chemical cleanliness are being defined in SSPC-NACE Joint Task Groups. Courtesy: GilbertlCommonwealth c. PROFILE The profile anchor pattern or roughness is defined as the maximum average peak to valley depth (or height) càused by the impact of the abrasive onto the substrate. 3. for example... Actual target levels depend upon the type of coating to be used..or 4 mil profile.. It must be addressed separate. the service environment of the structure and other engineering factors. or 4 mil profile.`-`-`. the presence or absence of cathodic protection. The interpretation of the results of analysis is the subject of much debate among coating professionals. 2. Target levels should be set forth in the contract documents or governing specifications.

IS0 also provides a visual profile comparator. For example. The leaf or leaves which most closely approximate the roughness of the surface are considered to be the profile of that surface. As a general rule. They are stainless steel coupons individually blast cleaned and measured for profile depth. The . resulting in good adhesion. and provides a mechanical anchor. The Clemtex Coupons are another type of profile reference standard similar to the comparator discs. or perhaps from 2 to 3 mils if the surface roughness appears to lie between the 2 mil and 3 rnil leaves. Magnetic measurements of surface profile have been attempted with little success.O 93 W 8627940 O003639 937 Surface profile is important because it increases the surface area to which the coatings can adhere. SSPC has developed a standard method of measuring profile using a microscope. or a replica tape. More sophisticated laboratory methods include a profilometer and a depth measuring microscope. year that the master disc was formed is only significant if it were to be replaced at a later date. The disc is held magnetically against the magnifier. thick coatings require a deeper surface profile than thin coatings. There are three surface profile discs available. each of which is assigned a number representative of the profile depth of the particular leaf. The reference disc has five separate leaves or segments. Profile determinations are generally made in the field or shop using one of three instruments: a surface profile comparator. the profile might be 2 mils. The master disc was measured microscopically by the SSPC to establish the profile depth. While all methods are worthy of consideration. This is included in the SSPC Study Surface Profile for Anti-Corrosion Paints. Each disc is a high purity nickel electroformed copy of a master. The reference disc is compared with the surface through the 5-power magnifier. only the fieldlshop instruments will be discussed. The most common comparator is the Keane-Tator Surface Profile Comparator (Figures 10 and ll). a depth micrometer. which consists of a reference disc and a 5-power illuminated magnifier.SSPC CHAPTER*h. The instrument is calibrated on a mirror or plate glass by turning the entire scale ring so that the zero through which test surface and disc segments can be viewed simultaneously. The depth micrometer consists of a conical pin which projects out from a large flat base approximately the size of a nickel. Another field instrument useful for determining average profile depths is a depth micrometer (Figure 13).

SH. lines up with the pointer. GE. In order to achieve similar profile depths. although the depths might be identical. the base will rest on the tops of the peaks and the pin will project into a valley. the shot by virtue of its shape will generally result in greater lateral distances between peaks than will grit. 1S70 indicates that that leaf was prepared to a 1 rnil profile using sand as the abrasive and that the master disc was formed in 1970....and for steel shot.`-`-`. The optical effect provides an illusion that the shot-blast-cleaned surface is deeper than the grit-blast-cleaned surface even when they are identical. It is important to pick the Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 192 . Different types of abrasives may result in a different profile appearance.`--FIGURE 27 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY CERTIFIED COATING THICKNESS CALIBRATION STANDARDS for magnetic pull-off gage calibration. the letter represents the abrasive used. it is essential that the correct comparator disc be selected for the abrasive used. and the final number represents the year that the master disc was formed. Therefore. For example. The numbering system on each leaf consists of a number followed by a letter designation. for metallic grit or slag.`. By taking a number of readings.. The designations for three discs available with the instrument are for sand. shot is round when compared with the more angular grit. when the instrument is firmly placed on the blast cleaned substrate. an average profile can be obtained. resulting in a lower peak count per given area. Theoretically. For example.The FIGURE 26 PLASTIC SHIMS -for calibrating dry film thickness gages.. --`.one to use for measurement depends upon the abrasive used.`. The first number represents the profile depth of that leaf. then another number. s.`..

The tape is pressed onto the blast-cleaned surface. The peaks of the profile may be too close together to permit the projecting pin of the Surface Profile Gage (depth micrometer) to reach the valleys. holding the base of the instrument slightly above the plane of the profile. but not alter. rather than drag it across the profile.5 to 4. emulsion side down. or the surface might be irregular or wavy.0 mils and X-coarse for measurements from i. For example. The tape is removed and measured using a light-weight. measurement. The replica tape cannot be used for profiles exceeding 4% mils. The replica tape will allegedly retain the impression indefinitely. It is important that the inspector realize that each of the above methods has its drawbacks. the comparator is subjective. provided it is stored in a cool area with no pressure applied. The tape is available in coarse for profile measurements from 0. The total micrometer reading is adjusted for the thickness of the mylar by substracting 2 mils from the results to provide a direct reading of the maximum average profile. It is entitled . Such contamination will be picked up and incorrectly read as additional profile depth by the micrometer. Conceivably. yielding erroneous readings. replicas of profiles could be kept on file permanently for future reference. equipment or technique. 2 mil film of mylar. The Testex Press-O-Film Replica Tape consists of an emulsion film of microscopic bubbles attached to a uniform. The SSPC has prepared a report on profile.SSPC CHAPTER*bmO 93 86277110 O0036110 659 instrument up and place it down for each reading. Therefore. and the mylar rubbed vigorously with a blunt instrument. The peaks of the profile will break the bubbles and ultimately touch. control and effect on coating performance. which provides a reading from the upper or outermost surface of the mylar to the high spots on the emulsion which were not totally crushed (corresponding with the valleys of the profile). and persons using it could be biased by the results of others.5 mils. otherwise. or if there is any dirt or dust contamination on the surface. such as a swizzle stick or burnishing tool. Surface profile can also be determined by using replica tape (Figure 12). the thickness of the mylar. its origin. the point will become blunted. spring-loaded micrometer. manufacturers will occasionally supply a profile reference coupon representative of the roughness necessary for their product or alternatively specify the use of a specific instrument. giving erroneously high readings. as the mylar is incompressible. Because of the controversy in agreement in surface profile measuring methods. Finally.8 up to 2. it is important to realize that there may not be exact correlation among each of the above methods because each takes in a different peak count or surface area for its measurement. it is advisable that all parties concerned agree on the instrument that will be used to determine the surface profile and not deviate from it.

as well as a corresponding air cap size. Consequently. INSPECTION OF APPLICATION EQUIPMENT The inspector must also be familiar with the methods and equipment used for coatings application. The proper fluid cap and needle must be chosen. A. although some adjustable tips are now available. Only the minimum pressures necessary to adequately atomize the paint should be used. Because the compressed air mixes with the coating. VIII. The technology of surface preparation is covered in a series of separate chapters in this volume. A brief summary is presented here. but more detailed information is provided in the chapter on paint application of this volume and in Volume 2. choice of the appropriate tip. SPRAY APPLICATION EQUIPMENT Spray equipment is classified as either conventional (air atomized) or airless. -ADJUSTMENT EXTENSION REFERENCE COATING FERROUS SUBSTRATE FIGURE 28 Operating principle of Pencil Pull-Off Gage. much in the same manner as water is dispersed into droplets when passing through a garden hose spray nozzle. however. Methods for measuring surface profile are given in ASTM D 4417 and NACE RP 0287. In an airless spray gun. other tip or cap combinations may be more apCopyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with .Surface Profile for Anti-Corrosion Paints . and compressed air is directed at the fluid stream through an air cap to atomize it. is only a recommendation and under certain conditions. as well as variation of fluid pressure can result in a wide range of spray patterns suitable for almost any application. filters should be used to ensure a clean air supply. the paint is fed through the fluid line at relatively low pressures. This. variations in the spray pattern can be attained only by changing the spray tip (fluid orifice). very high hydraulic pressure (1000-3000 psi) is used to atomize the paint through a precision-ground spray tip. In airless spraying. Adjustment of the fluid stream and air pressure enables the painter to adjust the spray pattern. The coating manufacturer s application instructions usually recommend the appropriate spray tips and caps for conventional and airless application of their material. With air atomization equipment. generally.

SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 193 .

FIGURE 29 ELCOMETER 345 -digital gage measures coating thickness on ferrous substrates. Air and fluid pressure gages FIGURE 30 POSITECTOR6000 -digital gage measures coating thickness on ferrous substrates. making it possible to control both air and fluid pressure to the spray gun from the pot. B. IX. The pressure release valve should also be operative. both of the spray gun itself and of fluid lines. or no later than. spray lines. However. Cleanliness of all spray application equipment should be verified prior to. require the use of an agitated pot (one equipped with a stirring paddle) in order to keep the paint components in suspension. Regardless. resulting clogged paint equipment may cause the loss of the coating material due to expired pot life or the presence of contamination.0 93 8627940 0003643 595 propriate. Similar model uses eddy current principle to measure coating over non-ferrous metal substrates. MIXING OF THE PAINT MATERIAL This is probably one of the most important operations. should be available and functional on conventional spray pots. mixing is not always specified as an inspection hold point in painting operations. as improper mixing or thinning will affect the coating s ability to resist the environment. Similar model measures coating thickness over non-ferrous metal substrates using eddy current principle. that mixing is thorough and proper and that any required induction times have been met. Care should be taken when cleaning the tip or caps as the orifice can be easily damaged. Additionally. particularly zinc-rich primers. the time of mixing of the paint. Dislodged particles can clog the spray gun or even result in the deposition of incompatible traces of previously applied material in the new paint film. there should be some means to assure that all components of a multicomponent paint system have been added. Paint chips or agglomerations and most blasting abrasive particles are of sufficient size to clog the small diameter orifices. SPRAY POT The spray pot should be clean and in working order prior to use. Dirty equipment can cause new paint to become contaminated with old. The conventional pot should be equipped with diaphragm pressure regulators. spray guns or other application equipment is important and necessary for good paint application.SSPC CHAPTERxb. The predominant malfunction in spray guns is attributable to lack of cleanliness. Otherwise. spray pots. resulting in gun stoppage or clogging. Leaking or damaged containers should not . Many types of paints. cleanliness of mixing pots.

homogeneous. and free of surface swirls or pigment lumps or agglomerations. so boxing of these paints is beneficial to ensure that all pigment settled on the bottom of the container is incorporated in the mixed paint. Many paints settle out upon prolonged storage. Mixing should be done until the paint becomes smooth. 194 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . Containers with illegible labels should not be used.be used. particularly with catalyzed paints as some of the components necessary for complete cure may have leaked out and proper proportioning may not be obtainable.

the timer is stopped instantly. Viscosity measurements of this type are of value for recommendations. However. When the solid stream breaks at the base of the cup.0 93 = 8b27940 0003b42 421 = When adding zinc dust to the vehicle of zinc-rich primers. If so. 1 through 5. accordingly so that volume of paint held by the cup will flow through the orifice within the stipulated time range. the manufacturer might stipulate that the material should be thinned such that it will pass through a No. it is imperative that the components be carefully measured. The amount of thinner used should be quick field determinations of thinning and will reveal if recorded by the inspector. and the time in seconds for the volume of properly thinned material held by the cup to pass through the orifice. The material will flow steadily through the orifice. If this cannot be done. The type and amount of thinner should be in accordance with the coating manufacturer s FIGURE 32 QUANIX 2300 -digital gage measures coating thickness over non-ferrous metal surfaces. 3Zahn Cup in 20-30seconds at a given liquid paint temperature. For such heavily pigmented coatings. only complete kits of multi-component paints should be mixed. as any thinner reduces the significant changes in the viscosity occurred from pot to volume of solid contents of the mixed paint. The manufacturer can be consulted as to the orifice size to use for his material. pot of material. Th e amount of thinner is adjusted ferrous substrates. For example. it is also important that the spray pot agitator is keeping the pigment in suspension. Thinners are often required and should be well mixed into the paint material. The clean cup is fully immersed in the coating material and withdrawn quickly. gun clogging caused by pigment agglomerations that are not properly dispersed upon mixing.generally the best judge of p . It is important to hold the cup one or two inches above the surface of the liquid so that the cup will remain in the solvent atmosphere and FIGURE 31 QUANIX 2200 -digital gage measures coating thickness on away from all drafts. the paint applicator himself is Measurement of viscosity assures that proper thin. the manufacturer must be consulted to assure that partial mixing of their material is permitted. it is a usual practice to sift the zinc dust through a screen into the liquid portion while mixing. A timer is started at the precise moment that the top of the cup leaves the level of the liquid. Preferably. This helps to reduce a major problem when spraying two-component zinc-rich primers.SSPC CHAPTERxb. that is.

changed significantly from pot to pot. the manufacturer Generally five orifice sizes are available and are numbered should be contacted for a recommendation. In this case. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 195 . A common viscosity Additionally. as shown in Figure 14.roper thinning ratios to assure ning ratios are used and that the thinning has not been that he can apply a smoo th wet coat without runs or sags. viscosimeters can be used. the visc osity qf some high build thixotropic cup (Zahn). but other known volume with a precisely sized orifice in the center. is simply a small cup of coatings cannot be m easured with the Zahn Cup.

and other film deficiencies should be brushed out during application or removed after drying. drips. deficient primer thickness can be built up by additional thickness of the topcoat. or in extreme cases. the excess should be removed by grinding. it is the most important aspect as well. This again is done by grinding.. Deficient and excessive coating thicknesses in multicoat systems should be observed. In cases where a topcoat is applied over a generically similar (non-rust inhibitive) primer. blast cleaning. but detailed information is available in the . where the primer contains rust inhibitors or is a different generic type. the coating inspector should be knowledgeable of the various application techniques. When paint thickness exceeds the specified thickness. . Excessive or unsightly runs. or to tint each coat. sags. Upper thickness limits are also specified in some cases. This is an excellent aid to the applicator and inspector to assure that complete coverage is achieved. a cross hatch technique should be used.SSPC CHAPTERxb-0 93 m 8b23940 O003643 368 m and other areas where atmospheric contamination is present. the gun trigger should be released. sanding. These are briefly reviewed below. the spray gun should be held from six to eight inches from the surface and maintained perpendicular to the surface throughout the stroke. contaminants often invisible to the unaided eye may be coated over. z. For airless application. FIGURE 33 QUANIX 1500 -digital gage measures coating thickness over ferrous and non-ferrous metal substrates. Another common practice is to use coatings of a different color. and where possible. This requires a duplicate series of passes at 90 to the first to ensure complete and uniform coverage. leading to premature coating failure. chapter on Paint Application of this volume and in Volume When spraying with conventional (air atomized) equipment. Often water washing between coats or application of the topcoat within a minimum time interval is necessary. an additional coat of the primer or previously applied coating must be used before the topcoat can be applied. However. Removal is usually followed by reapplication of a thin coat to seal irregularities. Each spray pass should overlap the previous one by 50%. It has been said that the best coating specification is no better than the man behind the spray gun . X. Accordingly. streamers. At the end of each pass. sanding or blast cleaning as appropriate. COATING APPLICATION Besides surface preparation. Otherwise. the actual coating application is the most visible aspect of the coating work. the distance should be from 10to 14inches. After surface preparation.

roller coating using automated facilities for flat sheets. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 196 . Each has its own specific technique as described elsewhere in this volume. FIGURE 34 MINITEST 1OOF -digital gage measures coating thickness over ferrous metal substrates. electro-static spraying. pits or crevices. coke plants. maintaining as fully loaded a brush as possible. However. care should be taken to ensure that the coating is not brushed out too thin. the brush should be dipped approximately two-thirds of its bristle length into the coating. dipping. when coating concrete or non-metallic substrates.In brush application. the wet film thickness is often the accepted value because dry film thickness can be determined only by destructive means. Besides ensuring proper application technique. increasingly. Other application methods include rolling. Wet film thicknesses on steel and most other metallic substrates are considered guideline thicknesses. additional care is necessary when inspecting coating work at fossil fuel power stations. with the dry film thickness being the thickness of record. powder coating (using fluidized bed or electro-static spray). The bristle tips should be brushed lightly against the side of the container to prevent dripping. and. However. XI. Brushing is more effective than spraying for working paint into depressed irregularities. using mitts or pads. WET FILM THICKNESS DETERMINATIONS Wet film thickness readings are used to aid the painter and inspector in determining how much material to apply in order to achieve the specified dry film thickness. chemical plants.

The basic formula is DRY FILM THICKNESS = WET FILM THICKNESS X yoSOLIDS BY VOLUME. The notch type gage consists of two end points on the same plane with progressively deeper notched steps in between. it is necessary to stay away from any surface irregularities that could distort the readings. The solids by volume of the coating material is information readily available from the manufacturer and is commonly included in their product data sheets. it is necessary to turn the gage to a different face. Each step is designated by a number representing the distance in mils or microns between the step and the plane created by the two end points. The instrument is rolled across the surface and withdrawn. The gauge must also be cleaned thoroughly after each use to 197 ensure the accuracy of the readings. If determinations are being made on curved surfaces. as the curve itself could cause irregular wetting of the steps. as the wet film thickness is outside of that particular range. The wet film thickness gage is generally a standard notch configuration (Figure 15). Wet film thickness gages are of value only if one knows how heavy a wet film to apply. The Interchemical thickness gage is a narrow wheel with two outer rings of the same size and an off-set inner ring. If none of the steps or all of the steps in between the end points are wetted. When using this instrument. if the 3 step is wetted and the 4 step is dry. The instrument is pressed firmly into the wet film perpendicular to the substrate and withdrawn. Similar model measures coating thickness over non-ferrous metal substrates. the two end points will be wetted by the coating material. The old theory of doubling the desired dry film thickness to determine the wet film to be applied is only correct if the solids by volume of the coating material is 50%. although circular dial gages are also used (Figure 16). The wet film thickness is that point where the coating no longer wets the inner ring. In every case. The wet film thicknessldry film thickness ratio is based on the percent solids by volume of the specific material being applied.FIGURE 35 MINITEST4000 -digital gage measures coating thickness over ferrous metal substrates. it is important that the gage be used along the length of the curve rather than across its width. the wet film thickness is between 3and 4 mils. The wet film thickness is considered as being between the last wetted step and the next adjacent higher dry one. For example. and in addition some of the steps in between. A more workable variation of the formula showing the required wet film thickness for the desired dry film thickness is as follows: .

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . Similar model measures coating thickness over non-ferrous metal substrates.WET FILM THICKNESS = DESIRED DRY FILM THICKNESS Yo SOLIDS BY VOLUME FIGURE 36 ELCOMETER 300 -digital gage measures coating thickness over ferrous metal substrates.

65) 1.78 (0.78 If the coating in the same example is thinned 20%. Thus. however.2 This. the required wet film thickness is determined as follows: WFT = -= 10. during spray application.25 wet mils are required to obtain 8 mils dry.3 mils 0. Therefore. when comparing thinned versus unthinned material in order to achieve a comparable dry film thickness. a heavier wet film application of the thinned material will be required. The following formula. the total volume of the material is increased without any corresponding increase in the amount of solids. Actually. some of the solvents will already haveevaporated. and the solids by volume is considered as the in can percentage. the thinned material will result in a lower percentage of solids by volume. The above formula is accurate provided the solids by volume of the material is accurate. After thinning. which incorporates the new solids by volume. The percentage will change. should be used to determine the required wet film thickness when the material is thinned: DESIRED DRY FILM THICKNESS WFT = /o SOLIDS BY VOLUME (100% + /o THINNER ADDED) For example. between the time the material leaves the gun and reaches the surface.SSPC CHAPTER*b-O 93 8b27940 0003645 130 = FIGURE 37 TOOKE SCRATCH GAGE -for determiningdry film thickness by cutting a cross section through the film and viewing it under magnification. Without thinner added. changing the percent of solids by . if any thinner is added to the coating. assume a material contains 78% solids by and is to be applied in one coat to a dry film thickness of 8 mils. 10. When thinner is added. without thinning. it is essential that wet film thickness readings be taken as soon as a film is applied to the surface. the solids by volume drops from 78% to 65% and the required wet film thickness increases nearly 2 mils. the new required wet film is calculated as follows: WFT = -8 . Because the use of the wet film thickness gage is dependent on the solids by volume.25 mils 0.-= 12. however.

or very fast dry coatings. For highly pigmented coatings (such as zinc-rich). Determination of the thickness of each coat in a multicoat system should be an inspection hold-point. Readings taken after the second coat is applied will obviously be the total thickness of the two coats combined. to provide a means to indicate coating thickness in areas where it is either thin or thick. however. five separate spot measurements should be made over every 100 square feet in area. with magnetic gages it is nearly impossible to Specifically determine the thicknesses Of Coats applied after the and One must rely On averages onlyIt is often a good idea. However.volume slightly. the less accurate that reading becomes. the average of the first coat must be determined prior to application of the second coat. this change is not too significant. When using magnetic gages to measure multi-coat systems. Thickness readings are taken to provide reasonable assurance that the specified or desired dry film thickness has been achieved. it is not possible to measure every square inch of the surface. DRY FILM THICKNESS Dry film thickness readings on steel substrates are commonly taken using magnetic gages. so appropriate repair can be done by the coating applicator. SSPC-PA 2 states that when using magnetic gages. Calibration of magnetic thickness gages should be done in accordance with SSPC-PA 2. chalk or other material that can be readily removed or graphic plotting and notation on charts and records. where practical. Therefore. Possible methods are brush application of a light tinted coat of the same paint. For non-ferrous metallic substrates. SSPC Method for Measurement of Dry Paint Thickness with Magnetic Gages . eddy current equipment is used.the longer one waits before taking a reading. wet film thickness readings may be unreliable. XII. because it is highly unlikely that specific readings taken on the second coat will be over an area of the first coat that is exactly the first coat average. However. The second coat thickness cannot be determined precisely. Each spot measurement consists of an average of Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 198 . and the specific thickness of the second coat can only be determined by subtracting the average thickness obtained from the first coat reading. Although the standard is written for magnetic gages. compatible felt tip marking pens. many of the principles of operation and calibration techniques apply to the eddy current instruments as well. But for practical applications.

_may underrun by a greater amount . Spot 2 (7. the Elcometer 21 1 (Figure 18). Positest. magnetic-constant pressure probe. The spring tension is calibrated so that the point where the magnet breaks contact with the surface can be equated to the distance of the magnet from the surface. three gage readings next to one another. the spring tension overcomes the attraction of the magnet to the substrate. The five spot measurements (each a cluster of three gage readings) are as follows: Spot 1 (10. 12. 13. and the 7 mil reading is acceptable because single gage readings . The single gage readings. Spot 5 (12. however. 12. eddy current-constant pressure probe.. Basically. or Elcometer 21 1 Gage consists of a lever running through the center of a scale dial which houses a helical spring. the scale dial is turned clockwise and the magnet brought into direct contact with the metal substrate (through the coating or non-magnetic barrier).. The calibrated spring tension is an inverse logarithmic relationship of the distance between . Each of the four categories are addressed separately. unless otherwise specified. average 12).`. average 8).`. and destructive. which applies a pulling force onto the magnet. The average of the five spot measurements must be within the specified thickness. This measured area would be acceptable because the average of the five spots is 10. This distance is read directly from the scale dial in mils (or microns). Ultimately. while single spot measurements are permitted to be 80% of the specified thickness. One end of the spring is attached to the lever and the other end to the scale dial. To operate.O 93 m 8627940 0003646 O77 m FIGURE 38 Modified version of the TOOKE GAGE with all three cutting tips --`. can underrun by a greater amount. Then the scale ring is turned counterclockwise. and the Pencil Pull-Off (Figure 19 and 20) type gage. Spot 4 (7. the Positest. 11... For example. 8.`.. Dry film thickness instruments fall into four basic categories: magnetic pull-off. increasing the spring tension. making up the spot measurement. average 12)..SSPC CHAPTER+b.. 11. A. average 11). 11. According to SSPC-PA 2.`-`-`. the 8 mil spot measurement would be acceptable because no single spot measurement .6 mils and within specification. a Mikrotest. MAGNETIC PULL-OFF The magnetic pull-off type gages include the Mikrotest (Figure 17). lifting the magnet from the surface... 12. a specification calls for 10 to 12 mils. The scale dial is located at the fulcrum point of the lever.`--mounted on the instrument body and three bulbs to improve lighting. shall be less than 80% of the specified thickness (8 mils is exactly 8O%). 12. Spot 3 (12. One side of the lever contains a permanent magnet while the opposite end contains a counterbalance (Figures 21 and 25). 9. average 10).

Therefore. embedded contaminates. Positest. etc. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 199 . Calibration test blocks similar to those supplied by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The Mikrotest. the greater the spring tension required to remove the magnet. prior to. during. it could also be comprised of voids. and after each use to assure that they are measuring accurately. Measurement of Dry Film Thickness with Magnetic Gages. Note that the thickness reading shown on the scale ring when the magnet breaks contact with the surface represents the gap between the magnet and the substrate. This gap is considered to be the coating thickness. However. or at least calibration verified. rust. Calibration methods are described in SSPCPA 2. which are chrome and copper plated steel (Figure 27) must FIGURE 39 A hand-held spring loaded micrometer useful for measuring the thickness of coating chips. the thinner the coating). and Elcometer 21 1 Gages should be calibrated. which defines the pull-off instruments as Type 1 gages.g. one must include a thorough visual inspection during the work to ensure that the coating is applied over a clean surface and does not become contaminated during drying.the magnet and the substrate (e.

if the instrument is calibrated to a 4 mil NIST Standard. however. take a gage reading of the bare. Next. This instrument can not be adjusted. If a coating is being measured in the thickness range of two to four mils. The tension on the spring required to lift the magnet is read from the scale in mils or microns (Figure 28). Another type of magnetic pull-off gage based on a similar principle is the pencil pull-off gage (Figures 19. It is essential that the instrument is calibrated in the desired thickness range of use. For example. For example. The pencil-style gages provide a quick check of coating thickness. An extension spring is attached to the magnet and to the top of the instrument housing. a paint thickness reading of 3% mils indicates that the true thickness above the peaks is actually only 3 mils. and so on. but considerable judgment is involved in determining the point at which the magnet breaks from the surface. and a 1/z mil magnetic base reading on bare blast cleaned steel is found. There are some precautions necessary when using . Basically.FIGURE 40 Pocket-sized30X microscope with integral light source useful for examining coatings. The preferred method for verifying calibration is the use of calibration test blocks. 20 and 21). any coating thickness readings taken must be corrected by this bare steel base reading in order to determine the coating thickness above the peaks of the profile. In this case. it will be necessary to develop a calibration correction curve using the instrument scale as an arbitrary scale. popping it from the surface. The instrument will generally read between one and two tenths of a mil up to 1mil or more over the bare steel. If one chooses not to physically adjust the instruments as described above. The instrument is held perpendicular to the surface and the magnet brought into contact with the substrate. although calibration should be verified. a five on the scale may be equivalent to three mils. be used to verify the calibration of Type 1 Gages. a ten equivalent to seven mils. The use of plastic shims is not permitted. a calibration correction curve is necessary if the instrument does not read correctly on the shims. uncoated substrate after blast cleaning (or other surface preparation). Therefore. the magnet remains attached to the substrate until the spring tension overcomes the attraction of the magnet. As the housing is lifted. the instrument housing is similar to a large pencil with a magnet at one end. one would not use a gage calibrated at 15 to 20 mils. Adjust subsequent thickness readings by subtracting the magnetic base reading. Calibration using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) plates is accomplished by first adjusting the instrument to read the thickness stated on the calibration blocks in the desired range of use.

First.any instrument that has a magnet. or the contaminant will incorrectly be read as coating thickness. or FINISH COAT d1 I n ' ). The resulting iron filings often necessitate that the magnet and coating surface be cleaned before each thickness reading. steel shot or grit particles. In this case. a thinner coating thickness will be recorded. holding the magnet beyond the point where the spring should have lifted it from the surface. the coating under the depression caused by the magnet actually will be thinner.1 / PRIMER COAT A' A FINISH COAT THICKNESS 8' B PRIMER COAT THICKNESS ~ FIGURE 41 Measurement principle of the Tooke Gage. This is extremely important in shop work where grinding is employed. If the instrument is used on a soft film. This is because the coating itself may be tacky. allowing the magnet to sink into the surface. The magnet must be cleaned of any contaminants during use. place a plastic shim on top of the surface to prevent the magnet from deformCopyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 200 . the magnet is exposed and therefore susceptible to attracting iron filings.

Minitest 4000 (Figure 35). If the instrument does not read the shim thickness. B. The Type 2 gages also must be verified for calibration prior to use. Check the calibration by using shims of lesser and greater thickness to determine the range of accuracy. Hold the shim firmly on the bare clean(ed) substrate and measure it with the thickness instrument. Calibration verification is accomplished using the non-magnetic shim method (described below) or the NIST calibration plates described previously.. In addition. Automatic versions of the Mikrotest have addressed this problem by incorporating a self winding mechanism which automatically retracts the thumb wheel. The instrument should not be used any closer than 1 inch to an edge of the surface. Minitest 200F (Figure 34). It is imperative that the dial be stopped as soon as the magnet lifts from the surface. If a section of the bare substrate is unavailable. The magnetic flux gages experience some of the same problems as the pull-off gages: 1) lower than actual thickness readings on soft or tacky films. adjust the gage according to the manufacturer s instructions. Quanix 2200 (Figure 31). giving an erroneously high thickness reading. and others. verify the shim thickness with a micrometer. blast clean small steel test panels (e. The instrument will correctly record the thickness of the coating material. protect them from corrosion using a dessicant. In addition. they could cause the magnet to be popped from the surface prematurely. Any effect of surface roughness is calibrated into the instrument because it was adjusted over the bare steel. and use the panels for calibration. Quanix 1500 FE (Figure 33). lhtrx 4 x 6 ) to obtain the same or similar anchor pattern.SSPC CHAPTER*b-0 93 8627940 0003648 94T 9 ing the coating and subtract the shim thickness from any subsequent readings. They include the Elcometer 345 (Figure 29). thus eliminating the need for a magnetic base reading correction factor. When calibrating using the plastic shim method. Elcometer 300 (Figure 36). because the instruments are based on flux principles. they are vulnerable to the effect of flux leakage from the instrument to nearby ferrous masses. and 3)difficulty in keeping the magnet clean. FIXED PROBE MAGNETIC FLUX GAGES The fixed probe or magnetic flux type gages are described in SSPC-PA 2 as Type 2 gages. or other suitable means. residual magnetism in the structure on which the coating is measured can have an adverse effect on the readings. . The scale dial type instruments have an additional human error problem during use. It is easy to continue to turn the dial beyond the point that the magnet has lifted from the surface. Some gages cannot be field calibrated. In addition. if there are any vibrations in the area of instrument use. 2) necessity of staying away from the edges during use. giving an incorrect thickness reading.g. causing the instrument to be ineffective. Positector 6000 (Figure 30). VPI Paper. The instrument is now ready for use for measuring thicknesses within that range over the same substrate and surface preparation.

or the instruFIGURE 42 View through Tooke Gage Microscope. TOR -used for finding pinholes and holidays in non-conductive paint films up to 20 mils thick when applied to conductive substrates. Coating thickness is measured from this point to the left ending at the black bench mark at -05. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 201 . The interface of the coatinglsubstrate is one division to the left of .Therefore. it is necessary to stay at least three inches away from any nearby iron or steel object. FIGURE 43 TINKER-RASOR LOW VOLTAGE WET SPONGE HOLIDAY DETEC.O6 on the scale.

Thus. Therefore. incorrect readings will result. The instrument can be used on coating thicknesses up to 50 mils provided the coating is not too brittle or elastic for a smooth cut to be made. Cutting tips of different angles are available. the actual coating thickness can be determined by measuring the width of the cut from a scale in the eyepiece of the microscope. E.SSPC CHAPTERab. profile. By making a cut through the coating at a known angle and viewing perpendicularly to that cut. The probe of these instruments must also be kept perpendicular to the coated substrate during use. and so forth.or microscopes (Figure 40). modifying the electrical characteristics of the probe coil.5mil. D. They are designated as either lX. The number of lines corresponding with the coating is divided by the number of the tip used. and 1 line with the 1OX tip is or . 1 line with the 2X tip is YZor . they should be calibrated inside the vessel to compensate for flux leakage. If used inside a tank or vessel. Included with this type of instrument are the Quanix 2300 (Figure 32) and Quanix 1500 (Figure 33). inducing eddy currents in the metal. irregular surfaces. proximity to edges. The probe of these instruments is energized by alternating current. The principle of the Tooke Gage is basic trigonometry. A hand-held microprocessor with digital thickness display is available with its physical operation similar to the magnetic flux gages above (Figure 36).0 93 M Bb27940 0003b49 BBb ment calibration must be readjusted in these specific areas. otherwise. C. The tip used determines the thickness equivalent for each line in the microscope eyepiece. Micrometers (Figure 39). The eddy current instruments are calibrated using the plastic shim method. MICROPROCESSOR-CONTROLLED GAGES Computer chips are now commonly incorporated into dry film thickness gages. magnetic effect of the substrate. if the coating cross-section covers 7 lines and the 2X tip is used. the thickness is or . 1 line when using the 1X tip is equivalent to 111 or 1 mil. 2X. The instrument can be used for determining the thickness of underlying coats in multicoat systems and eliminates many of the drawbacks of the magnetic instruments caused by magnetic fields. DESTRUCTIVE TEST INSTRUMENTS Destructive thickness testing includes the use of the Tooke Gage (two models are shown in Figures 37 and 38). The Tooke Gage consists of a 50X microscope that is used to look at slits in the coating made by precision cutting tips supplied with the instrument. EDDY CURRENT GAGES Eddy current instruments measure the thickness of non-conductive coatings on non-ferrous metal substrates. The extent of these changes is determined by the distance of the probe from the substrate and is shown on a meter as coating thickness. or 1OX. The eddy currents create opposing alternating magnetic fields within the metal.1 mil.

202 Another means of destructively measuring the coating thickness is the use of either a depth micrometer or a standard micrometer. salt.S. CLEANLINESS BETWEEN COATS Where more than one coat is to be applied. quite often dry spray. etc. Navy Photograph ty. a sample of the coating can be removed from the substrate and the thickness measured using a standard micrometer.5 mils (Figures 41 and 42). Alternatively. All should be removed because the presence of these contaminants can result in reduced adhesion between coats and porosiFIGURE 44 USING A LOW VOLTAGE WET SPONGE DETECTOR -to locate discontinuities in non-conductive coatings applied to conductive metal substrates. XIII.g. or overspray. The depth micrometer can be used by removing a small section of the coating down to the substrate. permitting the base of the instrument to rest on the coating while the projecting pin is adjusted to the substrate. residue from chemical facilities. The surface should also be inspected for any adverse contamination from the environment (e. In addition to dirt and dust. rendering the coating less resistant to the effects of the environments.3.) Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . each division of the microscope is equivalent to 1. a proper inspection hold point is the determination of the cleanliness of the surface immediately prior to application of the next coat. The coating chips could also be returned to a laboratory for microscopic thickness determinations. When viewing the edge (cross section) of a disbonded chip. will cause a problem.0 mil. The Tooke gage could also be used for this purpose. Official U.

the circuit is completed to the detector unit and an audible signal can be heard indicating that a pinhole or discontinuity is present. holidays. Holiday testing may be required after application of either the next to last. or scrapes are repaired as required. If the coating system is found to be outside of the 20 mil thickness limits. it is done before final cure of the coating has occurred so that any repair material applied will successfully bond to the underlying coat. nicks. a non-sudsing wetting agent (such as Eastman Kodak Photo-FIO) may be added to the water to increase the wetting properties. The electrode is moved across the entire surface.SSPC CHAPTER*b*O 93 = 8627940 O003650 5T8 = XIV. The low voltage wet sponge holiday detectors are used for finding discontinuities in non-conductive coatings applied to conductive metal bases. the inspector should verify that the appropriate clean-up is done. or steel. and AC electrostatic types. Pinhole and holiday detectors are three general types: low voltage wet sponge (Figures 43. The low voltage detector is suitable for use on coatings up to 20 mils in thickness. pinhole. High voltage detectors basically function on the same operating principle as the low voltage described above. Often holiday. or spark testing is used to find the nicks. High voltage units are available up to 20. A spark will jump from the electrode through the air gap down to the substrate at pinholes. particularly if the coating is intended for immersion service. PINHOLE AND HOLIDAY DETECTION After all the coats of paint have been applied. a ground cable. simultaneously triggering audible andlor visual signaling . the water permitting a small current to flow through the pinholes down to the substrate. High voltage detectors are used for non-conductive coatings applied to conductive substrates. 47 and 48). except that a sponge is not used. and that any abrasions. or missed areas. a ground cable. The instrument consists of a testing unit capable of producing various voltage outputs. Once the current reaches the substrate. brass. Usually when such testing is specified.000 volts and more. DC high voltage (Figures 46.44 and 45). and pinholes in the coating film. and a sponge electrode. high voltage holiday detection equipment should be used. scrapes. The around cable is firmly attached to the bare substrate and the sponge electrode is saturated with tap water. The basic unit consists of the detector itself. The ground wire is firmly attached to a section of the bare substrate and the electrode is passed over the entire surface. When coatings are in the range of 10 to 20 mils. and an electrode made of conductive materials such as neoprene. or last coat of paint.

FIGURE 46 SPY HIGH VOLTAGE HOLIDAY DETECTOR -for uncovering flaws in thick film systems. When testing conductive linings applied over steel substrates (¡.000 volts DC. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . damage to good coating could occur. wise. Voltages are available up to 22. the preferred method of testing is to attach the ground wire directly to the substrate whenever possible. OtherFIGURE 45 K-D BIRD DOG LOW VOLTAGE WET SPONGE HOLIDAY DETECTOR -utilizes a wetted sponge and ground wire to find pinholes and holidays in dry paint films applied to conductive substrates.device in the unit. For exterior pipeline work. the voltage is indicated) but does not require the use of a ground wire. conductive rubber linings). A rule of thumb is to apply 100-125 volts per mill of coating for thicknesses in excess of 20 mils.e. it is important to use only the voltage level recommended by the coating manufacturer for the coating thickness. When using high voltage holiday detectors. However. the AC Tesla Coil type electrostatic testers are generally used. The AC tester has a variable voltage output (preferably. A spark jumps from the electrode through the coating at deficient areas. many times the ground wire of the holiday detector is permitted to drag across the earth provided the pipe itself is grounded to the earth.

The X and cross-cut tape adhesion tests are described in ASTM D-3359. or a number of small squares or diamonds through the coating down to the substrate. This method is described in. one cuts through the coating and probes at it with the knife blade.SSPC CHAPTER*b=O 73 m 8b27740 0003b5L 434 m The unit constantly emits a corona which is blue in color. If this occurs. Not only is the numerical value of importance when using this instrument. Note that surface contaminants or dampness may also cause a color change or spark. Tape is rubbed vigorously onto the scribes and removed firmly and quickly. FIELD ADHESION TESTING Occasionally. When testing zinc-rich coatings. The use of a penknife generally requires a subjective evaluation of the coating adhesion based on some previous experience. it is advisable to clean and retest questionable areas to confirm that a break in the lining is present. It is generally recommended that the two-component type epoxy adhesives be used in preference to the single component fast drying cyano-acrylate types. There are different types of adhesion testing methods used from the simple penknife to more elaborate testing units. They apply a value to the adhesion strength in pounds per square inch. Instruments for tensile testing include the Elcometer. The adhesion testers consist of the test unit itself and aluminum or stainless steel test stubs. The test unit applies a pulling force on the pull stub. The cross-cut test consists of cutting an X . it has been found that the . After the adhesive has cured. the piston or claw of the test instrument is placed over the pull stub. trying to lift it from the surface to ascertain whether or not the adhesion is adequate. it establishes that the coating tensile adhesion strength is at least as good as that pressure that broke the adhesive. therefore. a white spark will jump to the substrate at the holiday or imperfection. The pull stubs are cemented to the coating surface using an adhesive. there is a significant difference in the test results if one finds a clean break to the substrate or between coats. A modified version of this type of testing is the crosscut test. for example. The point of the break is read from the scale on the instrument in pounds per square inch. there is a need to test the adhesion of the coatings after application. but when a break in the lining is passed over. compared to finding a cohesive break within a coat. XV. For example. thus eliminating some of the subjectivity of the above tests.ASTM D4541. Many times one may experience a failure of the adhesive. The cross-hatch pattern is evaluated according to the percentage of squares delaminated or remaining intact. but also the type of break. Measuring Adhesion by Tape Test . Generally. ultimately breaking it from the surface. There are also instruments available for testing the tensile adhesion strength of coatings. Patti (Pneumatic) and the Hate (Hydraulic) Adhesion Testers (Figure 49).

hardness is not synonymous with cure. In other cases. Alternately. depending upon the coating. it may not be cured properly. Solvent rub tests can be used. EVALUATING CURE When a coating is to be used in immersion service. If the sandpaper gums up.E. forced-heat curing may be used to reduce the time between curing and service. as well as sandpaper tests. the FIGURE 47 TINKER-RASOR HIGH VOLTAGE HOLIDAY DETECTOR -used for non-conductive coatings applied to conductive substrates. for most coatings. ASTM D1640 outlines one method. rubbing them with sandpaper will produce a fine dust. In fact. When most coatings are suitably cured. Determining the cure of coatings is generally difficult. but there are no universally reliable field tests for such purposes. Certain phenol-containing coatings may discolor upon heating -and the cure of phenolic tank lining coatings is often determined by comparison of their color with color reference coupons supplied by the coating manufacturer. STEARNS HIGH VOLTAGE HOLIDAY DETECTOR -used for non-conductive coatings applied to conductive substrates. The only coating types for which this is true are the solvent deposited Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 204 . the adhesive appears to soften and cause premature failure of the coating systems. resulting in a much higher tensile pull than should be expected.thin cyano-acrylates have a tendency to penetrate and bond thezinc particles together. XVI. Because a coating is dry or hard does not necessarily mean it is cured. FIGURE 48 D. applied coating film must be allowed to dry cure for a given length of time prior to being placed into service. This dry cure time is generally shown on the manufacturer s product information.

calibrated. Even then. overspray. and used properly. dry spray. common sense visual inspection for detection of misses. but the overriding factor in their successful use is the knowledge and ability of the individual using them. Elcometer (back right). sags. instrument inspection is only part of the total inspection process. Proper instruments. surface preparation. runs. Final attainment of film properties will be acquired only upon satisfactory loss of these entrapped solvents. of temperature andlor humidity may take a long time to escape from the paint film. and Hydraulic (front). under certain atmospheric conditions FIGURE 49 TENSILE ADHESION TESTERS -Pneumatic (back left). residual retained solvents (and moisture in water emulsion coatings).SSPC CHAPTER*6-0 73 m coatings such as the chlorinated rubbers and vinyls. However. common sense and good judgment are required for good coatings inspection. surface contaminants. specific knowledge. Future maintenance or the removal and maintenance of a failed . In some cases this evaporation process may take as long as two or three weeks or more. wet and dry film thicknesses. skips. Pull stubs positioned in front of each model. It must be combined with a good. and any other defects objectionable for the service intended. all results of any inspection should be thoroughly documented in writing to verify that the specified requirements have been met. The instruments all have advantages and disadvantages. XVII. and final coating continuity. Finally. It is important that the instruments be cared for. CONCLUSIONS There is a wide variety of inspection instruments available for use to assure the adequacy of the ambient conditions.

Arnold Eickhoff.. M. Jr. Tator holds an MBA from Columbia University and a B. Inc. a consulting engineering firm specializing in industrial protective coatings. He is active in the National Association of Corrosion Engineers. Trimber is also the Chairman of American Society for Testing and Material: Dl which deals with all paints and protective coat- . He is also the Vice President of KTA Services. Mr. Inc. Jay Leanse. in Chemical Engineering from Lafayette College. Charlie Lewis. 8627940 0003652 370 W ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors and editors gratefully acknowledge William Corbett's update of this chapter. Mr. AI Beitelman. the'society for Pãint Technology. He is the author of numerous publications and has presented technical papers at many association meetings and corporate seminars Kenneth A.. Melvin Sandler. Joseph Guobis. and the Steel Structures Painting Council. Sherman. a coatings consulting firm based in Pittsburgh. Lichtenstadter. Trimber is the Vice-president of KTA-Tator. and William Wallace participated in the review process.. and the Manager of its KTA Environmental division. Mr. Tator is the President of KTA-Tator. Both William Corbett and Steve Pinney provided photos. Lewis Gleekman. Tator is the USA Delegate to the International Standardization Organization TC351SC12 Surface Preparation Committee. L. Robert Doyle. Ronald Hamm. Keane. and is Vice Chairman of the Lead Paint Removal Committee. Mr. BIOGRAPHIES Kenneth B. He is Chairman of the SSPC committees on Surface Preparation and Visual Standards. He is active in many technical societies involved with protective coatings and serves on the Steel Structures Painting Council (SSPC) Board of Governors.coating system may be dependent on the factual reporting of every phase of the work. John D.S. the American Societv for Testina and Materials. Stan Mroz. A registeredprofessional engineer. M. PA. Trimber began his employment with KTA on a part-time basis in 1968. and became a full-time employee after his graduation from Indiana University of Pennsylvania in 1974. Marshall McGee. Inc.

He was the 1988 recipient of the SSPC Outstanding Publication Award for the development of a system for classifying the condition of bridge coatings. He has authored numerous papers on coating evaluation. Trimber authored the Industrial Lead Painf Removal Handbook. surface preparation. and coating failure analysis. Keane Award of Merit as the Protective Coatings Specialist of the 1980s. and was given the SSPC John D. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 205 . which serves as the text for SSPC Lead Paint Removal Tutorials. Mr. lead paint removal. inspection.ings.

and Raymond E. presented at NACE 14th Annual Liberty Bell Corrosion Course. 10. Coating Inspection Instruments . Jr.`. 1974. SSPC-PA 2 . New York. NACE . 7. Appleman.... Bernard R. Industrial Maintenance Painting. 1974. Sept. and Surface Finish of Metal Tanks and Vessels to Be Lined for Chemical Immersion Service .A. National Association of Corrosion Engineers.. Weaver. Plant Engineering. 2. pp. 1977. 3rd Edition. 5. Instruments for Inspection of Coatings . TX. Joseph A. Weaver. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Keane. October 1987.SSPC CHAPTERsb. 1976. NACE Standard RP-01-78 Recommended Practice -Design. Clemco Industries..Method for Measurement of Dry Paint Thickness With Magnetic Gages . Tator. 8. pp. NACE Corrosion 80. Paper Number 254. Trimber. November 1988. TX. Paul E.`. 1967.F. Trimber. No. Houston. John D. 11. Chapters 2 and 4. Kenneth A.`-`-`. 13. 14. 4. Importance of Coating Application Inspection and Instruments Available for Use . pp. 2 -Coatings and Linings for Immersion Service . Kenneth B.TPC Publication No...M. 30-37. D. Fabricatiorl. Journalof Protective Coatings and Linings. August. Surface Profile for Anti-Corrosion Paints .E. 3. Steel Structures Painting Council. Kenneth B. 1970. Mroz. and Kenneth A.. 19 and Oct. Sept. and S. Gross. Trimber. 1976. 9. William F. 6. and Kenneth A. San Francisco. McCartney. Applications Manual for Paint and Protecfive Coatings. Houston. and C. Bruno.0 73 = Bb277LiO 0003b53 207 = REFERENCES 1. NACE Standard RP-02-74 Recommended Practice -HighVoltage Electrical Inspection of Pipeline Coatings Prior to Installation . Detection and Removal of Chemical Contaminants in Pulp and Paper Mills. Blast-Off . 28-39. Trimber: Coating (Paint) Inspection Instruments. 1970. 4. 68-82. NY. Pittsburgh. 12. Types. Journal of Testing and Evaluation. Jan. December. 3. 1. Uses. and Calibration . Painting Over Soluble Salts: A Perspective.. Berger. 1976.`--206 . CA. K. PA.`. Tator.A. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS--`. Vol. Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings.

Such a program encompasses significantly more than batch quality control testing for uniformity of material. depending upon the type of market for a particular coating. the manufacturing process and the finished coating materials through packaging. However. These facets are essential if the materials manufactured are to be suitable for field use. is quality control of compliance with existing customer specifications. The quality control tests must be selected and run on every batch of coating materials produced to assure that a given batch is reasonably consistent with batches previously produced. Montle and Mary Ann Stephens The purpos of quality control of paints -as manufactured -is to assure the paint manufacturer that materials supplied are acceptable to the consumer. stability. Materials must be consistent from batch to batch and must have satisfactory appearance. application characteristics and performance. but this may still be insufficient to ensure the suitability of a product. additional quality control tests have to be designed by the coatings manufacturer to guarantee the product s suitability for use. The purpose of testing every batch manufactured is to assure reproducibility of various paint and coating materials. It is critical that those specific quality control tests be run. a quality control program must be designed that is significantly more comprehensive than merely evaluating the coating materials produced. To achieve these objectives. Frequently.SSPC CHAPTERa7-L 93 = 8b27940 0003654 I43 CHAPTER 7. Another factor that varies considerably. merely verifying that a coating meets existing specifications is not necessarily sufficient quality control testing. filling and shipping. in addition to tests designed .1 QUALITY CONTROL OF PAINTS AS MANUFACTURED by John F. This is the basic purpose of quality control from a coatings manufacturer s standpoint. This includes raw materials. Testing for a given specification might indicate reproducibility as manufactured. The quality control laboratory is responsible for evaluating the material only in accordance to standards and specifications indicated by the coatings formulator. The quality control group should have responsibility for all phases of manufacturing concerning quality. The primary function of quality control for coating manufacturers is to assure overall quality and performance. It is the responsibility of the coatings formulator to build quality into the formulation and develop quality control instructions through proper selection of significant quality control tests.

Tests should be designed to maximize detection of errors in manufacturing andlor variations in raw materials. the test values should be continually monitored so the ranges are proper. a significant amount of laboratory time and effort must be spent developing special quality control tests. Many test values change with age. they should be wide enough for practical purposes. Understanding the use and purpose of a coating is the first probCopyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 207 . It is advisable to use standard ASTM or Federal Test Methods whenever possible. standard tests that will measure those parameters critical to proper end-use of a specific coating material are not always available. test values and ranges for satisfactory performance are not necessarily valid over the the entire shelf life of the coating material. but are not necessarily indicative of any change in the product s suitability. standard quality control tests. Consumer Needsfperformance Characteristics When a coating is formulated. which are usually predetermined by its purpose. However. the first step is to define the product characteristics. are sufficient for many paints and coatings that are manufactured for general use. QUALITY OF FORMULATIONIPRODUCT DEVELOPMENT 1. Proper selection of quality control range values is as important as selection of the proper tests. Frequently. CONSIDERATIONS IN CONTROLLING QUALITY A. drifts in viscosity can occur. For example. While the assigning of original test values is based on previous experience and skill of the formulator. special tests are frequently designed for specialized products and critical raw materials that have unique enduse applications. Quality control tests are elected i provide consistency in manufactured products. I. Therefore. While ranges should be as tight as necessary to guarantee reproducibility. However. such as shown in the Appendix. Examples of common ones are shown in the Appendix. Therefore.to meet specifications (see Appendix). The purpose of a formulation can be as simple as providing a competitive product or as complex as providing the means to answer a need that has puzzled the market for decades.

whether it is intended as a primer. handling and storing coating material must be determined. 3. investigating and understanding the end-use and purpose of a coating is primary in designing it. involving coating integrity under many environmental conditions. Instructions for labeling. in other cases. application properties. Design of Inspection/Conformance Criteria Satisfying performance characteristics completely is impossible unless the proposed design ensures repeated duplication of properties under normal circumstances. Coating materials may be subjected to simulated use testing. since this is the beginning of the formula design. tests should be continuous to verify conformance to wet and dry coating requirements.SSPC CHAPTER*7. The criteria may be based on either the wet material (perhaps predefining application characteristics).L 93 W 8b27940 0003b55 OBT W lem of a coatings engineer. or the dry material (involving a coating s reaction to its environment). It is essential to devise and employ methods of simulating use and testing of coating material under many circumstances to ensure the material has met design purposes. gloss. or under physical stress. the next phase in formulation development is to formulate and evaluate the coatings generated to meet these requirements. hundreds of possibilities are tested.. the formulator must specify the type and quality of raw materials. etc. Coatings may also be continuously analyzed for wet properties to meet specifications or demands for shelf stability or application properties. cost. or both (a sprayable coating that is highly abrasion-resistant). As candidates are created. Optimizing the required criteria as well as associated factors such as ease of manufacture. So. or finish coat and how this affects other coatings that may be used with it. Beyond specifying instructions for combining ingredients. The final product must have all the required properties and satisfy the end-use requirements of the customer. 2. are all considered. investigated and eliminated. Response to Needs -ProducüSystem Effectiveness Once the performance characteristics are understood. . Consideration must also be given to the coatings system in which the coating will be used. In some cases. all pertinent facts concerning combination and incorporation of these raw materials along with intermediate and final test methods and tolerances. intermediate. the experimental phase consists only of several candidates.

handled and used properly. if stored. and cost. such as compatibility among various raw material components within a formulation. Only in this way can duplication of the original design be possible. It must be determined whether it is necessary to check the condition of the container to satisfactorily preserve the quality of the material. the coating material performs as intended. Alternate suppliers for key raw materials should be evaluated thoroughly to assure consistent. Establishing Acceptance Criteria When a raw material is suitable for use. Additional considerations. and delivery and quality of packaging to assure stability. Communicating the criteria for acceptance to the suppliers of these raw materials helps assure that the material received meets specification standards. Selection of materials that the formulator has had no previous experience with is more difficult. the quality and consistency with which it has been received. These properties must be definable and measurable so that the requirements can be communicated to the supplier prior to purchase. Selection is normally dictated by past experience with material. 3. In designing tests for new coatings. the ease and safety of use. its parameters must be defined to assure the material is of consistent quality. it remains only to subject selected materials andlor . what properties it has imparted. 2. or spot-checked at random. It is necessary to determine which properties of the raw material are essential to the quality of the product. since many variables exist. Selection for Suitability Selection of proper raw materials is essential in optimizing selected properties of the finished product. E. qual it y avai la bi I it y. but these can be screened in the design development phase. must also be taken into account. Test results should make it obvious when the product is not meeting end-use requirements and should assure that upon completion. Tests must be designed to test all variable properties that could affect usability or performance.and specified and detailed procedures given on use and application. Other criteria in selecting component materials must include considerations of long-term availability. and checked for appearance. Testing for Conformance Having established criteria and tolerances. QUALITY OF RAW MATERIALS 1. controls must be based on predictions rather than statistics. Decisions must be made on whether the properties are critical to the finished product and must be tested upon receipt.

the Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 208 . and instructions.lots of materials to actual inspections. It is necessary to provide inspection personnel with required equipment. acceptance standards and test procedures. Many times.

This step is no more or less critical than the previous one defining the tolerances of this measure of acceptability. As equipment technology improves. viscosity. but the formulation type usually eliminates certain methods of manufacture. Once criteria are established. QUALITY OF MANUFACTURE 1. tests are unique to the material or a simulation of the end-use of the material. Trial and error during product development normally provides the basis for equipment use and selection. Equipment and Processes The ability of coating material to conform to finished specifications can be affected. Quality Data Analysis Analysis of quality data generated through raw material testing or experience is important to continuance of quality in the raw material and finished product. 2. It also simplifies selection of quality raw materials to be used in products yet to be developed. Optimum batch size must be determined during the first several batches produced. People and Procedures Training of production workers is a key consideration in quality control. In other cases. properties or stability of the finished product. it is necessary to re-evaluate the manufacturing method for many standard products. statistical analysis provides information necessary to adjust raw material specifications to improve the quality. C. by the method of manufacturing. color and other properties are within specification.~ 73 m 8627940 0003656 TL6 W test procedures are standards that the industry routinely uses to test the particular material. This is the point at which a decision is made whether or not the raw material is fit to provide the required end properties of the coating product. Continuous improvement in manufacture helps increase the efficiency and may reduce the cost of a quality product. 4. each batch must be checked to affirm that the grind. This data provides feedback and closes the loop between specifying and using. It provides objective data on the reliability of raw materials andlor suppliers and makes qualification or disqualification an easy task. Use of pilot plant facilities for large scale simulation tests is also helpful in selecting appropriate equipment for production. Coupled with analysis of finished goods test data.SSPC CHAPTERW. The ability of a worker to recognize when something is out of the ordinary . since the process can be more or less efficient depending on the volume.

Problems should be discussed with these people since they have firsthand experience on each batch. Clear. Viscosity checks can monitor development of thixotropic agents throughout the batchmaking process. 3. time. are a reliable method of assuring that the batch meets established quality criteria. QUALITY OF FINISHED PRODUCT i. Instruments and Controls Continuous monitori ng and in-process test ing must be planned and executed to assure that batch making is proceeding properly. Periodic fineness of grind tests are essential in determining proper dispersion of pigments and fillers added in the process. If deviations are discovered at the critical points. Regular checking and calibration of test equipment are necessary to guarantee reliable test results. sequence of raw materials. batch sequence of raw materials. Temperature monitoring can provide information on the rate or progress of a chemical reaction or be used as a guideline to judge the phase of the mixing process. non-ambiguous instructions to production personnel leave no room for erroneous interpretaitions. Many production units have an assigned technician to work with the formulator to determine the process equipment.may prevent a batch from proceeding to the next quality control test point without corrections. In-process batch adjustments. and final acceptance criteria. modifications can be made and the batch making . The reliability of measuring and test equipment is of utmost importance to quality. If testing is done at critical points of the process. Proper use and care of scales and meters must be communicated and monitored as necessary.In-Process Inspection and Adjustment In-process inspection points provide the opportunity to assess progress and quality of the coating material as it is being manufactured. Modifying a completed batch for conformance is far more difficult and frequently less successful than in-process adjustments. In the case of resin manufacture. any problems discovered can be identified and remedied. In addition to demonstrating that a batch is progressing as planned. The input from quality control testing should be communicated to production workers as affirmation that the job is being done properly. monitoring and inprocess testing may detect problems occurring in batch-making. and temperature controls must be monitored. It should not be overlooked that appropriate training can prevent many problems in quality. D. dictated by test results. check point testing.

can continue. With experience. in-process tests can be added as reCopyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 209 . It is possible to identify most critical points during the formulating stage.

Further wet properties verification includes tests of the following types: viscosity. and flash point. usable pot life. percent vehicle. fineness of grind. Being cognizant of appropriate test points. 3. to verify that the material produced exhibits the same density as the theoretical calculation of the component ingredients. Some additions can be made only at certain points during the batch making. percent pigment. film build and sag tests. Further testing frequently is performed as applicable to test the coating for end-use properties. batch weight per gallon. wet opacity. it is impossible to build it in at the inspection stage. Verifying these properties assures that formulation instructions have been followed with respect to type and quantity of raw materials added and mixing and grinding during the manufacturing phase. the selection of raw materials. The function of final inspection is for verification. The most important properties to verify on almost every coating material are batch-yield. gloss. hardness of film.L 93 m 8b27940 0003b57 952 m quired to reduce failure. or resistance to a cer- . trying to achieve a fine grind of added pigment in a portion of the batch that has very low viscosity. Adhesion of the coating to a specified substrate or to another coating is important. to verify that the ingredients have been adequately dispersed. Additional wet properties tests may be run. Pertinent in-depth testing should be used to verify that the batch has been manufactured properly and according to procedures and meets specifications for the finished product. for example. dry or cure time. as well as additional inspection depending upon coating type and required specifications. 2. percent solids. application properties. and color. flexibility of the coating in a particular application may be specified. parameters and tolerances simplifies the task of making successful in-process batch adj ustments. Testing Through Simulated Use Frequently.SSPC CHAPTER*7. appearance. depending upon the type of coating material and specifications. and contains no contamination. and the manufacturing procedure and instructions. Dry properties verification frequently includes hiding power. to verify that the volume produced conforms to the theoretical batch volume. Final InspectionIConformance to Specificqtions It should be evident that if quality is not built into product formulation. to verify that the batch has been mixed properly. to meet final test requirements or reduce the necessity of making batch adjustments at inconvenient points. pertinent testing includes verification of end-use properties. is impossible.

QUALITY OF SERVICE 1. can be finally tested and critiqued by the user. 2. Success of Recommended Application To close the loop of the quality control system. Adequate packaging assures that the product is protected from contamination. once manufactured. Communication from the user is the most valuable information that a manufacturer can obtain to assess the success of quality control. and properties required are built into the formulation. Opportunities for Improvement With each batch of coating material shipped. Storing and Shipping How the product is handled after batch completion is an important consideration from a quality standpoint. lower temperatures maximize the useful life. . from inception based on end-use suitability. Packaging must be specified so the product remains stable at specified temperatures. 4. the coating manufacturer has an opportunity to test the effectiveness of the quality control system. adjusted. Temperature must be considered during shipping. which may be long enough to adversely affect shelf life. Environmental control assures that a quality product. resistance to ultraviolet light and other tests measuring the physical integrity of the coating. can be maintained until used.tain type of abrasion may be required. Verifying conformance can be done on initial batches produced and then routinely tested on batches chosen at random. Among other end-use tests are weathering in various environments. Normally. E. these types of tests are run during the final stages of the formulation design phase. Normally. Handling. All complaints must be investigated and the source of problems determined so that quality control measures can be investigated and. when required. immersion in chemical solutions. the success of each product in each application must be communicated to the engineer and formulator to be used as data for designing or improving products. The whole system. Efficient use of quality data provides knowledge necessary for a dynamic control system with potential for improvement with each problem. The shelf life of a product depends on how successfully it can be isolated from the environment and is ascertained by the actual storage history of the product.

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 210 .

the examples shown here are merely typical and illustrative and not intended to be inclusive.SSPC CHAPTER*7-L 93 m 8627940 0003658 899 APPENDIX: TYPICAL QC TESTS* Numerous tests are used for evaluating and monitoring quality control of paints and coatings. Federal Standard 141 A) Viscosity (consistency) Brookfield Viscosity Stormer Viscosity 4281 #4 Ford Cup 4282 Zahn Cups Gardner-Holdt Tubes 4271 B) Dispersion (grind) Hegman Gage C) Density (weight/gallon) Weight/Gallon Cup 41 84 Pycnometer 41 83 Westphal Balance 41 83 Hydrometer 41 83 D) Application Characteristics Levelling Brushing Properties 4321 Spraying Properties 4331 Dipping Properties 21 21 Reducibility & Dilution Stability Odor 4401 Hiding Power E) Film Characteristics Drying Time Gloss Color (Pigmented Coatings) F) Physical Characteristics of Film Flexibility (Elongation) -Mandrel 6222 -Conical Mandrel 6222 Hardness -Pencil -Sward Rocker -Indentation Hardness 621 2 -Durometer Abrasion Resistance -Falling Sand 61 91 -Tabor Abrasor Adhesion 6302 .

`..`..`-`-`. D 2805 D 1640 D 523 D 3134* D 522 D 522 D 3363 D 2134 D 1474 D 2240 D 968 D 1044 D 2197 --`...`.`--211 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .6303 ASTM D D D D D 2196 562 1200 1084 1545 D 1210 D D D D 1475 891 891 891 D 4400 D 823 D 1296 D 344...

) 0003b59 725 W Federal Standard 141 ASTM 41 O1 3018 404 1 4022 4032 4052 601 1 6071 6061 61 51 61 52 D D D D 2090 185 154 1849 D 2369 D 2698 D 2247 B 117 D 822 .SSPC CHAPTER87.1 93 8627940 G) Appearance in Container General Condition Coarse Particles and Skins Skinning (partially opened container) Storage Stability (filled container) H) Compositional Volatile & Non-Volatile Content Pigment Content (centrifuge) Water Content -reflux I) Resistance (performance) Immersion Humidity Salt Spray (Fog) Accelerated Weathering (open arc) (Q.V.U.

Metil. Verne Todd and William J. she has worked as a Laboratory Group Leader. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: Dr. nuclear power plants. she accepted her current position. testing and technical assistance. She acts as research analyst. but not identical. Theodore Dowd. St. Leonard Haynie. Louis with a Bachelor of Science degree in mathematics and a strong background in chemistry. (GardneríSward) S. Mr. Montle joined Carboline Company. . I. Louis in 1958 with a Bachelor of Science degree in chemical engineering. where he has been engaged in research & development work on protective coatings for 35 years. REFERENCES 1. First joining Carboline Company in 1973. BIOGRAPHY John F. Warner graduated from the University of Missouri. **Prepared by Ber nard M. ASTM. Paint Testing Manual .P. scanning electron microscopy and film density. Following four years of field sales. William Pearson. responsible for new products development. formulation. specification writer and advisor between the development laboratory and end-users. Leon Birnbaum. Dale E. Thomas A. Melvin Sandler. Upon graduation from Washington University of St.T. Walter Pregmon. Montle is Vice President-Technology of the Carboline Company. AI Beitelman. Radde. Mrs. to Federal Test Method.2. Alex Chasan. 500. the Subcommittee on American National Standards Institute N101. Bernard Appelman. Mary Ann Warner currently serves as a Technical Service Engineer for Carboline Company. Cross. and is on the Executive Committee and Board of Governors of the Steel Structures Painting Council. Krarnper 53 Note: Test methods vary. Wallace. the Federation of Societies for Paint Technology. American Society for Testing and Materials D33. He has 40 publications and papers on zinc-rich coatings. He is a member of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (Chairman of Task Group T-6G). Quality ControllQuality Assurance Manager and Quality Specialist. All parties should agree upon the accuracy and precisio n required.*ASTM test similar. Robert Klepser.

1979. McGraw-Hill Book Co.. Manual of Coating Work for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants . Crosby. ASTM. Quality is Free. Phillip B. 1972. 3. 2. 1979. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 212 . 1st Edition.13th Edition.

sampling. number to be con.during sampling must be exer cised. with an air-tight lid. should have no more than 6 percent air (spray. ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING testing. reliably indicate characteristics of pa int. the following: Sampling containers should be at least one pint. color. If samples are not an tains the integrity of procurement procedures when pur. percent total solids by volume (for use in Sample containers sent to t he laboratory should be wet film thickness calculations). such as quality control test results. Ma nufacturer s inspection of finished product -acceptable and name. type of paint. and other data such as manufac. the sample or sent separately. etc. SAMPLING FROM STORAGE TANKS OR . The conturer s name. should be with taken. Labeling requirements -information that iden-preferably glass or metal. solvents. Steele Testing received products. order numbers.2 QUALITY ACCEPTANCE OF PAINTS AS RECEIVED BY THE USER by John R.. Acceptance testing main. rolled). but not necessarily sampling techniques. Extreme care Specifications accompanying a paint purchase or re.SSPC CHAPTER*7-2 93 m 8627940 0003660 447 m CHAPTER 7. such as settling. batch number. Sampling -the number of samples that will be date of manufacture. have knowledge of the manuplan and should be discussed with the paint manufacturer. grade tainer. be limited to. no amount of testing can chases are made on the basis of low bid.phase of the acceptance p rocedure. procedure and time to conduct test. if re quested by the Testing -the frequency of tests. Method of identifying tested and approved A. Containers tifies the product. O Leary and Garland W.must be clean. is the responsibility of the purchaser. ducted. facturing process and be aware of the importance of The acceptance plan should include. when filled. packaged for shipment and fully identified. dry and nonre active with paint. de stination. The purpose is to determine that the quality of a manufactured product Obtaining unbiased sa mples is the most important meets specified requirements. amount and type of thinning space. referred to as acceptance I. batch number and the date o f sampling should be unacceptable conditions of the paint at the time of written on or attached to th e container. brush. etc. Other information. skins.purchaser. The sampler should be quest for bid should reference the purchaser s acceptance familiar with the produc t. the location and method of sampling.unbiased portion of the batch.

or that the limits have been set without regard to tested individuall y by the supplier to determine uniformity. purchaser s representativ e. viscosity. or triplicate samples. and one for the manufacturer. one to be sent to the purchaser s rather than limits. Acceptance of marginally witnessed by a purchas er s representative. sampling and testing). and purchaser recognizes the specification requirement is un. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 213 . manufacturing. sampling should be marginally failing test results. it can be deficiency. If test results such as weight per gallon. are completed and the r esults are acceptable to the Specifications can allow tolerances acceptable to the purchaser. encourages laxity in the manufacturer s quality a. that the drawn from the first on e-third. samples of sufficient size should be that the property being measured is irrelevant. considerations may require sampling by an employee of It is not believed advisable to accept material with the manufacturer. pled. failing material. Safety or other limits. could suggest During filling. and Waiving specification limits. regardless of how small the fineness of grind fall within specification limits.ssumed the material has been properly mixed and samcontrol. Afte r the manufacturer s tests without costly and time consuming experimental projects. variables (material. and VATS Action available to the manufacturer when test It is recommended that sampling b e done by a purresults indicate material does not meet acceptable chaser s representative during pouring. the three sampl es are divided to form duplicate manufacturer and purchaser. the second one-third. and using the manufacturer s tolerance laboratories for analys is. Quality control test results should be available to the Realistic specification limits can be established purchaser s representative. even at a reduced price. Specifying target values. one to be retained by the can sharply reduce failures without sacrificing quality.the last one-third of the pour. These samples should be realistic.materials. In this c ase.

STEEL STRUCI'URES PAINTING COUNCIL APPLICATION RECOLID Pano1 No.`.`. Wmiiht Belor... Looation Exporure Projmt No.`--If the supplier wishes acceptance testing conducted using a sampling tube or oth er suitable device. samples should sampling procedure is used. When this before paint is poured into cans or drums.t coot 2nd Coat 3rd Coat Pmint name Ssoond pari Thinner uaed Vol. middle third and bottom third. Araooiitod Temts Supervised by Suriaoe REDUCTION Matarialm Protreotment 1. the paint remains u niform until it is canned or packaged.. . --`.% of paint Vimoooity I I l I PAINTING DETAILS Dato Painted I I I I I I Method Uoed 1 I I I Air Tem~orature I I I I ~ Surfaoe Temperatura I I Eumidity Weathor Woifht per fd.`. Workin$ Proputiso Paokade Condition PROPERTIES Color I I I I FIGURE 1 Steel Structures Painting Council Paint Application Record. 214 ...`-`-`. Weilht Attar I I 7 I Paint Ured I 1 1 I I 1 I Film Thioknoormeao. the supplier must ensure that be obtained at the top third..

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .

SUBSTRATE LOCATION COLOR PURPOSE OF XPOSED TEST REMOVE0 EXPOSURE N Z F W VFRT. PAINT NO.. PROBLEM NO. PA 19107 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . No replacement is available. 'This form has been cancelled. 215 FEDERATION OF SOCIETIES FOR COATINGS TECHNOLOGY 1315 WALNUT ST. PHILADELPHIA. 4 so I IO 3 6 9 12 i5 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 Si 54 57 60 8 6 4 2 O IO 6 9 i2 I5 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60 8 6 4 2 O FIGURE 2 Front side of Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology single panel form.TEST NO.

I I I J PROTECTION OF THE BACK________ I l l I 1 I I I I I I i REMARKS: ~~~ FIGURE 3 Back side of Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology single panel form..SSPC CHAPTERm7-2 93 = Bb279q0 0003bb3 156 I Sf COAT 2 NO COPT 3RD COAT 4 TH COPT ~ --`....`. AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING MATERIALS 1916 RACE ST..`--PREPPRPTION OF THE SURFACE----.`.`. PHILADELPHIA.`-`-`.. PA 19103 216 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .

02 and 6.2 93 8627940 0003664 O92 B. two unopened containers should be sent to the purchaser s laboratories for complete analysis. Federal Standard 141. When agitation is not possible and the container size facilitates shipping. thorough and careful agitation by mechanical means andlor boxing is recommended before sampling.03. American Society For Testing Materials. therefore. Test procedures listed in this section include physical.SSPC CHAPTERa7. Paint testing is standardized by the National Paint and Coatings Association. Because of the likelihood of settling upon standing. ACCEPTANCE TESTING (LIQUID PAINT) Most methods are standardized by paint technologists and measure characteristics or physical properties of paint. pigments. Paints that are not ready-mix and are multi-component should be sampled as agreed between the purchaser and manufacturer. To test the effectiveness of agitation. The American Society For Testing and Materials. Paints 6. II. Results of paint testing depend on test procedures. and The Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology.5 percent. Entrapped air should be allowed to escape before weight per gallon is determined. Varnish. To minimize the time needed for this.01. 6. Some paints. an excellent source which contains many tests for physical. or if sampling is done at destination. two containers from each individual batch are randomly selected. notably latex. excessive agitation should be avoided. Method for Testing. it may be assumed that the material is adequately mixed. The exception is paint that is formulated to be nonsettling. resins and other raw materials. Federal Test Paint Property Method ASTM Preparation of Panels D 609 Preparation of Tin Panels D 609 . Lacquer and Related Materials. and Garner/Sward (STP 500) Paint Testing Manual. mechanical. chemical and appearance properties of paints and coatings. it is critical that standardized test procedures be used and agreed to by the manufacturer and purchaser. chemical and instrumental test methods. tend to trap air bubbles when stirred vigorously. which contain tests for paints. If results do not deviate more than 0. Paint. published by the American Society for Testing and Materials. SAMPLING FROM CONTAINERS If containers are filled before the purchaser s representative arrives. pour half of mixed material into an empty container of equal size and determine the weight per gallon for each half. Those interested in testing the composition or properties of coatings should have the following references.

Infrared Spectroscopy -Its Use In The Coating Industry. is an exceptional reference for infrared analysis. Compatibility -Manufacturer s recommended volume of .Viscosity (KU) 4281 D 562 Weight Per Gallon 41 84 D 1475 Fineness of Grind D 1210 Water Content D 95 Coarse Particles and Skins 41O1 D 185 Drying Times: D 1640 Set To Touch D 1640 Dry For Recoating Dry Hard Pigment Content D 2371 Vehicle Content D 2371 Non-Volat ¡le Con tent 4041 D 2369 Adhesion D 3359 Brushing Properties 4321 Spraying Properties 4331 Exposure Tests of Paints on Metals 61 60 D 1014 Salt Spray Resistance 6061 B 117 Accelerated Weathering 6151 D 822 61 52 Leafing 4451 D 480 7233 Flexibility 6222 D 522 Paint tests should be done under controlled laboratory conditions. the exact test conditions should be recorded.`-`-`. When it is not practical to test under controlled conditions. STP 500. Ail parties should agree upon the accuracy & precision required.`.`. Test conditions have a profound effect on some properties while on others they will have little or no effect.`--7 Methods in the following tables are commonly used.. TABLE 1 PHYSICAL TESTS* Recoatability -The paint film shall not be lifted by a succeeding specified coating.. *Test methods vary. Standard procedures often specify temperature and relative humidity. Another excellent reference for a variety of methods is Part 10 of GardnerlSward. 21 in distilled water. In case of dispute or disagreement between laboratories... --`..`. the test should be conducted under the ASTM standard conditions. Many other instrumental methods are available for testing and identifying paints and constituents. Methods like gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy also lend themselves to the qualitative finger print technique. published by the Federal Society for Coating Technology.. Most test methods listed are quantitative in nature.

Storage Stability -No gas pressure shall build up after 30 days storage at 75OF (24OC) f 5OF (3OC).paint and thinner shall be mixed without curdling. livering. separating. Water Resistance -The paint shall show no visual deterioration. other than discoloration after two days immersion Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . or otherwise affecting the paint except to thin it.

2 93 8627940 0003665 T29 Paint Property Test Method TABLE 2 Zinc Oxide ASTM D 34 CHEMICAL TESTS Zinc Powder ASTM D 521 Paint Property Chemical Resistance Liquid Dryers Drying Oils Aluminum Aluminum Silicate Barium Sulfate Basic Carbonate of Lead Basic Lead Silico-Chromate Basic Sulfate of Lead Calcium Carbonate Calcium Sulfate Chrome Green Chrome Orange Chrome Yellow Chromium Oxide Green Clay Copper Copper Oxide Extenders in Colors Iron Blue Iron Oxide Leaded Zinc Oxide Lithopone Magnesium Carbonate Magnesium Silicate Mercuric Oxide Mica Molybdate Orange Para Red Red Lead Silica Strontium Chromate Titanium Oxide Toluidine Red UItramarine BI ue Water Soluble Salts White Lead Yellow Iron Oxide Test Method ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM D D D D D 1308 564 555 480 718 .SSPC CHAPTER+7.

D 50 34 34 34. D 718 283 283 126 1135 768. D 135. D 2455 ASTM D 1301 ASTM D 768 The following cancelled specifications have been removed from this table: D 50. D 717 34 284 716 126 970 ASTM D 49 ASTM D 34. D 715 1301 1844 1301 34 34 126 126 126 126 36. and MIL-L-14486. D 767. D 2742. Zinc Sulfide ASTM D 34 Zinc Yellow ASTM D 444 TABLE 3 INSTRUMENT TESTS Paint Property Test Method Instrument Dry Opacity ASTM A 2805 Reflectometer Gloss ASTM D 523 Glossmeter Color ASTM D 2244 Colorimeter Vehicle Identif ication ASTM D 3168 Infrared Spectro phometer ASTM D 3271 Gas Chromatograph Solvent . D 719 ASTM D 1845 ASTM D 2701. D 1394 ASTM D 970 ASTM D 1135 ASTM D 2448.ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 34.

GardnerSward.S.. Section D Philadelphia. Pennsylvania 19103-1 187 Federal Test Method Standard No..`-`-`.`.. Pennsylvania 191 11-5094 21 8 --`.`. STP 500 American Society for Testing and Materials 1916 Race Street Philadelphia. D... Pennsylvania 19103-1 187 Standardization Documents Order Desk 700 Robbins Avenue Building 4.`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .`.C. 141 Superintendent of Documents U.. 20402-9325 ASTM Standards American Society For Testing and Materials 1916 Race Street Philadelphia. Government Printing Office Washington.Identification ASTM D 3271 Gas Chromatograph Vehicle Solids Identification ASTM D 2621 Infrared Spectro phometer The listed methods can be obtained from the following: Paint Testing Manual.

SSPC CHAPTERJ7-2 93 8627940 O003666 965 TEST NO. PHILADELPHIA. and evaluation procedures. Mill of Conducting Exterior Exposure Tests of Paint on Steel. scale. welds This describes the metal used for panels. ACCEPTANCE TESTING: OUTDOOR conductive material should be used as a barrier between EXPOSURE TESTS ON PAINTED METAL the panel and rack. Test panels should be placed on the tests. field positioning and monitoring of and some types of test p anels contain these features. Standard Method obscure performance on flat or scribed surfaces. PA 19107 111. rack so shadows are not cast from one panel to the next. panels. in which panels prepared in a laboratory rain water will not dr ip or flow from one to another and are exposed to an environment similar to conditions of a water will not splash f rom the ground onto the panels.. a nonCopyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 219 . but not in such a way as to Society for Testing and Materials D 1014. FEDERATION OF SOCIETIES FOR COATINGS TECHNOLOGY 1315 WALNUT CT.from a number of commercia l firms. service test. structed of any sturdy material. RACKS can be fabricated by the testing organization or purchased Racks used to hold panels for field tests can be con. and rivets are commonl y encountered in steel structures.-___COLOR INSPECTED BY LOCATION EXPOSURE W S E W VERT. DATE PINEL OR PAINT NO. Field tests are more easily standardized and are the focus of this discussion. Racks should not project sha dows There are two types of outdoor exposure tests: service across test panels. TEST PANELS tages. sharp edges and corners. Each type has advantages and disadvanB. size of panels. angles. If racks are metal. PROBLEM HO. crevices. PROPERTIES REYARKS I FIGURE 4 Federationof Societies for Coatings Technology multi-panel Record form. in which painted portions of structures are tested. and field tests. 45. Panels may contain many of the same features as A useful guide for testing methods is in the American structures to be painted. panel conditioning. Each panel should have an individual and perm anent coded identification mark stamped on the back. Panels A.

.

blistering. representing complete failure. Panels with paint flaws that might influence performance may be discarded or if of interest to the purchaser. Panel rusting should be to the same degree as the substrate and when possible. or other acceptable means. panels are cleaned in a manner encountered in the shop or field by hand cleaning. three to be installed on the racks. one to be retained as a reference.2 93 = 8627940 0003bb7 8TL C. checking. If paint is intended primarily for maintenance. FIELD EVALUATION Periodically. as per SSPC-Vis 2 (ASTM-D 610) is usually a primary criterion in evaluating paints for protection of structural steel using pictorial standards.SSPC CHAPTER*7. D. field evaluations of test panels are made. 3 and 4. Ratings for each property of each panels should be recorded on forms such as those shown in Figures 2. When field paint is used in a marine environment. Blast-cleaned panels need fewer replicates because of more consistent performance. If the paint is for new structures. The dry film thickness and minor flaws of each coat on each panel are recorded on a form. representing the initial condition (perfect). may be included in the evaluation. such as shown in Figure 1.PANEL PREPARATION Panels can be initially conditioned by degreasing and rusting. Paint film is measured (SSPC-PA 2) after thorough curing and examined visually with a magnifying glass. Paint application should be similar to that encountered in the shop or field. The use of the forms in Figures 2 and 3 is described in ASTM-D 1150. rusting by salt should be considered. Properties such as chalking. power tool cleaning. cracking. ASTM-D 4214 -Chalking ASTM-D660 -Checking ASTM-D661 -Cracking ASTM-D 772 -Erosion ASTM-D672 -Flaking ASTM-D610 -Rusting (SSPC Vis 2) . and others that are deemed important to the evaluation team should be given ratings from 10. slight rusting is appropriate. A minimum of four panels are typically prepared for evaluation of each paint or paint system. which also contains the tabulation listed below of pictorial reference standards. rusting. The evaluation team can include people who have had experience in paint performance evaluations. After rusting. should be in an environment similar to that in which shop or field paint is exposed. Rusting. blasting. to zero. No less than two per year are recommended. panel rusting before cleaning should be severe. steam or hot water jets to remove salt.

com- .. Robert Brady. Metil. He received his BA degree from West Virginia State College and is a registered professional engineer in the States of West Virginia and Virginia. President. Saroyan and William WalIace. His many papers and publications involve a wide range of subjects including statistical research. William Pearson. Inc. Soil and Testing Division of the West Virginia Department of Highways. has over 37 yearsexperience in highway engineering. Steele.E. He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Melvin Sandler. He was a registered professional Engineer in the State of Illinois and West Virginia and a member of the American Society for Testing and Materials and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers. During his thirty years with the West Virginia Department of Transportation (1955-1 988).. Steel Engineering. and theAmerican Concrete Institute. He was employed by the Department beginning in 1963 in the capacity of Head of the Coatings and Corrosion Section. Richard Drisko. Parker Helms. John R. Eugene Praschan. the National Society of Professional Engineers. He is currently a member of the ASTM Board of Directors. He was a graduate of Western Illinois University with a BS in Education in Mathematics and Colorado School of Mines with a Geological Engineering degree.ASTM-D 714 -Blistering Pictorial reference standards can also be found in the ExACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for this chapter: AI Beitelman. BIOGRAPHY The late John R. maintenance. O Learywas Assistant Director of the Materials Control. certification for materials acceptance. P. the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). His major field of interest is in construction. and operation of transportation systems with special emphasis on quality. statistical quality assurance. BIOGRAPHY Garland W. I. Marshall McGee. probability specifications. he served as a member and chairman of many technical sections in the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials and the Transportation Research Board. Paul Campbell.

puter applications.... posure Standards Manual. --`. technicians certification programs.`-`-`. published by the Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology.`... polymer modified concretes.`--220 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .`.`.. data handling systems. and performancespecifications.

Gardner and G. D. Sampling and Testing ..2 93 m Ab27940 0003bb8 738 m REFERENCES 1. Washington.G. Parts 27..A. Henry .. ASTM Standards. April 1964. U. Federal Test Method Standard No.`. Sward.. 3.`-`-`.. US. 1972. England.. Department of Transportation. Lacquer & Related Materials: Methods of Inspection. Federal Highway Administration.`--Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 221 .SSPC CHAPTERa7. 141. Quality Assurance Through Process Control and Acceptance Sampling . 2. 5. Paint Testing Manual . --`. 13th Edition. Department of Transportation. 5). Testing of Paints . ASTM STP 500. 1968. Federal Highway Administration. 28.`.`. London.C.. Paint. Oil and Colour Chemists Association Paint Technology Manuals (No.S. and 29 American Society for Testing and Materials. Statistical Quality Assurance Workshop Proceedings . 4. 6. Varnish.

whenever possible.R. costing each.H. Prices and costs in specific areas should be secured from local paint suppliers and contractors. S. A coating system considered too expensive today may become economically attractive if material costs rise faster than labor. In some examples the time-value of money is neglected with the tacit assumption that interest rate is currently balanced by inflation rate. Cost factors in surface preparation are reviewed in a separate chapter. Coating steel involves the condition of steel. salaries. . overhead. shop or field coating and surface preparation met hods. specifications and other factors. I. and are intended only to illustrate methods of comparing alternatives. accessibility. Maintenance examples are based. Subjects covered in this chapter include Elements of Field Painting Costs (She). on new but sound industry practice. The cost of labor. Oechsle. or if a technological improvement reduces the required labor.O 73 8627940 O003667 b74 September 1993 (Revised) CHAPTER 8 COMPARATIVE PAINTING COSTS By G. have been assumed to make illustration possible. The number of circumstances to consider are too great to list individually. The specifier must have access to basic information and procedures identifying candidate systems that are suitable in the specific environment. size of the project. She Since the purpose of protective coatings is primarily economic. etc. this chapter deals primarily with hypothetical practical examples of alternative costs. materials. Values for interest rates.SSPC CHAPTER*B. and Types of Contracts (Oechsle). ELEMENTS OF FIELD PAINTING COSTS When selecting paint or a protective coating system.J. such as repainting when SSPC-Vis 2 Rustgrade 7 or 8 is reached or when 10-15% repainting is required. geographic location. Assumptions regarding paint life are very conservative and apply mainly to severe environments. Cost Factors in Coating Selection (Brevoort). a study of comparative costs of the systems is usually made. Typical choices involve generic types of coating. energy. equipment and material is constantly changing. Cost data represent the authors best estimate for 1992-93. making a selection and justifying the choice. no practical treatise on painting structural steel is complete without a discussion of comparative costs. labor. Brevoort. number of coats. M. Because there is considerable literature on coatings cost evaluation.

such as move-in and move-out. Productive operations are calculated on the basis of labor production rates applied to each surface area classification involved. The ratio of pot tenders to blasters depends on equipment involved and labor restrictions. piping. Labor Labor should be figured on a person-hour or person-day basis for the project based upon the operations performed. small structural shapes. and the estimate reflects all aspects that might otherwise be missed. Secondly. Certain elements of the estimate such as productive labor operations (abrasive blasting. coating application. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from . In this manner. equipment.). Pot Tender -Assists abrasive blasting operators to adjust abrasive blasting pots. valves. these include cleaning. Support operations and equipment generally are expressed in terms of productive labor requirements (e. frequently.). helping rigging. miscellaneous steel (handrails. First. abrasive blasting. specifics of the particular job can be dealt with. the crew foreman doubles as pot tender. certain aspects of the work are better evaluated on a whole project basis.One preferred method for evaluating and selecting a coating system is to secure a detailed analysis and cost estimate from an experienced coatings estimator such as a @Portionsof this text copyrighted 1993 by NACE International. rigging. piping. Classifications might include large structural shapes. The cost of each alternate should be considered on a total project rather than a per square foot basis for several reasons. A. refill pots and frequently assists priming operations. ELEMENTS OF COSTS 1.. tanks. When bulk abrasive is used. valves.g. And finally. pot tending is much less time consuming. the magnitude of the work can be recognized and reflected in the cost estimate. Different surfaces probably have different costs per square foot (structural steel. etc. Typically. vessels and so forth. removing spent abrasive and supervising. etc. A single tender should be able to handle at least two pots. ladders.) lend themselves to a square footage basis for production rates. etc. reprinted by permission. one pot tender for every two productive workers during the abrasive blasting and priming operation). some operations are most appropriately expressed in terms of the total project. and similar operations. application of each coat of paint. pot tending (for abrasive blasting). 222 painting contractor or applicator. Following is a description of typical labor support categories: a. All Rights Reserved by NACE.

IHS .

Helpers may be used to mix paints and assist in moving rigging. and the equipment. The need and degree of use of helpers should be evaluated on a case by case basis. Companies differ in how they handle fees on labor and the other components of the total system cost. Some firms consider payroll taxes and insurance as part of labor cost instead of fees.SSPC CHAPTERU8. erecting scaffolding. This is normally figured based on the number of crew days and supervisors required. This normally includes hanging suspension scaffolding and cages. Supervision normally receives the highest hourly rate. . The most efficient rigging method should be evaluated for each case. small tools and expendables to the labor cost. insurance. placement and removal of equipment enabling workers to gain access to surfaces to be cleaned and coated. Abrasive removal is normally figured on a pounds per hour or tons per day basis. Supervisors -Field supervision. etc. One method is to apply only payroll taxes. The rate is determined by the distance the abrasive has to be moved. Once the person-hours for each labor operation are determined. d. but the difference in methods is not significant for the purpose of comparison. the abrasive must be hauled to a remote dump site. There is normally a difference in wages paid to skilled and unskilled labor. c. The person-hour rate is the labor cost plus an overhead fee.. Blasters and painters receive more than helpers. it is frequently dependent upon the operations to be performed (Le. travel pay and subsistence. sometimes. when required. labor cost is then accumulated with equipment and material cost and profit and overhead is applied to all of it as a group. the obstacles in the way. working with epoxies and other exotic materials. Many unions require premiums for wages on such items as abrasive blasting and spray painting. spray painters frequently take care of these operations when working on the ground but not when working off staging. Labor cost is the sum of wages. Most frequently abrasive handlers are used to remove the abrasive from inside a vessel or from the immediate work area. working more than fifty feet in the air and so forth. abrasive blasting versus hand or power tool cleaning).0 93 m 8b27940 O003670 396 m b. Helpers -Number varies with the requirements of the project. fringe benefits. Riggers -Deployment. Abrasive Handlers -Handle spent abrasive. the labor cost can be determined by multiplying the person-hours by the hourly rate for each classification of worker. A working foreman may be employed on crews of up to about 6 persons. e. A single supervisor seldom has more than 8 to 10 workers.

Blast pots. d.. If compressed air is not otherwise available. A power source (electrical or compressed air) needs to be used for the pump. hoses. equipment. change rooms. The cost of equipment is figured on the number of days each piece of equipment is used at reasonable rental rate. since a large source of compressed air Wou Id al ready be avai IabIe. General -All jobs need a pickup or larger trucks to haul workers. For abrasives such as sand. and materials. lifts. Offices. it should recognize and allow for recovering the investment in that equipment. 3. Additionally. size and configuration of the structures. b. and so forth. type of surface preparation. nozzles and helmets (with appropriate air lines and filters) need also to be figured. Items costing at least several hundred dollars are normally considered rental equipment. The renter normally furnishes fuel and the operator. Materials a. Following is a description of typical operations and the equipment required. abrasive blasting helmets. Spray equipment for priming would be figured as indicated below. Equipment Equipment required for individual jobs varies with type of job. figuring 350-450 CFM per nozzle for aiypical job. nozzles. Abrasives -The cost is figured by applying a consumption rate to the number of abrasive blasting person-hours or person-days figured. Even if the firm owns all of the equipment. etc. guns. scaffolds.2. a small compressor may be needed. storage rooms. Airless Spraying -Airless pumps are figured as required. type of paint or coating. Abrasive Blasting and Priming -Compressed air for the abrasive blasting is determined by the nozzle size and other factors. the larger pots can handle two spray guns. Rental rates are normally based upon continuous charge during the possession of the equipment with 5-day. etc. Conventional Spraying -Spray pots are figured as required. c. 40-hour weeks. Production sized units can normally handle two guns unless the material is highly viscous or other circumstances warrant. the project may require rigging cages. Local rental firms or published sources such as the Rental Rate Blue Book can be used to determine rental rates. sanitary facilities. slag. add it ional compressed air would not be needed for spraying primer after abrasive blasting. Supplies associated with rental equipment are either allowed for in the rental rates or are themselves rental items. or similar items. a. Included in this category are hoses. and many mineral Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with . may also be required. fuel.

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Costs vary by location. the amount of the fee for overhead and profit is not important to determine relative costs. Paint andlor Protective Coatings -The quantity of each paint or coating is determined by dividing the surface area to be covered with that material by the practical coverage. job. The practical coverage is the theoretical coverage less a loss factor. b.3 dry mils of inorganic zinc and 5 dry mils of polyamide epoxy. Cost Summary The costs individually calculated for labor. The higher consumption rates would be expected on large jobs with continuous operating bulk equipment. for the total paint cost. and time. AN EXAMPLE Consider cleaning and painting the exterior shell of a new 200 foot diameter x 48 foot high storage tank.159. B. equipment and materials are added together and a fee for overhead and profit applied to give a total system cost. typically this is about 20-30% of the quantity figured for paint. the abrasive supplier should be contacted for a price to avoid serious errors in the total system cost. the system cost could be estimated as follows: TABLE 1: Summary of Assumed Costs for Example of Storage Tank Coating NOTE: The following 1992-93 data and cost calculations are presented as examples only and are not intended for use on actual jobs. When considering alternatives to be undertaken by the same firm. 4.O 73 H 8b27940 0003b71 222 D abrasives. On the other hand.The quantity of solvents required for thinning and clean up should be figured. Delivery costs of abrasive can also be a major cost factor in remote locations. typically 20-30%. If the first alternate is a near white blast (SSPC-SP IO). differences in fees by the different organizations might be significant. one-quarter to one-half ton is used per hour. The cost of abrasives can vary so greatly that the cost of the entire coating system can more than double if changing from one of the lesser expensive when the abrasive is not recycled.SSPC CHAPTER*B. Secure est imates locally on the specific job involved. When estimating costs. *Assumed Labor Costs: Journeyman wage . The quantity of each material is multiplied by the cost per unit and taxes and freight charges added in. if an owner is considering alternatives involving work by different vendors or himself and a vendor. The calculated square footage is 30.

. ft.00/hour $21. ft.`.501hour $1 80.`.`-`-`. nozzles..001day $60... Airless spray rig with hose and 2 guns Spider Pickup truck Assumed abrasive cost: Assumed coatings cost: MIN* MAX USE $15.00lday $ 30.00/ton delivered Inorganic zinc -$35/gallon -theoretical coverage 300 sq.001day $ 30.00íhour $ 7.50/hour $19.00/hour $17./gal.50/hour $ 5.50/hour $25..001day $100. equipment and material --`..`.00/hour $ 4.Foreman wage Fringe benefits Assumed equipment costs (fueled): 750 CFM Compressor Four-nozzle blast pot with all hose. hoods.`--224 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .00/day $ 35.00/hour $22./gal. @ 3 mils Polyamide epoxy -$18/gallon -theoretical coverage 160 sq. etc. @ 5 mils Thinner for both -$8/gallon Assumed internal company costs Taxes and insurance 60% of wages Tax Social Security Federal Unemployment tax State Unemployment tax Liability Workers Compensation Overhead and profit 35% of total labor.

889 After blasting and priming is completed.101 Foreman 120 @ $21 $2. th e equipment is: 750 CFM Compressors 2 units x 15 days @ $ 180 = $ 5.400 Blast pot 15 days @ $ 100 = $ 1.973 TOTAL LABOR = $21.916 Taxes & Insurance @ 60% (Wages only) = $ 6. the large compressors could be exchange d for smaller compressors.200 Materials cost: Abrasive -Vz ton per worker hour 302 x '1'2 @ $60 = $ 9.520 Fringes 599 @ $5.295 Subtotal = $14./hr.050 Spider 4 units x 15 days @ $ 30 = $ 1. but since the finch coating will be done in such a short period of time. t his is impractical. 60 worker hours Rig (from experience) 16 worker hours Foreman (working) 1 :4 120 worker hours TOTAL --599 worker hours Pot tender and helper were not figured separately because with this small crew t he foreman could fulfill those functions.50 $3. 302 worker hours Prime @ 300 sq.800 Pickup truck 15 days @ $ 30 = $ 450 TOTAL EQUIPMENT = $10. ft.500 Airless spraying rig 2 units x 15 days @ $ 35 = $ 1.060 Theoretical (25% loss) Practical Gallons Coating Zinc-rich EPOXY Coverage Coverage 300 225 160 120 Thinner -385 gallons x 20% Required 134 251 = 77 Price $35 . 101 worker hours Finish @ 500 sq. With a 5-person crew working 8-hour days./hr. the job will be done in 15 working days: Therefore. The labor cost would be as follows: Journeyman 479 @ $19 $9. ft.Summary of Assumed Costs for Example of Storage Tank Coating (Cont'd) Assumed production rates: Blast @ 100 sq./hr. ft.

the abrasive would be u sed.088 'Labor rates for the Northeast If the system were being compared to a system of commer.518 $ 616 Total coatings Abrasive from above = = $ 9.824 $ 9. to a near white. how long before the system millage is lower per coat.060 Subtotal Sales tax 5% = = $18. second alternate would be less for the following reasons: The second alternate a t $40.000.5 mil coats of alkyd.200 Overhead & Profit @ 35% Subtotal $51. Abrasive blasting to a commercial blast is faster than but is it the most econom ical in the long run? Perhaps not. The fact that this is a three-coat fails and has to b e blasted off)? What maintenance costs rather than a two-coat system would be substantially will be entailed during the service life and when will they be washed out by the increased production rates.171 TOTALCOST = $70.e.828 $1 0. Less time incurred? 225 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with .690 $ 4.889 $1 9.917 $18.would be required for a brasive blasting equipment and less cial blast (SSPC-SP 6) and three 2.828 Price Summary Labor Material Equipment $21..884 $ 944 TOTAL MATERIALS = $19. Spraying alkyd is slightly easier and faster The analysis must be continued: What is the ultimate servper coat than either inorganic zinc or epoxy.$18 $8 cost $ 4. $40. The in the second alterna te is less also. say. The cost of the coating materials calculations could result in a price of.000 is lower in initial cost. plus the ice life of each alternat e (¡.

SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .

The cost information has been supplied by representative US. Paint and coating selection cost estimates and justification for new construction or maintenance can be a confusing and difficult task for the nonexclusive coatings engineer. specifically applicable cost data or a detailed cost estimate. The cost guide gives the specifier a simplified means of calculating total applied costs based on current material.SSPC CHAPTER*B.applicators and paint suppliers. Percentage factors also are included to convert base costs to in-place costs. If the project is a new plant. Sometimes an old specification from a previous job is simply pulled from the file. specifications often cal¡ for hand (SSPC-SP2) or power-tool (SSPCSP 3) cleaning. Frequently. The cost guide gives nonexclusive specifying engineers a method to help them identify candidate systems for a given environment. expected service life. II. show how to calculate approximate applied costs and outline procedures for arriving at an intelligent coating selection based on fact with supportable detail. weighing the value of monetary expenditure over time. and economic evaluation and justification. renamed. The maintenance cost and projected service life must also be considered. with costs for jobsite touchup if shop priming is considered. Use of the guide can help clarify coating selection and increase effectiveness. The analysis of coating alternatives begins with the determination of cost using either currently available.O 93 8627940 0003673 OT5 This example leads into the other portions of this chapter which deal with identification of candidate paint systems. nor as a tool for negotiating with contractors and fabricators. and used on the current job without consideration of whether or not it is acceptable in the new environment. the coatings engineer is nonexclusive and has other areas of responsibility. It must be emphasized that this cost guide is just that -A GUIDE. cleaning and application costs. It is not meant for use in calculating actual job costs. The purpose of this cost guide is to help coating engineers understand basic cost elements. COST FACTORS IN COATING SELECTION Identifying and justifying acceptable paint and protective coating systems for a given environment is difficult. It need not be. The base cost produced by the guide is for structural steel on the ground at the jobsite. and often neglected. a shop primer and one or two topcoats of alkyd applied at the jobsite. It establishes a pro- . It is not intended as an infallible or absolute cost source.

the initial coating selection is of critical importance. to blast clean.. selection and justification of a suitable system. are an important reason to paint.. it is sometimes impractical.`-`-`.`.`--A. The alternative is costly andlor ineffective maintenance for the life of the structure. in fact. if the design life is 20 years. spray or to get sufficient down time to do an adequate maintenance painting job. Why Paint At All? Unfortunately. without a protective coating. Decisions on most matters and materials are made on the basis of cost savings and economics. numbers and justification . an important consideration in most cases.`. a long-life system requiring a minimum .. Assuming a twenty-year plant life... it is. PRELIMINARY COST ISSUES Some common questions. --`.cedure for calculating approximate applied costs and for estimating expected service life and cost per year for each proposed system. the original painting is the only time in the life of the structure when the job can be done effectively and economically. To make good selections -and have them accepted by management -the specifying engineer must include a sound economic analysis. The use of the guide facilitates comparison. Therefore. Design For Total Structure Life Whether for new construction or maintenance the coatings engineer should consider the total cost and number of paintings required for the design or total life of the structure. An alternative to painting is to specify thicker steel to compensate for corrosion loss. If the design life is three years. In most cases.(7) Aesthetics.. Why Attempt Cost Calculations? We live in a world of costs. if not impossible. However. Any structure simply looks better painted. painting is less expensive than increasing steel thickness. if the corrosion rate of the steel in a particular environment is above 2 mils per year. a coating system should be selected that will last only that long. steel rusts and corrodes at varying rates depending on environment andlor climate. too. factors and influences that the specifying engineer will encounter are discussed on the following pages.`. Importance of Initial Painting Once a structure is in operation. While some people discount painting for appearance.

To be cost-effective the immediate painting must be evaluated from both a short-term. total-structure-life viewpoint. immediate economic viewpoint as well as the long-term. See below. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 226 . Required Life (Design Life) for more details.number of maintenance paintings make sense.

Before the decision is made to apply totally or partially in the shop. scheduling difficulties and comprised applications common on most construction projects are greatly reduced or eliminated. a maximum of only 24 hours can be tolerated by the fabricator for blasting. which is essential for good paint adhesion. Some shops are not enclosed or heated. painting and loading. total shop application is desirable. it should be recognized that many steel fabricators have limited capability to hold steel for extended periods. When it is impractical to apply coatings in the field. Application is easier on the ground. Frequently. spray loss is reduced and personal safety enhanced. such as an expansion of an operating facility in a highly corrosive environment.SSPC CHAPTERt8. If applying totally or partially in the shop. be certain the steel fabricator selected can effective- . Why Blast? Hand (SSPC-SP2) or power-tool (SSPC-SP 3) cleaning does not remove mill scale. Theoretically. mili scale pops off in one to three years and takes the coatings with it.0 93 8627940 O003674 T3L 5. More Than One Coat In the Shop? Painting can be controlled better in the fabricator's shop than at the job-site. This means that where a minimum of 250 tons of steel is involved. plus use of wood dunnage for shipping. See Table 5and 6 for direct comparisons. such as inorganic zincs. In severe environments. Shop Blasting and Priming On new construction. This assumes the fabricator has centrifugal wheel-bl ast ing equip m ent. shop blasting can be done for less than the cost of hand andlor power-tool cleaning in the field. shop blasting and priming allows and justifies application of a suitable protective coating system at the one time in the life of the plant when the job can be done effectively and economically. the entire system or primer and intermediate coat can be applied in the shop. Blast cleaning is the most practical and effective means of cleaning the surface. It removes mill scale and creates an anchor pattern. 6. While commonly considered more expensive than hand or power-tool cleaning. Selection of abrasion-resistant primers. More important than the cost. Job-site conflicts. shop blasting is considered to be about half the cost of field blasting. since it lengthens the service life and reduces the cost per year. Field YS. shop blasting can cost less. 7. should be included to reduce in-transit damage and job-site touch up.

300-400 ft. and vat size can be a limitation. Galvanizing with 1% ounces of zinc per square foot is equivalent in thickness to 2. thus. For system comparison and selection. and it is not uncommon for construction managers to search for items that can be delayed until after start-up when maintenance dollars are used instead of capital dollars. and. multiply cost per square foot by 250. a delay in topcoating could represent a . for the specifying engineer to attempt a take-off and total job estimate. cost per square foot can be estimated through use of this cost guide in sufficient accuracy for an intelligent decision. and inorganic zincs have heat resistance somewhat above the melting point of zinc (750°F-399"C). Compared with galvanizing.21ton.ly shop apply all coats. Cost Per Square Foot YS.Vton. etc. use 100-250 ft. they are about the same. coat with zinc-rich if it is less. From a protection standpoint. large structural members. 10. for light structural. touch-up the final coat after all repairs and welding are completed. To convert to typical painting cost per ton size. They tend to weather better in marine and coastal environments. and generally unnecessary. For large structural members. 9. and accept top coats more readily(5. US. They are less expensive on.2/ton. for medium 200-300 fL2lton. and trusses 350-500 ft.e). zinc-rich coatings are more easily applied to existing structures in place. On a cost basis. Per Ton or Total Job Basis It is impractical. the break point is approximately 275 ft. However. gratings. and that the coating manufacturer is in agreement.5 mils dry of a zinc-rich coating. Zinc-Rich Coatings Galvanizing and zinc-rich coatings. have revolutionized steel protection. Make sure the coating system selected will dry and cure adequately within the period the fabricator can accept. Galvanizing YS.tax classifies maintenance painting as a deductible expense. On a practical basis. with their galvanic action. Galvanizing via a "bath" treatment is more easily applied to small parts. Heat resistance is somewhat below the melting point of zinc (75OoF-399"C). Galvanize if the area is greater. 8. facilities are not always close to the job. Delay Topcoating? Many new construction projects run over budget.Vton.

If top coating is selected for delaying. To the uninformed construction manager. The specifying engineer must be Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 227 . and if the primer does not protect adequately for the extended period or in the environment. topcoat application might appear to .be a good candidate for this.reduced cost. "midstream" after the specification has been written and priming has been accomplished. a major problem can result.

The following is an example of the approximate results. Maintenance Procedures See Typical Maintenance Painting Practices below: Typical Maintenance Painting Practices The sequences followed by users maintenance repaint (spot prime in maintenance painting vary widely. 11. and For come. spot touch-up and repair. bolts and decontamination of the primer prior to application of final coats so rusting and undercutting would not occur.SSPC CHAPTERx8. Do Prejudices Exist? Often the specifying engineer is confronted with preferences/prejudices by projectiplant personnel or client representatives concerning types of coatings or suppliers. epoxy. Does full repaint. ¡. Repaint 50% of I 75% of I 25% of Orig. and full coat). Include them in the analysis and make certain the recommended system is sound and its selection based on facts with supporting detail. I Life Original Cost Original Cost O year . These prejudices may or may not represent acceptable systems or conditions. the only criterion is. 55% of Orig. The engineer should be sure to include immediate and adequate touch up of scars. original painting. select a coating system with a primer that resists the weather and environment for an extended period. Painting Operation Life in Field in ShoplField occurs I ideaUOptlmum Fkpalnting and Maintenance Sequence: Initial Painting Table I Touch-up Maint. 12. etc. can t afford or tolerate blast cleaning . the according to whether the ldeal/Opticonsensus is that most users gener. it need painting? In reviewing the subject with a Life of the repainting steps will varynumber of painting contractors.mum or Practical approach is ally follow these painting sequences: used. inorganic zinc.e. and if it is likely to occur. Approximate Cosi If Original Cost If Orig..0 93 m 8627790 0003b75 778 m aware of this possibility. can only afford alkyds .

Original Cost Original Cost O year Table 1 Touch-up Maint.76 is the NFV. Relatively few calculations are required to compare one system with another and to measure each system s true cost in comparable dollars reflecting the time value of money. 18th year P Practlcal Repalntlng and Malntenance Sequence: Initial Painting P Life. and cost of painting operations required to protect the structure for its projected life. This should include such items as original painting. in inflated dollars in the year scheduled? 3) At net present value levels -the present worth of the inflated cost (NFV) in monies today invested at current interest rates. and full repaintings. Economic Analysis and Justification This subject is sometimes misunderstood for paint and coating systems. 8th year 121h year Full Repaint 100% of 1 115% of Orig. Capital items require intricate analysis to identify full financial impact. a current cost of $10 today inflates to $12. How much will it cost.40% of Orig. 150% of Oria 19. 2) At net future value levels -current cost with inflation included. The formula for calculating this is: NFV =Current cost x (1+i) (1) (i = inflation. simply list the timing. 12th year 15th year Full ReDaint 100% of P 115% of Oria. 150% of Orig.8th vear 13. 80% of Orig. touch-ups.76 in five years. The cost of each painting operation should be calculated in three categories: 1) At current cost levels. number. n = years) . assuming 5 percent inflation. touch up and full coats. For example. $12. For each system used or considered. Paint and coating systems are basically expense items without salvage value or depreciation considerations. 50% of Orig. Repaint 25% of P 40% of P 40% of Orig. 70% of Orig. 70% of Orig.

I Steps for Calculating an Economic Analysis of a Coating System Using the current interest rate. particurepainting. the decision on coating selection is usually based on current rates. but if it has a shorter life and requires frequent repaintings. the following formula: use NPV = NFV x 1 or $7. painting.76 is worth today invested at current interest rates for five years?. the true cost and number of painting operations can be compared. ations. NFV. touch-up.92 (2) (1+i) $7. son of each system s true cost Using the current inflation rate. calculate and record the NFVfor all painting operations. its financial cost can be measured. in monies today. and the impact on plant disruptions must be recognized.92 invested today at 10 percent for five years = $12.76. a separate sheet for each). maintenance Compare these values. and full repainting. By making these calculations for each system. and NPV).of the three categories (current ations will take place: original cost. total the sum time line when all painting oper. While interest and inflation rates are constantly changing. larly NPV. mark on the For each candidate system (use For each system. draw calculate and record the NPV(of a time line for the projected life the NFV) for all painting operof the structure.To calculate the NPV. A system may be cheaper to install initially. or What the $12. for a direct compariInsert their current costs. For each system. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 228 .

which will require considerations for depreciation. When required. Example of Present Value Analysis Economic Anaiyas Wwksheel Total Psnbng Cost Per Sq Ft lor &her Plant Life Shree-CoaiEWXVPnmedHB EDOXV.SSPC CHAPTER*B=O 73 m 8627740 0003676 804 W See the example of a present value analysis below. however. taxes. Is protection alone important. 1. maintenance painting. ldeal/Optimum and Practical : (See Table 3) IdeallOptimum life is the time until initial breakdown (three to five percent) of the top-coats .CPB EiQhi-YearSVRem Lile ShapiField/Flsld Years O 5 10 15 20 25 ~ 30 t tt t 1 Prnmnp j . and the analyses turned over to project management for further financial treatment.Original Touchup Maintenance Full Repaint Touchupc~m) Painting Year 8 Repaint Year 12 Year 18 Year 26 B!!s caro 8 +$l71 y170 $1 22 12 61 IO70 t 897 cuimnlIS) NFVmils ) Furure~aiur)~U mu 16?8 m3 am . Estimated Service Life (Table 3) How long will the coating system last? The answer depends on t. These are not necessary for maintenance work. B. coating costs are often capitalized. !adurn ) On new capital projects. or is appearance a consideration? Is painting looked at as a necessary evil. etc.he particular user s approach to. or is costeffective protection the approach? The guide supplies system life estimates for two maintenance approaches. and philosophy of. HOW TO USE THE COST GUIDE Before proceeding it is suggested that the reader review the tables and worksheets presented below. the same present value analysis should be conducted to make the coating selection.

(See Table 2 for comparisons. Table 5 gives regional U. and Rust Grade 4 is present. After 1992 inflate at current inflation rates since 1992. Shop Painting Costs (See Table 5) For steel fabricators with automatic wheel-blasting equipment.S. other systems that are popular or thought to be economical.occurs. when first maintenance painting takes place. Step 1: What system(s) will work in the environment involved? Identify the specific environment and contaminants and begin with Table 3. once aggressive rusting and coating breakdown occur. Worksheet B Use this worksheet for all systems to be shop primed with touch up and top coating in the field. Note the same conversion rates at the bottom of the worksheet. Note conversion factors at the bottom to convert costs (1) to a per-ton basis and (2) from structural steel on the ground to specific surfaces or structures in place. will nearly always show the ldeal/Optimum approach to be the more cost-effective method (Table 2). How to Make a Coatings Cost Analysis a. 5. Note that usually a minimum of 250 tons is required to obtain competitive costs. Worksheet A Use this worksheet for all systems to be applied at the job-site. 1992 costs for cleaning and painting at the shop. 6. After 1992 these costs should be inflated by the inflation rate since 1992. Most users follow the Practical approach.) 2. however. Be . and protection is reduced. Paint and Coating Materials Costs (See Table 4) Current 1992 material costs for most commonly used generic types of coatings are included in this table. it is more costly to repair. Typical dried film thickness (DFT) per SSPCPA 2 for each type are shown. Practical life is the time until five to 10 percent breakdown occurs. thinking it is the cheaper or that they cannot afford or be bothered by painting sooner. Review the system(s) that will work in the environment and examine their longevity. Select the ones that have the longest life. for comparison and analysis. before rusting begins. and (2) to per-ton costs. A comparison of the two approaches. 3. 7.Estimated Service Life . Field Painting Costs Regional US 1992 costs for cleaning and paint application at the site are included in Table 6. 4. as well as theoretical and practical costs. active rusting of the substrate occurs. Note the factors at the bottom of the table to convert (1) to in-place costs depending on type of structure and surface. but include. Simply stated.

The job is done more efficiently and many of the normal jobsite conflicts and compromises are eliminated. if a minimum of 250 tons of steel is involved. Shop application usually gives better results. include their systems for economic comparison and analysis. shop priming. As outlined before. shop blasting and priming is about half the cost of the same work at the site. b. a comparison of thensame generic system with different cleaning grades. Step 2: On new construction compare field painting vs. if possible. For the candidate system(s) selected in Step 1. Include. If you are confronted with prejudices/preferences by projectlplant or client personnel.sure your analysis includes the effect of surface preparation on expected life. include in your analysis a comparison of each Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 229 .

SP6 1.system with both field and fabricator shop appli. Step 3: Prepare worksheets (A. Total Cost @ Current Cost Levels 2-coat Hl3 surf.29 8 9. SP2 1. c. tolerant epoxy .76 6 $0. TABLE 2 Typical System Costs.13 6 0.60 5 0. Cost Levels 2-coat HB surf.27 6 $ 8.96 tol. Step 4: Calculate the longterm cost and numcations. didate system as outlined above. SP2 1. and Number of Paintings Over a 35 Year Structure Life ldeal/Optimum Life TOTAL INSTALLED COST LONG-TERM COST Initial cost/ Total Cost surf. B or both) on all by preparing a present value analysis for each cancandidate systems. @ Current System Prep.d. SP6 $2. SP6 2. epoxylure.14 8 $0.23 tolerant epoxy Pract ¡cal I Life TOTAL INSTALLED COST LONG-TERM COST System surf.06 tolerant epoxy 2-coat HB surf. cost Life fi2 Ptgs.04 tolerant epoxy 2-coat HB surf. Installed Years Yearl No. Prep. Cost Per Year.41 16 13.23 3 0. Long-Term Costs. Life. ber of painting operations over the structure s life.96 tolerant epoxy l-coat HB surf.36 8 10.32 10 10. Ptgs. l-coat HB surf. Initial Installed cost Years Life cost/ Yearl ft* No.

SP6 2. tolerant epoxy SP6 1.21 9 10.18 6 $ 9.27 14 12. tolerant epoxy SP2 1. epoxylure.20 7 9.66 2-coat HB surf. tolerant epoxy SP2 1.5 0.5 0. tol.23 4.76 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 230 .32 2-coat H8 surf.13 9 0.60 7.SP6 $2.76 9 0.24 7 1 1.14 12 $0.56 l-coat HB surf.71 l-coat HB surf.

O I 3 2 1 1 NNl 1 1 7 4 2 P 4.75 N N O75 075 075 6 3 15 40 I 3 2 1 1 NNl 1 1 7 4 2 P 4.0 I 3 2 1 1 NN1 1 1 7 4 2 P 4.5 I 5 4 3 3 NN3 3 3 9 6 4 P 7.5 N N 1.`-`-`.SSPC CHAPTER*8.5 9 9 825 N N 9 8 25 N 16.25 N N 225 225 225 135 9 4.5 I 7 6 5 5 NN5 5 5 11 8 6 P 10.5 05 05 4 2 1 P 3 15 075 0.75 N 12 7.5 15 105 6 3 --`.0 I 3 2 N N NNN N N 7 4 2 P 4.5 3 15 15 N N 1.`. and Zinc-Metallizing Sy stems 6.5 105 6 3 60 I 3 2 1 1 NNl 1 1 7 4 2 P 4.5 3 15 15 N N 15 1.0 I 4 3 N N NNN N N 9 6 3 P 6 45 N N NNN N N 135 9 4.5 3 15 15 N N 15 i5 15 105 6 3 6.5 1.`.5 9 7.3 75 N N 75 75 75 155 12 9 5.0 I 6 5 5 5NN5 45 N 10 7 5 P 9 75 N N 75 675 N 15 10.0 I 4 3 3 2 NN3 2 3 8 5 3 . Galvanizing.5 15 9 6 3 P 6 45 2.5 3 N N NNN N N 10.5 6 3 6.0 I 4 3 3 2 NN3 2 3 8 5 3 P 6 45 45 3 "453 45 12 7..`..5 3 15 15 N N 15 15 15 105 6 3 6.5 45 N N 45 45 45 135 9 6 7.0 73 8627740 0003678 687 TABLE 3 Estimated Service Life(') (in Years..5 12 9 4.5 75 75 6.25 N N 225 225 225 135 9 45 6.5 2.5 4.5 9 6 3 P 6 4.5 1.25 2.0 I 4 3 $5 i5 N N 15 1.5 7.25 2.5 6 6 45NN6 45 6 135 9 6 7.5 4. Zinc-Rich Coatings.`--6.5 4.5 6.5 4.0 I 7 6 6 55 N N 6 5.0 I 5 4 4 3 NN4 3 4 9 6 4 P 7..0 I 4 3 I5 1.0 I 4 3 3 25NN3 25 N 8 5 3 P 6 45 45 375 N N 45 3.5 6.0 I 2 1 05 05 N N 0.5 1.5 6 4. Before First Maintenance Painting) of Protective Coatings.0 I 2 1 05 05 N N 05 05 05 4 2 1 P 3 15 075 075 N N 075 075 O75 6 3 1..5 N 11 8 6 P 10..5 4.5 t.

P 6 45 45 3 N N 45 3 45 12 7. 10.O i B 5 8 7 NN6 4 51285 P 9 75 9 10.0 I 6 5 5 4 NN5 4 61175 P 9 6 7.5 3 4.5 75 4.5 18 12 7. TNN6'7'11 XI1410 300"' P 15 15 9' î0.0 I 7 6 6 5 546 5 71286 P 10.5 7 6 6 5 NN6 5 5 11 8 6 9 9 75NN9 75 75 165 12 9 8 8 7 N N 7 ~ 6 14 10 8 12 12 105 N N 12 105 9 21 15 12 8.0 I 4 4 5 NN4 5 31063 P 6 s 7dNN6 73 4.5 7.5 12 12.5 9 9 7.5 9 12.5 7.0 I 5 4 4 5 NN4 5 3 11 7 4 P 7.5 9 9 7.5 15 135 15 N N 135 15 9 255 19.5 7.5 7.5' 16.5 105 24 18 13.5' N N 9.0 I P 10.5 6 6 75NN6 75 45 165 10.5 4.5 30 21 15 6.0 I 10 9 8 9 N N 9 ~ 7 16 12 9 P 15 135 12 i35 N N 12 13.0 I 7 6 6 7 NN6 7 4 13 9 6 P 10.0 I 9 8 7 8 NN7 8 5 15 11 8 P 13.5 N N 9 7.5 13.0 1 12 10 6.5 6 8.5 9* 10.5 75 6 9 7.5 12.5' 15 285 195 135 10.5' N N 9' 10.5 mo I 9 P 13.0 I 6 5 5 4 NN5 4 51175 P 9 7.0 I 6 5 5 4 NN5 4 4 10 7 5 P 9 75 75 6 N N 75 6 6 15 10.5 10.0 I 11 10 9 10 NN9 10 6 17 13 10 P 16.5 6 N N 75 6 9 16.5 75 6.5 N N 9 7.5 N N 9 10. 2 HBEpoxyPnmer/ 6 8.5 10.5 135 27 21 16.0 I 7 6 6 5 NN6 5 61286 P 10.5 9 18 12 9 35.5 10.5 12 18 12 9 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from .5 6.5 75 6 "756 7.5 12 1051 12 N N i05 12 75 225 16.5 13.5 6.0 I 7 6 6 5 NN6 5 61286 HB EWXY P 10.5 9 9 7.5 5.5 15 9 45 7.5 i65 10.5 105 18 12 9 6.5 15 12.0 I 11 9 6' 7' N N 6' 7' 10 19 13 9 P 16.0 I 12 11 10 21 N N 10 11 9 18 14 11 P 18 165 15 T65 N N 15 16.5 9 9 105 N N 9 105 6 195 13.0 1 4 3 3 2 NN3 2 3 953 P 6 45 45 3 N N 4.

IHS 231 .

5 75 75 NN 75 44.SSPC CHAPTER*B-O 93 Bb2794O 0003679 513 = TABLE 3 (cont.5 37.) Estimated Service Life(') (in Years.5 13.0 I 5 4 4 5 NN 4 -IC Urethane P 7. 3 Epoxy Primar/ 10 10.5 10. 2 HB Epoxy Pmner/ 10 8. ta5 3' 2 IOutrB HB EpoxyAuyltc 6 7.5 13.5' NN 9" 54.4 I 13 11x 7' 6' 6' N N 6' 44 3.0 I 8 7 7 8 NN 7 8 6 13 Epoxy/Acryl Ure P 12 10.5 9 9 7.0 I 7 6 6 6 NN 8 6 7 12 Polyester Ure P 10.M 6' 4. UfbNiaflE P 16. 3 IOZñiBAcryl Ure/ 10 11.5 15 40.5 18 t 45.5' N N 9' 55.W 9-10.5 N N 12 10.0 I 11 9# 3' 4^ NN 3.5' 9* 15 13.5' 9' N N 1oJ" 50.6* 53. 3 IOUHBAcryl Ure/ 6 11.0 I 10 8# 4' 3' NN 4' P 15 I% 6' 4.0 I 11 9# 4' 3' 87 4' P 16. Galvanizing.5 75 9 NN 7. 2 IOUHBAcryltc 10 7. 3 IOtliB Epoxy/ 10 11.5 10.5 16.5* 16.5' 52. Zinc-Rich Coatings. 2 HB Epoxy her/ 10 6. 2 HB Epoxy Pnmerl 6 6.0 I 9 8 8 8 NN 8 HB Epoxy/ P 13.5 15 HB Epoxy 38. and Zinc-Metallizing Sy stems 36.5 N N 105 Polyester Ure 46.0 I 12 1oW 6-7' NN H0Acrylic Ure P 18 15# 9' 10.5 6 6 7. 2 loz/HB Epoxy 10 7.0 I 7 6 6 7 NN 6 EpoxyiAcrylUre P 10.5 13. 3 IOIRtB Epoxy/ 6 11.5 12 12 12 N N 12 Polyester Ure 47.5 12 N N 105 43.5 -9 9 9 NN 9 9 10. 3 Epoxy Primar/ 6 10. 3 Epoxy Primer/ 10 8.0 I 9 8 8 7 NN 8 7 10 HB Epoxvl P 13.5' 12 105 6. 2 IOïíHB Epoxy 6 7. 2 HB Epoxy Primed 10 6.0 I 8 7 7 7 NN 7 7 8 13 HB Epoxy/ P 12 10.5 10.5 13. 3 GalviHB Epoxy/ PCKL 11.5 56.5 16.0 I 10 9 9 8 87 9 li3Epoxy/ P 15 13.0 I 6 5 5 6 NN 5 6 4 11 ~ayltcUrethane P 9 7. Before First Maintenance Painting) of Protective Coatings.5 135 Epoxy 39. 3 Epoxy Pnmer/HB 10 8.5-N N 6' 48. 2 ûalvNB Epoxy PCKL 7.5 12 12 10. 3 Epoxy Pnmeri 6 8.4 I i? 9# 4. 11 10 9 r 6' 13 .0 I 12 10% r 6' NN 7" 6' t2 HB Epoxy P 18 1M 10.5 16.S 45' 6' N N 4.0 I 13 11# 6' 7' H3 Acrylic Ure P 19.0 I 8 7 7 6 65 7 Hú Epoxy P 12 10.M 10.H 6* 4.5 12 12 10.5' 12 105 6+ 4.5 10s 9.5 N N 9 42.5 9 4. 3' 8 7 P 16.0 I 6 5 5 5 NN 5 Polyester Ure P 9 7. 3 Epoxy PrimerlHB 6 8.5 10. 2 HB Epoxy Primed 6 6.5 1 41.5' 6' N N 4.0 I 13 1I# 7' 6' 10 9 7' P 19. 49.5 9 9 10. Ursthane P 15 12# 7.0 I 10 e# 3' 4' NN51.5 10.5 N N 6 75 4.

# 12' t0.0 I 12 lo# 6' 6" NN 6' 6' 12 Poiywter ufa P 18 15# 9' 9' NN 9' 9' 18 60. 3 EpoxyZinc/ 10 11.5 15 9' 75' 21 HB Epoxy 59.5' NN 9. 3 IOUHBEpoxy/ 10 9.0 I 10 Ba 3' 3' NN 3' 3' Actyl= P 15 12# 4..0 I 9 7# 3" 3' NN 3' 3' Aeryltc P 13.5 61.40Epoxy P 19.`.`-`-`.5' 66û.0 I 14 1% 6' 5' 11 10 6' 5' 14 HB Epoxy/ P 21 18# 9.0 I 11 9# 6' 7' NN 6' T" 10 Acrykc Ure P 16.`. 3' t2 HB Epoxy P 18 15# 6' 4..0 I 9 7 5' 4" N N .S 9' 9' N N 9' 9" 18..5' 12 13.0 I 12 1W 4" 3' 9 8 4.5". 16.5 N N 12-16.5 16.0 I 10 w1 5' 4' 87 5-4' HB Epoxy P 15 1% 7.0 I 11 9# 8' 7' NN o 7 HB Epoxy/ P 15.. 3 EpoxyZinc/ 6 11. 3 IOUHB Epoxy/ 10 9. 2 Epoxy .5' NN 4 5" 4.5 th5 2885 t HB Epoxy 70.`--8' 7' 89 ortssot Hû Epoxy/ P 16 1M 12' t0. 8 15 i0 HúAcryls Ure P 13.`. 19. 6% 2 IOUWaterborne 6 6.5 1W 7.5-6' 69.5 13.5' 4.5' N N 4.5 10s 4. 3 GahNB Epoxy/ PCKL 9.5 16.5 12' 10..TlncJ 6 7.5 10.4 I 12 10# 6' 7' NN 6' Aaylk Ure P 18 15# 9' 10. 3 GahW poxyt PCKL 9.5' ô' 12 10. 2 Zinc Metallizing/ 10 9.W 9.5 7.1.M 9' 9' NN 9* 9' $8 62.5 16.0 I 12 101t 6' 7' NN 7' 11 Aciyhc Ure P 18 1% rt" 10. 64. 3 IOUHB Epoxy/ 6 9.M 105' 9' 15 135 10. 2 IWaterborne 10 6.5 15 1 __.0 I 13 Il# 6' ô' NN 6' 6' 13 Polyester Ure P 19. 10.5' 4.5' B' N N 45' 6' tS 22.5' 18 58.5' 4. 7.0 I 9 7# 3* 4' NN 9 4. 232 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS .5' N N 9.5# 4.5' 67.4 I 13 1It 6' 6' NN 6' 6' 12 Pdyestw Ure P 19.. 2 Epoxy ZncJ 10 7. 3 Zinc Melaliizingl 10 13. 2 Epoxy Zinc/ 6 7.Y 4' HB Epoxy P 13.5 13.5' f8 30 2 HB Epoxy 71.5' 9.5* N N 9' 10.0 I 12 io# --`.5' 135 12 6" 4.5 57.5' 6' N N 7 5' 6' 68. 3 IOUHB Epoxy/ 6 9.5' 15 83.

5" fi* 9" 4* 6' 7" 10. 4.) Estimated Service Life") (in Years.0 73 86277YO O003680 235 TABLE 3 (cont. and Zinc-Metallizing Sy stems 72. Galvanizing. 2 3 Epoxy zw hytto Ure Epoxy mdHfl Acrylic Ure/ 10 6 70 11. 73. 9' 4' 6' 7" 105' N N N N N N N N 3. Before First Maintenance Painting) of Protective Coatings. Zinc-Rich Coatings.5 10 15 .0 I P I P 10 15 11 165 8n 12# 9# 13W 3' 45' 6.5' 9 13.SSPC CHAPTERt8.

5" 7 .16 4 19 285 11 16. 75. 3 3 ww mdHfl Acrylic Ure/ MAcryiic Ure ww HB EwwI 10 6 110 90 I P I P 12 18 11 165 1M 15# 9# 13W 6' 9' 7' 105' 7' 10s 6" 9' N N N N N N N N 6.5 13 19.# 300"" 3OOm H3 Ac~~llc Ure 74.5 8# 12# 911 13. 9' 7' 10.

3 3 Epoxy tirae/HB EpoxyiACryfic Ure 90 90 I . 10.5 15 22.10. 3 Polyswertke iroxy aw 10 90 I P 12 18 1M 1% 7 105" 6' 9+ N N N N 7.5' 6^ 9' 12 t8 20 30 14 21 tO# 15# 300q*i Ure 77 78.S 300" 300") 76.5 21 31 5 19 28.5' 6' 9' 11 16.5 10# 15# 9# 13.5 11 16.5 13 19.

5 .5 19.5 to 18 27 19 12 18 13 c 12x 9# 3M1""i 3OOw' Ure P 165 135# 9' 105-N N 9. 10.5' 15 28.W 79.P I 10 15 11 8# 12# 9 # 6' 9. V Y 10s P N N N N N N 6" 9' 6. 2 H0 Vinyl Vinyl Pnmerl H3Vinyl 50 P I P 9 7 105 75 6 9 6 5 75 7.5 13. 2 60 I 6 5 4 5 N N 4 5 N 10 7 5 140-160q~i 80.5' 7' 9 13. P 10.

5 6 9 N N N 15 1116.5 7.6 9 N 5 75 N 4 6 6 5 7.5 105 8 12 75 6 9 140-16o"o' 81. 3 3 3 Vinyl Rimer/ H3vinyl/ HBVinylVinyl&mer/ HBvinyuH3Wnyl IOZRt6 Vlnyü 10 6 100 100 110 I P I P I 9 135 10 15 il 8 12 9 135 W 7 105 8 . 82' 83.

160" 9' 7.5 6' N N N N N 13 19.5 9# 140-15o"i 140-160" 140.5 N N N 6 9 N 7 10.5 12 8 12 9 13.SX 75' .12 S 6 8 12 9 135 ' N N 7 10.5 8 12 5' 8 12 9 13.5 14 21 16 10 15 11 16.5' 9' 165 13.

5' 9' 15 135 7.5 is8 2 Coal Tar Epoxy 6 160 8 7 NN 8 .5' 79 15 135 7.5' 75'. lo# 10 9 18 15# 7. N wVinyt 195 1# 25. 3 P 18 7.5 195 1% I 12 10 5"s 10 9 5" 5' N 17 GahrMB WnyV PCKL 11 4 13 1# 140-1W'i 85.5' 9' WB Vbyt P N 25.H3vinyl P NN 24 18 13.S N S 6' 3 IOUHBWnyU 10 11.0 I 12 17 13 i# 140-160""' 5' 6' N 84.

11 9 9 8 9 14 11 9 200" 16. spot touch-up at end of "I"Me.0 P 16 14# N N Notes: Life shown is for protection only. spot prime and full coat after an additional 50 p ercent of "I"life. SP-3= power tool cleaning. and loss of gloss will occur. before active rusting begins. depending on local conditions and timing of inspectionirecogni tion of topcoat breakdown. '-Assuming topcoats are intact. ~3~Thermoplastic. IWFT.0 I 11 9 9 8 P 165 735 135 12 ga 1 InorgaokTKIc 6 30 P 13 li# N N 99. I 10 P 15 12 12 105 N N 12 10.5 I2 19.5to 10 range. #-Assuming pH is within 5.5 135 13. 2 CoalTarEpoxy 10 16. SP-6 = commercial blast (S A-2 or NACE-3).0 mils = 25. not cosmetic appearance. and SP-10= near white blast (SA-2 112 or NACE-2). ~'i"ldeal1Optimum"life is defined as the time until the first maintenance painti ngttouch-up should occur. and zinc is not exposed. Minimum Dried Film Thickness in mils. but protection remains. Normal maintenance repainting cycles include: original painting ("I"iife). when three to five percent breakdown of the topcoats occur. Will pick up dirt when softened. 1. This can vary f15 percent.5 12 13 5 21 165 13. PIA minimum SP-10 (SA4 112 or NACE-2) is required for immersion service. and a full system repaint after an additional 75 percent of '"I"system life. 1 IrmrganieZinc 10 30 P 15 t3# N N?m. P = Practical. N-Not recommended.5 15 12 94. ")Maintenance Schedule/Approach.7 8 13 10 8 200" 93. i2Colors will darkeniyeliow.4 pm. l']Grades of cleaning are geared to SSPC standards: SP-2 = hand wire-brushing.Softens at 160°F.5 .f OrmnicZjnc Rich 6 30 P 5 4 # N N h1030P65#NN PCKL 34 P 13 11# N N 5 5. I = IdealIOptimum.

FRESH WATER = Immersion at ambient temperature. and fumes. SEACOAST HEAVY INDUSTRIAL = Within five miles of coastisall water and in presenc e of heavy industrial plants with high levels of fumes and fallout. spi lls. and fumes. and fumes. spills.1. spills. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 233 . CAUSTIC = Caustic soda up to 50 percent concentration.N N N N 19 26 16 6#W N N 20 27 17 NN N N 16 8 4 3# fEP0XY) N 14p1w (Vinyl B CR) 7# 6# N N I7 9 5 íEp0. gasoline. selected esters.000° 250-300" 4# 250-300" N N 20 27 17 12# 7400 N N 25 30 20 14 740" Definitions of Environments: SEACOAST MARINE = Within five miles of coasüsalt water and no industrial plants or fumes present. and alcoho l splash. AMMONIA = Ammonia splash. MILD = Rural or residential with no industrial fumesffallout. SEVERE = Heavy industrial and chemical plant area with high levels of fumes and fallout. MODERATE = Industrial plants present but no heavy contamination by industrial fu mes and fallout. CHLORINE = Chlorine splash. and fumes. ACID = Minerai acids at approximately 10 percent concentration. and fumes. SALT WATERIBRINE = Immersion at ambient temperature.wO' 12# 740-1. SOLVENTSIGASOLINE = Aromatic hydrocarbons.WN 140-le@ 5 [Vinyl & CR) Il# 740. with splash. spills. with splash. spills.

100 5.075 $0. Cost per Sq.0 $0.040 0.057 0.076 0.044 0.104 O.078 0.0 2.0 2.107 $0.070 0.128 0.051 0.0 3.0 8.040 0.O 8.109 0. sprayPtaet. Ft.0 93 Ab27940 0003b81 171 = TABLE 4 Typical Material Costs of Paints and Protective Coatings Approx.036 0.149 0. BN8hf Rgll Acrylic.116 0.083 0. Waterborne Topcoat Alkyd Primer' Alkyd Gloss Topcoat' Alkyd Silicone Coal Tar Epoxy Standard* Coal Tar Epoxy C200" Chlorinated Rubber Primer 3. QTypical DFT Prpct.119 0.0 2.SSPC CHAPTER*8. Coatlng Min. DFT Theor.164 0.083 ChJorinated Rubber HB Inte&/Top Chlorinated Rubber Topcoat Epoxy Primer' Epoxy HB Primer' .092 0.0 2.lt5 0.084 0. Waterborne Primer Acrylic.

237 0.042 0.047 0.O 2.O 1. 1-pack Urethane.755 0. Ester.106 0.o 2.029 0.5 2.0 4. Frimer Epoxy.057 Latex Emulsion.089 0.0 0.053 0. Ester.149 0.080 0.061 0.114 0.104 0.O 5.o 0.o 20.055 0.077 .i36 0. Topcoat Latex Emulsion.073 0.079 0. Elastomeric Solvented 2.037 0.062 0.0 4.080 0.089 0. Topcoat Universal Primer.0e9 0.032 0. Primer 4.Epoxy HB IntermediateBopcoat* Epoxy Topcoat' Epoxy.095 0.060 u.0 1.166 0.o 3.114 5.041 0.041 0.089 0.054 0.061 0. Waterborne Epoxy. HB Surface Tolerant' Epoxy.o 2.5 2.116 0.184 0.051 0.

103 0.0 0.092 0.0.107 0. Solution Topcoat" Vinyl Ester zinc Rich. Aliphatic Acrylic" Urethane. Aliph.207 0.116 0. Moiare-Cured Urethane 2.104 0.161 Urethane. Solution HB IntermedBop'" Vinyl.130 0.075 0.076 0.081 0. Inorganic' Zinc Rich.167 Urethane.073 0. Aliphatic Polyester' Urethane.145 0.o 2.131 0.5 20.169 0.083 0.O71 0.145 0.091 0.0 3.0 0.0 3.072 0.o 4.9f4 0.068 NA Urethane.1ta 0.0 1.o 4.087 1 . Moisture-Cured Aluminum 2.060 0. Aromatic HB Primer' 5. Organic Zinc Rich.0 3. HB Acryl Inter/Top' 2.165 0.155 0.5 0.207 0.101 0.161 0.214 0.084 Vinyl.640 0.580 NA NA NA .0 0.109 0. Solution Primer"' Vinyl.

Including Labor. costs will approximate f ield blasting levels shown in Table 6. must be applied by spray. Ft. DFT = Dried film thickness in mils (I mil = 25. Steel plate cleaning costs are about 20 percent less than pri ces listed above for structural steel. Equipment. '"Becoming available in high-solids versions. Application costs and the cost per mil square foot are about the same as for low-solids versions. steel fabricators. To convert to cost per ton see above. For steel fabricators without centrifugal wheel blasting equipment or for those using conventional air blasting. Application costs and the cost per mil squar e foot are about the same as for the low-solids versions. Costs shown are for steel fabricators having centrifugal wheel blasting equipment. paint and coating suppliers. Spray Practical = 30% loss.NA 'Available in high-solids versions. NA = Not applicable. RoWBrush Practical = 10% loss. Notes: Costs are approximate based on 1992 data secured from representative U.4 pm). 234 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . based on 1992 data secured from representative US. and Related Costs (No Material Cost Included) For Typical mix of sizes and shapes Large structural 100 Medium structural 200 Light structural 400 Light trusses 500 Notes: Costs shown are approximate.S. TABLE 5 Shop Painting Costs per Sq.

o2 SP-7 Brush-Off Blast 0.20 Hi Press.SSPC CHAPTER*B-O 93 D 8h27940 0003682 O08 TABLE 6 Field Painting Costs per Sq.o0 SP-5 White Metai Blast 1.52 0.33 0.95 0.22 O 25 0.25 0.20 120 1.30 0.30 0.15 1. Including Labor.S.22 0.60 SP-6 Commerciaf Blast 0.30 Applicatkm One-Pack by BrusWRoHer 0.95 I .55 0.30 0.35 0. based on 1992 data secured from representative U. and Related Costs (No Material Costs Included) U. Fkrglons CleaningGrade East en^ Gulf West SF-2 SP-3 Hand Cleaning Power Tool Cleaning $0.80 0.o0 1. Notes: Costs shown are approximate. by Spray Zinc Rich Primers.20 1.25 O 30 o 30 Touch Up on the Ground' 0.80 0.18 O 16 0. by Spray 0.27 O 33 0.35 0.25 0.63 $0.33 0.65 $0.35 0.25 One-Pack by Spray o 18 0.20 1. painting contractors.A.25 0.S.85 SP-1O Near White Blast 0.47 0.20 O 25 0.o2 1 . .30 0.85 O. calculate touch-up rate times total square footage of exposed steel.15 *Assuming 10 percent of surface needing touch-up.o2 1.60 $0.65 SP-11 Power Tool-Bare Steel I .45 0.20 Water Wash Prior to Surface Pteparation 0.18 TwOPack Epoxies. by Spray TwoPack Urethanes. Ft. Equipment. 0.o2 1.35 0.25 1.16 0.50 O. Wa?er/Steam Chan prior to Surf.50 0.35 Water Slurry Blast 1. Prep.50 0.

... Follow instructions on Worksheet A. follow -. dtrecttons on Worksheets A and 6.`. r 120% severe rustrng and pitting Light structural 400 Piping: 1-2 in. i-D) 4-6 in > 100% (Europ Std Re8) Light trusses 500 12 and 24 in > 95% (SNAMET8R 21. > 90% Rgures 3 and 6) Extremegy heavy paint > 135% films above 20mils with extreme breakdown ad substantial pitting and rusting (SNAMET&R 21. and > 100% shapes 250 Elevated tanks.`.`. Re 5-6) (SNAME T&R 21.. i 1% (SSPCVIS.`-`-`. Figure 5) Medrum stfflctural 200 Ground tanks > 90% Heavy paint breakdown. or structures (SSPC * vis 1-e) Large structurai 1O0 >%-fi high (Europ Std.. Figure 7) Adherent Millscale > 100% (CSPC-VIS 1-A) Flaking/Rusting Millscale > 90% (SSPC ~ vis 1-8) --`..Costs shown are for calculating the base price of new steel cleaned and painted on the ground at the job site. 48 in. using using the followingpercentage factors -: the faflowing percentage factors: Yultlply . pitting.`--235 Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . Multiply Field */w Multiply For Labor by For Cost by For by Simple structures 40-11high > 125% Uaintenance. intricate > 15048 paint breakdown structures. Typical mix of sites and Ltght rusting.

Ft. Re-totaled labor $ (3) Total New Construction Labor-Flk millscale Installed Cost: $1.go (4) Total Installed Labor and Equipment Recap-Total Installed Cost Material Costs (1) from above $ 219 Material Cost Labor and Equipment Costs (4) from above $-90 Labor & Equipment Total Installed System Cost per Square Foot $ 1. ~ ~ Primer Acrylic Waterborne ~-3 $ . multiply blastlclean cost by 90% and re-total labor costs. -or$ (blc) x 90% = $-.20 Total Base Labor Total base labor or New Construction (2) New Construction Labor labor for steel with adherent millscale: $ 1.119 Total New Construction Total DFT 6 $ 219 (1) Material Cost Labor. Louis New Construction ~ Maintenance X Material Cost Practical' (Table 4) Type DFT CostlSq.-flaking/rusting millscale. Location oil Storage Tank.(b/c) Prime Coat (Table 6) $ . Equipment. St.00(2) or (3) x *Yo2 $ .1O0 Intermediate -$ Topcoat Acrylic Waterborne -3 $ .20 Intermediate Coat (Table 6) $ Topcoat (Table 6) $ . and Related Costs SP BlastlClean (Table 6) $.1 19 (5) Total Installed New Construction Cost3 Maintenance Painting: Multiply total installed cost (5) by percentage below' .oc wlAdherent millscale New Const.SSPC CHAPTER*ô-O 93 8627940 0003bA3 T44 m Work Sheet A -All Surface Preparation and Painting in Field Project Name 8.

elevated tanks.34 Maintenance Cost3 EnvironmentlLife (Table 3) moderate 7. 90 percent of fi eld labor. 1OOX. no change. light trusses. intricate structures. 125 percent of fiel d labor. structures greater than 50-ft high. multiply by 250. 2For installed prices: simple structures less than 504 high. IMainfenance: Light rust. pits. ground tanks. 400X. light. 100 percent. 48-in. 10 0 percent of field labor. and paint breakdown. 90 percent. TO convert to a typical ton mix of sizes and shapes cost. severe rusting and pitting. 12 and 24 in.5 Years life ~ Cost Per Square Foot Per Year3 $ .. 95 percent. Piping: 1 to 2 in. for l arge structural.179 (Cost + Life) *30 percent spray loss. 120 percent total installed c ost. Heavy paint breakdown. 4 to 6 in.. 150 percent field labor.. 500X..119(5) x 120 0%' = $ -1. medium. Extremely heavy paint films above 20 mils with extreme breakdown and substantial pitting and rusting.Total Installed $1. typical mix of sizes. 2OOX. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 236 . 135 percent total installed cost. 150 percent. 10 percent loss by brushlroller.

.30 $ . Topcoat(s) in Field Project Name & Location Material Cost Practical..25 $ $ 5 .16 $ ..71 $ 1.33 Recap 5 ..114 5 .SSPC CHAPTER*B*O 93 8627940 0003684 980 Work Sheet B -Shop Blast and Prime.4 2 CostlSq. (Table 4) Type Primer Zinc Rich -inorganic ~ Intermediate Epoxy Polyamide Topcoat Acrylic Polyurethane ~ Touchup (10% of shop-applied coatsprimer. Ft.131 5 .`.. Michigan ~ DFT 3 ~.25 5 .30 $ .`.16 5 .`.`-`-`.1 04 5 .31 (2) Total Labor and Equipment Costs --`..) Simple Span -Highway Bridge -Detroit. etc.O13 5 362 (1) Total Material Cost 5 .18 5 1.27 Field Labor $ . $ -~. primerlintermediate.`--5 .49 (3) Total Installed Labor and Equipment .

shop applied (Table 6 -field) Topcoat (Table 6 -field) Subtotal.. typical mix of sizes. Equipment. 'For installed prices: simple structures less than 50-ft high. light.. 6 -field) Intermediate touchup. and Related Costs SP 6Blast/Clean (Table 5 -shop) Prime Coat (Table 5 -shop) Primer Touchup (Table 6 -field) Intermediate Coat (Table 5 -shop. as is. 400X. ground tanks. for large structural. Piping: 1 to 2 in. structures greater than 50-ft high.5 36 Material Cost 5 -1. medium. intricate structures.49 Labor & Equipment $ 1.112 (cost -Life) Total DFT -~9 Labor. as is. elevated tanks. 1OOX. +50 percent. -10 percent of f ield labor.85 Total Installed 16.. light trusses. 10 percent loss by brush/roller. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 237 . + 25 percent of f ield labor. multiply by 250. -5 percent. 500X. 200X. -10 percent.71 field labor x 25%= Recap-Total Installed Cost Material Costs (1) from above Labor and Equipment Costs (3) from above Total Installed System Cost per Square Foot2 EnvironmentlLife (Table 3) marine (deice salt) Cost Per Square Foot Per Year3 *30 percent spray loss. 4 to 6 in. if inter..5 Years life (to first maintenance) $ . 12 and 24 in. Field Labor Installed Costs: Multiply Field Labor and Equipment Costs only by O/O shown below' 5 . 48 in. +50 percent field labor. 2To convert to a typical ton mix of sizes and shapes cost.

.

Request for Proposal (RFP) These are solicitations of written offers on negotiated requirements. TYPES OF CONTRACTS. Conditions are industry-wide and beyond contractor control. never before has there been such a problem of outage costs (or downtime) as currently in the 1980 s. many different contract and proposal forms are being used to reflect the inflationary and changing conditions and to give adequate protection to both client and contractor in business awards. US. The IFB must have definite design or performance specifications that are not expected to change in the life of the contract. Firm Fixed Price Contract Provides for a price not subject to any adjustment by reason of cost experience of the contractor in performance of the contract. TYPES OF BIDS AND PROPOSALS 1. B. The owner and contractor must agree on fixed price at inception. BIDS. Invitation for Bid (IFB) These are soliciting bids on formally advertised requirements. Contingencies must be specifically defined in the contract. Because of this volatile and changing situation. 2. Listed below are the main types of proposals and contracts currently being used with an explanation of each. To organize this subject. AND PROPOSALS Considering current levels of inflation. A. Fixed Price Contract Escalation Provides for the upward or downward revision of stated contract price upon occurrence of certain contingencies specifically defined in the contract. 2.SSPC CHAPTER*B-O 93 8627940 O003685 817 111. government terminology and definitions will be used with a relation to commercial practices where applicable. TYPES OF CONTRACTS After award. This usually encompasses a written or verbal request to various firms to submit a written proposal for the job at hand. . contracts generally fit into one of the following categories: 1. The IFB must have definite design or performance specifications. The resulting contract will always be a Fixed Price Contract. Used where market or labor conditions are expected to be unstable over an extended production period.

and (2) a positive profit incentive. or both. Retroactive After Completion: Fixed price cannot be negotiated initially. D is usually complete except for field test. 3. This form of contract is used by industry. The industrial owner will often request a firm. figure or bid. This form is not used by industry. Consistent with the particular form of price redetermination clause selected. As a rule. of the originally negotiated (base) price. a price with the escalation figured in. Where cost uncertainties exist and there is the possibility of cost reduction by giving contractor: (I) a degree of cost and responsibility. 4. Fixed Price With Redetermination Calls for the subsequent negotiated adjustment. Cost and Cost Sharing Contracts A cost-reimbursement type contract under which the contractor receives no fee or a costreimbursement type contract under which the contractor receives no fee and is reimbursed for an agreed portion of its allowable costs. . Fixed Price incentive Contract A fixed price contract providing for adjustment of total target profit and establishment of contract price by a formula based on the relationship which the final negotiated total cost bears to the total target cost. RFP can be negotiated to a realistic current price but not for later periods of performance. R 8. a supplier will contract at a reduced price to get a prototype installation in service. 5. but will generally carry a penalty for poor performance as well as an incentive for good performance. Most major construction firms are concerned about estimating construction labor costs two and three years hence. Normally development or research projects jointly sponsored by Government and contractor where contractor anticipates commercial benefit in lieu of fee under the contract.This form is used extensively in the construction industry -often with some modification. in whole or in part. and retroactively or prospectively. contract price should be adjusted upward or downward. amount so small or time so short any other contract type is impracticable. This form of contract is often used in industry for special equipment or services and sometimes in the construction industry for special equipment or emergency services. not to exceed.

does not vary with actual cost but may be adjusted as a result of any subsequent changes in the work or services Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 238 . Cost Plus Fixed Fee Contract (CPFF) A cost-reimbursement type contract providing for payment of a fixed fee to the contractor. The fixed fee.6. once negotiated.

Cost reduction. and a specific end-product required. meeting schedules and quality all gain under this system. The ability to fix any item will depend on the specific work to be accomplished. fee fixed initially except for change in the work or services required. This is the least desirable type contract from the owner s point of view. However. equipment. This format can be improved. does not vary with actual cost but may be adjusted as a result of any subsequent changes in the work or services to be performed under the contract. Generally for development and test when incentive formula can provide positive incentive for . A completelapprovedlcontractor accounting process is required. Negotiated estimate of costs. Generally a research or other development effort when the task or job can be clearly defined. There is the least responsibility for costs from the contractor s point of view. Cost Plus Incentive Fee Contract (CPlF) A cost-reimbursement contract with provisions for a fee which is adjusted by formula in accordance with the relationship which total allowable costs bear to target costs. Generally. this contract form is becoming common in industry. the qualified contractor will reduce his fixed fee anticipating that his performance will result in a substantial award. This is a more desirable contract format than the CPFF.to be performed under the contract. from the owner s standpoint. and demobilization lend themselves to this approach. fee fixed initially and award process agreed to. based a rating on each criteria. except for major change in the work or services required. Now being used in the Nuclear industry where the job or task can be only generally defined and the schedule is uncertain. by fixing certain items of cost. Typical criteria would be: Costs. The fixed fee. 8. In some cases. mobilization. Cost Plus Fixed Fee and A ward Contract (CPF F A) A cost reimbursement type contract providing for payment of a fixed fee to the contractor plus an award fee. The award fee is determined monthly based on defined criteria established in the negotiating process. Negotiated estimate of costs. once negotiated. Schedule and Quality. material. Award fee is based on performance and is an agreed percentage of fixed fee. A complete approved accounting process is required. 7. a definite goal or target expressed.

11. Two Step Formal Advertising The owner will request. direct labor hours at specified hourly rates (including direct and indirect labor. overhead and profit) and no material (L-H). This concept or a variation thereof is often used in industry for emergency services. Award is made to the low bidder. technical proposals based on design and performance requirements. operational suitability and ease of maintenance. Generally for single type parts or items where quantity and time may not be known. Can be set up as annual purchase or time purchase of any type other than labor or service which would fall under the T & M or L-H contract. 9. This contract type is not normally used in industry. The owner has the freedom to weigh factors other . overhead and profit) and material (T & M). It pro vides added flexibility in awarding contracts that include important technical consideration. This form of contract is often used in industry. 12. the need for special skills and facil it ¡es. Letter Contract A written preliminary contractual instrument authorizing immediate commencement of manufacture of material. The contract must be sizeable in order to make overseeing the contract worthwhile. in step one. or the performance of services including but not limited to preproduction planning and procurement of necessary materials. This is a unique procurement system. The contractor responds and his technical proposal is evaluated. Acceptable proposers are asked to price their proposal only. Time and Material (T & M) and Labor Hour (L-H) Contracts Provides for purchase of property and services on the basis of direct labor hours at specified hourly rates (including direct and indirect labor.effective management. The formula should provide incentive effectiveness over variation in costs throughout the full range of reasonable foreseeable variation from target cost. Situation requires immediate binding agreement so work can begin but time does not permit negotiation of a definitive contract. Indefinite Delivery Contract A fixed price contract for delivery or orders or calls . IO.

than price (Step one) and award to the lowest acceptable bidder (Step two). With present day increases in technical and performance requirements on many coating and lining contracts. it becomes critical that the Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 239 .

Engineering and Maintenance or any combination that can best evaluate a technical proposal. If only tract should be been priced. This will protect the against future claims that the award was a biased manner. The expected plant life of structures should be known. It is suggested that an evaluation recap be created that becomes a permanent part purchasing record. important that a technically be established to evaluate concan be used as an aid in this evalone contractor is qualified. poor decisions are frequently made. It is difficult to complain about a statement of work or specification if the contractor prepared the document. SUMMARY A knowledge and basic understanding of field and shop applied paint and coating costs is necessary to properly choose the painting system that provides maximum benefits for a given structure. justified and applied. The corrosiveness of the structure must be known. Table 7 uation. Usual reasons are initial cost considerations or failure to use cost and service life data. cost worksheets.SSPC CHAPTER*B*O 93 W 8627940 0003b87 b9T W owner use every means to get the best application at the lowest price. the connegotiated after his proposal has If more than one contractor has submitted proposals. be certain that each has bid on identical conditions and types of proposals. This chapter presents elements of field painting costs. . The owner can then take advantage of improvements in the state of the art or an entirely new approach to the specific problem. current cost data. At the one time in the life of a structure when a proper protsctive coating system can be selected. The owner would normally set up a small group of personnel from Purchasing. justification procedures and a definition of contract forms that can be used on actual jobs. sheet of the owner made in IV. Keep in mind that the technical proposal becomes the statement of work under which the contractor must produce. The owner has a further advantage in that the contractor may submit more than one proposal. an expected life table. It is extremely qualified group tracts.

Dale Harp. and W.H. H. Lichtenstadter. Noel Duvic. M. Foehl. M. Jon Rodgers.N. Bill Chandler. The ability to effectively communicate with management in economically justifying a painting system requires a basic knowledge of cash flow. J. Howie. D. Brevoort is a 43-year veteran in the heavy duty paint and protective coatings industry. G. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Steve Dobrosielski provided cost updates for the revised chapter. Verne Todd. Vansant. Mr. Mallory. discounting practices and tax benefits by the corrosion engineer.T. Repasky. M.To protect clients and sub-contractors from inflation and changing conditions. For a number of years. A. Christofferson. Marshall McGee. R. Tom Ginsberg.L. W. Oeschle. Davis. D. Reed. Beebe. and the Steel Structures Painting Council (SSPC).W. D. Trotter. Main. J. Kirby. Dick Drisko. Sline contributed to an earlier version. Ron Hamm. G. and has conducted Coatings Eco- . Macrae.W. C. Davis.R. R. M. Reese.W. T.W. Schirmer. He is well known for his work in creating the Paint and Coatings Selection and Cost Guide which has been published biennially through NACE since CORROSION 79 and which he has computerized into SpecMate-1 and SM1 customizer for industrial plants and SpecMate-2 for bridges. P. Raye Fraser. Jim Lisa. Brevoort has been active in the National Association of Corrosion Engineers. J. Stein. D. Ken Tator. Brown. Sherman.J. Jacobs. BIOGRAPHY Gordon H. Leavitt. Goetz. Wallace. C. J. L. C. F. The authors and editors gratefully acknowledge the active participation of the following in the review process for the original version of this chapter: M. understanding and use of special contract forms designed to deal fairly and predictably with these changes is highly recommended.J. Batchelder. Stanford.G. Brock.

Inc. marketing. (A picture and biography of Jack Oechsle are given at the end of the chapter on Thermal Spraying. He received SSPC s 1988 COATINGS EDUCATION AWARD at that year s Annual Meeting.. He has held chairmanships at various levels in National Association of Corrosion Engineers. Mr. Brevoort is president of Brevoort Consulting Associates.nomics Tutorials for SSPC at their annual meetings and at their industry Seminars. Professional Estimator. which he formed in 1985 and which offers a broad range of technical.) Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 240 . Brevoort has worked for a number of major suppliers to the Industrial Maintenance Protective Coatings and Rail Finishes Markets. the American Society for Testing and Materials. the American Society of Professional Estimators. and business management services to the paint and coatings industry. and the International Maintenance Institute. Mr.

Protective Coatings for Highway Structural Steel . 14. Bosch. pp. pp. December 4. The Zinc Institute National Zinc-Rich Coatings Conference. J. 2. 52-56. December 4. 16. S. Johnson. Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings. March 1985. No. Steel Structures Painting Council. 13. 3. Photographic Material Supplied by The Corrosion Committee of The Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering. p. Roebuck. 4. T&R Bulletin 4-27. chapter 8 (Pittsburgh. Keane. Electrical World. What is Inspection Worth? Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings. J. 115. 18. Munger.D. Appleman. 77-81. Financial Compound Interest and Annuity Tables. 1968. 9. White. 15. Table 5. Abrasive Blasting Guide for Aged or Coated Steel Surfaces .D. Cathcart. A. 41. Wallace P. 1970). 12th Edition. Economics of Coatings . R. June 1960. Estimating Guide .G. Good Painting Practices. August 1984. 7. Illinois.J. May 28.E. PA. NY: The Society of Naval and Marine Engineers). Warrants or Guarantees in the Rail Car Industry for Lining and Painting .I. July 1984.D. 1974. Volume 1. Walter W. Bernard R. 7. Keane. Anonymous. RD-79-121. Painting and Decorating Contractors of America. Kaminski and J. Pittsburgh. Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings. September 1985. Illinois. 26-33. 6. . (New York. 533. The Zinc Institute National Zinc-Rich Coatings Conference. PA SSPC). Philadelphia.A. W. Stockholm. J. How to Analyze Costs of Painting a New Plant . Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings. pp. 40-45. NY: Financial Publishing Co. Evaluation of Coatings in Potable Water Tanks . 4. Coatings Tech. 30-35. Chicago. Standard Method of Evaluating Degrees of Rusting on Painted Surfaces SSPC-Vis 2-8 and ASTM D610-85 Steel Structures Painting Council. European Scale of Degree of Rusting for Anti-Corrosive Paints. Pamer.K. pp.M. No. R-O-W Vegetation Control: The Never-Ending Process .. 5. PA and ASTM. P. August 1986.H. C. et al. 17. 62.. Keane. D. Petroleum Industry Use of Zinc-Rich Coatings . Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings. J. 1961. P. 11. Van der Veken. Cost-Effective Maintenance Via Quality Control . Frondistou-Yannas. Allen. 1980. 34-37. Coating & Corrosion Costs of Highway Structural Steel . Steel Structures Painting Council/National Cooperative Highway Research Project Report 74. Charlton. Wettach. R. Swandby. Fifth Edition. Chemical Engineering. pp. 20-25. (New York. pp. 1969. pp. Chicago. p. 1O. SUGGESTED READING MATERIAL 1. 12. July 1988. 44. Economics of Zinc Coating Systems for Corrosion Protection . 8. 1962. FWHA Report No. 1974.R. Corrosion Protection of Chemical Industry Facilities with Zinc Rich . W. March 1980. J.SSPC CHAPTER*B=O 93 Bb27ïYO 0003böô 52b = REFERENCES 1. Minimum Paint Film Thickness for Economical Protection of Hot-Rolled Steel Against Corrosion . Materials Protection.

September 1977. 1977. 1978. J. NACE 1973.. Abel Banov. Weaver. Coating Economics . Roebuck. A. Finishing Industries. Haskins. 14. Plant Engineering. 1978. J. 1979. 4. NACE Symposium on Protective Coatings. Anonymous. 6. February 1980. 9. September 25. Costing Considerations For Maintenance and New Construction Coatings . August 1979. Industrial Painting Costs . Anonymous. Maintenance Painting Costs . 1979. 11. Economical Coating Protection for Fabricated Steel & Plate . February 1980. 7.W. American Painting Contractor. and A. Jr. Construction News. Engineer s Digest.E. Gordon H. McGraw-Hill Information Systems Company. Brian Mills. February 21-22. High Maintenance Costs Call for New Approach to Protective Paint Work . American Painting Contractor. Protection of Structural Steel Work: Some US. Canadian Structural Engineering Conference. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Weber. October 1976. Roebuck and L. Keane.L. P. John D. The Economics Significance of Corrosion and its Prevention .H.E. Experience and Practice Corrosion in Civil Engineering. Paper No. McCage. Bill Sisler. Materials Performance. Brevoort. August 1978. 12. 335 at NACE Corrosionl92. Anonymous. 3. The Painting and Decorating Contractor 1977 New Construction Profile and Estimating Guide . March 16. Selling Management a Cost Effective Painting System . Perchall.2. Industrial Maintenance Painting. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 241 . J. 5. Rising Costs Favor Long Life Paints . 13. 1O. 31-57. Maintaining With Urethanes .H. pp. 8.

only the first steps in the total protective system to be given the structure. Shop painting is the painting done by the fabricator at the place of fabrication and before shipment to the site of erection. Such economics can be calculated only when the life of the complete paint system is known. The developments which have led to present general practice in structural and steel fabricating shops will be discussed in this section. and application of paints. and equipment. formerly Senior Fellow at Mellon Institute. Wallace. The three principal aspects of shop painting are (1) the preparation of the surfaces.Jr. storage. specialized aspects will be covered more fully iri later sections. the economic choice of one method or material as against another can be made only when the total system is studied and specified. however. . In recent years most of the paint specifications generated for shop painting have specifically listed the generic type of paint material to be used. former chief engineer for Bethlehem Steel. mixing and application of the protective material. Some fabricators go so far as to send the steel to shops that specialize only in blast cleaning and painting. therefore. also.* *An update of the first edition chapter written by Jonathan Jones. the supplying of all labor. The process includes the surface preparation. I. It is not within the province of this chapter to debate the economic advantage of one total system as against others. although some factors that have a bearing in that direction are mentioned. J. INTRODUCTION The purposes of shop painting structural steel are to protect it from corrosion for a limited time until it is erected in its final location. and (3)the procurement. and Joseph Bigos. The first two of these items may vary greatly in costs. and to provide a sound base for the complete paint system. as well as the drying and protection of the painted surfaces. pre-treating. this life is dependent upon the use and environment of the structure. they are.SSPC CHAPTERUS-O 93 = 8627740 0003bBS 4b2 CHAPTER 9 SHOP PAINTING OF STEEL IN FABRICATING PLANTS by W. material. as well as upon the cleaning and painting in the shop. (2)the choice of paint.

To illustrate the foregoing: for a given structure a painting system may be adopted that involves a rriinimum first cost. because they are soon penetrated by water and air. Such estimates of total annual costs are beyond the scope of this chapter. and if this mill scale is not removed Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . a different system may be adopted. until a stabilized condition is reached. Structural steel as it leaves the hot-bed at the rolling mill is covered with layers of oxides of iron. anticipating that there will be considerable repair of weak spots over the first few years of service life. perhaps. and not for storage at the mill. An initial expression such as In general or For the most part should. from product to product. The choice between two such systems. These are covered in separate chapters. there may. with this mill scale virtually intact. anticipating that few if any repairs will be required until the lapse of years makes general repainting necessary. necessarily formed while the hot steel is exposed to the atmosphere. it will be promptly loaded and shipped. usually firmly attached to the steel. Also beyond the scope of this chapter is a detailed discussion of surface preparation or the technology of current alternative shop primers. With the ensuing formation of rust they are still further penetrated. upon other circumstances important to the owner of a particular structure. Or. and frequently over different portions of the same rolled piece. or of some intermediate system. for a similar structure. Large portions of the mill scale. which involves a considerably greater initial cost. will be made partially on the basis of estimated annual cost over a long term. and if held intact under a reasonably good paint system in atmospheric exposure should be a source of added protection in mild non-corrosive environments. and exceptions could doubtless be found to practically any statement that could be made about shop practice. Other portions of the scaled surface. Assuming that the steel has been rolled on specific orders from fabricators. This coating of mill scale varies from steel to steel. This country contains thousands of fabricators of structural steel. as when mill scale is shaken loose in the process of straightening a beam or bar that acquired a curvature while cooling. and partially. be assumed to precede most of the statements that will be made. however. however. therefore. be exceptions. A. from small tovery large. frequently are quite susceptible to atmospheric attack. PREPARATION OF SURFACE The existing practices described below are fairly representative of structural steel fabricating plants. are difficult to dislodge.

242 .

Furthermore. such pickling would lose much of its value . Pickling could be performed only prior to fabrication. erected and weathered before painting. the steel passes through a myriad of operations that crack and remove the mill scale. to surfaces on which the mill scale is cracking or badly cracked. some specifications had permitted steel to be shipped. It is generally conceded that the breakdown of a priming coat would be delayed over the longest period of time if. Such practice has long been eliminated in favor of shop cleaning and painting. Since the many steel shapes arrive at the fabricating shop from various mills and at various times. as the pickling of a fabricated member would be impracticable on account of the sizes and shapes involved. the surface of a single member may vary (and almost certainly the surfaces of the many members making up a structure will vary) from surfaces containing the original tightly rolled mill scale. which might be accomplished either by pickling the steel before fabrication. Consequently. It has become mandatory to blast clean and shop prime structural steel that is to be used in the construction of motels. This variation of surfaces inevitably faces the fabricator when the work is ready to be cleaned and painted. The cleaning required at the shop is only a simple manual wire brushing to remove scale and corrosion products already evident. by the time the members have been completely fabricated and are ready for painting. Many other structures. Many structures.. In the shop. particularly tier building frames. hotels. there may be a considerable waiting period in the shop receiving yard before the material enters the shop for fabrication.SSPC CHAPTER*S-O 93 m 8b27940 0003690 184 m it will be a source of trouble under even the most adequate of paint systems. and also might be a failure because of the entrapment of acid in the many interstices between component pieces. all scale whatsoever removed. They also can be given a rapid manual cleaning followed by an inexpensive shop coat of paint. the steel were descaled. etc. before painting. or by sand or grit blasting after fabrication. and office buildings. In the past. to surfaces where considerable rusting has already taken place. the resultant paint system has a longer life than it would have if it were painted over weathered steel from which all the rust was not removed. a slightly rusted condition at the time the concrete is poured around the steel is generally considered to be in no way detrimental. ¡.e. must be shipped without paint because they are to be encased in concrete after erection. since the shop primed structural members are then coated with a fireproofing material prior to completion of the structure. particularly the frames of manufacturing buildings.. will be permanently enclosed within walls and roofs. and kept dry and warm. while not encased in concrete.

SELECTION OF PRIMING PAINT In the priming paint. one of the authors traces the development of Bethlehem Primer that was the forerunner of the current Federal Specification No. therefore. was a popular specification for steel structures. Various proprietary brand name paints have appeared from time to time in competition and have been specified for various reasons. it is practical to perform the operation after the fabrication is complete. either 100°/~raw or with some admixture of bodied oil. or a combination) is recycled. B. It was also considered that linseed oil.O. Thus. TT-P-86. The purposes of the vehicle are: (1) to bind the pigment in intimate contact with the steel surface and (2) to assist in excluding the invading moisture and oxygen. responsibility for its behavior thereafter lay with the owner. like pickling. In the original treatment of this chapter. The Federal Government specification for red lead in oil. in contrast to pickling. but none achieved a permanent status comparable to that of red lead in oil. the purposes of the pigment are: (1) to interfere chemically with or to inhibit the solution of iron and formation of rust in the presence of moisture and (2) to minimize the amount of moisture and oxygen penetrating the paint film to the substrate. Many steel fabricators use automatic centrifugalwheel blast cleaning equipment. in the interest of production. and applied it conscientiously. But it is a fact that the fabricators are forced to share the responsibility for the performance of the asapplied primer. some of which are modifications of the red lead have good protective qualities and. The increased use of blast cleaning has led to an increased use of proprietary primer paints. was the best possible vehicle to carry the red lead. Sand or grit blasting. Type II Red Lead Alkyd Paint . In the case of sand or grit blasting. however.because of the rusting and contamination that would occur in subsequent fabricating operations before the paint could be applied. Since the good wetting quality of the long oils is not necessary with the blast cleaned . For many years.) and the more expensive lead chromate were the best possible inhibitors. grit. These operations have reduced the cost of shop surface preparation considerably. must be followed by prompt painting before the bright surface begins to rust. In each operation the blast cleaning medium (metallic shot. These primer paints. faster dry times. while others use air blast. it was generally advertised and accepted that red lead (Pb. fabricators acted on the assumption that if they used exactly the paint that was called for by the owner s specification. For many years. the prior pickling of the structural steel for bridges and buildings may be regarded as practically non-existent at present.

the specification writers should be aware of the fabricator s shop facilities and specify primer paints that do not impede the production process by being very slow driers.surfaces. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 243 .

This eases the problem of pull-back that is apt to occur from edges and leaves a double coat in these vulnerable places. and when deliveries are made. As a preparatory painting step on the steel structures contracts where exposure will be lengthy and severe. the type or brand of paint. The works drafting room prepares and sends to the shop a paint sheet that digests from the job specification whatever the shop staff must know about the specified cleaning. The paint for the prime coat is seldom thinned beyond the packaged condition. This is an additional check to ensure that he is using the correct material. and then only on the specific instructions of the paint manufacturer. and in general assists the various operating departments in the paint application work. solids content. In recent years a large number of steel fabricators have employed paint specialists to handle painting problems. He also dispenses all materials to the painters. makes recommendations. flashpoint. the requirements for application.0 93 W 8627940 0003b9L 010 W C. APPLICATION OF SHOP PAINT General practice in a large number of steel fabricating plants may be exemplified by the following summary of practice. who reports and maintains records of all incoming and outgoing shipments. The constant updating of the product information sheets on the part of the paint manufacturers has virtually eliminated the need for in-house testing on the part of the fabricator. if special. except when the customer prefers another method of application. it is good practice to have some personnel trained in the art of rudimentary testing of paint materials. and settling. dry time (8stages). quantity. GENERAL . including specified type or brand. However. and Maintenance Painting. The drafting room also prepares and sends to the purchase department a requisition for the purchase of paint. monthly shipments may be requisitioned to ensure the use of fresh material. On a large contract. Paint materials are stored in the paint house. and required dates of delivery. Detailed requirements are given in SSPC-PA 1. the ordered quantity of paint and. The paint specialist reviews all specifications. Shop. and before a painter can obtain any paint. issues painting instructions for shop and field painting. all edges may be initially striped with the specified primer and allowed to dry. Record of the gallonage used by each painter on each contract is also made by the paint house attendant and forwarded to the office daily. II. he must state the contract on which he is working. The primer is applied by spray.SSPC CHAPTERx9. This work is done by the paint house attendant. Field. each is identified and marked for the contract on which it is to be used. All drums should be mechanically agitated before the paint is issued and during application. for instance for viscosity.

many recorded cases show that paint applied over clean. As stated earlier. Paint life on such completely cleaned steel may vary from two to five times the paint life on poorly cleaned and rusted steel. dry. grease. but even these instances require considerable deliberation before electing to do all cleaning and painting in the field. Dry film thicknesses are measured using pull-off or fixed probe magnetic gages such as a Mikrotest or Elcometer. In severe exposures. Records of these inspections should be maintained for at least the guarantee period of the job contract. Such sound mill scale is conceded to be a good base for painting if the exposure is not very severe. and other contaminants. with attendant protection of the steel. Continuous inspection is important. However. depending of course. such as chemical environments or water immersion. On the other hand. It is vital to remember that the magnetic gage should be calibrated on a piece of steel blast cleaned in exactly the same way as the steel to be painted. mill scale should be completely removed to guarantee against large scale lifting of the paint. tight mill scale has lasted as long as paint over sand blasted or pickled steel. the mill scale that shows visible cracks after rolling or fabricating is almost sure to cause trouble later. a certain amount of the mill scale remaining will later loosen and carry away the applied paint. is proper preparation of the surface. A final inspection should be made after loading to remove all marks and handling damage. Lately. Despite advertising to the contrary. Experience has proved that when steel is completely descaled and free of rust. the amount of mill scale that loosens after proper cleaning and painting is slight. nomics. oil. there is no magic paint that will eliminate the necessity for a clean surface. Unfortunately. There are a few instances in which the cost of full field work is justified. great variations in the composition of the paint are possible without seriously changing the degree of protection in atmospheric exposures. upon the paint system and the exposure.Paint is generally appliei in such a manner as to obtain a dry film thickness recommended by the paint manufacturer. There is no method presently known that can determine the suitability of the remaining mill scale for painting. The most important factor in obtaining long paint life. or lose the work to a competitor who can do shop surface preparation. there is no guarantee that paint applied over mill scale will give satisfactory performance. this problem is really one of eco. In mild atmospheric exposure. Despite careful cleaning. it has become a basic tenet of economic survival that the fabricator must have some recognized method of shop surface preparation. Every piece of painted steel should be inspected before it is moved from the painting skids. the owner of the structure must decide how far he .

Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 244 .

etc. rust. It is not enough to point out the increased life of the paint when applied over completely cleaned steel. although paints of equal drying time may differ greatly in their wetting ability. Note that the problem is based on surface area since cleaning and painting costs depend directly upon the area to be cleaned. not the tons of steel. the surface preparation limitations are fixed. A good wetting primer will penetrate these cracks as well as the underlying rust and will retard further corrosion and . It is generally true that the shorter the drying time of a paint. soil. rust. the owner must calculate the cost of painting in dollars per square foot of surface per year for the alternative paint systems that are suitable for use. Wetting of the surface. moisture. In the final analysis. grease. the amount retained varies with the original condition and the thoroughness of the cleaning. For such service. The extra years of protection afforded by better surface preparation may not always be justified. When the primer is arbitrarily chosen. For example. and oil. in turn. A paint system that protects the steel for fifteen years may not be economically sound when the structure must be repainted every ten years for the sake of appearance. oil. Poor shop cleaning prior to painting leaves a surface with mill scale. rust. the surface preparation must include removal of mill scale. The fabricator who makes estimates and calculates such costs on the ton must be certain that his figures are truly representative because of the wide variation in square feet of surface per ton of steel. The degree of hand cleaning must be determined by the exposure and service expected of the shop coat. Much of the tonnage of the steel fabricated in this country today falls into this category. the properly pigmented primer must have strong wetting ability to penetrate through the film of oil.SSPC CHAPTER*S*O 73 W 8627740 0003b92 T57 will go in paying for the increased cost of the best surface preparation. If the chosen primer is a slow drying paint containing oil and adequate rust inhibitive pigments and possesses good wetting ability. then hand cleaning may suffice. The two must be considered together in deciding the type and degree of surface preparation or the primer that will be used. One cannot separate discussion of surface preparation from the priming paint. While mill scale itself is non-porous. Experience has also proved that it is economically feasible to clean by hand or by power wire brushes and paint over the remaining mill scale when the structure will be exposed to mild atmospheres. when a fast drying. and other contaminants. fabricating operations crack mill scale and permit water and air to enter and begin rusting underneath the outer layer of the mill scale. poor wetting primer is to be used. grease. has been found to be the most important factor in determining the protection afforded by properly pigmented rust inhibitive primers over the less well cleaned surfaces. the less effective is its power to wet the surface.

It is not uncommon to have such paints dry on the surface. Raw linseed oil paints are currently considered poor for underwater exposure. the raw linseed oilcontaining paints still have the best wetting characteristics of the recommended shop primers. For shop use. The addition of other pigments and extenders should not be considered a lowering of quality as long as sound formulation principles are adhered to. Addition of mica to the red lead and iron oxide does not seem to decrease the performance. Red lead has proved itself to be unsurpassed as a pigment for heavyduty primers. and that as much red lead as possible should be crammed into a gallon of paint even though the paint was difficult to apply. this lack of resistance makes the paints particularly vulnerable when they are placed in service shortly after painting. Unfortunately. raw linseed oil has disadvantages in shop primers that almost outweigh its advantages. This is hazardous for steel workers who might skin off the surface and lose traction or slip. driers must be added to permit drying and handling in a reasonable time. Other test results indicate the red lead content can be decreased still further by adding other pigments.subsequent mill scale lifting. Even with the use of driers. It is believed that such a vehicle (when used with proper pigments) is about as close to foolproof as any available for shop primers. Test results indicate that they perform as well as 100% red lead pigments. but because of its wetting ability. The iron oxide decreases one fault of pure red lead paints: their poor weathering resistance. it was felt that the pigment should be all red lead. is that just as good a primer can be formulated by replacing a portion of the straight red lead pigment by other pigments. it develops good adhesion. If not covered by a top coat. It attains its excellent wetting ability from its low surface tension. It is the opinion of many qualified engineers and paint technologists that the vehicle of the primer applied over hand tool or power tool cleaned steel should consist of raw linseed oil. Formerly. Two primers have already been mentioned. and might improve it for some services. Before leaving this subject. red lead primers will carbonate on long exposure to air and . a few remarks on pigments and other primers may be pertinent. such as basic lead silicochromate pigments. The validity of these beliefs is open to argument in view of the facts that have developed in testing and evaluating of paints. or one sufficiently rich in raw oil to provide the desired wetting. raw linseed oil paints require 48 or more hours for drying. A second disadvantage of the use of such paints is the poor resistance of raw linseed oil to water or chemicals. and in most cases in the field. but remain wet underneath for weeks. both of these have a pigment composed of 75% red lead and 25% iron oxide. The writer s opinion. based upon the results of many tests performed by a number of organizations. by remaining fluid for a long time. This cuts down the degree of wetting.

Addition of the iron oxide decreases this tendency and permits touch-up or shop priming to be exposed to the weather for a long time without harm due to failure to recoat.turn a gray-white. however. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 245 . the performance does not appear to be adversely affected. Addition of mica or other suitable extenders decrease the permeability of the paint to water and oxygen.

chromates. An example (Figure 1) of a clean cut. particularly when the vehicle is a phenolic varnish and the steel is sandblasted. pitting may be severe in localized areas. Before discussion of specific procedures is begun. In this same period of time environmental regulations havecomplicated the steel fabricating industry efforts to achieve better shop painting performance. and the areas in which the paint is to be applied and exposed.SSPC CHAPTER*S. paint selection. Where it is impossible to provide accessibility. It is difficult to . vinyls.O 93 m Bb279LiO 0003b93 993 m Other rust inhibitive pigments used extensively are zinc chromate. the zinc dust-zinc oxide combination is among the best. a good paint poorly applied can be much worse than a poorer paint that is well applied. and zinc dust. The designer should keep in mind the necessity of having weather-exposed surfaces accessible for cleaning and painting. but true. Collars for pipe hangers and similar projections cause difficulty because they collect water and rust the pipe. For freshwater paints. lead chromate. A. it is not necessary to provide protective coating in such hermetically sealed enclosures. Zinc dust has great merit in a rust inhibitive primer when used with zinc oxide in a proportion of about 80 parts zinc dust to 20 partszinc oxide by weight. this primer has good wetting ability but is also slow drying. and chlorinated rubbers have been used as shop priming paints. open design is shown here. DESIGNING FOR BETTER PAINTING It is unfortunate. Therefore. The specification writer should be aware of the laws and regulations governing paint. In recent years. in many areas the traditional paints containing red lead. the member should be completely sealed by welding. riveting or caulking. Zinc chromate and lead chromate are mixed with other pigments for primers. When used with raw linseed oil. decks and open flooring should be of a design that eliminates crevices and cracks such as occur when riveted. For example. organic zinc. and large amounts of volatile organic compounds are no longer permissible. expanded grating is used. The use of galvanized or fiberglass reinforced gratings is increasing because of the difficulty in painting and maintaining steel grating. inorganic zinc (one and two package). The usual red oxide shop primer can be greatly improved in its rust inhibiting ability by the substitution of about one-third of the normal pigment weight by zinc chromate. that many structures are designed so that they cannot be adequately painted or properly maintained after erection. even this grating may be difficult to paint. In fact. it might be well to point out that proper application of paint is no less important than choice of the proper paint. zinc oxide. however. Corrosion activity in a sealed interior will use up the available water and oxygen and then stifle itself. Gratings. epoxies.

or alkali. stress fatigue coupled with corrosion can cause early failure at stress values far below the design limitations. to which hangers are bolted. Many times angles or channels are placed back to back. Pockets in fabricated members that can collect dirt should be eliminated. or acid. Lugs welded on the pipe. a line of rivets is placed so close to a corner that it is almost impossible to clean or properly paint one side of the rivets or joints. as is done in placing stiffeners on webs of plate girders. it traps soil and has a tendency to remain wet. When the structure is exposed to salt spray or contamination. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 246 . FIGURE 1 Example of a clean cut design of grating to eliminate crevices that trap contaminants and accelerate corrosion. This leaves a space that is extremely difficult to clean and paint. When the structure is exposed to periodic stresses. since such a design permits water to accumulate.keep them painted or to seal the cracks because of expansion and contraction of the pipe. Corrosion at localized spots may set up stress raisers which can cause stress fatigue at the spot. Corrosion that does occur attacks the hanger or the lug and does not weaken the pipe itself. it is particularly important that the designer eliminate pockets or corners that may trap contamination and water. Riveted or bolted joints should be placed so that they can be cleaned and painted. Channels or angles used for stiffeners should not be placed with the open angle against the steel and left open at the top and sealed at the bottom. Furthermore. Such stiffeners should have a flat surface against the wall to be stiffened so that the crack may be sealed with paint. Too often. More recently. but are separated by a thin gusset plate or washers. Electrolytic action in such spots often causes sufficient loss in section to cause failure of the member. Sometimes the design does not permit sealing of joints by rivets and rusting spreads the joint apart. accelerating corrosion. in fact any strong electrolyte. roller shapes should be positioned so that dirt and water are not retained. If it is necessary to have the open side of a channel facing upwards. weep holes should be cut into the web. inorganic zinc primers are permitted on splice areas that will be connected by bolts or rivets in the shop and field. will remedy most of the difficulty.

sometimes severe enough to perforate the metal and cause a failure. When steel is enclosed in concrete of high density or low porosity. When complete descaling is not feasible. etc. fire retardant material (vermiculite) should be painted with at least one coat of good quality rust inhibitive primer. Noble metals such as copper. such as salt water or a chemical atmosphere. Steel enclosed in masonry should be painted with at least one coat of rust inhibitive primeras leaks in flashings. In general.O 93 m 8627940 O003694 82T m When a structure is exposed to severe attack. Under this condition.) is unpainted when the galvanic couple is exposed to an electrolyte. painting is not necessary. When conditions are severe. otherwise. design engineers should specify complete scale removal. may cause localized corrosion. The mill scale is protected by sacrificing bare steel (perhaps at cracks in the mill scale). nickel. the total amount of corrosion is usually the same as for descaled steel. Paint is usually satisfactory for this purpose. When steel is to be in contact with a porous material that may be wet (such as wood). and when the concrete is at least two to three inches thick.SSPC CHAPTER*S. adequate maintenance painting must be scheduled since extra thickness for corrosion allowance may not insure the structure against failure from localized corrosion. harm is usually done. the contact surface should be painted. noble metals can generally be used as rivets or bolts to fasten steel or iron. brass. On the other hand. or else the cathode alone. Paint both. Steel that is in partial contact with concrete is gen- . porous. condensation of water permeating the masonry. since the concrete will protect the steel. but corrosion is concentrated at discontinuities in the mill scale... etc. etc. The result is pitting. two or more coats of paint should be applied as the concrete may accelerate corrosion. if any. Mill scale in such environments becomes the cathode in local galvanic cells on the surface of the steel. the contacting surfaces should be insulated. When dissimilar metals are to be in contact. anodic areas (steel) should not be painted if the cathodic area (copper. Steel that is encased or fireproofed with lightweight concrete (aggregate) or other lightweight. should not be fastened with steel rivets or bolts since galvanic action will destroy the fastening while protecting the plates. or humidity is high. Here the galvanic attack on the iron is distributed over a large area and little. a break occurring in the painted anodic area may quickly lead to failure of the steel.

Sometimes through lack of knowledge. the fabricator who wants to do the right thing must hope that customer s satisfaction or insurance against paint failure will offset his decreased profit on the job. Corrosion may then occur and a sufficient volume of rust may be built up to cause spalling of the concrete as in the corrosion of reinforcing bars in concrete highways. The only remedy known to the author is to chip or leave a groove in the concrete at the edge next to the steel and seal the crack with an alkali resistant caulking compound (such as bituminous cement). Steel should not be encased in concrete that contains cinders since the acidic condition will cause corrosion of the steel. B. because of his previous experience. THE CLEANING AND PAINTING SHOP Cleaning and painting costs can be kept to a minimum by efficient layout and planning of the cleaning and painting shop (or shops. knows is inadequate for the job. Either the paint should be changed or surface preparation improved. painting is called for. customers will specify a paint to be used over a type of surface prepara tion that is inadequate for the paint. such as tank roofs. Designing to eliminate crevices is of particular importance in underwater structures. The fabricator should have a competent person look over the specifications for each new job to decide whether he can honestly endorse the specified system. Other details requiring precaution in design are included in various chapters of this book. since some fabricators find it advan- . Flat areas. Better cleaning and higher quality of paint may increase the cost estimate for the job. He should do this in his own interest since he may be held responsible in the event of a failure. it is hard for the fabricator to quote on expensive cleaning and painting while his competitors quote on poorer work.erally not painted. preliminary negotiations with the customers may make the customer realize that his specifications need to be changed so that better. Quite often he can have the specification changed to include a material that he feels confident will be better. When the customer does not specify the paint. or at least will not fail to perform satisfactorily. Other design factors are covered in Chapter 25. Frequently the consulting engineer. Here. or owner specifies a paint system that the fabricator. and particularly in Chapter 25. should be designed to eliminate low spots which will collect and hold water. If this fails. Fabricators usually have a preference for a certain type of shop paint. architect. This creates an undesirable condition as water seeps into the crack between the steel and the concrete. even though more expensive. the fabricator should consider the service and exposure of the structure and decide whether his usual shop cleaning and painting will be adequate for the job.

A large portion of the painting costs in the fabricating shop are attributable to handling. Operations should be set up so that handling or moving is kept to a minimum. indirect costs are often occasioned by lost time waiting for cranes. is easily recognized. Just as large.tageous to separate these operations). or larger. the direct cost chargeable to crane time. and providing adequate facilities for efficient operation (Figures 2-8). handlers. eliminating crossover and backtrack as much as possible.. Basic fundamentals of sound industrial engineering should be adhered to in establishing flow patterns for the work. etc. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 247 . and back tracking for touch up of damage done in handling.

such work can sometimes be handled efficiently on carts or trucks running on small track. Handling costs are generally lower if they are in the same building. the effect of the cleaning and painting operations on the remainder of the plant must be considered. then cleaning and painting just prior to the shipment. This process is not to be confused with the poor practice of loading fabricated steel on cars for shipment. if the fabricated objects are more or less uniform. the effect of the painting operations may warrant a separate building. separate rooms or cabinets are a must for efficient. an FIGURE 2 Plate sand blasting in fabricating plant. downdraft ventilation.SSPC CHAPTER*S*O 93 8627940 0003695 766 W Continuous production lines should be set up whenever possible. However. a mechanized conveyor (overhead. safe operations. To forestall such a contingency a spray booth. Even if only hand or power tool cleaning is done. but the roof should extend over the sides sufficiently far to prevent a driving rain from ruining the paint job. even when no overspray carries to their portion of the plant. In general. where the temperature does not drop below 40°F (4"C). In such open sheds. or during rainstorms and fogs. When continuous production lines are impractical. In warm climates.) should be used to expedite handling of the work. there is a danger from high humidity in cool weather. All fabricating shops should have adequate facilities for cleaning and painting under cover. semicontinuous lines might be feasible. to employ the automatic spray line in conjunction with electrostatic paint application. mechanical equipment should be used to the maximum degree possible and manual labor kept to a minimum. Spray painting has been eliminated in some plants because of the complaints of other workers who object to the fumes. etc. or other positive measures are necessary. especially in shops that fabricate small parts. Extremely large beams and girders can be set up on flat freight cars and run through a cleaning and painting shop that is built up on either side of the track. In cold climates. Whether the cleaning and painting shop is best housed in the same building with the fabricating opera tions is decided by the individual fabricator. There is a trend. track. Courtesy: Chicago Bridge and Iron open-sided shed is sufficient. and not too large. This innovation has been used to coat large diameter line pipe. the paint shop should be en- . If blast cleaning is done in the shop.

and into the rust. the humidity is usually increased. Cold weather makes the paint viscous and it will not flow properly. brush marks remain in the paint film and are weak points because of the thin film in the marks. it fails to wet the crevices and cracks in the steel surface and the adhesion is poorer. If practical. Heating the paint shop and the paint in cold weather is desirable for several reasons. a layer of water will be built up. the result is a dried film of paint that is thinner than normal. cleaned. Even on scrupulously clean steel.closed and heated at least enough to keep the temperature above 40°F (4°C). Water wets the surface of steel and causes rust. The life of a paint is affected by the atmospheric conditions to which it is first exposed. which is generally impossible to detect. locks in a potential corrosive medium. and consequently poorer protection. Most cases of paint failure due to mill scale lifting occur on steel that was fabricated. particularly when it has not dried completely. thus. Painting over this water. it is drawn into the cracks of the mill scale. Painters will thin the paint to compensate for its increased viscosity. and painted during the winter. it is very possible that under such conditions the painted steel can be dried for the normal time and loaded for shipment before it has dried (or cured) sufficiently. In cold weather. When the air is heated. the temperature should be kept up to 6570°F (18-21OC). for temperature and humidity have considerable effect on the quality of the paint job. Since the steel temperature lags behind the air temperature. under the edges of the mill scale. Rusting proceeds under the mill scale. it acts as a condenser and collects water on the surface. and eventually the mill scale lifts and ruins the paint. Low temperature or high humidity slow the rate of drying. even indoors. The cold paint is difficult to apply and painters will not want to brush properly. . moisture condenses on the steel. when the dew point of the air is reached.

painting and drying. In summary. C. cleaning and painting are considered jobs that require no skill. One reason for poor paint jobs is that some Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 248 . keep handling to a minimum unless a completely mechanized handling system is feasible. but a good job at minimum cost can be done only by trained men who are qualified for the work. when setting up or changing the painting shop. of manual labor for cleaning and painting should be eliminated. use mechanical or automatic equipment as much as possible. on a day-to-day basis.QUALIFICATIONS OF LABOR In many shops. provide adequate and protected space for cleaning.Other facilities will be discussed under the various headings that follow. The practice of random assignment.

111. He can be relied upon if he is educated to do good work and is provided the means to do it. but the time for each type of job. Generally. the worker is basically proud of his skill and ability. perhaps eight hours a week are devoted to instruction and discussion. it requires more skill than brush or roller application. This section deals with specific operations in the fabricating shop.SSPC CHAPTER*S*O 93 8627940 0003b7b bT2 workers are led to consider it just another job. most fabricating shops use automatic blast cleaning equipment and spray application of the paint. always remember. most often. Some plants have set up training programs that cover considerable ground and a long period of time. if he is doing something against his will or for low pay it will be reflected in poorer paint performance. SHOP CLEANING AND PRETREATING The cleaning of the surface has already been discussed in a general way. fast drying paints. In those shops. is programmed. Weathered steel will . In the final analysis. the worker is promoted from apprentice. to painter if he passes a qualifying test. New steel (steel that has been shipped from the rolling mill and has not weathered in the fabricator s yard) will usually consist of almost intact mill scale. however. given an even break he will try to do a job of which he is proud. Fabricated steel ready for cleaning and painting consists of a varied assortment of surface conditions. it is no better than the man who applies it. The painter must be aware of the importance of his work and proud of its quality. or for each different phase of activity. Because of the increased cost of labor. the person is now required to apply the paint. Spray painting is not a strictly mechanical operation. even the best paints will fail if not properly applied. No matter how good the surface preparation or the paint. Methods of training workers vary with the plants. where personnel are assigned the task of blaster-painter there is a lack of skill due to fatigue. training is by on-the-job methods. correct know-how in the application is positively essential for their success. or through apprenticeship when this is required by union rules. especially when after spending most of the day blast cleaning. and the sophistication of the newer paint materials. or a year. and particularly in the field. plus a technical knowledge of the equipment. or helper. In using the newer. In such cases. the man who applies the paint determines its performance. the remainder of the time is spent in doing work. specific details are covered in the chapters on mechanical and chemical surface preparation. In recent years the major manufacturers of paint spray equipment have sponsored week-long classes in the proper methods of equipment handling and spray painting techniques. At the end of six months.

etc. Water soluble cutting compounds. piece numbers. are covered by Steel Structures Painting Council Surface Preparation Specifications and Commentary and will not be repeated in this chapter. as are hand prints. or emulsions are sometimes present. Work is cleaned as it passes the wheel only. Photographs of various methods of surface preparation are presented for the reader s familiarization. Power Tool Cleaning 5. while others will have only patches of mill scale remaining. Pickling All. IV. A fortyeight foot long cleaning chamber is provided. etc. reaming. mill identification marks. Chalk marks. etc. rust scale may be present on a portion of the surface area. perhaps drawing compounds. drilling. Blast Cleaning 6. The surface conditions of the usual rolled shape will vary. realistic look at the physical capabilities of his workplace before committing himself to a method of surface preparation that would be impractical. As a precautionary note. Salt is sometimes present on the surface.vary from almost complete rust to almost intact mill scale. except for the first. depending upon how long it is stored in the fabricator s yard. The methods of surface preparation generally used in the fabricating shops are as follows: 1. Carbonized residues from riveting and welding operations may be present. and whether it is stored under cover or not. Mud and dirt are often present. crane drippings. perhaps one face may be completely rusted. the reader should familiarize himself thoroughly with the SSPC Surface Preparation Specifications and then take a hard. Grease will be present from the machinery lubricants. If the steel has been stored for a long time. Oil will be present from handling. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 249 . Nominal Cleaning 2.. SHOP PRIMING The basic requirements of shop primers have been FIGURE 3 Side view of centrifugal blast cleaning unit showing driving motor and wheel housing. will be present. but most of this space is a tunnel which serves only to trap abrasives and act as a shelter. Solvent Cleaning 3. Hand Cleaning 4.

Another method is to shopcoat the steel in the normal manner and ship the steel to the job site. The prime coat should weather long enough to lift vulnerable mill scale.0 73 8b27740 0003677 537 Illustration of a centrifugal wheel used for blast cleaning. must be allowed to dry thoroughly before the second coat is applied. epoxy. marine atmosphere. such as on steel for a large structure.. When the period of exposure before field painting is short. as primers. or chemical environment will cause much more damage to the shop coat than exposure in a rural atmosphere. Since the dried film thickness of --`. But the extra cost for handling is offset by the timely on-site paint application. However. it is not at all surprising to find considerable failure of the paint after long exposures. the steel is given a second coat of paint..`. or when the surface preparation is of good quality. high humidity. Note the extensive repair work which has been necessary on the housing due to the wear from the abrasive. etc. Before erection. Here. Spot cleaning and touch up of these areas is necessary before the second coat of paint is applied. When it is known that the exposure will be long and severe. also. In the first method. the solvent in the second coat must not be powerful enough to lift the fresh primer. discussed. and their suitability for specific environments must be considered.`. since inter-coat peeling may result if adhesion is not good. and considerable variation in the primer is possible.. zinc chromate primers show to advantage. This has the big disadvantage of tying up large amounts of the drying and painting facilities of the fabricator. the burden thrust upon the shopcoat is eased. Another alternative is the application of inorganic zinc. it was shown that the most severe test of a shop coat is long exposure without topcoats. Moreover. he will not want to use this method because the real costs would .. A heavy industrial atmosphere. The type of exposure has much to do with the manner in which the shop coat survives the interim period before field painting.. the fabricator will want to be paid. caution must be exercised by the specifier when he contemplates the use of these materials as primer paints. two coats of paint are applied in the shop. The first.`--cised that the second coat of paint is compatible with the first. FIGURE 4 a good shop coat is only about two mils. painting of the steel in the field before erection requires extra handling operations. if production of his plant is slowed down...`. They often require special surface preparation and application. several methods of circumventing probable failure of the shop coat are possible. vinyl.SSPC CHAPTERx7. or prime coat. Naturally. Unfortunately.`-`-`.

e second coat. Here. Care must be exer.FIGURE 5 semi-quick drying paint as &. The difficultv can be alleviated bv usina a . take advantage Of synthetic type resins to Provide a more and oil and water seDa rators: abrasive recoverv eauioment is in I . weather resistant outer coat of paint. one can Exterior oí a nozzle bla st cleaning room showing two continuous type feed tanks in the foreground along with control equipment. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 250 ..the background.be enormous.

Reports of investigations of primers for structural steel shopcoats have been made by many investigators. Normally. Solenoid control of blast stream is available but is not shown. easily understood. In a majority of cases brand names are mentioned. No primer has been found suitable for general use for all service.O 93 m 8627940 O003698 475 m FIGURE 6 Interior view of blast cleaning room shown in Figure 5. many of these paints could be improved if enough time and money were spent for that purpose. Specifications for many of these paints are included in SSPC Volume 2. Note air when acby operator this room A. show little or no superiority over proven formulations when the primers are compared in controlled tests.Also included for each paint is a description of the pigment. However. the others are easily procurable. Several others have been banned from use by one or more federal agencies. it is a rare case when contract specifications are written that allow the fabricator to choose the paint. accompanied by an or-equal clause. The tables below list paints that have been used as primers for structural steel. the contract specifications call for generic types of paint to be shop applied. It is the responsibility of the owner and his agent to be aware of the regulations governing the use of certain . while well formulated and of high quality. are presented in Table I. vehicle. or that proprietary products may not work as well. the extravagant claims made for some of them are completely unsubstantiated in actual use. and the minimum surface preparation required for each paint. all of which can be used as primer paints. Material passing through is carried on a continuous conveyor. Before widespread use it should be tested in service to determine whether it will perform satisfactorily or meet the requirements of the fabricator and the customer. A variety of paint materials. A minimum number of primers should be chosen for standard operations by each fabricator to be used on work for which no prime paint was specified. Most of the paints shown in the table are very seldom specified. feed connection to operator s mask for fresh air supply tually blast cleaning. Also. Due to limitations. The reader should not get the idea that because a primer is not included it is not good. many proprietary paints meet and often exceed these specifications. Others. In fact. Systems & Specifications . many good primers have been left out. RECOMMENDED SHOPCOAT PRIMERS There are a tremendous number of primers availáble for steel. Any primer that is sold on the basis that it eliminates preparation of the surface should be viewed with extreme caution. They have been chosen as being representative of the types and classes of primers that have proved themselves in actual service. and the use of many of these paints has been severely limited by standards of these same agencies.SSPC CHAPTERa9.

the following points should be considered: (1) the corrosiveness of the exposure environment. Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 251 . Solvent cleaning of the steel takes place in the background prior to immersion in the sulfuric acid tank. and the closest tank in the foreground is a phosphoric acid treatment tank. The furthest tank is a sulfuric acid pickling tank. B. Drying and painting racks and skids are shown in the foreground.paints that could cause health and safety problems. (3)the surface preparation that is acceptable or economical. Furthermore. Detailed specifications for proper application are found in Volume 2 of the manual. FIGURE 7 Pickling Set-up with three pickling tanks in the foreground. proper application is essential. SHOP PRIMING PROCEDURES To obtain satisfactory performance of any paint. Concentrated sulfuric and phosphoric acid are stored in the iron tanks beneath the crane runway. In selecting primers for shop coats. (2) the length of time that the steel will be exposed. the second is a water rinse. the primers that are suitable must be selected upon the basis of the drying time available and the wetting ability required for the degree of cleaning contem plated.

Other characteristics.SSPC CHAPTER*S*O 93 8627940 0003699 301 and general instructions for application are included in other chapters of this volume. The necessary equipment is basically a viscosimeter (Zahn or similar type). then deducting the weight of the empty container. or oils. spraying properties. and some facility for drying weighed samples of paint when the percent of volatile matter is to be checked. the services of a commercial testing laboratory should be utilized if the plant does not have an adequate laboratory. i. and (in some cases) dipping properties. a watch with a second hand. such as storage stability and hiding power. the withdrawal of a representative sample requires diligent precautions. Details of application that are primarily of concern to the fabricator are covered in this section. Even where no laboratory facilities are available to the fabricating plant. Procedures for such checks are covered in chapters on quality control. It is also extremely important to consult the paint manufacturer on details regarding application of a particular paint. Allowing an error of two ounces from the true weight in the weighing or over filling. a thermometer. resins. This will readily show whether the paint meets the specification weight. have an indirect but important effect on application. Such crude checks will not reveal improper pigments. drying time. or fraudulent substitutions with intent to deceive. Weight per gallon can be checked by taking a filled one gallon or five gallon container and weighing it. some person should be sufficiently trained to enable him to check the most essential of these properties. When samples are taken from large containers. a scale for weighing. brushing properties.Shop Control of Paint Properties Some control system should be set up to check the important properties of the paint. While critical checks and tests should be conducted by competent laboratory personnel. the tests conducted by the shop personnel can guard against acceptance of a paint that is not in compliance with the specifications or the properties advertised by the manufacturer. Small platform scales are usually available around the plant that will weigh to within one ounce in 25 pounds. the accuracy of such a method of determining the weight per gallon is 1/2 of one percent. On large jobs where considerable money is invested in the cleaning and painting. . Probably the most important characteristics of paint that affect its application are viscosity.

allowing the viscosimeter to remain in the mixed paint for approximately 20 seconds to achieve temperature equalization between the paint and the cup. and dipping properties are easily determined by actual application to small panels. an experienced observer should make the test. Time the flow of material through the cup and stop the time when the flow of coating interrupts the first time. This method of measuring viscosity works relatively well for usual shop paints. For example. a chart of viscosity versus temperature should be prepared for each paint that will be used. but should not be used without due precautions for thixotropic materials. than 50 percent by volume thinner. the more wet film will . only about half the volume of paint deposited on the steel as a wet film remains in the form of dried paint (assuming little evaporation takes place in the application). Paints are thinned with varying proportions of thinners. Here. others may run about 50% by volume of thinner. spraying. the paint cannot always be blamed for improper drying. when a paint that is 50 percent by volume thinner dries.Viscosity can readily be checked by dipping a #2 Zahn viscosimeter in the paint. the shop has an advantage over the labora tory because the determination is made under the conditions in which the paint will actually be applied. some paints have almost no thinner. The more thinner in the paint. Brushing. since temperature affects viscosity. it may dry in the time specified when exposed to standard dry conditions (about 77" F or 25" C and 50% relative hum id it y). This means that four mils of wet film must be deposited when specifications for such a paint require two mils dried paint thickness. Since drying time is affected by temperature and humidity. The same line of reasoning holds true for paints with more. The viscosity is compared to the previously measured or specified viscosity. or less. Drying times are determined by exposing these panels in the shop or paint room. Withdraw the viscosimeter and simultaneously start the stop watch.

For a Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for ResaleNo reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 252 . for precise work. Therefore. a drying oven and analytical balance are essential. Most paint manufacturers produce paint ready for spray application without the need of additional thinning.have to be deposited to achieve the specified dry film of paint. The fabricator is not interested in buying large quantities of thinner that will evaporate. application methods other than airless spray may dictate that the paint be thinned. The volatile content of a paint can be checked quite simply. causing health and fire hazards. In any case. therefore each paint should be formulated with only the necessary amount of thinner to keep the resin in solution and to maintain the proper viscosity for application. the manufacturer's recommendations regarding thinning should be adhered to very strictly. The standard nowadays is airless spray application.

`--17 35% Rust Inhibitive Chlorinated Rubber... Oxide Alkyd Resin Solids Hand Cleaning Magnesium Silicate Mineral Spirit Thinner Inhibitive Pigment Driers SSPC Paint 16 52% Coal Tar Pitch Epoxy Polyamide SSPC-SP 6..`-`-`... 55% Extender Pigments SSPC Paint 20 Type I 87% Zinc Dust Inorganic Type II 93% Zinc Dust Organic SSPC Paint 22 Inhibitive Pigment Epoxy Polyamide SSPC-SP 6 SSPC Paint 23 Inhibitive Pigment Latex SSPC-SP 6 SSPC Paint 25 Zinc Oxide Linseed oil/ Hand Cleaning Red Iron Oxide Alkyd Magnesium Silicate Mica SSPC Paint 28 Not specified Water Borne Blast Cleaning EPOXY Preferred SSPC Paint 29 Minimum 50% Inorganic or Blast Cleaning zinc dust in dry Organic film .. Pigment suitably plasticized 12% Tinting Pigments and stabilized.`.SSPC CHAPTER*S*O 93 8627940 0003700 953 = TABLE 1 TYPICAL PRIMER PAINTS FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL MINIMUM PRIMER PIGMENT VEHICLE SURFACE PREPARATION SSPC Paint 9 100% Titanium Vinyl Blast Cleaning Dioxide SSPC Paint 11 40% Oxide Raw Linseed Oil Hand Cleaning 40% Zinc Yellow and Alkyd Varnish 20% Extenders (equal parts) SSPC Paint 13 60% Red or Brown Raw Linseed Oil Hand Cleaning Iron Oxide Tung Oil Ester 12% Red Lead Gum Varnish ' 3% Zinc Chromate Bodied Linseed Oil 25% Magnesium Silicate SSPC Paint 15 Red Iron. "Commercial 48% Magnesium Silicate Blast Cleaning" SSPC Paint --`.`.`.

TT-P-641 80% Zinc Dust Raw Linseed Oil Hand Cleaning Type I 20% Zinc Oxide Oil TT-P-641 80% Zinc Dust Alkyd Varnish Blast Cleaning or Type II 20% Zinc Oxide Pickling TT-P-645 50% Zinc Yellow Alkyd Varnish Blast Cleaning or 14% Titanium Dioxide Pickling 17% Zinc Oxide 19% Extender TT-P-636 50% Iron Oxide Alkyd Varnish Hand Cleaning 10% Zinc Yellow 10% Zinc Oxide 30% Extender TT-P-31 60% Red or Brown Linseed Oil Hand Cleaning Iron Oxide (5 parts) 12% Zinc Oxide Spar Varnish 28% Extender (1 part) Copyright The Society for Protective Coatings Provided by IHS under license with SSPCNot for Re