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Titration Curve Calculations

pH
strong base

13

weak base
7
weak acid

1

strong acid
25

3

cm of base

Strong acid v Strong base
(25cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 HCl + 0.1mol.dm-3 NaOH)
Vol NaOH
/cm3

Moles NaOH
added

Moles
excess acid

[H+]
/ mol.dm-3

pH

0

0

2.50 x 10-3

0.100

1.00

5
10
15
20
24.9

Strong acid v Strong base
(25cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 HCl + 0.1mol.dm-3 NaOH)
Adding NaOH will react some HCl in a 1:1 ratio.
Moles NaOH added = Moles HCl removed
The remaining acid is now in a larger volume.

e.g. 5cm3 of NaOH = 5x10-4 moles
Remaining moles of HCl = 2.5x10-3 – 5x10-4
= 2.0 x10-3
[H+] = moles = 2.0x10-3 = 0.0667
volume 30x10-3
pH = -log10[H+] = -log10 0.0677 = 1.18

Strong acid v Strong base
(25cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 HCl + 0.1mol.dm-3 NaOH)
Vol NaOH
/cm3

Moles NaOH
added

Moles
excess acid

[H+]
/ mol.dm-3

pH

0

0

2.50 x 10-3

0.100

1.00

5

5 x 10-4

2.00 x 10-3

0.0667

1.18

10
15

20
24.9

Strong acid v Strong base
(25cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 HCl + 0.1mol.dm-3 NaOH)
Vol NaOH
/cm3

Moles NaOH
added

Moles
excess acid

[H+]
/ mol.dm-3

pH

0

0

2.50 x 10-3

0.100

1.00

5

5 x 10-4

2.00 x 10-3

0.0667

1.18

10

1.0 x 10-3

1.50 x 10-3

0.0429

1.37

15

1.5 x 10-3

1.00 x 10-3

0.0250

1.60

20

2.0 x 10-3

5.00 x 10-4

0.0111

1.95

24.9

2.49 x 10-3

1.00 x 10-5

0.000200

3.70

Strong acid v Strong base
(25cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 HCl + 0.1mol.dm-3 NaOH)

When 25cm3 NaOH is been added, all the HCl
is neutralised, so leaving water as the only
source of H+ and OH- ions. Use Kw to calculate
[H+].

Kw = [H+] [OH-] = 1.00 x 10-14 at 298K
As [H+] = [OH-] in pure water, Kw = [H+]2

[H+] = √Kw = 1.00 x 10-7
pH = -log10[H+] = 1.00x10-7 = 7.00

Strong acid v Strong base
(25cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 HCl + 0.1mol.dm-3 NaOH)
Volume
NaOH
/ cm3

25.1
30
40
50

Moles
NaOH
added

Moles
excess
NaOH

[OH-]
/ mol.dm-3

[H+] /
mol.dm-3

pH

Strong acid v Strong base
(25cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 HCl + 0.1mol.dm-3 NaOH)
Now NaOH is in excess, and so need to calculate the
moles of excess NaOH and so [OH-] in the increasingly
larger volume. [H+] can be calculated from Kw.

25.1cm3 NaOH = 2.51x10-3 moles NaOH
Excess NaOH = 2.51x10-3 - 2.50x10-3 = 1.00x10-5
[OH-] = moles = 1.00x10-5 = 2.00 x 10-4
volume
50.1x10-3
[H+] = Kw = 1.00x10-14 = 5.00 x 10-10
[OH-] 2.00x10-4
pH = -log10[H+] = -log105.00 x 10-10 = 10.30

Strong acid v Strong base
(25cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 HCl + 0.1mol.dm-3 NaOH)
Volume
NaOH
/ cm3

Moles
NaOH
added

Moles
excess
NaOH

25.1

2.51 x 10-3

1.00 x 10-5

30
40
50

[OH-]
/ mol.dm-3

[H+] /
mol.dm-3

pH

2.00 x 10-14 5.00 x 10-11 10.30

Strong acid v Strong base
(25cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 HCl + 0.1mol.dm-3 NaOH)
[OH-]
/ mol.dm-3

[H+] /
mol.dm-3

Volume
NaOH
/ cm3

Moles
NaOH
added

Moles
excess
NaOH

pH

25.1

2.51 x 10-3

1.00 x 10-5

2.00 x 10-14 5.00 x 10-11 10.30

30

3.00 x 10-3

5.00 x 10-4

9.09 x 10-3

1.10 x 10-12 11.96

40

4.00 x 10-3

1.50 x 10-3

0.0231

4.33 x 10-13 12.36

50

5.00 x 10-3

2.50 x 10-3

0.0333

3.00 x 10-13 12.52

Strong acid v Strong base
pH
13

7

1
25

3

cm of base

Weak acid v Strong base
25cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 CH3COOH (Ka=1.74x10-5) +
0.1mol.dm-3 NaOH
Vol
NaOH
/cm3

0
5
10
15

20
24.9

Moles NaOH
added

Moles
excess acid

Moles salt
(A-) made

[H+]
/ mol.dm-3

pH

Weak acid v Strong base
25cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 CH3COOH (Ka=1.74x10-5) +
0.1mol.dm-3 NaOH

Before NaOH added:
Ka = [H+] [A-]
[HA]
In the solution [H+] = [A-]
so [H+] = √(Ka [HA] ) = √ (1.74x10-5x 0.1)
= 1.32 x 10-3
pH = -log10[H+] = -log10 1.32x10-3 = 2.88

Weak acid v Strong base
25cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 CH3COOH (Ka=1.74x10-5) +
0.1mol.dm-3 NaOH
Vol
NaOH
/cm3

Moles NaOH
added

Moles
excess acid

Moles salt
(A-) made

0

0

2.50 x 10-3

= moles H+

5
10
15

20
24.9

[H+]
/ mol.dm-3

pH

1.30 x 10-3 2.88

Weak acid v Strong base
25cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 CH3COOH (Ka=1.74x10-5) +
0.1mol.dm-3 NaOH
Adding NaOH will react some of the acid in a 1:1 ratio, but also
makes salt ions (1:1).
Moles NaOH added = Moles acid removed = Moles Salt made
e.g. 5cm3 of NaOH = 5x10-4 moles
Remaining moles of acid = 2.5x10-3 – 5x10-4 = 2.0 x10-3
Moles salt (A-) = moles NaOH = 5 x10-4
Ka = [H+] [A-]
so [H+] = Ka [HA] = 1.74x10-5x 2.0x10-3
[HA]
[A-]
5x10-4
[H+] = 6.96 x 10-5
pH = -log10[H+] = 4.16

Weak acid v Strong base
25cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 CH3COOH (Ka=1.74x10-5) +
0.1mol.dm-3 NaOH
[H+]
/ mol.dm-3

Vol
NaOH
/cm3

Moles NaOH
added

Moles
excess acid

Moles salt
(A-) made

0

0

2.50 x 10-3

= moles H+

1.30 x 10-3 2.88

5

5 x 10-4

2.00 x 10-3

0.5 x 10-3

6.96 x 10-5 4.16

10
15

20
24.9

pH

Weak acid v Strong base
25cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 CH3COOH (Ka=1.74x10-5) +
0.1mol.dm-3 NaOH
[H+]
/ mol.dm-3

Vol
NaOH
/cm3

Moles NaOH
added

Moles
excess acid

Moles salt
(A-) made

pH

0

0

2.50 x 10-3

= moles H+

1.30 x 10-3 2.88

5

5 x 10-4

2.00 x 10-3

0.5 x 10-3

6.96 x 10-5 4.16

10

1.0 x 10-3

1.50 x 10-3

1.0 x 10-3

2.61 x 10-5 4.58

15

1.5 x 10-3

1.00 x 10-3

1.5 x 10-3

1.16 x 10-5 4.94

20

2.0 x 10-3

5.00 x 10-4

2.0 x 10-3

4.35 x 10-6 5.36

24.9

2.49 x 10-3

1.00 x 10-5

2.49 x 10-3

6.99 x 10-8 7.16

Weak acid v Strong base
pH
13

7

1
25

3

cm of base

Titration curves
pH
strong base

13

weak base
7
weak acid

1

strong acid
25

3

cm of base