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05/06/2013
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Introduction
•
In many fluid problems fluid is at rest or moves as a rigid body
•
When fluid is at rest (hydrostatic condition), the pressure variation is due only to
the weight of the fluid and may be calculated by integration. Important applications
are:
– pressure distribution in the atmosphere and oceans;
– the design of manometer pressure instruments;
– forces on submerged flat and curved surfaces
– buoyancy on a submerged body
– behaviour of floating bodies
• If the fluid is moving in a rigidbody motion, the pressure also can be easily
calculated, because the fluid is free of shear stress
Pressure at a Point
•
Pressure is the normal force per unit area at a given point acting on a given plain
within the fluid mass
• How pressure at a point varies with the orientation of the plain?
•
Consider free body diagram obtained by removing a small triangular wedge of fluid
from some arbitrary location within a fluid mass.
• Since there are no shearing stresses, the only forces are due to pressure and weight.
•
To generalize the case allow fluid element to move as a rigid body with nonzero
acceleration
• Apply Newton’s second law to fluid element
Pressure at a Point
Equations of motion in y and z direction
With
equations of motion reduce to
Pressure at a Point
2
2 2
y y s y
z z s z
x y z
F p x z p x s a
x y z x y z
F p x y p x s a
ô ô ô
ô ô ô ô u p
ô ô ô ô ô ô
ô ô ô ô u y p
· ·
· ·
¿
¿
sin
cos
and y s z s ô ô u ô ô u · · cos sin
( )
2
2
y s y
z s z
y
p p a
z
p p a
ô
p
ô
p y
·
· +
At a point, as σx, σy and σz approach zero:
The pressure at a point in a fluid at rest, or in motion, is independent of
direction as long as there are no shearing stresses present (Pascal’s law)
s y z
p p p · ·
Basic Equation for Pressure Field
• How the pressure in a fluid at rest varies from point to point?
•
Consider a small rectangular fluid element
•
Two types of forces acting on this element are
– surface forces due to pressure, and
– a body force equal to the weight of the element
• How the pressure in a fluid at rest varies from point to point?
•
Consider a small rectangular fluid element
•
Two types of forces acting on this element are
– surface forces due to pressure, and
– a body force equal to the weight of the element
• Applying Newton’s second law of motion to the fluid element we obtain general
equation of motion for a fluid in which there are no shearing stresses
Basic Equation for Pressure Field
p y p V ·
ˆ
k a
Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest
0 p y V + ·
ˆ
k
For a fluid at rest a = 0 and
Pressure does not depend on x or y and depends only on z
For liquids or gases at rest the pressure gradient in the vertical direction at any point in a
fluid depends only on the specific weight of the fluid at that point
Pressure decreases as we move upward in a fluid at rest
Specific weight does not necessarily be a constant, and for gases may vary with elevation
p
z
y
o
·
o
Pressure Variation. Incompressible Fluid
For liquids constant specific weight is assumed. Pressure variation is obtained by direct
integration
2 2
1 1
p z
p z
dp dz y ·
l l
1 2
p h p y · +
Pressure Variation. Incompressible Fluid
( )
2 1 2 1
p p z z y ·
Pressure head, h, is the height of a column of fluid that would give the specified
pressure difference
For fluid with a free surface, pressure p at any depth h below the free surface:
1 2
p p
h
y
·
0
p h p y · +
For liquids constant specific weight is assumed.
Pressure variation is obtained by direct integration
 hydrostatic pressure distribution
1 2
p h p y · +
Pressure Variation. Incompressible Fluid
0
p h p y · +
Pressure in a homogeneous, incompressible fluid at rest depends on the depth of the fluid
relative to some reference plane, and it is not influenced by the size or shape of the tank or
container in which the fluid is held.
Fluid equilibrium in a container of arbitrary surface
Pressure Variation. Incompressible Fluid
The transmission of pressure throughout a stationary fluid is the principle upon which
many hydraulic devices are based (hydraulic jacks, lifts, presses, hydraulic controls on
aircraft and other types of heavy machinery)
Transmission of fluid pressure
Pressure Variation. Compressible Fluid
Density of gases can change significantly with changes in pressure and temperature.
But specific weights of common gases are comparatively small, therefore pressure gradient
in vertical direction is correspondingly small
Thus, in problems involving gases in tanks, pipes, and so on effect of elevation changes on
the pressure can be neglected.
If variations in heights are large (thousands of feet) variation in specific weight must be
accounted for.
For gases
To integrate last equation, temperature variation with elevation must be known. For
isothermal condition
2 2
1 1
2
1
ln
p z
p z
p RT
dp gp
dz RT
dp p g dz
p p R T
p ·
·
· ·
l l
( )
2 1
1
0
exp
g z z
p p
RT
]
·
]
]
Standard Atmosphere
Standard atmosphere is an idealized representation of mean condition in the earth’s
atmosphere
Properties for standard atmospheric condition at sea level are listed in Table
Temperature profile for the U.S. standard atmosphere is shown on Figure
Since temperature variation is represented by a series of linear segments, equation
can be integrated to obtain pressure variation
2 2
1 1
2
1
ln
p z
p z
dp p g dz
p R T p
· ·
l l
• Pressure is designated as either absolute pressure of gage pressure
• Absolute pressure is measured relative to a perfect vacuum (absolute zero
pressure), gage pressure is measured relative to the local atmospheric pressure
• Negative gage pressure is referred to as a suction or vacuum pressure
• In this course pressure will be assumed to be gage pressures unless specifically
designated absolute
• Pressure difference is independent on the reference, so that no special notation is
required
• Pressure is measured in Pa (SI) or psf, psi (BG).
• Pressure can also be expressed as a height of column of a liquid
• Barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure
Pressure Measurement (Figure)
Manometry
• Manometers use vertical or inclined liquid columns to measure pressure.
•
Three common types of manometers include
– piezometer tube,
– Utube manometer
– inclinedtube manometer
Piezometer Tube
0
1 1 A
p h p
p h
y
y
· +
·
Disadvantages:
 p
A
must be greater than p
0

h is limited
 fluid in container must be liquid
UTube Manometer
2 2 1 1 A
p h h y y ·
Advantage: gage fluid can be different
from fluid in container
If fluid in container is gas
For high p
A
mercury is used
For small p
A
water or other light liquids
can be used
2 2 A
p h y ·
Differential Manometer
2 2 3 3 1 1 A B
p p h h h y y y · +
( )
2 2 1
2.9 kPa
A B
p p h y y · ·
InclinedTube Manometer
2 2 3 3 1 1 A B
p p l h h y u y y · + sin
for gases
2 2 A B
p p l y u · sin
• Manometers have some disadvantages:
– they are not well suited for measuring very high pressures, or pressure that are changing
rapidly with time;
– they require the measurement of one or more column heights, which is time consuming
•
Bourdon tube pressure gage uses a hollow, elastic, and curved tube to measure
pressure;
•
Aneroid barometer is used for measuring atmospheric pressure;
•
Pressure transducer converts pressure into an electrical output:
– pressure transducers using Bourdon tube
– straingage pressure transducers
– piezoelectric pressure transducers
Mechanical and Electronic Pressure
Measuring Devices
Problem 2.38 An airfilled, hemispherical shell is attached to the ocean floor at a
depth of 10 m as shown in Fig. P2.38. A mercury barometer located inside the shell
reads 765 mm Hg, and a mercury Utube manometer designed to give the outside water
pressure indicates a differential reading of 735 mm Hg as illustrated. Based on these
data what is the atmospheric pressure at the ocean surface?
Problem 2.38 An airfilled, hemispherical shell is attached to the ocean floor at a
depth of 10 m as shown in Fig. P2.38. A mercury barometer located inside the shell
reads 765 mm Hg, and a mercury Utube manometer designed to give the outside water
pressure indicates a differential reading of 735 mm Hg as illustrated. Based on these
data what is the atmospheric pressure at the ocean surface?
Solution
Let p
a
– absolute pressure inside shell
p
atm
– surface atmosphere pressure
γ
sw
– specific weight of seawater
Problem 2.38 An airfilled, hemispherical shell is attached to the ocean floor at a
depth of 10 m as shown in Fig. P2.38. A mercury barometer located inside the shell
reads 765 mm Hg, and a mercury Utube manometer designed to give the outside water
pressure indicates a differential reading of 735 mm Hg as illustrated. Based on these
data what is the atmospheric pressure at the ocean surface?
Solution
Let p
a
– absolute pressure inside shell
p
atm
– surface atmosphere pressure
γ
sw
– specific weight of seawater
Manometer equation
So that
10 0.36 0.735
atm sw sw Hg a
p p y y y + + ·
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3
10.36 0.735
kN kN kN
0.765 m 133 10.36 m 10.1 0.735 m 133
m m m
94.9 kPa
atm a sw Hg
p p y y · +
 `  `  `
· +
÷ ÷ ÷
. , . , . ,
·
Problem 2.42 The manometer fluid in the
manometer has a specific gravity of 3.46. Pipes A
and B both contain water. If the pressure in pipe A
is decreased by 1.3 psi and the pressure in pipe B
increases by 0.9 psi, determine the new differential
reading of the manometer.
Problem 2.42 The manometer fluid in the
manometer has a specific gravity of 3.46. Pipes A
and B both contain water. If the pressure in pipe A
is decreased by 1.3 psi and the pressure in pipe B
increases by 0.9 psi, determine the new differential
reading of the manometer.
a
a
a
a
Problem 2.42 The manometer fluid in the
manometer has a specific gravity of 3.46. Pipes A
and B both contain water. If the pressure in pipe A
is decreased by 1.3 psi and the pressure in pipe B
increases by 0.9 psi, determine the new differential
reading of the manometer.
Solution
Initially
Finally
Subtract (2) from (1)
Increment a
New differential reading
2 2
2 2 1 (1)
A H O gf H O B
p p y y y + + ·
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 1 2
A H O gf H O B
p a a a p y y y
´ ´
+ + + + ·
2 2
2
A A H O gf H O B B
p p a a a p p y y y
´ ´
+ + ·
( ) ( )
( )
2
1 03 ft
2
B B A A
H O gf
p p p p
a
y y
´ ´
· ·
.
2 2 4 06 ft h a A · + · .
Problem 2.44 The inclined differential manometer
contains carbon tetrachloride. Initially the pressure
differential between pipes A and B, which contain
a brine (SG = 1.1), is zero as illustrated in the
figure. It is desired that the manometer give a
differential reading of 12 in. (measured along the
inclined tube) for a pressure differential of 0.1 psi.
Determine the required angle of inclination, θ
a
Problem 2.44 The inclined differential manometer
contains carbon tetrachloride. Initially the pressure
differential between pipes A and B, which contain
a brine (SG = 1.1), is zero as illustrated in the
figure. It is desired that the manometer give a
differential reading of 12 in. (measured along the
inclined tube) for a pressure differential of 0.1 psi.
Determine the required angle of inclination, θ
Solution
increases to
A B
p p
A B
p p
´ ´
i
h
b
a
Problem 2.44 The inclined differential manometer
contains carbon tetrachloride. Initially the pressure
differential between pipes A and B, which contain
a brine (SG = 1.1), is zero as illustrated in the
figure. It is desired that the manometer give a
differential reading of 12 in. (measured along the
inclined tube) for a pressure differential of 0.1 psi.
Determine the required angle of inclination, θ
Solution
increases to
For final configuration
or
Differential reading along the tube
From (1)
or
A B
p p
A B
p p
´ ´
( ) ( ) ( )
4
A i br CCl i br B
p h a a b h b p y u y u y
´ ´
+ + + · sin sin
( ) ( )
4
0 (1)
A B br CCl
p p a b y y u
´ ´
+ + · sin
a
h b
u
A · +
sin
( ) ( )
4
0
A B br CCl
p p h y y u
´ ´
+ A · sin
i
h
( )
( )
4
sin
A B
br CCl
p p
h
u
y y
´ ´
·
A
b
a
Problem 2.44 The inclined differential manometer
contains carbon tetrachloride. Initially the pressure
differential between pipes A and B, which contain
a brine (SG = 1.1), is zero as illustrated in the
figure. It is desired that the manometer give a
differential reading of 12 in. (measured along the
inclined tube) for a pressure differential of 0.1 psi.
Determine the required angle of inclination, θ
Solution
Thus
i
h
( )
( )
4
sin
A B
br CCl
p p
h
u
y y
´ ´
·
A
With 0 1 psi for 12 in. 0 466
A B
p p h u
´ ´
· A · · . sin .
o
27 8 u · .
b
• When a surface is submerged in a fluid, forces develop on it due to fluid
• We are interested in the direction, location and magnitude of those forces
• For fluids at rest force is perpendicular to the surface
• Pressure varies linearly with depth if fluid is incompressible
• For horizontal surface force calculation is straightforward
• When determining the resultant force on an area, the effect of atmospheric
pressure often cancels
• If submerged surface is inclined determination of the resultant force is more
involved
Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface
Hydrostatic Force on Inclined Plane Surface
• Consider plane surface with area
of arbitrary shape submerged in
the fluid and inclined with respect
to fluid surface
Hydrostatic Force on Inclined Plane Surface
• Consider plane surface with area
of arbitrary shape submerged in
the fluid and inclined with respect
to fluid surface
• Assume that fluid surface is open
to atmosphere
Hydrostatic Force on Inclined Plane Surface
• Consider plane surface with area
of arbitrary shape submerged in
the fluid and inclined with respect
to fluid surface
• Assume that fluid surface is open
to atmosphere
• Let the plane in which the surface
lies intersect the free surface at 0
and make an angle θ with this
surface
Hydrostatic Force on Inclined Plane Surface
• Consider plane surface with area
of arbitrary shape submerged in
the fluid and inclined with respect
to fluid surface
• Assume that fluid surface is open
to atmosphere
• Let the plane in which the surface
lies intersect the free surface at 0
and make an angle θ with this
surface
• Define coordinate system so that
0 is the origin and y is directed
along the surface
Hydrostatic Force on Inclined Plane Surface
• Consider plane surface with area
of arbitrary shape submerged in
the fluid and inclined with respect
to fluid surface
• Assume that fluid surface is open
to atmosphere
• Let the plane in which the surface
lies intersect the free surface at 0
and make an angle θ with this
surface
• Define coordinate system so that
0 is the origin and y is directed
along the surface
• We wish to determine the
direction, location, and magnitude
of the resultant force acting on
one side of this area due to the
liquid in contact with the area.
• The resultant force of a static fluid on a plane surface is due to the
hydrostatic pressure distribution
• The magnitude of the resultant fluid force is equal to the pressure acting at
the centroid of the area multiplied by the total area (details)
Hydrostatic Force on Inclined Plane Surface
• The resultant force of a static fluid on a plane surface is due to the
hydrostatic pressure distribution
• The magnitude of the resultant fluid force is equal to the pressure acting at
the centroid of the area multiplied by the total area
• The resultant fluid force does not pass through the centroid of the area but
is always below it
• The point through which the resultant fluid force acts is called the center of
pressure. Coordinates, y
R
and x
R
, of the center of pressure are:
Hydrostatic Force on Inclined Plane Surface
R c
F h A y ·
• The resultant force of a static fluid on a plane surface is due to the
hydrostatic pressure distribution
• The magnitude of the resultant fluid force is equal to the pressure acting at
the centroid of the area multiplied by the total area
• The resultant fluid force does not pass through the centroid of the area but
is always below it
• The point through which the resultant fluid force acts is called the center of
pressure. Coordinates, y
R
and x
R
, of the center of pressure are:
Hydrostatic Force on Inclined Plane Surface
R c
F h A y ·
xc
R c
c
I
y y
y A
· +
xyc
R c
c
I
x x
y A
· +
Hydrostatic Force on Inclined Plane Surface
• If the submerged area is
symmetrical with respect to an
axis passing through the centroid
and parallel to either the x or y
axes, the resultant force must lie
along the line x = x
c
, since I
xyc
is
identically zero in this case
• As y
c
increases the center of
pressure moves closer to the
centroid of the area..
• Centroidal coordinates and moments of inertia
for some common areas are
provided
Example 2.6 The 4mdiameter circular gate is located in the inclined wall of a large
reservoir containing water (γ = 9.8 kN/m
3
). The gate is mounted on a shaft along its
horizontal diameter. For a water depth of 10 m above the shaft determine: (a) the
magnitude and location of the resultant force exerted on the gate by the water, and (b)
the moment that would have to be applied to the shaft to open the gate
Solution
(a) Magnitude of the force
Location
since area is symmetrical, and
center of pressure must lie along
diameter AA
Example 2.6 The 4mdiameter circular gate is located in the inclined wall of a large
reservoir containing water (γ = 9.8 kN/m
3
). The gate is mounted on a shaft along its
horizontal diameter. For a water depth of 10 m above the shaft determine: (a) the
magnitude and location of the resultant force exerted on the gate by the water, and (b)
the moment that would gave to be applied to the shaft to open the gate
1 23 MN
R c
F h A y · · .
0
xyc
R c
c
I
x x
y A
· + ·
Solution
Moment of inertia
and
distance below the shaft to the
center of pressure
Example 2.6 The 4mdiameter circular gate is located in the inclined wall of a large
reservoir containing water (γ = 9.8 kN/m
3
). The gate is mounted on a shaft along its
horizontal diameter. For a water depth of 10 m above the shaft determine: (a) the
magnitude and location of the resultant force exerted on the gate by the water, and (b)
the moment that would gave to be applied to the shaft to open the gate
4
4
xc
R
I
r
·
11 6 m
xc
R c
c
I
y y
y A
· + · .
0 0866 m
R c
y y · .
Solution
(b) Moment
Example 2.6 The 4mdiameter circular gate is located in the inclined wall of a large
reservoir containing water (γ = 9.8 kN/m
3
). The gate is mounted on a shaft along its
horizontal diameter. For a water depth of 10 m above the shaft determine: (a) the
magnitude and location of the resultant force exerted on the gate by the water, and (b)
the moment that would gave to be applied to the shaft to open the gate
0
c
M ·
¿
( )
5
1 07 10 N m
R R c
M F y y · · × × .
Example 2.7 A large fishholding tank contains
seawater (γ = 64.0 lb/ft
3
) to a depth of 10 ft. To
repair some damage to one corner of the tank, a
triangular section is replaced with a new section
as illustrated. Determine the magnitude and
location of the force of the seawater on this
triangular area.
Solution
Force magnitude
Force location
Example 2.7 A large fishholding tank contains
seawater (γ = 64.0 lb/ft
3
) to a depth of 10 ft. To
repair some damage to one corner of the tank, a
triangular section is replaced with a new section
as illustrated. Determine the magnitude and
location of the force of the seawater on this
triangular area.
2590 lb
R c
F h A y · ·
9 06 ft
xc
R c
c
I
y y
y A
· + · .
3
4
81
ft
36 36
xc
ba
I · ·
0 0278 ft
xyc
R c
c
I
x x
y A
· + · .
( )
2
4
81
2 ft
72 72
xyc
ba
I b d · ·
•
Pressure prism is a geometric representation of the hydrostatic force on a plane
surface
•
Consider pressure distribution along a vertical wall of tank with liquid (Fig. a).
Average pressure , p
av
, occurs at the depth h/2, and resultant force on area A = bh
Pressure Prism
av
2
R
h
F p A A y
 `
· ·
÷
. ,
•
Volume, shown on Fig. b is called the pressure prism
•
Magnitude of the resultant fluid force is equal to the volume of the pressure prism
and passes through its centroid (details)
Pressure Prism
( ) ( )
1
volume
2 2
R
h
F h bh A y y
 `
· · ·
÷
. ,
•
Abovementioned is valid for surfaces that do not extend up to the fluid surface. In
this case, the cross section of the pressure prism is trapezoidal
•
Specific values can be obtained by decomposing pressure prism into two parts,
ABDE and BCD. Thus
Pressure Prism
1 2 R
F F F · +
• Location of F
R
can be determined by summing moments about some convenient
axis:
Pressure Prism
1 1 2 2 R R
F y F y F y · +
Example 2.8 A pressurized tank contains oil (SG = 0.90) and has a square, 0.6m by
0.6m plate bolted to its side. When the pressure gage on the top of the tank reads 50
kPa, what is the magnitude and location of the resultant force on the attached plate? The
outside of the tank is at atmospheric pressure.
Solution
Solution Resultant force:
( )
1 1
24 4 kN
s
F p h A y · + · .
2 1
2
0 954 kN
2
h h
F A y
 `
· ·
÷
. ,
.
1 2
25 4 kN
R
F F F · + · .
Solution Vertical location of the resultant force:
Note that the air pressure ised in the calculation of the force was gage pressure
( ) ( )
1 2
0 3 m 0 2 m
R O
F y F F · + . .
0 296 m
O
y · .
•
Development of a freebody diagram of a suitable volume of fluid can be used to
determine the resultant fluid force acting on a curved surface
•
For example, consider curved section BC of the open tank, which has a unit length
perpendicular to the plane of slide
•
Find resultant fluid force acting on this section
Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface
•
Develop freebody diagram
• Determine magnitude and location of forces F
1
and F
2
using relationships for
planar surfaces
•
Weight acts through the center of gravity of fluid contained within the volume
• Forces F
H
and F
V
represent components of the force that the tank exerts on the fluid
Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface
•
For this force system to be in equilibrium:
•
Magnitude of resultant force
Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface
2 H
F F ·
1 V
F F · +W
( ) ( )
2 2
R H V
F F F · +
• Resultant force F
R
passes through the point O, which can be located by summing
moments about appropriate axis
•
Resultant force of the fluid acting on the curved surface BC is equal and opposite
in direction to that obtained from the freebody diagram
Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface
Example 2.9 The 6ftdiameter drainage conduit is half full of water at rest. Determine
the magnitude and line of action of the resultant force that the water exerts on a 1ft
length of the curved section BC of the conduit wall.
Solution Develop freebody diagram and determine forces
1
281 lb
c
F h A y · ·
Weight vol 441 lb y · × ·
1
281 lb
H
F F · ·
=Weight 441 lb
V
F ·
Solution Magnitude of the resultant force
The force the water exerts on the conduit wall is equal, but opposite in direction, to the
forces F
H
and F
V
Note, the line of action of the resultant force passes through the center of the conduit.
( ) ( )
2 2
= 523 lb
R H V
F F F + ·
Buoyancy, Flotation, and Stability
Archimedes’ Principle
A body immersed in a fluid experiences a vertical buoyant force equal to the weight of
the fluid it displaces
Archimedes’ Principle
Magnitude of buoyant force
Archimedes’ Principle
Magnitude of buoyant force
B
F V y ·
Archimedes’ Principle
Buoyant force passes through the centroid of the displaced volume. The point through
which the buoyant force acts is called the center of buoyancy
Archimedes’ Principle
Buoyant force passes through the centroid of the displaced volume. The point through
which the buoyant force acts is called the center of buoyancy
Summing moments of forces with
respect to axis passing through D
on substitution for forces:
2 1 1 1 B c
F y F y F y ·
2
Wy
( )
1 2 c T T
Vy V y V V y ·
If a body is immersed in a
fluid in which γ varies
with depth, such as in a
layered fluid, the buoyant
force passes through the
center of gravity of the
displaced volume
Example 2.10 A spherical buoy has a diameter of 1.5 m, weighs 8.50 kN, and is
anchored to the sea floor with a cable. Although the buoy normally floats on the surface,
at certain times (waves, rising tide) the water depth increases so that the buoy is
completely immersed as illustrated. For this condition what is the tension of the cable?
Example 2.10 A spherical buoy has a diameter of 1.5 m, weighs 8.50 kN, and is
anchored to the sea floor with a cable. Although the buoy normally floats on the surface,
at certain times (waves, rising tide) the water depth increases so that the buoy is
completely immersed as illustrated. For this condition what is the tension of the cable?
Solution
17.85 kN
B
F V y · ·
9.35 kN
B
T F · · W
Stability
Submerged or floating bodies can be either in a stable or unstable position.
Stable equilibrium – when displaced body returns to its equilibrium position
Unstable equilibrium – when displaced body moves to a new equilibrium position
Stability of Completely Immersed Bodies
For a completely submerged body with a center of gravity below the center of
buoyancy rotation from equilibrium position will create a restoring couple.
If center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy, resulting couple will cause the
body to overturn and move the a new equilibrium position
Stability of a completely immersed body
Stability of Floating Bodies
When floating body rotates the location of the center of buoyancy may change
Stability of a floating body stable configuration
Stability of Floating Bodies
When floating body rotates the location of the center of buoyancy may change
Stability of a floating body unstable configuration
Pressure Variation in a Fluid with RigidBody Motion
Even though a fluid may be in motion, if it moves as a rigid body there will be no
searing stresses present
For such a fluid the general equation of motion
In component form
Pressure Variation in a Fluid with RigidBody Motion
Even though a fluid may be in motion, if it moves as a rigid body there will be no
searing stresses present
For such a fluid the general equation of motion
In component form
Consider two classes of problems; rigidbody uniform motion, and rigidbody rotation
p y p V ·
ˆ
k a
z
p
a
z
y p
o
· +
o
y
p
a
y
p
o
·
o
x
p
a
x
p
o
·
o
Pressure Variation in a Fluid with RigidBody Motion
Linear Motion
Consider an open container of a liquid that is translating along a straight path with a
constant acceleration. Apply general equation of motion
Linear acceleration of a
liquid with a free surface
Pressure Variation in a Fluid with RigidBody Motion
Linear Motion
Consider an open container of a liquid that is translating along a straight path with a
constant acceleration. Apply general equation of motion
Slope of line of constant pressure, dp = 0, is given by
y
z
a
dz
dy g a
·
+
Linear acceleration of a
liquid with a free surface
Pressure Variation in a Fluid with RigidBody Motion
Linear Motion
If a
y
=0, a
z
≠0, fluid surface will be horizontal, but pressure distribution is not
hydrostatic
( )
z
dp
g a
dz
p · +
Linear acceleration of a
liquid with a free surface
Example 2.11 The cross section for the fuel tank of an experimental vehicle is shown in
figure. The rectangular tank is vented to the atmosphere, and a pressure transducer is
located in its side as illustrated. During testing of the vehicle, the tank is subjected to a
constant linear acceleration, a
y
. (a) Determine an expression that relates a
y
and the
pressure (in lb/ft
2
) at the transducer for a fuel with a SG = 0.65. (b) What is the
maximum acceleration that can occur before the fuel level drops below the transducer?
Example 2.11 The cross section for the fuel tank of an experimental vehicle is shown in
figure. The rectangular tank is vented to the atmosphere, and a pressure transducer is
located in its side as illustrated. During testing of the vehicle, the tank is subjected to a
constant linear acceleration, a
y
. (a) Determine an expression that relates a
y
and the
pressure (in lb/ft
2
) at the transducer for a fuel with a SG = 0.65. (b) What is the
maximum acceleration that can occur before the fuel level drops below the transducer?
Solution
(a) Slope of the surface
change in depth
or
Pressure at the transducer
y
a
dz
dy g
·
1
0.75 ft
y
a
z
g
·
( )
1
0.75 ft
y
a
z
g
·
( )
1
0.5 ft 20.3 30.4
y
a
p h z
g
y y · · ·
Example 2.11 The cross section for the fuel tank of an experimental vehicle is shown in
figure. The rectangular tank is vented to the atmosphere, and a pressure transducer is
located in its side as illustrated. During testing of the vehicle, the tank is subjected to a
constant linear acceleration, a
y
. (a) Determine an expression that relates a
y
and the
pressure (in lb/ft
2
) at the transducer for a fuel with a SG = 0.65. (b) What is the
maximum acceleration that can occur before the fuel level drops below the transducer?
Solution
(b) Maximum acceleration
or
for a standard acceleration of gravity
Note:
( )
( )
max
0.5 ft 0.75 ft
y
a
g
]
] ·
]
]
( )
max
2
3
y
g
a ·
( )
2
max
21.5 ft/s
y
a ·
1 2
p p /
Problem 2.92 An open container of oil rests on the flatbed of a truck that is traveling
along a horizontal road at 55 mi/hr. As the truck slows uniformly to a complete stop in 5
s, what will be the slope of the oil surface during the period of constant deceleration?
Problem 2.92 An open container of oil rests on the flatbed of a truck that is traveling
along a horizontal road at 55 mi/hr. As the truck slows uniformly to a complete stop in 5
s, what will be the slope of the oil surface during the period of constant deceleration?
Solution
Acceleration
Slope
( )
( )
2
55 5.280 ft/mi
16.1 ft/s
5 3600 s/hr
V
a
t
×
A
· · ·
A ×
0.5
y
a
dz
dy g
· ·
Pressure Variation in a Fluid with RigidBody Motion
RigidBody Rotation
A fluid contained in a tank that rotates with a constant angular velocity about an axis
will rotate as a rigid body
Pressure gradients (details):
Differential pressure
Rigidbody rotation of a
liquid in a tank
2
0
p p p
r
r z
p u y
u
o o o
· · ·
o o o
2
or
p p
dp dr dz dp r dr dz
r z
p u y
o o
· + ·
o o
Pressure Variation in a Fluid with RigidBody Motion
RigidBody Rotation
Along a surface of constant pressure dp = 0, so that
and equation for surfaces of constant pressure is
Surfaces of constant pressure are parabolic
Pressure distribution in a
rotating liquid
2
dz r
dr g
u
·
2 2
constant
2
r
z
g
u
· +
Pressure Variation in a Fluid with RigidBody Motion
RigidBody Rotation
Pressure distribution
Pressure varies with the distance from the axis of rotation, but at a fixed radius, the
pressure varies hydrostatically in the vertical direction
Pressure distribution in a
rotating liquid
2 2
constant
2
r
p z
pu
y · +
Example 2.12 It has been suggested that the angular velocity, ω, of a rotating body or
shaft can be measured by attaching an open cylinder of liquid, as shown in figure, and
measuring with some type of depth gage the change in the fluid level, H – h
0
, caused by
the rotation of the fluid. Determine the relationship between this change in fluid level
and the angular velocity.
Example 2.12 It has been suggested that the angular velocity, ω, of a rotating body or
shaft can be measured by attaching an open cylinder of liquid, as shown in figure, and
measuring with some type of depth gage the change in the fluid level, H – h
0
, caused by
the rotation of the fluid. Determine the relationship between this change in fluid level
and the angular velocity.
Solution
Height, h, of the free surface
Initial volume of fluid
Volume of rotating fluid
2 2
0
2
r
h h
g
u
· +
2
i
V R H r ·
2 dV rhdr r ·
2 2 2 4
2
0 0
0
2
2 4
R
r R
V r h dr R h
g g
u ru
r r
 `
· + · +
÷
. ,
l
Example 2.12 It has been suggested that the angular velocity, ω, of a rotating body or
shaft can be measured by attaching an open cylinder of liquid, as shown in figure, and
measuring with some type of depth gage the change in the fluid level, H – h
0
, caused by
the rotation of the fluid. Determine the relationship between this change in fluid level
and the angular velocity.
Solution
Volume of fluid in tank remains constant
Thus
Note: relationship between the change in depth and speed is not linear one
2 4
2 2
0
4
R
R H R h
g
ru
r r · +
2 2
0
4
R
H h
g
u
·
i
V V ·
END OF LECTURE
Supplementary slides
Forces on an arbitrary wedgeshaped element of fluid
back
back
Surface and body forces acting
on small fluid element
Resultant surface force
Weight of the fluid element
s
p x y z ô ô ô ô · V F
x y z ô yô ô ô ·
ˆ ˆ
k k W
back
back
Variation of temperature with altitude in the U.S standard atmosphere
back
Pressure Measurement
Graphical representation of gage and absolute pressure
Pressure Measurement
Mercury barometer
back
atm vapor
p h p y · +
Liquidfilled Bourdon pressure gages for various pressure ranges
back
back
Internal elements of Bourdon gages. The “Cshaped” Bourdon tube is
shown on the left, and the “coiled spring” Bourdon tube for high pressure
of 1000 psi and above is shown on the right
back
Pressure transducer which combines a linear
variable differential transformer (LVDT) with a
Bourdon gage
back
back
Pressure and resultant hydrostatic
force developed on the bottom of an
open tank
R
F pA · Resultant force
If atmospheric pressure act on both sides of the bottom the resultant force on the bottom
is simply due to the liquid in the tank
Since pressure is constant and uniformly distributed over the bottom, the resultant force
acts through the centroid of the area
At given depth, h, force acting on dA
is dF=γ hdA and is perpendicular
to the surface
Magnitude of the resultant force
Magnitude of Resultant force
At given depth, h, force acting on dA
is dF=γ hdA and is perpendicular
to the surface
Magnitude of the resultant force
For constant γ and θ
In terms of first moment of the area
Resultant force
back
sin
R
A A
F hdA y dA y y u · ·
l l
sin
R
A
F ydA y u ·
l
c
A
ydA y A ·
l
R c
F h A y ·
Magnitude of Resultant force
Moment of resultant force must equal
moment of distributed pressure force
Location of Resultant force
Moment of resultant force must equal
moment of distributed pressure force
Since then
or in term of moment of inertia, I
x
By use of parallel axis theorem
where I
xc
is the moment of inertia with
respect to axis passing through
centroid and parallel to x axis. Finally:
back
Location of Resultant force
2
sin
R R
A A
F y ydF y dA y u · ·
l l
sin
R c
F Ay y u ·
2
A
R
c
y dA
y
y A
·
l
x
R
c
I
y
y A
·
2
x xc c
I I Ay · +
xc
R c
c
I
y y
y A
· +
Moment of resultant force must equal
moment of distributed pressure force
By summing moments about y axis
we get
Location of Resultant force
Moment of resultant force must equal
moment of distributed pressure force
By summing moments about y axis
we get
and
Using parallel axis theorem we get
where I
xyc
is the product of inertia
with respect to orthogonal coordinate
system passing through centroid of
the area and formed by translation of
the xy coordinate system
back
Location of Resultant force
sin
R R
A
F x xydA y u ·
l
xy
A
R
c c
xydA
I
x
y A y A
· ·
l
xyc
R c
c
I
x x
y A
· +
Geometrical Properties of Some Common Shapes
back
back to example 2.6
Parallel Axis Theorem for Moment of Inertia
Moment of inertia of an area I
x
with respect to x axis is equal to the moment of
inertia I
xc
with respect to centroidal axis x
’
parallel to the x axis, plus the
product Ay
c
2
of the area A and of the square of the distance y
c
between the
two axes
2
x xc c
I I Ay · +
back
Parallel Axis Theorem for Product of Inertia
Product of inertia with respect to an orthogonal set of axes (xy coordinate
system) is equal to the product of inertia with respect to an orthogonal set of
axes parallel to the original set and passing through the centroid of the area,
plus the product of the area and the x and y coordinates of the centroid of the
area
xy xyc c c
I I Ax y · +
back
3
2 1 2
12 2 3
R
bh h
y h
h bh
· + ·
2
R c
b
x x · ·
3 3
1 1
12 12
xc
I ba bh · ·
0
xyc
I ·
2
c
h
y ·
2
c
b
x ·
back
Pressure variation. Linear Motion
Pressure gradients
Change in pressure between two closely spaced points
or
Slope of line of constant pressure
y
z
a
dz
dy g a
·
+
Linear acceleration of a
liquid with a free surface
0
p
x
o
·
o
y
p
a
y
p
o
·
o
( )
z
p
g a
z
p
o
· +
o
p p
dp dy dz
y z
o o
· +
o o
( )
y z
dp a dy g a dz p p · +
back
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