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Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people organization relationships in ter!s of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social syste!. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving hu!an ob"ectives, organizational ob"ectives, and social ob"ectives.
Organizational behavior studies organizations from multiple viewpoints and levels, including behavior within the organization and in relation to other organizations.
Micro organizational behavior refers to individual and group dynamics in an organizational setting. Macro organizational theory studies whole organizations and industries, including how they adapt, and the strategies, structures, and contingencies that guide them.
OB highlights four central characteristics of the field: • It is firmly grounded in the scientific method • It studies individuals, groups, and organizations. • It is interdisciplinary in nature. • It is used as the basis for enhancing orgainsational effectiveness and individual well being. !he study of OB involves: • "onsideration of the interaction among the formal structure #organizational conte$t in which the process of management takes place% • !he technology employed and the methods of carrying out work • !he behaviour of people
• !he process of management • !he e$ternal environment Interrelated dimensions influencing behaviour: • !he Individual & working environment should satisfy individual needs as well as attainment of organizational goals • !he 'roup formal and informal. (nderstanding of groups complements a knowledge of individual behaviour. • !he Organisation & impact of organization structure and design, and patterns of management, on behaviour. • !he )nvironment & technological and scientific development, economic activity, and governmental actions.
http://www.slideshare.net/clickmyemail/intro-to-ob-ppt Providesa set of toolsthat allow: • People to understand, analyze, and describe behavior in organizations • Managers to improve, enhance, or change work behaviors so that individuals, groups and the whole organization can achieve their goals
Generalisationsabouthumanbehaviour: > happy workers are productive workers. > Individuals are most productive when the boss is friendly, reliable and unassuming. > behaviour of good leaders is consistent irrespective of the situations they face. > Interviews are effective selection devices. > Everybody likes a challenging job > People will have to be bullied/intimidated to make them to do their jobs. > Money motivates all. > >People are more concerned about their own salaries than others’. >Members of effective groups do not quarrel among themselves.
A Short Historyof OrganizationalBehavior The Greek philosopher Plato wrote about the essence of leadership. Aristotle addressed the topic of persuasive communication. The writings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius in 500 BC are beginning to influence contemporary thinking about ethics and leadership. The writings of 16th century Italian philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli laid the foundation for contemporary work on
Australian-born Harvard professor Elton Mayo and his colleagues conducted productivity studies at Western Electric's Hawthorne plant in the United States. and Organizational Ecology theories. German sociologist Max Weber wrote about rational organizations and initiated discussion of charismatic leadership. In the 1920s. with Taylorism representing the peak of this movement. including systems theory. Studies of different compensation systems were carried out. Institutional Theory . Proponents of scientific management held that rationalizing the organization with precise sets of instructions and time-motion studies would lead to increased productivity. as the invention of large-scale logistics and operations research led to a renewed interest in rationalist approaches to the study of organizations. Soon after. The Second World War further shifted the field. among . Adam Smith advocated a new form of organizational structure based on the division of labour. the study of organizations with a complexity theory perspective and complexity strategy. Contingency Theory . Frederick Herzberg . March and the so-called ". motivation . much of it at Stanford University and Carnegie Mellon. Influential work was done by Herbert Alexander Simon and James G. the field was strongly influenced by social psychology and the emphasis in academic study was on quantitative research . and the actualization of the goals of individuals within organizations. One hundred years later. Carnegie School & quot. An explosion of theorizing. produced Bounded Rationality . resulting in a dramatic shift towards the ‘human relations’ school of thought. David McClelland .organizational power and politics. Interest grew in theory and methods native to the sciences. Informal Organization . Though it traces its roots back to Max Weber and earlier. In 1776. and Victor Vroom. Henri Fayol . This Human Relations Movement focused on teams . Abraham Maslow . Resource Dependence . Frederick Winslow Taylor introduced the systematic use of goal setting and rewards to motivate employees. the focus of organizational studies shifted to analysis of how human factors and psychology affected organizations. a transformation propelled by the identification of the Hawthorne Effect . They discovered the importance of formal and informal group dynamics in the work place. Prominent early scholars included Chester Barnard . After the First World War. organizational studies is generally considered to have begun as an academic discipline with the advent of scientific management in the 1890s. of organizational behavior In the 1960s and 1970s.
His overall objective was to reduce and/or remove human variability Taylor worked to achieve his goal of making work behaviors stable and predictable so that maximum output could be achieved. social environment..e. and experiment with ways of improving the way tasks are performed. The HawthorneStudies Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company near Chicago. cultural explanations of organizations and change became an important part of study. durability. A leading scholar was Karl Weick FrederickWinslowTaylorFrederickWinslowTaylor(1856–1915) was the first person who attempted to study human behavior at work using a systematic approach. psychology and sociology . Codify the new methods of performing tasks into written rules and standard operating procedures. 2. task. Found that productivity increased regardless of whether illumination was raised or lowered. He relied strongly upon monetary incentive systems. cost and their interaction with each other.many others. informed by anthropology . He faced some strong criticism. including being accused of telling managers to treat workers as machines without minds. capacity. lighting). and train them to perform the task according to the established rules and procedures. believing that humans are primarily motivated by money. physical environment. Taylor studied human characteristics. 1924-1932 – these studies mark the starting point of the field of Organisational Behaviour Initiated as an attempt to investigate how characteristics of the work setting affect employee fatigue and performance (i. Carefully select employees so that they possess skills and abilities that match the needs of the task. Establish an acceptable level of performance for a task. and then develop a pay system that provides a reward for performance above the acceptable level. but his work was very productive and laid many foundation principles for modern management studies Four Principles of Scientific Management 1. Qualitative methods of study became more acceptable. Study the way employees perform their tasks. 3. gather informal job knowledge that employees possess. speed. 4. Started in 1924– to examine the relationship between light intensity and employee productivity – a test group and a control group were used – the test group initially did not show any increase or decrease in output in proportion to the . Starting in the 1980s.
and will try to do as little as possible Manager’s task is to supervise closely and control employees through reward and punishment Theory Y Employees will do what is good for the organization when committed Manager’s task is create a work setting that encourages commitment to organizational goals and provides opportunities for employees to be exercise initiative http://www. Third.net/saransuriyan/organisational-behaviour-ppt ATTITUDE The attitude is the evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects. people. they tend to persist unless something is done to change them. dislikes work. Components of Attitudes . attitudes can !all anywhere along a continuum !rom very !avorable to very un!avorable. The results baffled the researchers. Subsequent phases brought the level of light down to moonlight intensity: the workers could barely see what they were doing. The control group with unchanged illumination increased output by the same amount overall by the test group.slideshare. Obviously.increase/decrease in illumination. or events. Attitude can be characterized in three ways: "irst. but productivity increased. MaryParkerFollett Management must consider the human side Employees should be involved in job analysis Person with the knowledge should be in control of the work process regardless of position Cross-functioning teams used to accomplish projects DouglasMcGregor: Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Average employee is lazy. attitudes are directed toward some object about which a person has !eelings $sometimes called %a!!ect&' and belie!s. something besides the level of illumination was causing the change in productivity – the complex human variable. ore precisely attitudes can be de!ined as a persistent tendency to !eel and behave in a particular way toward some object which may include events or individuals as well. #econd.
1ere management may conclude that a negative attitude toward new work rules led to increased absenteeism. -! we have a positive attitude !or a particular object. it is likely to be translated into a particular type o! behavior. it the cognitive part o! attitude we are talking about. -! the management can success!ully develop a.ample might help to illustrate it. that the workers are not too happy about it. y supervisor is un!air. e. Affective Component of Attitude re!ers to the emotional aspect o! attitude. Attitudes he p predict wor" behavior# The !ollowing e. Cognitive Component of Attitude re!ers to opinion or belie! part o! attitude.The three basic components o! attitude are (ognitive. These in turn give rise to development o! your attitudes.: -/m looking !or other work0 -/ve complained about my supervisor to anyone who would listen. they will be better adjusted to their work.: y supervisor gave a promotion to a coworker who deserved it less than me. This is perhaps the most o!ten re!erred part o! attitude and decides mostly the desirable or undesirable aspect attitude. e.dislike my supervisor. Attitudes he p peop e to adapt to their wor" environment# )n understanding o! attitudes is also important because attitudes help the employees to get adjusted to their work. 4uring the subse5uent week it is !ound that the attendance o! the employees drops sharply !rom the previous standard. )!!ective and *ehavioural part. such as buying or procuring that object. !ormation of Attitude 1ow attitudes are !ormed2 1ow do you develop your attitude2 3ssentially attitudes are the outward mani!estation o! your inner values and belie!s. Behaviora Component of Attitude re!ers to the behavioral part o! attitude.: . +hen you !orm your opinion or judgment on the basis o! available in!ormation and decide whether you have a !avorable or un!avorable opinion on that.positive attitude among the employees. . it is !ound !rom an attitude survey. )s you grow you watch the signi!icant people around you behaving in a particular way0 you are being told to cherish certain things over others and you learn !rom your teachers and peers and come to value certain thins over other. thus !orming your value system. )!ter introducing a particular policy. These develop over time. e.
*ut they tend to disapprove his creative ideas as 7crazy/ and 7impractical/ and dismiss him altogether. 9rior commitment when people !eel a commitment towards a particular course o! action that have already been agreed upon and thus it becomes di!!icult !or them to change or accept the new ways o! !unctioning. The &a ue%E'pressive !unction. )ttitudes provide standards and !rames o! re!erence that allow people to understand. Changing Attitudes Emp oyees( attitudes can be ) changed and sometimes it is in the best interests of managements to try to do so# !or e'amp e* if emp oyees be ieve that their emp oyer does not oo" after their we fare* the management shou d try to change their attitude and he p deve op a more positive attitude in them# +owever* the process of changing the attitude is not a ways easy. joins the organization. Attitudes often he p peop e to ad$ust to their wor" environment# +ell-treated employees tend to develop a positive attitude towards their job. -nsu!!icient in!ormation also acts as a major barrier to change attitudes. attitudes help employees adjust to their environment and !orm a basis !or !uture behaviour. -! one has a strong negative attitude towards the management. These are as !ollows. Attitudes provide individua s with a basis for e'pressing their va ues# "or e. The Ad$ustment !unction.ample. management and the organization in general while berated and ill treated organizational members develop a negative attitude. The 6nowledge "unction.!unctions of Attitude )ccording to 6atz. the older members might !eel somewhat threatened by him. . whatever the management does. attitudes serve !our important !unctions !rom the viewpoint o! organizational behaviour. Ego%Defensive !unction# Attitudes he p peop e to retain their dignity and se f% image# +hen a young !aculty member who is !ull o! !resh ideas and enthusiasm. a manager who values hard and sincere work will be more vocal against an employee who is having a very casual approach towards work.and perceive the world around him. :. -n other words. #ometimes people simply see any reason to change their attitude due to unavailability o! ade5uate in!ormation. even employee wel!are programmes can be perceived as something 7bad/ and as actually against them. There are two major categories o! barriers that come in the way o! changing attitudes: 8. There are some barriers wliich have to be overcome i! one strives to change somebody/s attitude.
-! some one helps him in pointing out the positive points in !avour o! the chosen course o! action. /eso ving Discrepancies: +henever %people !ace %a dilemma or con!licting situation they !eel con!used in choosing a particular course o! action. .ike in the case o! the union leader who are all the time vehemently against any management decision. Their opinion and recommendation !or something o!ten proves to be more important. #canty and incomplete in!ormation can be a major reason !or brewing negative !eeling and attitudes. it is o!ten becomes very e!!ective i! you can include him in your own group. )ttitudes can be changed through the use o! !ear. Inf uence of friends and peers ) very e!!ective way o! changing one/s attitude is through his !riends and colleagues. chances are high that an individual will slowly accept that even when he had initial reservations !or that. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< < How Are Employee Attitudes Measured? • The most popular method for getting information about employee attitudes is through attitude surveys. 1owever. -! !or e. Use of !ear. can be the person who takes active initiative in implementing a new policy when he had participated in that decision making process himsel!. . 9eople might resort to change their work habit !or the !ear o! !ear o! unpleasant conse5uences.ew Information# #ometimes a dramatic change in attitude is possible only by providing relevant and ade5uate in!ormation to the person concerned. he might still !eel con!used. 3ven when he chooses one over the other.ike in the case where one is to choose !rom& between two alternative courses o! action.. the degree o! the arousal o! !ear will have to be taken into consideration as well. -! you want to change the attitude o! some body who belongs to a di!!erent group. Co%opting. they are all praise !or a particular policy introduced in the work place.ome of the possib e ways of changing attitudes are described be ow# -roviding . he person might resolve the his dilemma. .ample. it is o!ten become di!!icult !or him to decide which is right !or him.
thinking. Managers present the employee with set statements or questions to obtain specific information. =?* #)T-#")(T-?@ A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job • A high level of job satisfaction equals positive attitudes toward the job and vice versa.the degree to which an employee identi!ies with a particular organizational and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. • Often when people speak of “employee attitudes” they mean “employee job satisfaction. and considers per!ormance important to sel!worth. coworkers. and behaving) • Work Situation (the work itself.• Using attitude surveys on a regular basis provides managers with valuable feedback on how employees perceive their working conditions. • ?rganizational (ommitment . An employee’s cognitive and affective evaluation of his or her job Determinants of Job Satisfaction: • Personality (the enduring ways a person has of feeling. physical working conditions. and working hours.” A pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences (Locke. pay and job security) • Values (intrinsic and extrinsic work values) • Social Influence (coworkers.the degrees to which a person identi!ies with a job. groups. Individual Responses are then combined and analyzed Important Attitudes /e ated to 0rganisations: • =ob #atis!action > is a set o! !avorable or un!avorable !eelings and emotions with which employees view their work. • Employee attitudes and job satisfaction are frequently used interchangeably. • =ob -nvolvement . and subordinates. actively participates in it. and culture) . 1976). supervisors.
Customer Satisfaction • Satisfied workers provide better customer service Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: • They are more friendly.The Effectof Job Satisfactionon EmployeePerformance Job Performance • Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied! • Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers. Workplace Deviance • Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize abuse substances. be tardy. Turnover • Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. and withdraw CognitiveDissonance • A state of tension that is produced when an individual experiences conflict between attitudes and behavior Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Leon Festinger • Any Incompatibility between 2 or more attitudes or between behavior • Internal state that results when individuals notice inconsistency between 2 or more of their attitudes or between their attitudes and their behavior . • They are less likely to turnover. and responsive. Absenteeism • Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. • Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers. upbeat. steal. which helps build long-term customer relationships Organizational Citizenship behavior (OCB) • Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.
net/srmacalinao/employee-attitude-and-their-e!!ects http://www. Stimulation 2.Self Perception Theory • Daryl Bem • Asserts that we develop our attitudes by observing our own behavior and concluding what attitudes must have caused them http://mbanotesravi.com/:A8:/88/:B/organisation-behaviour-attitude/ http://www. 1977). Four Stages: 1.slideshare. Registration 3. Interpretation .net/guruduttreddy/attitudes-8C8DCEDF 93G(39T-?@ • is the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world (Lindsay & Norman.slideshare.wordpress. Organization 4.
1987. on the one hand. A “Selectionfor-Action View” suggests that filtering is not just a consequence of capacity limitations. when presented with information from two different channels (i. suggesting multiple channels of processing (Pashler.. a person must process information selectively and. evaluating a person’s characteristics by comparison to others (contrast effect). http://healthadmin. . causing a person to act erroneously based on another person’s perception (pygmalion effect). methods of delivery such as visual and auditory). filtering other aspects that are action irrelevant. one will skip over information that does not support one’s plan.e. Neumann. or attitudes (Sherif & Cantril. Recent studies of the brain have also led to new models. at the same time. attitudes. judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs (stereotyping). Broadbent’s filter theory has been updated in recent years. However. This is accomplished through various means such as classifying an individual based on a single characteristic (halo effect). This is referred to as selective perception. 1987. people are selective in what they perceive and tend to filter information based on the capacity to absorb new data. Van der Heijden. Therefore.com/borkowski/chapterC.jbpub. or controlling another person’s perception of oneself (impression management). 1998). Selective perception occurs when an individual limits the processing of external stimuli by selectively interpreting what he or she sees based on beliefs. etc. due to limited capacity. therefore. Broadbent argued that. In any case. perceiving others in ways that really reflect a perceiver’s own attitudes and beliefs (projection). The concept is that any action requires the selection of certain aspects of the environment that are action relevant and. when one is working toward a goal. 1989) and selective perception as a result of activation of cortical maps and neural networks (Rizzolatti & Craighero.Broadbent (1958) addressed the concept of perceptual vigilance with his filter model. but is driven by goal-directed actions (Allport. 1992). 1993. 1945). an individual’s perceptual system processes only that which it believes to be most relevant. perceptual defense creates an internal barrier that limits the external stimuli passing through the perception process when it is not congruent with the person’s current beliefs.pd! SocialPerception Social perceptionis how an individual “sees” others and how others perceive an individual. combined with preconceived thoughts. motivation. experience.
Chambliss. 2003). contrast effect is the perception of an individual based on the comparison to others. The perceiver may evaluate the other individual high on many traits because of his or her belief that the individual is high in one trait. such as intelligence. and valuable– worthless. or appearance. For example. projection is the attribution of one’s own attitudes and beliefs onto others.Halo Effect The halo effect occurs when an individual draws a general impression about another person based on a single characteristic. Brownell. smart–stupid. along with his daughter Anna Freud (1936). where we attribute our own attitudes onto someone else as a defense against our feelings of anxiety or guilt. 1920). whereby a person evaluates another as low on many traits because of a belief that the individual is low on one trait that is assumed to be critical (Thorndike. Contrast effectsrelate to an individual’s evaluation of another person’s characteristics based on (or affected by) comparisons with other people who rank higher or lower on the same . the term stereotype is defined to mean a conventional image applied to whole groups of people. Projection Whereas. suggested that projection was a defensive mechanism. and the treatment of groups according to a fixed set of generalized traits or characteristics. All of us are guilty of unconsciously projecting our own beliefs onto others. Blair & Billington. Stereotyping As such. sociability. Sigmund Freud (1894). The study respondents were much quicker to pair “fat’’ with “lazy’’ and other negative traits and/or stereotypes (Schwartz. Although stereotyping can be positive because it allows us to Contrast Effects Research has provided evidence that perceptions are also subject to what is termed perceptual contrast effects. A study on obesity conducted with health professionals and researchers reflects the horn effect concept. Study participants were asked to complete an Implicit Associations Test to assess overall implicit weight bias (associating “obese people” and “thin people” with “good” vs “bad”) and three ranges of stereotypes: lazy–motivated. then the manager may also erroneously perceive the employee as having competencies in other areas such as management or technology Opposite to the halo effect is the horn effect. if an employee performs a difficult accounting task well due to the manager’s belief of the employee’s high intelligence.
The sender receives and decodes the feedback. Workplace Communication # COMMUNICATION PROCESS Figure 4-1illustrates the communication process. To ensure messages are received as intended. or self-fulfilling prophecy.characteristics. once an expectation is made known by another person. A sender uses words and symbols to put forth information into a message for the receiver. the contrast effect relates to how an individual is perceived in relation to others around him or her. It shows that the sender is a person. the more effective the communication. how we do it. describes a person’s behavior that is consistent with another individual’s perception whether ornot it is accurate. Impression management incorporates what we do. It is an important element of communication since it allows for information to be shared between the receiver and . and social anxiety (Thornton and Moore. The closer the decoded message gets to the intent of the sender. However. The contrast effect not only applies to the perception of attractiveness. public selfconsciousness. 1992). but it has also been shown to influence self-esteem. 1993). feedback is a necessary component of the communication process. the individual(s) receiving the message. an individual will have the tendency to behave in ways consistent with the expectation. The receiver creates feedback to a message and encodes it before transmitting it back to the sender. Messages are then received and decoded or interpreted by the receiver. Accurate decoding of the message by the receiver is critical to effective communication. Details on barriers are described in a later section. Pygmalion Effect The pygmalion effect. Individuals will try to present themselves in ways that will lead to positive evaluations by others by highlighting their achievements and avoiding the disclosure of failures. and how we say it as we try to influence the perceptions others have of us. Feedback is the destination’s reaction to a message (Certo. or unit of an organization or system who originates the message. environmental and personal barriers can hamper the communication process. Decoding is affected by the receiver’s prior experiences and frames of reference. what we say. In other words. department. . In other words.
or the performance of a particular individual. clear. Feedback can be information related to the productivity of groups in an organization. and instructive on introducing the staff to the computer database for managing patient accounts. Manager A asks Manager B to comment on her behavior at a staff meeting. M. • Evaluative feedback.sender in a two-way communication. B indicates that A was specific. (2003) Organizational behavior: Emerging realities for the workplace revo Descriptive feedback. S. B provides a descriptive feedback of A’s behavior at the staff meeting. Feedback that identifies or describes how a person communicates. Feedback can be information related to the productivity of Feedback 79 Sender Message • Create • Encode Sender Message • Receive • Decode Barriers • Environment • Personal Feedback • Receive • Decode Feedback • Create • Encode Figure 4-1 The Communication Process Source:McShane.A. # FEEDBACK Feedback is any information that individuals receive about their behavior.. For instance.L. Feedback is any information that individuals receive about their behavior. Feedback that provides an assessment of the . and Von Glinow.
• Individual feedback. Feedback that focuses on how well the group is performing. if Manager B evaluates Manager A’s behavior and concludes that she is instructive and helpful. and audio # COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Another important component of the communication process is selecting the appropriate communication channel. Specific issues that relate to task feedback include the quantity or quality of a group’s output. Task or procedural feedback. then B has provided positive evaluative feedback of A’s interaction with the staff.person who communicates. In the above case. Feedback that focuses on a particular individual in a group. is an individual in the group knowledgeable? Does he or she have the skills helpful to this group? What attitudes does he or she have toward the group as they work together to accomplish their tasks? Is the individual able to plan and organize within a schedule that contributes to the group’s goal attainment? • Group feedback. Manager A asks Manager B how she could have made changes to better communicate her message to her staff. are patients satisfied with the new outpatient clinic? Did the group complete the project on time? Procedural feedback refers to whether a correct procedure was used appropriately at the time by the group. similar questions are asked for the group. and that causes the staff to feel comfortable when going to A for help or asking questions. Like the questions raised at the individual feedback level. For example. surveys. It is the means by which . Feedback that provides information about interpersonal dynamics within a group. Relational feedback. This type of advice is prescriptive feedback. For example. Do team members within the group have adequate knowledge to complete a task? Have they developed a communication network to facilitate their objectives? Feedback can be in the form of questionnaires. Feedback that provides advice about how one should behave or communicate. This level of feedback emphasizes how a group gets along while working together. B suggests for A to be friendlier and more cooperative by giving the staff specific times that A is available for help with the new computer database. • Prescriptive feedback. Feedback at this level involves issues of effectiveness and appropriateness. For instance. It is effective when it is combined with the descriptive and prescriptive forms of feedback.
Longest. other forms of technology have infused healthcare organizations and directly enhance and impact the communication process. which is used to convey meanings and messages. Personalbarriersarisefromthe natureof individual . BARRIERSTO COMMUNICATION As illustratedin Figure4-1 (page79). There are four basic forms of nonverbal communication: proxemics. Dialogue is a form of verbal communication. Messages can be clearly defined through concrete and specific instructions rather than abstract words or generalization Other Computer-Aided Communication In addition to e-mail technology. One can select any part of the message to read and skip to important parts of the message.Rakich. and paralanguage (Nelson & Quick. The various channels of communication and the amount of information transmitted through each type are illustrated in Figure 4-2. facial and eye behavior.messages are transmitted. It is a discussion or conversation between people. It is a process in which participants are exposed to new information. There are two types of channels: verbal and nonverbal. changed. Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication is sharing information without using words to encode messages. Verbal Communication Verbal communication relies on spoken or written words to share information with others. E-mail is a preferred channel for coordinating work and schedules. 2003). The process involves a series of meetings of organizational members that represent different views on issues of mutual interest. Proxemicsis the study of an individual’s perception and use of space Kinesics refers to body language. Computer-Aided Communication Electronic mail has revolutionized the way we communicate.and Darr (2000)classifythesebarriersinto two categories:environmentaland personal. kinesics. E-mail allows messages to be rapidly created. Environmentalbarriersare characteristicof the organizationand its environmentalsetting. saved. and sent to many people at the same time. severalformsof barrierscan impedethe communicationprocess.
A managementphilosophythat encouragesthe free flowof communicationis constructive. PersonalBarriers Personalbarriersarisedueto an individual’sframeof referenceor beliefs andvalues.Onemay alsoconsciouslyor unconsciouslyengagein selectiveperceptionor be influencedby fear or jealously. EFFECTIVECOMMUNICATIONFORKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT .one can consciouslyminimizetheir impact. Usingmultiplechannelsto reinforcecomplexmessagesdecreasesthe likelihoodof misunderstanding. Dueto inadequateattentionpaid to the message. 5. 2. Reducingthe numberof links(levelsin the organizationalhierarchy or stepsbetweenthe senderin the healthcareorganizationand the receiverwhois an externalstakeholder)reducesopportunitiesfor distortion. Thepower/statusbarriercan be removedby consciouslytailoring wordsand symbolsso that messagesare understandable.reinforcingwordswith actions significantlyimprovescommunicationamong differentpower/statuslevels.Theyare basedon one’ssocioeconomicbackgroundand prior experiencesand shapehowmessagesare encodedanddecoded.”Listeningis a process that integratesphysical. Recognizingthat environmentand personalbarriersexist is the first step to effectivecommunication. emotional.and intellectualinputsinto the quest for meaningand understanding. 4.EnvironmentalBarriers Examplesof environmentalbarriersincludecompetitionfor attention andtimebetweensendersand receivers.By becomingcognizantof their existence.The receiverhearsthe message. Environmentalbarriersare reducedif receiversand sendersensure that attentionis givento their messagesand that adequatetimeis devotedto listeningto whatis beingcommunicated.positiveactionsare neededto overcomethesebarriers(see Table4-1).Multipleand simultaneousdemandscause messagesto be incorrectlydecoded.However.but doesnot understandit. 3. Longestandcoauthors(2000)provideus with severalguidelinesfor overcomingbarriers: 1.the receiveris not really “listening.
Thekey informationthat staff needto know. intuitive.downward.qxd3/9/054:51PMPage934. • An effectivecommunicatormusthavean understandingof how otherslearn. Messages.g. and peers. STRATEGICCOMMUNICATION Strategiccommunicationis an intentionalprocessof presentingideasin a clear.and diagonallywithin organizations.that is.verbalvs. Sperryand Whiteman(2003)provideus with a strategiccommunication plan.Tacticsor methodsusedto reinforcethe message. To planstrategiccommunication.Communicationplaysan importantrole in knowledgemanagement. whichincludesconsiderationof differencesin how othersperceiveand processinformation(e.or arriveat a decision. A managermustmakean intentionaleffort to master communicationskills and usethemstrategically. abstractvs. The followingsummarizesthesekey elements: • An effectivecommunicatormusthavea desireto communicate. whichconsistsof five components. unit. concrete.horizontally. staff.mission.managersmustdevelopa methodologyfor thinking throughandeffectivelycommunicatingwith superiors. Employeesare the organization’sbraincells. consistentlywith the organization’svalues. whichis influencedboth by one’spersonalvaluesandthe expectationthat the communicationwill be receivedin a meaningfulway. Outcome. or organization FLOWSOF INTRAORGANIZATIONALCOMMUNICATION Communicationcan flowupward.andpersuasiveway. and communicationrepresentsthe nervous systemthat carriesinformationandsharedmeaningto vital partsof the organizationalbody..Thewaythe messageis receivedand its impacton the individual.Upwardcommunicationoccursbetween . analyticvs. 3. elicit a responseor reaction. The organizationalimportanceof the communication.team. 2. Context. 1. • The receiverof the messageshouldbe cuedas to the purposeof the message. 5.Thespecificresult that an individualwantsto achieve. that is. whetherthe messageis to provideinformation.and strategy. Tactical reinforcement. StrategicCommunication93 47688_CH04_077_110. Feedback.Effectivecommunicationbrings knowledgeinto the organizationanddisseminatesit to employeeswho requirethat information. written). concise.
identifyproblemareas.Horizontalflowis frommanagerto manager or fromco-workerto co-worker. • Opendoorpolicy. Longestet al.Theuse of an ombudspersonprovidesan outlet for personswhofeel theyhavebeentreatedunfairly.and exit interviews.It is an invitation for subordinatesto comein andtalk to the superioraboutthingsthat troublethem.The departmentof humanresourcesin a healthcareorganizationcan facilitate subordinateinitiatedcommunicationby conductingconfidential counseling. Downwardcommunicationsincludemeetingwith .This allowsemployeesto makean appealupwardbeyondtheir immediatesupervisor.Informationgained fromtheseformsof communicationcan be usedto makeimprovements. • Participativedecisionmakingtechniques.Upwardflowbecomesespeciallyimportantwith increased organizationalcomplexity.Sinceemployeescan partic Ombudsperson.union–managementcommittees.participativetechniquescan improve employeeperformanceand satisfaction. UpwardFlow The purposesof upwardcommunicationfloware to providemanagers with informationto makedecisions.questionnaires.collectdata for performanceassessments.Throughthe use of informalinvolvementof subordinatesor formalparticipationprograms suchas qualityimprovementteams.as well as communications on a one-to-onebasis. Diagonalflowoccursbetweendifferentlevelsof differentdepartments. (2000)providesus with severalformsof intraorganizationalcommunication for healthcareorganizations.and revealemployeethoughtsand feelingsaboutthe organization.suchas instructionsfor completing tasks. This includesverbal and nonverbalcommunication.supervisorsand subordinates.and holdingexit interviewsfor thoseleavingthe organization. • Grievanceprocedure.administeringattitudequestionnaires. 94 CHAPTER4 WORKPLACECOMMUNICATION 47688_CH04_077_110.determinestaff morale.andsuggestion boxes.It protectsthe individual fromarbitraryactionby their direct supervisorandencourages communicationaboutcomplaints.Downwardcommunicationprimarilyinvolvespassingon informationfromsupervisorsto subordinates. DownwardFlow Downwardcommunicationinvolvespassinginformationfromsupervisorsto subordinates.qxd3/9/054:51PMPage94• Counseling. Thesupervisor’sdooris alwaysopento subordinates.
horizontalflowor lateral communication mustalso occur. HorizontalFlow Upwardand downwardcommunicationsare inadequatefor effectiveorganizational performance.decisionmaking.newsletters.and crossfunctional projectteamsare all usefulformsof horizontalcommunication. Nevertheless.. In a group settingwherea dominantleadertakesover groupdiscussionsby controllingthe numberof messagesand amountof . 2000).Whilediagonalflowdoesnot followthe typical hierarchicalchainof command.bulletinboards. The purposeof lateral communicationis the sharingof informationamongpeersat similarlevelsto keep organizationalstaff informedof all currentpractices.To reducecommunicationoverload.a decentralizednetwork can createcommunicationoverload.A networkcreatesstructurefor the group becauseit controlswhocan and shouldtalk to whom(Keyton.2002).in whichtoo muchinformationor too complexcommunicationmayoccur(Keyton. Furthermore.employees. Decentralizednetworksalloweachgroupmemberto talk to every othergroupmemberwithoutrestrictions.all-channelor decentralizednetworkis best usedfor groupdiscussions.A communicationnetwork is the interactionpatternbetween andamonggroupmembers. Groupsgenerallydeveloptwo typesof communicationnetworks:centralizedand decentralized(Figure4-4).2002). andproblemsolving..diagonal flowis especiallyuseful in healthcarefor efficientcommunicationand coordinationof patientcare. Thesenetworksare interconnectedby communicationchannels.Theall-channelnetworktendsto be fast and accuratecomparedwith the centralizednetworksuchas the chainor Y-pattern networks(Longestet al.coordinatingthe continuumof patientcare requirescommunicationamongmultipleunits.and procedures(Spillanet al.and clinical andadministrationinformationsystems.committees.writtenmemos.An open.messagesmayconflict with eachother andresult in confusionor disagreement. 2002).proceduralmanuals. policies. DiagonalFlow The least usedchannelof communicationin healthcareorganizationsis diagonalflow.a facilitator shouldbe usedto monitorgroupdiscussions. A centralizednetworkrestrictsthe numberof peoplein the communicationchain. Whena communicationoverloadis produced. COMMUNICATIONNETWORKS Flowsof communicationcan be combinedinto patternscalledcommunicationnetworks. For example. Diagonalflowsare growingin importance.task forces.In complexhealthcareorganizations.
in which too fewor simplemessagesare transmitted. This networkdelineatesthe chain of commandand showsclear linesof authority ■ INFORMALCOMMUNICATION In additionto formalcommunicationflowsand networkswithinhealthcareorganizations. thereare informalcommunicationflows. .and whofinally reportsto the CEOof a largehospital.75 percentof employeestypicallyreceivenewsfromthe grapevinebeforethey hear aboutit throughformalchannels(McShane& VonGlinow.informationbeingpassed.The grapevineis an unstructuredandinformalnetworkfoundedon social relationshipsratherthan organizationalchartsor job descriptions.Accordingto someestimates. Sucha networkcan createcommunicationunderload.group membersfeel isolatedfromgroupdiscussionsandgenerallyfeel dissatisfied.groupmembersdo not interactexceptthrough the leader.In this typeof network.Employeeshavealwaysreliedon the oldestcommunicationchannel— the corporategrapevine.whoreportsto the directorof nursing. whoreportsto the vice presidentfor clinicalservices.2003).An exampleis a staff nurse whoreportsto the chargenurse.In the chain network.communicationoccursupwardand downwardand followsline authority relationships.whichhave their ownnetworks.
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