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A Defected Half Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide (D-HMSIW) Band-pass Filter with T-extension for Ku-Band Applications

A Defected Half Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide (D-HMSIW) Band-pass Filter with T-extension for Ku-Band Applications

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Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 23, Issue 1, December 2013 www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 23, Issue 1, December 2013 www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk

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JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 23, ISSUE 1, DECEMBER 2013

6

A Defected Half Mode Substrate Integrated
Waveguide (D-HMSIW) Band-pass Filter with
T-extension for Ku-Band Applications
Sourav Moitra, Basudeb Mondal, Pushpita Tapu, A. K. Mukhopadhyay and A. K. Bhattacharjee
Abstract—A Novel Defected Half Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide (D-HMSIW) filter with Band-pass property has been
presented in this article over a substrate with dielectric constant 3.2 and material thickness of 30mils. Single and multiple T-
extensions have been implemented over the HMSIW structure to obtain the band-pass characteristics. The design is extremely
simple and the pass-band can be obtained at other frequencies by simple alterations of the dimension of the T-slots. The filter
finds applications in Ku band operations with advantages like convenient integration, compact size, low cost and ease in
fabrication.
Index Terms— Defected Half Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide (HMSIW), T-Slot extension, Band-pass filter (BPF),
Insertion Loss (IL), Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC), Ku-band.
——————————

——————————
1 INTRODUCTION
N In recent years there is an increasing demand and
interest in a variety of applications for microwave fil-
ters. Microwave circuits in millimeter-wave region al-
ways demand low loss transmission lines. Rectangular
waveguides still play an important role particularly in
very high frequency systems, where the loss in such a
waveguide is significantly less than that in a popular pla-
nar transmission lines. Substrate-integrated waveguide
(SIW) technology, which works based on the general rec-
tangular theory but carries advantages of planar circuits,
is an emerging technology in this domain for the devel-
opment of circuits and components operating in the mi-
crowave and millimeter-wave frequency bands. SIW
structures exhibit propagation characteristics similar to
that of classical rectangular waveguides, including the
field pattern and the dispersion characteristics. Moreover
SIW structures serve most of the advantages of conven-
tional metallic waveguides, namely, high quality-factor
and high power handling capability. This type of wave-
guide known as laminated waveguide, has been pro-
posed for the first time in 1994 [1]. Since that time, several
components based on the SIW technology have been pro-
posed over the past years for operation in the microwave
and millimeter wave range. Several filters [2], couplers
[3], oscillators [4], slot array antennas [5], six-port circuits
[6], and circulators [7] have been proposed since then.
SIW structures are designed by using two rows of con-
ducting cylindrical vias embedded in a dielectric sub-
strate that connects two parallel metal plates and permit
the implementation of classical rectangular waveguide
components in planar form, along with several printed
passive circuitry, active devices and antennas as shown in
Fig. 1.






Fig. 1. Basic SIW structure realized on a dielectric sub-
strate
The major advantage of SIW technology is that a com-
plete circuit in planar form (including planar circuitry,
transitions with microstrip lines and coplanar wave-
guides, rectangular waveguides, active components and
antennas) can be fabricated using a standard printed cir-
cuit board or other planar processing techniques whereas
classical rectangular waveguide filters are bulky, heavy,
high cost, and also difficult to integrate with planar cir-
cuits, being three-dimensional (3-D) structures. This tech-
nology represents an attractive alternative to convention-
al metallic waveguides for low-cost, low-loss, and high-
density integration of microwave and millimeter-wave
components and subsystems.
2 D-HMSIW FILTER DESIGN
The design of basic SIW structure is the first step toward
————————————————
- Sourav Moitra is B-Tech, M-Tech Assistant Professor in the Dept of Elec-
tronics & Communication Engineering, Dr. B C Roy Engineering College,
Durgapur, and research scholar in National Institute of Technology, Dur-
gapur, India
- Basudeb Mondal is B-Tech, M-Tech Assistant Professor in the Dept of
Electrical Engineering, Dr. B C Roy Engineering College, Durgapur
- A. K. Bhattacharjee is B.E. M.E. PhD, Professor in Electronics & Commu-
nication Engineering Dept. in National Institute of Technology, Durgapur,
India.


I
7

the effective design of a complete SIW component. Sever-
al problems have to be considered while designing an
SIW, including the operation bandwidth, radiation lea-
kage, and dielectric and conductor losses. Traditional me-
tallic rectangular waveguide bandpass filters such as E-
plane filter [8, 9], H-plane filter [10], and fin-line filter [11]
have been widely used in microwave and millimeter-
wave systems due to their merits of low insertion loss and
high power handling capacity. In our design we started
with a basic half mode SIW filter. The basic SIW and
HMSIW filter is shown in Fig. 2.









Fig. 2. Basic SIW and HMSIW Filter
HMSIW consists of nearly half the total dimension of the
SIW without any compromise in filter characteristics and
thus carry the advantage of more compact layouts.
HMSIW can only support TE
(m+0.5), 0
(m = 0, 1, 2, …….)
mode and restrains the TE
(m, 0)
(m = 1, 2, …….) mode
which is equivalent to the TE
(2m, 0)
(m = 1, 2, …..) mode in
SIW, so the first spurious pass-band becomes more far
away from the pass-band of a band-pass filter. The
HMSIW can be considered equivalent to a high-pass filter
due to its inherent sharp cut-off in lower frequency [12].
The important parameters need to be considered of the
design of SIW structure are diameter of the holes d, the
spacing between the holes b (also known as pitch) and the
spacing between the centres of two rows W
eff
. W is the
spacing between end points of the rows of two metallic
vias. The pitch b must be kept small to reduce the leakage
loss between adjacent vias. It has been observed that the
post diameter d is also subject to the loss problem. As a
result, the ratio d/b is considered to be more critical than
the pitch length because the post diameter and the pitch
length are interrelated. Dispersion characteristics of TE
10

like mode in the SIW are almost identical with the mode
of a dielectric filled rectangular waveguide with an
equivalent width. This equivalent width is the effective
width of the SIW, and can be obtained by the following
relation.


where, a
s
is the separation between via rows (centre to
centre), a
d
is the width of DFW, d is the diameter, p is the
pitch (as shown in Figure 1). This property can be used to
analyze and design various components just by knowing
a
s
of the SIW. The cut-off frequency for the SIW may be
defined as



where, c is the velocity of light in vacuum. This property
proves to be an important technique for design of rectan-
gular waveguides in a straightforward way to analyze
and design various components just knowing W
eff
of the
SIW. The SIW can only support the TE modes propaga-
tion while the TM modes cannot be guided due to the
nature of the structure. Based on these relations SIW
structure has been designed and the structure is modified
into HMSIW as shown in Fig 2. The HMSIW filter with-
out any T-extensions with its Scattering parameters has
been shown in Fig 3 and Fig 4 respectively.






Fig. 3. Dimension of Basic HMSIW Filter (All dimensions
are in mm)
In our design the diameter of vias has been 0.6mm and
gap between centre to centre of consecutive vias has been
taken as 1mm. The S-parameter as in Fig. 4 clearly indi-
cates response of a high-pass filter operable in Ku-band.
The filter has its cut-off nearly at 12GHz with a minimal
insertion loss (IL) (less than 1dB) at the pass-band.











Fig. 4. Scattering Parameter of Simple HMSIW Filter
without T-extensions
Our next objective is to render transmission of power for
a particular frequency bands which in terms will enable
the filter to create a stop-band at certain higher frequency
(for Ku-band we considered to create the stop-band at
around 18GHz) in order to allow a particular band (Ku-
(1)
(2)
p
d
a a
d
s
95 . 0
2
÷ =
8

band) to pass and stop higher frequencies. For this pur-
pose we propose a Defected T-extension on the top PEC
layer of the HMSIW. The D-HMSIW T extension is
formed by a section of HMSIW and can be seen as a qua-
si-TEM mode transmission line resonator. It is shorted at
one end and open circuited at the other end. The electrical
length of the resonators is quarterwave length long of the
centre frequency of the the stop band to be created. The
insertion loss and the ripple properties are controlled by
the external Q
e
which is given by the following relation.


Design of a D-HMSIW with single T-extension filter with
its required S-parameters has been shown in Fig. 5 and
Fig. 6 respectively.








Fig. 5. Single T-extension D-HMSIW Filter (All dimen-
sions are in mm)
TABLE I
Symbol Dimension
d1 0.6
d2 0.8
d3 0.1
d4 0.6
d5 0.1
d6 20
d7 40
d8 5.25
d9 3
W
0
2.25
















Fig. 6. Scattering Parameter of Single T-extension D-
HMSIW Filter
As observed by introduction of a single T-extension over
the surface of the D-HMSIW, the band-stop characteristic
is not quite obtained. However a tendency to create a
stop-band may be noticed at around 18GHz. To obtain a
sharp cut-off an array of three T-extensions (Fig. 7) has
been introduced which serves the purpose quite efficient-
ly (Fig. 8). The wide pass-band shows very little IL of
around 1dB particularly from 12GHz to 20GHz. It is
found that the IL depends on the relative dielectric con-
stant of the material chosen. In this case, the T-extensions
have been introduced only on the top surface of the D-
HMSIW BPF.







Fig. 7. Dimension of Single Side T-slot array HMSIW Fil-
ter (All dimensions are in mm)
TABLE II
Symbol Dimension
d1 0.6
d2 0.8
d3 1.5
d4 0.1
d5 0.6
d6 1.45
(3)
9

d7 3
d8 5.25
d9 20
d10 40
W
0
2.25












Fig. 9. Scattering Parameter of Multiple T-extensions D-
HMSIW Filter
Fig. 9 shows Scattering Parameter of multiple T-extension
D-HMSIW Filter. In this case the array of T-extensions has
been introduced on top layer of the PEC. This has been
found to create a significant stop-band at the higher fre-
quencies (around 20GHz in our case), thus delivering
important characteristics for the filter to work as BPF. The
IL is also under 1dB over the entire pass-band for the di-
mensions taken as shown in Table II.
3 CONCLUSION
A novel technique for obtaining band-pass characteristics
in a HMSIW has been discussed in this paper. Implemen-
tation of array of T-extensions (D-HMSIW) has been found
to serve the purpose quite effectively. The design comes
with very low IL over the entire pass-band. The structure
can find wide application in Ku band radar and remote
sensing operations. The design is simple and easy to fabri-
cate in presence of advanced fabrication technique.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to express their deep gratitude
and sincere thanksgiving to Prof. Susanta Kumar Parui,
Bengal Engineering & Science University for providing
founding informations regarding SIW technology.
REFERENCES
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April 2007.

Sourav Moitra received his B-Tech (Elec-
tronics & Communication Engineering) in
2005 from the West Bengal University of
Technology. He was associated with
several electronics industries in between
2005 to 2007. He received his M-Tech
(Microwave Engineering) in 2009 from
The University of Burdwan. He has been
associated with Dept. of Atomic Energy,
Govt. of India on a project related to the
development of high power RF tubes. At
present he is associated with Dr. B. C. Roy Engineering College,
Durgapur, India as Assistant Professor in the Dept of Electronics &
Communication Engineering. He has several publications in Inte-
ternational Journals & Conferences. His current research interest
includes design & development of microwave & millimeter wave
passive circuits based on microstrip line and substrate integrated
waveguides applicable in wireless networks.

10

Basudeb Mondal received his B-Tech
(Electrical Engineering) in 2006 from the
West Bengal University of Technology.
He received his M-Tech (Power Sys-
tem/Electrical Engineering) in 2008 from
Bengal Engineering & Science University,
Sibpur, West Bengal, India. At present he
is associated with Dr. B. C. Roy Engi-
neering College, Durgapur, India as As-
sistant Professor in the Dept of Electron-
ics & Communication Engineering. He
has several publications in International Conferences. His current
research interest includes distribution system, renewal energy
sources, optimization technique, design & development of micro-
wave passive components.

A. K. Mukhopadhyay, is M.Tech (ECE)
from IIT Kharagpur and Ph.D(Engg) from
Jadavpur University, Kolkata. He is at
present the Head of Computer Science &
Engineering Department, Dr. B. C. Roy
Engineering College, Durgapur, India.
Previously he has been The Director of
Bengal Institute of Engg & Management,
Santiniketan and the Chairman, Comput-
er Society of India, Durgapur Chapter.
With more than 38 years of experience in
teaching, research, administration, he served institutions like IIT
Kharagpur , NERIST Itanagar, CEMK, Kolaghat, NiT, Kolkata,
BCREC, Durgapur, BCETW, Durgapur holding various positions
such as Principal, Dean, HoD etc. His current area of research in-
cludes next generation wireless and mobile networks. He has about
65 research publications in national/ international journals and confe-
rence proceedings and delivered many key note/theme lectures in
conferences. He is honorary Life Fellow of ACEEE, Life Fellow of the
Institution of Engineers (I), Sr.Member, IEEE, Sr. Life Member, CSI;
Life Member of ISTE, SSI and IETE.


Pushpita Tapu is doing her B-Tech (Elec-
trical Engineering) in 2014 from the Na-
tional Institute of Technology, Durgapur,
West Bengal. She had received several
academic awards throughout her career.
She had a keen interest of Microwave and
Wireless communications systems.Her
current research interest includes wireless
ad-hoc networks, microwave passive cir-
cuits and microwave solid state devices.


A. K. Bhattacharjee received his B.E.
(Electronics & Telecommunication Engi-
neering in 1983 and M.E. (Telecommuni-
cation Engineering) in1985. He was
awarded his PhD (Engineering) in the
year 1989. He is currently holding the
position of Professor in Electronics &
Communication Engineering Dept. in
National Institute of Technology, Durga-
pur. He is the author of more than 200
national and international publications in
several journals and conferences. He has
also produced more than 8 PhD scholars around India. He has
around 30 years of teaching and research experiences in several
domains. His current research interest includes Microwave passive
circuits based on Microstrip and SIW technology applicable in long
distance communications, VLSI Design and Signal Processing
Techniques.

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