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The word “REVOLUTION” means something
“sudden and quite swift”. The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION began in England close to 1750 AD. In less than a hundred years, it resulted in revolutionary changes in all walks of life. In 1700 England was a land of farmers, but towards the end of the 19th century it became a land manufacturers.
“The Industrial Revolution ushered in the Machine Age. Of
course, there had been machines before, but none had been so big as the new machine.”, said Jawaharlal Nehru.
SOURCES TO RECONSTUCT THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN ENGLAND
1)The accounts or written details of so many inventions made in England: Written accounts about the wonderful inventions of Arkwright, Crompton, Cartwright, Cartwright, James Watt were sufficient sources to learn about the revolution. 2)Factory acts in England: The factory acts of 1802, 1819,1833,1842 and The house and town planning act of 1909 revealed a lot about the revolution.
VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
The Agricultural Revolution Revolution in Textile Industry Improved Steam Engines Iron and Coal Industries Means of Transport and Communication
The Agricultural Revolution
The revolution in agriculture had started in the early
eighteen century, a little before Industrial Revolution made its appearance. Lord Townshend introduced a new fourfold rotation in his farm (turnips, barley, clover and wheat). Robert Bakewell produced a new breed of sheep, weighing twice as much as had been known before. But very little progress could be had in scientific farming if the same farm farm was cultivated by many farmers.
REVOLUTION IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY:COTTONS AND WOOLENS CLOTHES
The art of spinning had been
known for ages, but it had not developed much. In 1767 a Lancashire weaver named James Hargreaves invented a machine called the Spinning-Jenny. Arkwright invented a machine operated by water power, which made stronger threads.
Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny
Sir Richard Arkwright’s improved Spinning Machine of 1775
IMPROVED STEAM ENGINES
In 1769 James Watt
made an engine in which steam pressure was controlled by valves. Thus the standing steam engine was converted by James Watt into an effective means to turn the wheels. This steam engine became the throbbing heart of every industry.
James Watt(1736-1819) An improver of the Steam Engine
IRON AND COAL INDUSTRIES
Steam Engines and other
machines required iron in huge quantities until it was replaced by the fire of charcoal, but this method was slow and sluggish. After cotton and wool iron and coal as also became the two prominent industries of England. The first warship built of iron plates was the WARRIOR.
HMS Warrior (1860), first iron hulled warship
MEANS OF TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
The need to carry raw material
and finished goods required improved communications. Roads and Canals-James Telford (a clever bridge-builder) constructed roads across rivers by means of iron bridges. Railways-In the 19th century invention of locomotive engine made railways possible. George Stephenson is known as the father of railway system
The father of railway system
George Stephenson’s Steam Engine “ROCKET”
THE SPREAD OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
America- Postal facilities
started from 1750.
Cotton textile was the its leading industry. It started manufacturing huge amount of steel in 1875. Transportation improved and brought people together.
WILLIAM DRACUP (the founder and developer of textile industry in America)
defeat in 1815 industrial revolution showed concrete effects. Steam power was used in mines and by metal workers. County’s iron and textile industries were in a state to compete with those of British. So, the government helped home industries by putting heavy tax on imported items.
Steel workers of France
finally united in 1870-71.
New methods were first used in textiles and iron industries. First railway line in 1839-between Dresdon and Leipzig. Germany, America and Britain became the largest producers of iron, coal and cotton goods.
Russia-Earlier it was an
agricultural country. After the abolition of serfdom industrial revolution began in Russia 1961. Industrial revolution to Russian rulers meant more armaments for war. After 1917 railways, workshops and factories were declared ‘national property’ and were operated by the government.
Japan-It was the Asian
country where westernization began in late 1880s.
By 1910 Japan developed a lot of industries. Iron Steel Chemicals Machinery Ship Building
A Cotton factory
An Iron factory
RISE OF IMPERIALISM
Industrialisation led to rise and growth of
Imperialism. There was a mad scramble among the western powers for colonies and new territories. From 1870-1914 almost all nations of Asia and Africa had come under control of one or the other imperial power. Each imperial power feared and hated the other. This was a major cause of World Wars.
IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
USES OR ADVANTAGES OF THE FACTORY SYSTEM
1.Production in large quantities-Elaborate machinery meant that goods could be produced in immensely large quantities. 2.A life of Ease and Comfort-the application of machines to production had made lifer reasonable comfortable. 3.Brought Countries and people together-Improved communications, canals and the railways brought countries and people close together. 4.Cooperation-Cooperation between factory workers, farmers, financers and entrepreneurs was necessary. “The Big machine taught certain virtues- cooperation, organization, punctuality.”, said Jawaharlal Nehru.
Abuses of the factory system
As machinery was introduced, it wasn’t
possible to work in individual homes and thus big factories came in the picture. To work there, village people (which constituted of a larger number) had to move to cities. This led to:- i. Rural poverty ii. Increase in slums iii. Workers gave in to harmful practices Machines reduced the amount of manual work hence, less labour was required. This
resulted in unemployment. Imperialism, a mad rush for new territories, arose. The imperial powers maintained large armies for either rivalry with other imperial powers or to supress a native revolt. With the coming of Industrialisation a lot of “Industrial capital was needed in for it. This brought up the rich factory owners known as Capitalists. The Capitalists exploited the workers for their own profit. The workers were paid very low wages at the end of fifteen hours. Even women and children worked in such factories with very short interval for food.
RISE OF SOCIALISM
Socialism- The land and other instruments of
production shall be the common property of the people and shall be used and governed by the people, for the people. Socialism was the reaction to capitalism. Various schools of socialism were started and they all united and helped in building a socialist society. Early Socialists- Robert Owen was the first to use the word “Socialism”. He helped out his factory workers. He paid them good wages, reduced their working hours and came to be known as “Father of British Socialism”. ROBET OWEN According to Karl Marx socialists like Babeuf and Saint –Simon were operating in a dreamy land. They were not practical according to the situation.
The best socialist so far
was Karl Marx. He was born in Rhineland(Germany) in 1818. In 1847 with the help of Engels he set up a communist league. They published the “Communist Manifesto” in 1848 which marked the advent of Scientific Socialism.
After Karl Marx’s death, there was a drift within
socialism. Bernstein of Germany, Jean Juares of France, Bernard Shaw & Sidney Webb of England and Brantic of England felt that socialism needed a touch of democracy. This new ideology was named “Democratic Socialism”.
In India, a socialist
party was established in 1934. Its leaders included Acharya Narendra Dev, Achyut Patwardhan, Jayaprakash Narayan and Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia.
Impact of Socialism
Almost all nations except America have had strong
socialist parties.In Britain, the Labour party, which gained an absolute majority, nationlised a lot many industries came up with various welfare programmes such as public housing and national insurance. It also led to communist revolutions in Russia & China. In Russia, it began in 1917 as a rebellion to overthrow the czarist regime that then prevailed.
Mao Tse-tung was responsible for the establishment of a communist regime in China, which was established on 1st October, 1949. Within a period of time, all European states had beome truly welfare states. Citizens received state assistance during sickness, unemployment and old age. Its impact was seen in India also.
The Future of Socialism
Since 1980s, the world underwent a radical change
in development strategy. The idea of Communism collapsed. Companies and industries got privatized. In none of the countries, there seemed a future for the basic socialist goal. Then, socialism merely meant some public welfare services such as old age pension and protection against unemployment, sickness, injury and disablement.