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EXERCISE AND CONTROL OF EXECUTIVE POWER IN THE EUROPEAN UNION CENTRAL ISSUES Who or what is the govern ent

t o! the E"ro#ean Union$ o The #rin%i#a& instit"tions are &iste' in Art( )* TEU( o o This chapter will consider the ro&e o! those instit"tions that e+er%ise e+e%"tive #ower namely, the E"ro#ean Co"n%i&, the Co"n%i& o! the E"ro#ean Union, an' the Co ission(

What are the !"n%tions o! the ain e+e%"tive instit"tions$ o In the EU context, it is i #ossi-&e to i'enti!. one instit"tion as the so&e e+e%"tive( o Whereas, traditionally, o!ernmental "#nctions were di!ided alon le islati!e, exec#ti!e, and $#dicial lines, an. o! the !"n%tions are share' -etween the EU instit"tions( o The E#ropean Union has replaced the doctrine o" the sepa%ration o" powers with the 'o%trine o! /instit"tiona& -a&an%e0&

What are the %ontro&s on the e+er%ise o! e+e%"tive #ower$ o Altho# h the E#ropean Union has 'een s#ccess"#l in shi"tin policyma(in away "rom national o!ernments 'y de!elopin so) called o!ernance str#ct#res, it is o!ten %riti%i1e' !or having neg&e%te' #o&iti%a& a%%o"nta-i&it.( o To who are the EU #o&i%. a2ers a%%o"nta-&e$ o Sho"&' nationa& #ar&ia ents have a greater ro&e to #&a. in ho&'ing nationa& inisters 3who a2e #o&i%. in the Co"n%i&4 to a%%o"nt$

The %ha#ter wi&& a&so e+a ine whether, and i" so 'y what standards, the E"ro#ean Union has 'e o%rati% &egiti a%.( o The EU instit"tions with e+e%"tive #owers are not 'ire%t&. e&e%te' -. the #eo#&e( o *oes that mean that those instit#tions are "n'e o%rati% an' that the entire E"ro#ean Union &a%2s &egiti a%.$ o +r are there a&ternative wa.s o! generating &egiti a%. that nee' to -e e+#&ore'$

INTRODUCTION This chapter introd#ces the E#ropean Union ,EU-, e+#&ains the ro&e an' !"n%tions o! those EU instit"tions that wie&' e+e%"tive #owers, and to"%hes "#on their 'i!!erent rationa&es ,.s"#ranationa&is 0 vers"s %intergovern enta&is 0-& It then re&ates the instit"tiona& 'is%"ssion to 2e. %on%e#ts within %onstit"tiona& &aw ,'e o%ra%., &egiti a%., a%%o"nta-i&it., an' trans#aren%.-& The chapter concl#des with a disc#ssion o" the U5 Par&ia ents ro&e in the E"ro#ean #o&i%. a2ing #ro%ess& We enco#ra e readers to st#dy the EU instit#tions critically, '#t with an open mind&

When !iewed "rom the nation states perspecti!e, the wa. in whi%h the EU e+er%ises #ower, and the #"r#oses "or which it does so, are easi&. an' o!ten 'is isse' as a"to%rati%, o-s%"re, "na%%o"nta-&e, an' o"t6o!6to"%h with the #o#"&ar wi&&( In li ht o" this perception, it is i #ortant to %onsi'er whether the EU ens"res that the genera& %onstit"tiona& an' a' inistrative &aw #rin%i#&es o! goo' govern ent, and the "#ndamental standards o" a%%essi-i&it., trans#aren%., an' reasone' an' rationa& 'e%ision6 a2ing, are, in "act, met&

UNDERSTANDIN7 THE TREAT8 STRUCTURE /e"ore oin any "#rther, an introd#ction to the &ega& !o"n'ations o! the E"ro#ean Union is nee'e'( The EU and its !orer"nners were %reate' -. treaties agree' -etween the e -er states ,see Chapter 01-& The Unite' 5ing'o :an"ar. );<*& 9oine' on )

In 'road terms, the treaties %an -e tho"ght o! as !a&&ing into three ain #hases(

The vario"s re!or s to the treaties have #erio'i%a&&. re="ire' Arti%&es to -e ren" -ere' and so e Arti%&es have ove' -etween treaties( When readin older material, it is there"ore necessary to 'ear in mind that an Article re"erred to 'y n#m'er may 'e di""erent "rom the Article o" that same n#m'er in the treaties now in "orce& In this 'oo(, we "se the treat. n" -ering intro'"%e' when the Lis-on Treat. %a e into !or%e on ) De%e -er >??;(

THE ORI7INS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION 3);@A6A<4 Empower and at the same time constrain In Chapter 2, we loo(ed at the role o" o!ernment.the exec#ti!e3in the modern /ritish constit#tional system& There is, we saw, a two!o&' as#e%t to %onstit"tiona& #ro%esses an' instit"tions& Constit"tiona& &aw e #owers govern ents 'y #rovi'ing a !ra ewor2 !or #o&i%. a2ing and implementation, -"t it a&so see2s to %onstrain govern enta& #ower, ens"ring that e+e%"tive !"n%tions are %arrie' o"t in a%%or'an%e with the r"&e o! &aw an' in an a%%o"nta-&e wa.&

This tension 'etween empowerment and constraint is also a dominant theme in relation to the operation o" the E#ropean Union, with which this chapter is concerned& /#t 'e"ore we examine the exercise o" exec#ti!e power in the EU, we nee' to re in' o"rse&ves that the stor. o! the EU is a re ar2a-&e #o&iti%a& #ro9e%t, with h" -&e origins an' a -itio"s #&ans(

Temper the nationalist ethos, E#ropean Comm#nity, nations limit their so!erei nty and in "a!o#r o" collecti!e peace, economic inte ration and s#pranational o!ernance *inan4 The idea o" a #nited E#rope is a rec#rrin theme in the lon and o"ten !iolent history o" the continent& The 5oly Roman Emperors, Napoleon, 5itler, and others all so# ht, in sometimes horri"yin ways, to achie!e a continental #nity 'ased !ario#sly on princely alliances, ethnic cohesion, ideolo y, or raw power& E!er since the emer ence o" the modern state, philosophers and political thin(ers ha!e also i agine' a "nite' E"ro#e tri" #hing over narrow nationa& interests an' a&&egian%es( Today6s E#ropean Union ,EU- is #ni7#e amon these competin !isions&

Te #ering the nationa&ist ethos that ha' -e%o e the r"&ing #rin%i#&e o! E"ro#ean #o&iti%a& 'eve&o# ent, the co#ntries that "ormed the E"ro#ean Co "nities, the -asis o! the E"ro#ean Union, %hose to &i it 3-"t not e&i inate4 their own sovereignt., the hallmar( o" a modern nation)state, in !avo"r o! %o&&e%tive #ea%e, e%ono i% integration, an' s"#ranationa& governan%e(

War ca#sed h# e loss and there"ore, EU created to end con"lict and "oster social harmony and promote economic DinanB Their reasons "or doin so were rooted in the disastro#s decades o" the early twentieth cent#ry& The isera-&e &ega%. o! heroi% E"ro#ean nationa&is Ctwo wor&' wars, co#ntless millions dead, and economic r#inwas not lost on the people o" E#rope, who enerally s#pported economic and political inte ration a"ter World War II&

E#ro"ederalism was pop#lar& E#ropean politicians wanted a'o!e all to en' internationa& stri!e , !oster so%ia& har on., an' #ro ote e%ono i% we&&6-eing( The. so"ght to -"i&' a -etter wor&', !ree o! the hatre's an' riva&ries that ha' 'estro.e' their %o"ntries in re%ent .ears& 8or their eneration, E#ropean inte ration 'ecame s.non. o"s with #ea%e an' #ros#erit.(

Altho# h idea o" EU is no'le, '#t they willin to share their so!erei nty 'eca#se it is their interest as well as contri'#tion o" other "actors, no alternati!e is 'etter DianaB 9et, there was nothin ine!ita'le a'o#t the emer ence o" E#ropean inte ration in the "orm with which we are now "amiliar& E"ro#ean #o&iti%ians were ,and still are- instincti!ely averse to sharing nationa& sovereignt., 'es#ite rhetori%a& !&o"rishes to the contrary& Nationa& &ea'ers 'e%i'e' to share sovereignt. in s"#ranationa& organi1ations #ri ari&. -e%a"se the. #er%eive' that it was in their %o"ntriesD 3an' there!ore their own4 interests to 'o so( Ideas, intellect#al "ashion, opport#nity, chance, con!iction, calc#lation, personal predilection, and am'ition all played a part&

Ultimately, howe!er, E"ro#ean integration e erge' as it 'i' -e%a"se o! a rationa& res#onse -. #o&iti%ians, businesspeople, and other key actors to changing economic, political, and strategic circumstances, ranging from Germany's postwar recovery, to the fall of the Berlin Wall, to the acceleration of globalization. Evario"s !a%tors %ontri-"te to the agree entF *espite rowin p#'lic concern a'o#t the process and politics o" E#ropean inte ration, E"ro#eans genera&&. a%="ies%e' -e%a"se the o"t%o e see e' worthwhi&e an' the a&ternatives &ess attra%tive&

Histor.4 Idea o" "ederation "rom External, !ai&e' d#e to di""erences in eopolitical sit#ation The &essons o! the Se%on' Wor&' War, an' o! the -"rgeoning Co&' War 'etween the West and Stalins So!iet Union, -ro"ght ho e the nee' !or Western E"ro#e to "nite( E+terna&&., the USA s"##orte' the #ro%ess o! integration !ro );@< ost nota-&. in the !or o! the Garsha&& P&an( It was a' inistere' -. the Organisation !or E"ro#ean E%ono i% Co6o#eration 3OEEC-, and was 'esigne' to -"i&' a stronger !o"n'ation !or the %o"ntries o! Western E"ro#e and to act as a -"&war2 against %o "nis &

The US i'ea& o! a sing&e E"ro#ean #&an o'e&&e' on the USA in its #o&iti%a& 3!e'era&4 an' e%ono i% 3!ree tra'e, !ree ar2et4 str#ct#re was e%hoe' -. Winston Ch"r%hi&& in his "amo#s speech in 0:;< to the Academic 9o#th in =#rich4 .The cannons ha!e ceased "irin & The "i htin has stopped> '#t the dan ers ha!e not stopped& I" we are to "orm the United States o" E#rope, or whate!er name it may ta(e, we m#st 'e in now&3 U&ti ate&., the #&an to !e'era&i1e 'i' not wor2, and %o"&' never have wor2e', "or a n#m'er o" reasons4 'eca#se the geo#o&iti%a& sit"ation in E"ro#e 'i' not &en' itse&! to -e%o ing the HUSA Gar2 II> o 'eca#se the Unite' 5ing'o , sti&& a wor&' #ower in its own e.es, wo#ld not ha!e ta(en part> o Fran%e was ho#ing to res"rre%t its %entra& E"ro#ean ro&e in the !"t"re&

Histor.B Internally idea a'o#t *e"ence "ederation !ai&e' d#e to 8rance re"#se to rati"y Internally, too, so e ear&. E"ro#ean !e'era&ists wante' to %reate a new E"ro#ean or'er as a co#nterwei ht to the excesses and the "laws o" nationhood and so!erei nty that had 'ro# ht a'o#t totalitarian re imes& Altiero Spinelli was a "ormer mem'er o" the Italian Comm#nist ?arty who had 'een interned 'y @#ssolini on the island o" Aentotene& The mani"esto that he co)wrote d#rin capti!ity in 0:;0, callin "or a #nited E#rope to replace the old one o" competin nation states, had to 'e sm# led o"" the island&

Later, Spinelli3s E#ropean "ederalist mo!ement played a central role in the %reation o! the E"ro#ean De!en%e Co "nit. 3EDC4Ca pan) E#ropean 'e!en%e !or%e that was to a%t as a i&itar. %o"nterweight to the Soviet I&o%, as we&& as an a&ternative to 7er an.0s rear a ent and a%%ession to the North At&anti% Treat. Organi1ation 3NATO4( The EDC !ai&e' 3an' the !e'era&ist ove ent &ost its o ent" 4 when Fran%e re!"se' to rati!. the Treat. in );A@( Today, one o" the E#ropean ?arliament3s '#ildin s in /r#ssels is named a"ter Spinelli&

Histor.4 ?re!ent war)B common mar(et and ind#stries #nder s#pranational a#thority CECSCD Eean @onnet, the head o" 8rance3s Feneral ?lannin Commission, reacted to the collapse o" the E*C 'y rela#nchin the process o" #nitin E#rope in steps and sta es& Contrary to US plans o" immediate "ederaliGation, the mon#mental process o" a%hieving a /Unite' States o! E"ro#e0 'e an with a series o" strate ic and pra matic plannin decisions& @onnet dra"ted a o!ernment proposal "or the then)8rench 8orei n @inister Ro'ert Sch#man with the a -itio"s goa& o! a2ing a !"t"re war -etween Fran%e an' 7er an. /not on&. "nthin2a-&e '#t ateria&&. i #ossi-&eD 'y entan lin West Ferman and 8rench a""airs& @onnet3s aspiration was to create .the "irst concrete "o#ndations o" the E#ropean 8ederation which is

indispensa'le to the o! #ea%e0(

aintenan%e

The Treat. o! Paris ,0:H0-which was also si ned 'y Italy, /el i#m, L#xem'o#r , and the Netherlands a'e two i #ortant innovations( o 8irst, it %reate' a %o on ar2et !or %oa&, iron, an' stee& ,the (ey reso#rces o" the war ind#stries-, within which mar(et prices were "reely set, and importIexport d#ties, s#'sidies, and other restrictions and discriminatory practices were rad#ally remo!ed& o Second, it #&a%e' these in'"stries "n'er a s"#ranationa& a"thorit., the E"ro#ean Coa& an' Stee& Co "nit. 3ECSC4, which was o!erned 'y a .5i h A#thority3 ,o" which Eean @onnet 'ecame ?resident-, chec(ed politically 'y 'odies representin o!ernments and mem'ers o" ?arliament ,@?s-, and le ally 'y an independent $#diciary&

Histor.4 EEC) common mar(et, impro!e economy, impro!e li!in standard, pro!ide "ree mo!ement o" prod#ctions CUnder Treaty o" RomeD /#t @onnet was not merely concerned with creatin a "ederation o" states& 5e "amo#sly remar(ed that E#rope3s circ#mstances re7#ired .that we #nite E#ropeans and that we do not (eep them separated& We are not $oinin states, we are #ni"yin men&3 The next step was the #ro#osa& o! an e%ono i% "nion, which was "inally a reed in @arch 0:H2 and in%or#orate' in the Treat. o! Ro e&

The aims o" the E"ro#ean E%ono i% Co "nit. 3EEC4 were to %reate a %o on ar2et, to approximate the economic policies o" the six mem'er states, to #ro ote a har onio"s 'eve&o# ent o! their e%ono i% acti!ities, to %reate the !ra ewor2 !or gra'"a& e%ono i% e+#ansion an' sta-i&it., and to i #rove the &iving stan'ar's o! the %iti1ens o" the mem'er states& The Treaty also #rovi'e' !or the !ree ove ent o! the !a%tors o! #ro'"%tion ,la'o#r, oods, ser!ices, and capital- within the Comm#nity, common a ric#lt#ral and transport policies, and the coordination o" economic policies o" the mem'er states&

Histor.4 Inte ration o" E#rope not yet apparent accordin to EEC since it main "oc#s still on the economic de!elopment -"t this !al#e has rad#ally p#t into operation 'y de!elopment o" economy and 'y possi'ility o" political #nity Cwe cannot totally a ainst there can 'e no inte ration o" E#rope where it is only "oc#s on economyD The "&ti ate goa& o! E"ro#ean integration and #nity a. not -e i e'iate&. a##arent with res#e%t to the EEC, whi%h !o%"se' !ir &. on e%ono i% an' tra'e 'eve&o# ent& A"ter all, h" an rights, 'e o%ra%., an' the r"&e o! &aw were %ons#i%"o"s on&. -. their a-sen%e !ro the Treat. o! Ro e( ,These constit#tional principles, it sho#ld 'e noted, were already co!ered 'y the sli htly older and separate Co#ncil o" E#rope, esta'lished in 0:;:, which adopted the E#ropean Con!ention "or the ?rotection o" 5#man Ri hts and 8#ndamental 8reedoms(nown as

the E#ropean Con!ention on 5#man Ri hts, or EC5Rin 0:HJ&-

/#t more to the point, the the es o! E"ro#ean integration, #ea%e, an' #ros#erit. were gra'"a&&. -eing #"t into o#eration thro"gh the i e'iate an' #rogressive o#ening, wi'ening, an' internationa&i1ing o! the e%ono i% ar2et, and -. the &ong6ter #ossi-i&it. o! #o&iti%a& "nit.( E& ?eterson and @& Shac(leton4 C&&& D E#ropean inte ration as a pro$ect 'e an with what, in retrospect, were stri(in ly narrow and o!erwhelmin ly economic o'$ecti!es4 "irst, to mana e $ointly the prod#ction o" coal and steel> then, to de!elop a common mar(et& 8et the ear&iest oves to instit"tiona&i1e E"ro#ean %oo#eration were never seen as !ina&( They represented somethin new and #nspeci"ied, '#t which de"initely went 'eyond the inter o!ernmental cooperation o", "or example, the Co#ncil o" E#rope, with its limited

a enda and reso#rces and non'indin decision)ma(in & 8rom the 'e innin , EU instit#tion) '#ildin had a decidedly political p#rpose4 to ma(e E#ropean states e!er more m#t#ally dependent on one another& Then, as now, this aim enerates tensions 'etween those who wish to rein"orce the central instit#tions in a "ederalist direction and those who see them as instr#mental !ehicles "or maximiGin state interests&

*ominant "orm o" or aniGation wea(enin , sharin the so!erei n lead to de!elopment o" EC to resc#e the post)war nation state The creation o" the EEC and Sch#mans idea o" E#ropean inte ration can 'e seen as ima inati!e and pra matic responses to the pro$ect o" #nitin E#rope, and creatin peace and prosperity, and as an alternati!e to the US ?lan "or E#ropean Inte ration& The EEC immediately had to deal with economic challen es ,s#ch as Fermany3s rapid economic reco!ery, the worsenin East)West con"lict, and di""erin US, 8rench, and Ferman needs and o'$ecti!es-, and also with real chan es in political str#ct#res&

In +cto'er 1J01, the EU was awarded the No'el ?eace ?riGe "or its e""orts in ad!ancin peace in E#rope o!er six decades& In an important 'oo(, the historian A&an Gi&war' ar #ed that the model o" the nation statethat is, the 'o inant !or o! #o&iti%a&, e%ono i%, an' so%ia& organi1ation in Western E#rope "rom the si+teenth cent#ryhad rad#ally 'een wea(enin since the ei hteenth cent#ry& The experience o" most E#ropean states in the late 0:KJs and early 0:;Js was that the. were in%a#a-&e o! !"&!i&&ing their #ri ar. '"t.namely, the de"ence o" the national territory and the protection o" their citiGens& A!ter the Se%on' Wor&' War, E"ro#ean states ,as well as the model o" the nation state- were on the -rin2 o! %o&&a#se(

@ilward ar #ed that the new #o&iti%a& %onsens"s amon leadin 8rench, Ferman, UL, and US politicians was '#ilt on the %oa&es%en%e o! E"ro#ean an' nationa& interests, an' the sharing o! sovereignt.( The 'eve&o# ent o! the E"ro#ean Co "nit. was, there"ore, 'esigne' to res%"e the E"ro#ean nation state( At the same time, it set in train a &ength., "n#re'i%ta-&e, a -itio"s, an' %ontroversia& #ro%ess o! e%ono i% an' #o&iti%a& E"ro#ean integration(

No con"lict 'tw EC and nation)state, 'eca#se nation state is the "#ndamental #nit o" the political or aniGation o" EC, so EC does not destroy the nation states Alan S& @ilward4 That these nation)states, some o" them o" the most ancient linea e, with their distincti!e histories and cherished myths, on which ha!e 'een n#rt#red enerations o" citiGens, sho#ld declare their intention o" !ol#ntarily achie!in political #ni"ication is a political and historical chan e o" the "irst ma nit#de& 9et it remains one o" the most ill) #nderstood aspects o" recent history and present political li"e& 8or this lac( o" #nderstandin m#ch 'lame m#st lie with the a'sorption into pop#lar disc#ssion o" an ass#mption which #nderlies most o" the theoretical and scholarly writin a'o#t the E#ropean Comm#nity, the ass#mption that it is in antithesis to the nation)state& The word which is commonly #sed to descri'e the e!ol#tion o" the E#ropean Comm#nity, 6inte ration6, is itsel" a re"lection o" that ass#mption& It implies that the economies,

societies and administrations o" these national entities 'ecome rad#ally mer ed into a lar er identity& *e"enders o" the nation)state, those "or whom it remains an indispensa'le "orm o" or aniGa)tion, politically, economically, c#lt#rally or e!en psycholo ically, there"ore clamo#r "or a halt to the process o" inte ration& The most ardent s#pporters o" the E#ropean Comm#nity in ret#rn deno#nce the nation)state as an anachronistic 'arrier to the "inal achie!ement o" a more ad!anced sta e o" o!ernment and society, the s#pranation& This antithesis 'etween the concepts o" nation)state and Comm#nity has "re7#ently 'een emphasiGed 'y the E#ropean Comm#nity6s interpretation o" its own history& 5oma e has always 'een re7#ired to the idea that the Comm#nity represented the 'irth o" a new historical epoch, in which the nation%state wo#ld wither away& Lord Coc("ield, r#mo#red to ha!e 'een ori inally appointed as a E#ropean Commissioner 'y the /ritish o!ernment 'eca#se o" his alle ed scepticism a'o#t the Comm#nity, s#mmed #p his !iews a"ter his replacement 'y sayin MThe rad#al limitation o" national so!erei nty is part o" a slow and pain"#l "orward march o" h#manity&N2 A ainst s#ch

an ar #ment only a similarly cate orical statement is li(ely to ser!e& Th#s opponents o" the E#ropean Comm#nity demand that a "inite limit 'e drawn now to the process o" inte ra)tion in order to sa!e the nation& I"t is there in !a%t an antithesis -etween the E"ro#ean Co "nit. an' the nation6state$ Does the evo&"tion o! the Co "nit. i #&. the re#&a%e ent o! the nation6state as an organi1ationa& !ra ewor2 an' its event"a& s"#ersession$ It is the ar #ment o" this 'oo( that there is no s"%h antithesis an' that the evo&"tion o! the E"ro#ean Co "nit. since 0:;H has 'een an integra& #art o! the reassertion o! the nation6state as an organi1ationa& %on%e#t&

The ar #ment oes, howe!er, 'eyond this, 'eca#se the histori%a& evi'en%e #oints to the "#rther concl#sion that witho"t the #ro%ess o! integration, the west E"ro#ean nation6state ight we&& not have retaine' the a&&egian%e an' s"##ort o! its %iti1ens in the wa. that it has& The E"ro#ean Co "nit. has -een its -"ttress , an in'is#ensa-&e #art o! the nation6 stateDs #ost6war %onstr"%tion& Witho"t it, the nation6state %o"&' not have o!!ere' to its %iti1ens the sa e eas"re o! se%"rit. an' #ros#erit. which it has pro!ided and which has 9"sti!ie' its s"rviva&& A"ter 0:;H the E"ro#ean nation6 state res%"e' itse&! !ro %o&&a#se, %reate' a new #o&iti%a& %onsens"s as the 'asis o" its le itimacy, and thro# h chan es in its response to its citiGens which meant a swee#ing e+tension o! its !"n%tions an' a -itions reasserte' itse&! as the

!"n'a enta& "nit o! #o&iti%a& organi1ation& The E"ro#ean Co "nit. on&. evo&ve' as an as#e%t o! that nationa& reassertion and witho#t it, the reassertion mi ht well ha!e pro!ed impossi'le& To s"#erse'e the nation6state wo"&' -e to 'estro. the Co "nit.( o Presen%e o! nation state wi&& on&. 9"sti!ie' the #resen%e o! EC To #"t a !inite &i it to the #ro%ess o! integration wo"&' -e to wea2en the nation6state, to &i it its s%o#e an' to %"r- its #ower&

Arg" ent4 EC ma(e the nation states lose its own identity Since inte ration has always 'een care"#lly tailored to E#ropean national needs and sensi%ti!ities, and deli'erately did not "ollow the US model o" "ederalism, US commentators some%times loo( down on, and mis#nderstand, the E#ropean pro$ect& The eopolitical need "or cooperation on the crowded westernmost penins#la o" E#rasia is o"ten compared #n"a!o#ra'ly with the USA3s military a'ility to act #nilaterally& In re&ation to strategi% an' !oreign #o&i%. iss"es, Ro'ert La an "amo#sly ar #ed that .Americans are "rom @ars, and E#ropeans are "rom Aen#s3& This s"ggests that E"ro#ean states are e as%"&ate' , shorn o! their own 'istin%t nationa& i'entit., and "na-&e to !or in'ivi'"a& 9"'ge ent or to rea%h to"gh #o&iti%a& 'e%isions&

8rancis 8#(#yama re"ers derisi!ely to .those !&a--., #ros#ero"s, se&!6 satis!ie', inwar'6&oo2ing, wea26 wi&&e' states whose gran'est #ro9e%t was nothing ore heroi% than the %reation o! the Co on Gar2et3& S#ch statements rein"orce the !iew that E"ro#ean states have %a#it"&ate' to a new !or o! 3wea24 E"ro#ean governan%e an' s"rren'ere' their #o&iti%a& sovereignt.&

Gi&war' Ca#thor o" article a'o!eD %o"nter6arg"e' that it is national will to create EC and nation state is the "#ndamental or aniGation #nit o" it I. wa. o! %ontrast, @ilward ar #es that the #ost6war evo&"tion o! the EEC was 'esigne' #"r#osive&. -. the E"ro#ean states the se&ves& Contrary to the comments i!en, E"ro#ean integration %onstit"tes #re%ise&. an a%t o! nationa& wi&l that is, an e+#ression o! #o&iti%a& sovereignt.( The aspiration to reassert the nation state as the !"n'a enta& organi1ationa& "nit o" political, economic, and social existence, and to trans!er sovereign #ower to the EEC is all the more impressi!e i" one 'ears in mind the political, economic, and psycholo ical o'stacles that "irst needed to 'e o!ercome&

EC is the decision res#lt o" political co#ra e as it too( a di""er traditional approach "or the national interest D( DinanB The six co#ntries that la#nched the E#ropean Comm#nity in the 0:HJs were !ar !ro !&a--., #ros#ero"s, se&!6satis!ie', or inwar' &oo2ing& Nor were the. wea2 wi&&e'& *espite 8#(#yama6s dis #st "or a !ision de!oid o" colo#r and heroic derrin )do, it too2 a &ea# o! !aith an' rare #o&iti%a& %o"rage !or ost o! those %o"ntries to t"rn their -a%2s on tra'itiona& nation6 state as#irations and agree to e+er%ise so e o! their #owers in %o on( 8or Fran%e, in partic#lar, acceptin the EC meant a'andonin decades o" protectionism, over%o ing 'ee# 'istr"st o! 7er an., an' e -ra%ing e%ono i% o'erni1ationa drastic re!ision o" the co#ntry6s lon )standin sel") ima e as a reat power&

8or 7er an., #tterly destroyed at the end o" the war, E"ro#ean integration o!!ere' sa&vation an' internationa& reha-i&itation& Iritain sta.e' o"tsi'e the Co "nities -e%a"se its nationa& interests, or at least the o!ernment6s perception o" its national interests, pointed in a di""erent direction&

0:2K) ma$or chan es in UL) considera'le power trans"erred to EU so acco#nta'le iss#e is important The Unite' 5ing'o s o ento"s 'e%ision in );<* to 9oin what is now the E"ro#ean Union has ha' the %onse="en%e that %onsi'era-&e #o&i%. a2ing an' &aw6 a2ing #ower has -een trans!erre' !ro instit"tions in the Unite' 5ing'o to those in the EU& To ta(e only one example4 in );<?, govern enta& 'e%isions a-o"t agri%"&t"re were e+%&"sive&. atters !or U5 inisters an' the U5 Par&ia ent> now, ost as#e%ts o! #o&i%. an' &aw reg"&ating agri%"&t"re is a'e -. the EU instit"tions( We there"ore nee' to e+a ine the ain EU instit"tions that have e+e%"tive !"n%tionsnota'ly, the E"ro#ean Co"n%i&, the Co"n%i& o! the E"ro#ean Union, an' the Co issionand 'is%"ss iss"es o! &egiti a%. an' a%%o"nta-i&it.(

Ga9or iss"eB *emocracy de"icit) 5ow UL minister a'le to acco#nta'le to UL ?arliament within UL instit#tion A ma$or criticism le!elled at the E#ropean Union is that it s"!!ers !ro a /'e o%ra%. 'e!i%it& In the political system o" the E#ropean Union, exec#ti!e power is enerated thro# h two separate, '#t related, processes& o 8irst, #o&i%. #owers an' res#onsi-i&ities are trans!erre' !ro nationa& #o&iti%a& s.ste s to the E"ro#ean &evel, and now co!er most areas o" p#'lic policy& o Second, the E"ro#ean Union has its own instit"tions an' 'e%ision6 a2ing #ro%esses& In other words, e+e%"tive #ower is 'ivi'e' verti%a&&. 3-etween the e -er states an' the E"ro#ean Union4 an' hori1onta&&. 3-etween the EU instit"tions4(

There is also a national dimension& ?#'lic acco#nta'ility is the other side o" exec#ti!e power& As we saw in Chapter 2, the U5 Par&ia ent ho&'s the e+e%"tive to a%%o"nt -. s%r"tini1ing the 'e%isions o! inisters( We need to e+a ine how U5 inisters #arti%i#ate in the wor2 o! the EU instit"tions an', i #ortant&., how the. %an -e he&' to a%%o"nt in the U5 Par&ia ent !or their 'e%isions on EU atters& In so "ar as there is a 'e o%ra%. 'e!i%it in the EU, %an this -e !i&&e' C!ro the Iritish #ers#e%tiveC -. goo' s.ste s o! a%%o"nta-i&it. within U5 instit"tions$

WHERE DOES EXECUTIVE POWER IN THE EUROPEAN UNION LIE$ Exec#ti!e power is hardly to 'e identi"ied and there"ore the iss#e o" acco#nta'ility arises Fenerally, we can say that .exec#ti!e power3 re"ers to the power o" politicians to de!elop new policy initiati!es and to ta(e action in what they see as the national interest& Their decisions and actions are implemented 'y politically ne#tral ci!il ser!ants and other o""icials& The &o%"s o! e+e%"tive or a' inistrative #ower in the E"ro#ean Union %annot -e easi&. i'enti!ie'&

K types o" actors De%ision6 a2ing ta2es #&a%e on 'i!!erent &eve&s and in!ol!es at &east three t.#es o! a%tor& In the !irst instance, the E#ropean Union has its own instit#tions, three o" which lay claim to exec#ti!e or administrati!e a#thority within the EU4 o the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& -rings together the hea's o! state or govern ent o! the e -er states and the Presi'ent o! the Co issionJ

o the Co"n%i& o! the E"ro#ean Union ,collo7#ially re"erred to as the .Co"n%i& o! Ginisters0, or simply as the .Co#ncil3- #rovi'es a 'e%ision6 a2ing !or" !or the inisters o! the e -er states who share the sa e or si i&ar #ort!o&io ,"or example, health ministers or a ric#lt#re ministers-> and o the Co ission is hea'e' -. a >K6 e -er Co&&ege o! Co issioners(

The se%on' gro"# o" actors are the govern ents o! the e -er states, which want to #rote%t their own interests an' #re!eren%es, an' have their own interna& organi1ationa& arrangeL ents !or 'ea&ing with EU 'a.6to6'a. -"siness& o 8rom time to time, the nationa& govern ents a&so e+er%ise the ost !"n'a enta& o! e+e%"tive #owers when they negotiate over re!or s o! the internationa& treaties that %reate the EU instit"tions an' %on!er #ower on the &

The !ina& gro"# o" a%tive #arti%i#ants in the EU #o&i%. #ro%ess invo&ves a host o! other a%tors, s"%h as non6 e -er state govern ents, s"-nationa& &eve&s o! govern ent ,in the United Lin dom, the Scottish Government, Northern Ireland Exec#ti!e, and the Welsh Assem'ly Fo!ernment-, '#siness corporations, and interest gro"#s ,s#ch as tra'e "nions an' environ enta& gro"#s- that see( to or aniGe and represent their interests at national or E#ropean le!el&

Re in'er4 International or aniGation created 'eca#se the limitation power o" nation state The E"ro#ean Union was 'esigne' with its own "&ti&eve& set o! a%tors an' instit"tions, which high&ights not on&. their own s#e%i!i% %hara%teristi%s 3as we sha&& see4, '#t also the &i itations o! the #owers o! the nation6state( International or aniGations s#ch as the E#ropean Union ,'#t also the Co#ncil o" E#rope- were created 'eca#se ,as we saw in the extract 'y @ilward- the #o&iti%a& !or o! the nation6state was no &onger %onsi'ere' a'e="ate to g"arLantee the !"&& i #&e entation o! the 'e o%ra%. #rin%i#&e&

Iss"es4 to what extent the model o" o!t 'ecome s#pranational and whether EU 'ased on di""erent (ind o" o!ernance The 7#estions "or the pro$ect o" E#ropean inte ration were, !irst, whether, and to what e+tent, the 2nown / o'e&s0 o! govern ent %o"&' trans%en' state -or'ers an' -e trans&ate' to the s"#ranationa& &eve&> and se%on', whether the E"ro#ean Union envisage', an' was -ase' on, a 'i!!erent 2in' o! governan%e(

Instit#tional "orm o" EU ha!e to o in line with modern democratic "orces as mem'ers state will more willin to "ollow V( Iog'anorB A 8ederal Tr#st Report ,1JJ2-, p& 0: The instit#tions o" the E#ropean Union were set #p in the 0:HJs" and they were 'ased !ery m#ch on the ethos, altho# h not)the speci"ic instit#tions, o" the 8o#rth Rep#'lic in 8rance, where important political decisions were o"ten made 'y #nelected ci!il ser!ants& The le acy o" Eean @onnet was that o" an apparently depoliticised and "#nctionalist '#rea#cracy which co#ld somehow lead the way towards a #nited E#rope& The tr#th is, howe!er, that the E#ropean Union was "o#nded in the 0:HJs on a conception o" o!ernment that is o#tdated in the modern world o" participatory and asserti!e democracy& The ethos o" 8o#rth Rep#'lic 8rance ins#lated technocratic leadership "rom e""ecti!e parliamentary scr#tiny& The ethos o" consens#al democracy le itimises decision)ma(in 'y elites, with the

role o" the electors 'ein con"ined to that o" rati"yin these decisions& This method did not wor( too 'adly in the early years o" the E#ropean Comm#nity, when the lead)ers led and the "ollowers "ollowed& /#t the rea%tion in an. Ge -er States to the Gaastri%ht Treat. in 0::1 and to the Constit#tional Treaty in 1JJH showe' that, whi&e the &ea'ers %ontin"e' to tr. to &ea', the !o&&owers were no &onger wi&&ing to !o&&ow& Th#s, the instit"tiona& !or s o! the E"ro#ean Union have -e%o e in%reasing&. in%ongr"ent with the #o#"&ar !or%es -ehin' o'ern 'e o%rati% govern ent& The %entra& tas2 "or those concerned to a2e E"ro#e ore e!!e%tive an' ore 'e o%rati% is to -ring the instit"tiona& !or s into line with the democratic "orces&

Nat#re o" EU di""er "rom parliamentary democracies and also it is s#pranationalism which nation state seemed lost their so!erei nty The 'e#o&iti%i1e', !"n%tiona&ist, te%hno%rati% , &ea'ing6 !ro 6a-ove nat"re o! the E"ro#ean Union in"orms its "ni="e instit"tiona& str"%t"re, which ser!es to 'isting"ish the E"ro#ean Union !ro e+isting #ar&ia entar. 'e o%ra%ies, as well as "rom other international or aniGations& o Other Internationa& organi1ation re"lects the intergovern enta& interests o" the mem'er statesthat is, areas in which the e -er states have retaine' their a"tono o"s 3or sovereign4 #owers and are si #&. wor2ing together& This traditional method o" inter o!ernmental cooperation m#st 'e %ontraste' with the s"#ranationa& interests o! the E"ro#ean Unionthat is, areas o" action in which the e -er states have 'e%i'e' to #oo& their

sovereignt. an' 'e&egate 'e%ision a2ing #owers to the EU instit"tions ,see Chapter 01-& N# ent The Fo!ernment and ?olitics o" the E#ropean Union ,1J0J, /asin sto(e4 @acmillan-, ;1O So!erei nty is an emoti!e word, associated as it is with notions o" power, a#thority, inde)pendence, and the exercise o" will& /eca#se o" its emoti!eness and its associations, it is a word to which se!eral meanin s are attached& The most common meanin , and the one which will 'e employed here, re"ers to the le al capacity o" national decision)ma(ers to ta(e decisions witho#t 'ein s#'$ect to external restraints& This is #s#ally called national, or some)times state, so!erei nty& Inter o!ernmentalism re"ers to arran ements where'y nation)states, in sit#ations and con)ditions they can control, cooperate with one another on matters o" common interest& The existence o" control, which allows all participatin states to decide the extent and nat#re o" this cooperation, means that national so!erei nty is not directly #ndermined&

S#pranationalism in!ol!es states wor(in with one another in a manner that does not allow them to retain complete control o!er de!elopments& That is, states may 'e o'li ed to do thin s a ainst their pre"erences and their will 'eca#se they do not ha!e the power to stop decisions& S#pranationalism th#s ta(es inter) state relations 'eyond cooperation into inte ra)tion, and in!ol!es some loss o" national so!erei nty&

EU impact on wide area incl#ded nation state politics and also constit#tion which ca#sed it 'ecome non)imperial Empire The E#ropean Unions instit#tional str#ct#re is also necessitated 'y the twenty)"o#r o""i%cial lan #a es, the distri'#tion o" power alon !ertical ,'etween the E#ropean Union, the mem'er states, and their re ionsand horiGontal ,'etween the di""erent EU instit#tions- lines, the wi'e !"n%tiona& rea%h o! e+e%"tive an' &egis&ative #ower, the evo&ving nat"re o! the E"ro#ean Union, and its shi!ting geogra#hi%a& -o"n'aries& The instit#tions and proced#res were not 'esigne' !or a /s"#er6state0, but "or a a9or internationa& organi1ation, the &ater i #a%t o! whi%h on nationa& #o&iti%s an' %onstit"tions was not initia&&. !oreseen or a##re%iate'&

Example o" areas in!ol!ed4 o /y the twenty)"irst cent#ry, the tas(s "or the E#ropean Union incl#ded not merely an internal a enda ,interna& ar2et, so%ia& 9"sti%e an' #rote%tion, so&i'arit. a ong e -er states-, '#t also responses to the !inan%ia& %rises a"ter 1JJO, monitorin the '#d etary sit#ation in Freece, car-on e issions an' %&i ate %hange, and ,#nder Art& K,H- TEU- lo'al contri'#tions to .peace, sec#rity, the s#staina'le de!elopment o" the Earth, solidarity and m#t#al respect amon #eo#&es, !ree an' !air tra'e, era'i%ation o! #overt. and the #rote%tion o! h" an rights, in partic#lar the rights o! the %hi&', as well as to the strict o'ser!ance and the 'eve&o# ent o! internationa& &aw, incl#din respect "or the principles o" the United Nations Charter&

In a n#tshell, the E"ro#ean Union ha', within the space o" "i"ty years, evo&ve' "rom a re ional strate ic plannin a#thority to /the !irst non6 i #eria& E F e #ire( It is not s#rprisin that the instit#tions and proced#res do not con"orm to esta'lished standards o" democracy and acco#nta'ility ,or what /o danor re"ers to as participatory and asserti!e democracy3 and .e""ecti!e parliamentary scr#tiny3-&

Tension -tw intergovt an' s"#ragovt) di""ic#lt in incorporate s#pranational element at the same time maintain nation states3 interest in maintainin control o!er policy and the need to esta'lish instit#tional str#ct#re and hold EU actors to acco#nt The two!o&' tension -etween intergovern enta&is an' s"#ranationa&is sho#ld 'e 'orne in mind when examinin the instit#tions& 8irst, there is a 'i!!i%"&t., which is in%or#orate' in the E"ro#ean Union0s governing str"%t"re, in stri2ing a !air -a&an%e -etween the s"#ranationa& 3EU4 e&e ent and the e -er states0 interest in aintaining %ontro& over the E"ro#ean #o&i%. #ro%ess thro"gh intergovern enta& %oo#eration&

Se%on', there is the nee' to give the E"ro#ean Union a "ni="e instit"tiona& str"%t"re ,precisely 'eca#se it is not an ordinary international or aniGation and 'eca#se it is not a state-, and the nee' to resort to o&' an' new wa.s in whi%h to ho&' EU instit"tions an' a%tors to a%%o"nt(

THE EU INSTITUTIONS Whatever the #o&iti%a& an' &ega& #it!a&&s ha!e 'een, the govern ents o! the e -er states have, on severa& o%%asions, agree' to %reate an' a en' the treaties governing the EU instit"tions& In this section, we t#rn to examine the instit#tions that exercise exec#ti!e power& Chapter 01 will "oc#s on the le islati!e "#nctions o" the E#ropean Unionespecially those o" the E#ropean ?arliament&

C+NSTITUTI+NAL 8+UN*ATI+NS +8 T5E EUR+?EAN UNI+N The E#ropean Union3s instit#tions, proced#res, and o'$ecti!es are set o#t in two treaties& The Treat. on the F"n%tioning o! the E"ro#ean Union 3TFEU4, formerly the Treaty Establishing the European Community (TEC), means the Treat. esta-&ishing 3what was then %a&&e'4 the E"ro#ean E%ono i% Co "nit., si ned at Rome on 1H @arch 0:H2 ,as a en'e' an' rena e' -. the Treat. o! Lis-on-& The Treat. on E"ro#ean Union 3TEU4 eans the Treat. on E"ro#ean Union, si ned at @aastricht on 2 8e'r#ary 0::1 ,as a en'e' -. the Treat. o! Lis-on-&

Instit#tions o" EU Arti%&e )* TEU The Union shall ha!e an instit#tional "ramewor( which shall aim to promote its !al#es, ad!ance its o'$ecti!es, ser!e its interests, those o" its citiGens and those o" the @em'er States, and ens#re the consistency, e""ecti!eness and contin#ity o" its policies and actions& The Union6s instit#tions shall 'e4 o the E"ro#ean Par&ia E#ropean Co#ncil, o the Co"n%i&, o the E"ro#ean Co ission ,hereina"ter re"erred to as Mthe CommissionM-, o the Co#rt o" E#stice o" the E#ropean Union, o the E"ro#ean Centra& Ian2, o the Co"rt o! A"'itors& ent, o the

Each instit#tion shall act within the limits o" the powers con"erred on it in the Treaties, and in con"ormity with the proced#res, conditions and o'$ecti!es set o#t in them& The instit#tions shall practice m#t#al sincere cooperation& The pro!isions relatin to the E#ropean Central /an( and the Co#rt o" A#ditors and detailed pro!isions on the other instit#tions are set o#t in the Treaty on the 8#nctionin o" the E#ropean Union& The E#ropean ?arliament, the Co#ncil and the Commission shall 'e assisted 'y an Economic and Social Committee and a Committee o" the Re ions actin in an ad!isory capacity&

a- THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL6 provide impetus for development and set political direction and priorities The E#ropean Co#ncil was not listed as a "ormal instit#tion o" the E#ropean Union in the pre!io#s Treaty re ime and so the E#ropean Union instit#tions were not le ally 'o#nd 'y its decisions& The Lis'on Treaty 'oosts the powers o" the E#ropean Co#ncil 'y allowin it to de"ine the Unions directions and priorities ,rather than merely settin o#t #idelines-& Arti%&e )A TEU o The E"ro#ean Co"n%i& shall #rovi'e the Union with the ne%essar. i #et"s "or its 'eve&o# ent and shall de"ine the genera& #o&iti%a& 'ire%tions an' #riorities thereo"& o It sha&& not e+er%ise &egis&ative !"n%tions&

Example o" the .$o's3 in!ol!ed4 8rom an EU #ers#e%tive, the E"ro#ean Co"n%i&4 o pro!ides a eneral political impet#s to the constr#ction o" E#rope> o sets o#t approaches and iss#es eneral political #idelines "or the E#ropean Union> o deli'erates on EU matters> o initiates cooperation in new areas o" acti!ity> o expresses a common position in 7#estions o" external relations> and o amends and simpli"ies the Treaties&

@em'ers o" E&Co#ncil The E#ropean Co#ncil consists o"4 o the twent.6 eight hea's o! state or govern ent, o its Presi'ent, and the o Presi'ent o! the Co ission(

@eetin ) 1 times in < months and the mem'ers It is a s" it eeting that "se' to -e %haire' -. the &ea'er o! the e -er state that he&' the #resi'en%. o! the Co"n%i& o! the E"ro#ean Union at the ti e ,the #resi'en%. rotate' -etween EU e -er states ever. si+ onthso Co"n%i& o! E"ro#ean Union is Co"n%i& o! Ginister E'i!!erent !ro E"ro#ean Co"n%i&F Those eetings were a&so atten'e' -.B o the inisters !or !oreign a!!airs, o a e -er o! the Co ission, and o a s a&& n" -er o! %ivi& servants& E"ro#ean Co"n%i& eetings were he&' in %a eraB no one e&se was a&&owe' to -e #resent and no !or a& in"tes were 2e#t& In s#m, the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& was hea'e' -. the %hie! e+e%"tives o!

a&& e -er states, who were assiste' -. a &i ite' n" -er o! #"-&i% o!!i%ia&s, who et in a %&ose' roo with no assistants( S#mmit meetin s ha!e ta(en place sporadically since 0:<0& /#t it was not #ntil 0:2H ,when the E#ropean Co#ncil was esta'lished- that it 'ecame a "ormal part o" the EC3s decision)ma(in process> it was not #ntil 0:O2 that its existence and importance was "ormally reco niGed in the Sin le E#ropean Act& Sin%e );;;, the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& has et at &east !o"r ti es a .ear in the middle and at the end o" each presidency o" the Co#ncil ,see 8i #re O&0-&

?residency) 1 and hal" year and elected 'y P@A system In order to ma(e the E#ropean Co#ncil more proacti!e, the Lis'on Treaty created the post o" a Presi'ent o! the E"ro#ean Co"n%i&, who is e&e%te' -. ="a&i!ie' a9orit. "or a ter o! two6an'6a6ha&! .ears ,renewa'le once-& The ?resident, who may not hold a national o""ice, is e&e%te' -. the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& "n'er ="a&i!ie' a9orit. voting 3MGV4(

Role o" ?resident Accordin to Art& 0H,<- TEU, the role o" the ?resident is4 o to g"i'e the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& ,'y chairin it-, o to %oor'inate its wor2&oa' ,'y ens#rin the preparation and contin#ity o" the wor( o" the E#ropean Co#ncil in cooperation with the ?resident o" the Commission-, and o to ens"re that the E"ro#ean Co"n%i&0s 'e%isions are i #&e ente' ,"or example, 'y #resenting a re#ort to the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent a"ter each o" the meetin s o" the E#ropean Co#ncil-&

In No!em'er 1JJ:, /el ian ?rime @inister 5erman !an Romp#y was chosen as the "irst ?resident o" the E#ropean Co#ncil d#rin a s#mmit meetin in /r#ssels "or a period o" two and a hal" years, renewa'le once& +n 0 @arch 1J01 van Ro #". was re6e&e%te' 'y the heads o" state or o!ernment, and the period o" his second term is "rom 0 E#ne 1J01 to KJ No!em'er 1J0;&

8orei n a""air trian le The intro'"%tion o! a Presi'ent o! the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& is li(ely to c&ash with e+isting senior #ositions in the E#ropean Union, s#ch as the Presi'ent o! the E"ro#ean Co ission ,as we shall see- and the High Re#resentative o! the Union !or Foreign A!!airs an' Se%"rit. Po&i%.( The #ost o! High Re#resentative was introd#ced 'y the Treaty o" Amsterdam ,0:::- and expanded #nder the Treaty o" Lis'on ,the 5i h Representati!e is also Aice)?resident o" the Commission and th#s can directly in"l#ence le islati!e proposals in the E#ropean Union-& In No!em'er 1JJ:, /aroness Catherine Ashton too( o!er "rom Ea!ier Solana as the EU3s 5i h Representati!e ,a #osition that the e'ia "n'erstan's as the EU !oreign inister, !oreign #o&i%. s"#re o, or the EU0s %hie! 'i#&o at-&

The two Presi'ents and the High Re#resentative have ro&es in the E"ro#ean Union0s e+terna& re#resentation& This new /!oreign a!!airs triang&e0 wi&& there!ore re="ire %oor'ination to avoi' signi!i%ant over&a# an' sharing o! res#onsi-i&ities(

?resident is not dictatorI a real president '#t only a chairman, a "acilitator altho# h 8rance ar #ed that ?resident 'e the ?resident o" whole E#rope R( Cor-ett, :( Peterson, an' E( Io -erg4 A n#m'er o" "actors led to creation o" a 6permanent6 and "#ll)time ?resident& ?re!io#sly, the six)month term o" o""ice meant a new ? e) 6dent e!ery second or third meetin , ma(in con%tin#ity and consistency impossi'le& The p eparation o" E#ropean Co#ncil meetin s, in!ol!in cons#ltation o" all 5eads o" Fo!ernment was, with s#ccessi!e enlar ements o" the Union, 'ecomin increasin ly onero#s "or any ?resident or ?rime @inister with their own national o!ernment to r#n& Also, the tas( o" representin the EU externally at s#mmit meetin s on "orei n policy iss#es, whilst at the same time representin their own co#ntry, was "elt to 'e inappropriate& @em'er states with an inter o!ernmentalist !iew o" the EU saw the E#ropean Co#ncil ?resident as a #se"#l co#nterwei ht to the ?resident o" the Commission&

Gan. Fren%h o-servers, i!en their domestic instit#tional system, see the Presi'ent o! the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& as a sort o! Presi'ent o! E"ro#e, with the Commission ?resident demoted to the stat#s o" a 8rench ?rime @inister, de!oted lar ely to internal a""airs and e!en then de"errin on ma$or decisions to the ?resident& That view is not share' -. a&&( The !irst E"ro#ean Co"n%i& Presi'ent, Van Ro #". 'es%ri-e' hi se&! as -eing &ess than a Presi'ent -"t ore than a %hair anB a !a%i&itator, not a 'i%tator(

E&Co#ncil) ma(e on direction "or Commission and p#t press#re on Co#ncil, reach political a reement 8ormally, the ain e+e%"tive tas2s o" the E#ropean Co#ncil are descri'ed in Art& 0H TEU> o in reality, the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& #rovi'es overa&& strategi% 'ire%tion !or the Co ission, ommission propose legislation o e+e%"tes #o&i%ies #nder the second and third pillars, o #"ts #ress"re on the Co"n%i& to a'o#t new #o&i%. %o #eten%es !or the E"ro#ean Union #nder Art& KH1 T8EU ,the so6%a&&e' /!&e+i-i&it. %&a"se0 whi%h ena-&es the Co"n%i& to ta2e a##ro#riate eas"res when the Treat. 'oes not #rovi'e the ne%essar. #owers-, ouncil is main decision making body like e!ecutive

o and rea%hes #o&iti%a& agree ents on %ontentio"s &egis&ative #ro#osa&s& In other words, the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& is a 'e%ision6 a2ing heav.weight that lean @onnet descri'ed as the /Provisiona& E"ro#ean 7overn ent0(

E#ropean Co#ncil meetin s seemed li(e in"ormal and act 'y only reach consens#s '#t not P@A, those iss#es did not reached then postponed raised 7#estion o" le itimacy o" decision ma(in E"ro#ean Co"n%i& eetings are %hara%teri1e' -. #rivate an' in!or a& /!iresi'e %hats0, which ha!e a'vantages !or #o&iti%a& 'is%"ssions ,the ?resident o" the E#ropean Co#ncil and the 5i h Representati!e o" the Union "or 8orei n A""airs and Sec#rity ?olicy were elected 'y the heads o" state and o!ernment o!er dinner in /r#ssels in No!em'er 1JJ:- and "or extraordinary meetin s ,s#ch as the meetin on 10 Septem'er 1JJ0 in the wa(e o" the terrorist attac(s in the USA-& I"t the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& %an a%t on&. -. rea%hing %onsens"s& This process is &ess e!!i%ient than, sa., MGV ,in which mem'er states ha!e !otes that are wei hted ro# hly accordin to the siGe o" their pop#lations- and those iss#es on

which agree ent is not rea%he' are #ost#one'& The a-sen%e o! ore so#histi%ate' #ro%e'"ra& r"&es an' written re%or's o" its meetin s p#ts a ="estion ar2 over the &egiti a%. o! its 'e%ision6 a2ing #owers( The e+isten%e o! s"%h a high6&eve& -o'., while ne%essar. !or the !"n%tioning o! the E"ro#ean Union, is at o''s with the 'e&i%ate -a&an%e 'etween the nee' to share sovereignt. an' the 'esire to retain nationa& %ontro& that "n'er&ies the instit"tiona& ar%hite%t"re o! the E"ro#ean Union(

E#ropean co#ncil #ide other instit#tion and "acilitate ma$or decisions and also in"ormal ar'iter "or pro'lems that Co#ncil o" E#ropean Union #na'le to resol!e howe!er, decision is not 'indin Cpre!ent ridloc(D The Treaty $#sti"ication "or the E"ro#ean Co"n%il is to #rovi'e &ea'ershi#4 it g"i'es the other EU instit"tions an' !a%i&itates a9or 'e%isions in ever. area o! #o&i%.& /#t the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& has a&so Cin!or a&&. and o!er time a%="ire' the stat"s o! a !ina& ar-iter !or #ro-&e s that the Co"n%i& o! the E"ro#ean Union is "na-&e to reso&ve o This #ra%ti%e has re%eive' !or a& re%ognition in re&ation to Co on Foreign an' Se%"rit. Po&i%.4 see Art& K0,1TEU&

It has no !or a& #ower to a2e -in'ing 'e%isions'#t it "ills a ap as the #ltimate decision)ma(in a#thority& This is an essentia& ro&e within a !e'era& str"%t"re, 'eca#se the di""erent layers o" power can res#lt in 'ottlenec(s and 'loc(a es& As the en ine 'ehind E#ropean inte ration, the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& has e!!e%tive&. s#earhea'e' Treat. re!or s an' #revente' gri'&o%2(

No power to propose le islate '#t can raised iss#e o" national interest to p#ll emer ency 'ra(e Note that the Lis'on Treaty still !a&&s short o! giving the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& the #ower to #ro#ose &egis&ation, which ,as will 'e seenhas always 'een the central role of the European Commission. Ge -er states are a&&owe' to re!er iss"es to the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& i" they consider their nationa& interests to -e at sta2e( The E"ro#ean Co"n%i& is then entit&e' to #"&& the /e ergen%. -ra2e0&

8ind di""ic#lt to ma(e decision in secret with new "oc#s on acco#nta'ility and transparency With a new !o%"s on a%%o"nta-i&it. an' trans#aren%. ,see ,'- The Co#ncil o" the E#ropean Union-, the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& wi&& a&so !in' it ore 'i!!i%"&t in the !"t"re to a2e 'e%isions in se%ret(

-4 THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION The Co#ncil o" the E#ropean Union is also in!or a&&. 2nown as the /Co"n%i& o! Ginisters0, and the Treaties re"er to it si #&. as the /Co"n%i&0( It is the EU3s #ri ar. 'e%ision6 a2ing instit"tion, and its Treaty 'asis is as "ollows&

Article 0< TEU The Co"n%i& sha&&, 9oint&. with the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent, e+er%ise &egis&ative an' -"'getar. !"n%tions& It shall carry o#t policy) ma(in and coordinatin "#nctions as laid down in the Treaties& The Co#ncil shall %onsist o! a re#resentative o! ea%h Ge -er State at inisteria& &eve&, who may commit the o!ernment o" the @em'er State in 7#estion and cast its !ote& The Co#ncil shall a%t -. a ="a&i!ie' a9orit. except where the Treaties pro!ide otherwise&

As "rom 0 No!em'er 1J0;, a ="a&i!ie' a9orit. sha&& -e 'e!ine' as at least HHQ o" the mem'ers o" the Co#ncil, %o #rising at &east !i!teen o! the an' re#resenting Ge -er States %o #rising at &east NAO o! the #o#"&ation o! the Union( o A -&o%2ing inorit. "st in%&"'e at &east !o"r Co"n%i& e -ers, "ailin which the 7#ali"ied ma$ority shall 'e deemed attained& o The other arran ements o!ernin the 7#ali"ied ma$ority are laid down in Article 1KO,1- o" the Treaty on the 8#nctionin o" the E#ropean Union& The transitional pro!isions relat n to the de"inition o" the 7#ali"ied ma$ority which shall 'e applica'le #ntil K0 +cto'er 1J6i; ana tnose which shall 'e applica'le "rom 0 No!em'er 1J0; to K0 @arch 1J02 are laid down in the ?rotocol on transitional pro!isions&

The Co#ncil shall meet in di""erent con"i #rations, the list o" which shall 'e adopted in accordance with Article 1K< o" the Treaty on the 8#nctionin o" the E#ropean Union The Feneral A""airs Co#ncil sha&& ens"re %onsisten%. in the wor2 o! the 'i!!erent Co"n%i& %on!ig"rations( o It shall #re#are an' ens"re the !o&&ow6"# to eetings o! the E"ro#ean Co"n%i&, in &iaison with the Presi'ent o! the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& an' the Co ission&

@ixin with le islat#re and exec#ti!e The Co#ncil is #art o! the E"ro#ean Unions e+e%"tive ,with the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& an' the Co ission- and #art o! the E"ro#ean Unions &egis&at"re ,with the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent-&

@em'er) representati!e "rom each ministerial o" nation states whom the mem'ership is chan ed accordin to partic#lar "ield is in!ol!ed and there"ore as ministers can acco#nta'le 'e"ore national parliament At "irst si ht, it is an intergovern enta& instit"tion that %o #rises one inister !ro ea%h o! the twent.6eight govern ents, and #rovi'es a ven"e in whi%h #o&iti%ians an' -"rea"%rats !ro the nationa& an' EU &eve&s %an negotiate an' &egis&ate& The composition, or aniGation, and powers o" the Co#ncil are 'esigne' to a%%" "&ate an' arti%"&ate nationa& interests( Altho# h the Co#ncil is a permanent instit#tion, it 'oes not have a %onstant e -ershi#& Its %o #osition is 'eter ine' -. the #arti%"&ar iss"es "n'er %onsi'eration&

Ea%h Ginister re#resents, an' is th"s e #owere' to %o it, his or her govern ent& The Ginister is then a%%o"nta-&e -e!ore the nationa& Par&ia ent, which ens"res the 3in'ire%t4 'e o%rati% &egiti a%. o" the decisions o" the Co#ncil&

8#nctions s"#ranationa&&.) le islate, coordinate economic policy, external relation, appro!e '#d et When it comes to decision)ma(in and law)ma(in within the Co#ncil, the Co#ncil wears di""erent .hats3 dependin on which proced#re is #sed to ma(e a partic#lar policy& Under the TFEU, the Co#ncil is responsi'le "or4 o ena%ting E"ro#ean &egis&ation ,o"ten in #nison with the E#ropean ?arliament #sin the ordinary le islati!e proced#reo %oor'inating the e%ono i% #o&i%ies o" the mem'er states o the e+terna& re&ations o! the E"ro#ean Union ,"or example, si nin international a reements with third co#ntries or other international or aniGations-, and o ,to ether with the E#ropean ?arliament- a##roving the EUs -"'get(

In these areas, the %hara%ter o! the Co"n%i& is ain&. s"#ranationa&, meanin that the e -er states have 'e%i'e' to 'e&egate 3or #oo&04 their 'e%ision6 a2ing #owers to the E"ro#ean Union(

8#nction intergovern enta&&.) settin EU a enda #ideline 'y !otin In relation to the TEU 3%o on !oreign an' se%"rit. #o&i%.-, the character o" the Co#ncil is inter o!ernmental, meanin that e -er states have retaine' their sovereign #owers over these #o&i%. areas, -"t have 'e%i'e' to wor2 together( So, the Co"n%i& is res#onsi-&e !or setting the EU0s agen'a -ase' on g"i'e&ines set -. the e -er states ,meetin in the E#ropean Co#ncil-& Co"n%i& 'e%isionsCin these ore nationa&&. sensitive areasChave to -e "nani o"s, which in practice means that ea%h e -er state has a right to veto these 'e%isions(

N( N"gentB The e+tent to whi%h the Co"n%i& "st wor2 with, an' is 'e#en'ent "#on the %oo#eration o!, the Co ission an' the EP in respect o" policy and decision)ma(in !aries 'etween policy areas and accordin to what type o" decisions are 'ein made& In 'road terms, the Co"n%i& has ost roo !or in'e#en'ent anoe"vre when it is not a%ting within Dthe Co "nit. etho'D, "or then the roles and powers o" the Commission and the E? are normally restricted& Amon st policy iss#es where the Co "nit. etho' 'oes not a##&. are !oreign an' 'e!en%e #o&i%., 'oth o" which ha!e increased enor o"s&. in i #ortan%e in re%ent .ears as the EU has %o e to iss"e n" ero"s 'e%&arations on !oreign #o&i%. atters an' has %o e to engage in an arra. o! !oreign #o&i%. a%tions(

Assistants Cmore details re"er 'elowD The Co#ncil is assiste' -. the Co ittee o! Per anent Re#resentatives 3COREPER-, or .a -assa'ors0 to the E"ro#ean Union "rom mem'er states, which is res#onsi-&e !or #re#aring the wor2 o! the Co"n%i& an' %arr.ing o"t tas2s assigne' to it( The Unite' 5ing'o 0s o!!i%ia& 'e&egation is 2nown as CU5REP0(

*irect exec#ti!e power and hea!y wei ht on le islat#re on proposal as well as Co#ncil is democratically elected who en$oy more political wei ht than Commission In s#m, the Co"n%i& has !or a& 'e%ision6 a2ing #owers a%ross a&& #o&i%. areas that ma(e #p the E#ropean Union& The TEU es#e%ia&&. #rovi'es !or 'ire%t Co"n%i& e+e%"tive a"thorit.& I"t even "n'er the TFEU, Art& 1;0 i!es the Co"n%i& the #ower to /re="est the Co ission to "n'erta2e an. st"'ies the Co"n%i& considers desira'le "or the attainment o" the common o'$ecti!es, and to s#'mit to it any appropriate proposals6& The Co"n%i& has "se' this #rovision to iss"e %&ear instr"%tions to the Co ission& Ie%a"se the inisters are 'e o%rati%a&&. e&e%te', the

Co"n%i& en9o.s #o&iti%a& weight that the Co ission ,consistin o" appointees- cannot easily i nore&

S#mmary o" Co#ncil3s "#nctions The Co#ncil, there"ore, has the "ollowin "#nctions& Legis&ativeIt 'eve&o#s an' a2es &aws 9oint&. with the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent #nder co) decision ,see Chapter 01-& E+e%"tiveIt has 'ire%t res#onsi-i&it. in #o&i%. areas s"%h as Co on Foreign an' Se%"rit. Po&i%., and ,c#rrently?olice and E#dicial Cooperation in Criminal @atters, "or exercisin exec#ti!e powers& SteeringIt %on%&"'es internationa& agree ents !or the E"ro#ean Union with third states or international or aniGations& For" It %oor'inates the -roa' a%roe%ono i% #o&i%ies o! the e -er states&

Importance o" Co#ncil) show contin#in power o" nation states in inte ration o" E#rope The "ollowin commentator compares the Co#ncil to .a cl#' o" mem'er o!ernments3 which the national ministers #se to compete "or in"l#ence& F( Ha.es6RenshawB The Co"n%i& is regar'e' as the %entra& -o'. 'y those who stress the i #ortan%e o! nationa& interests as the !a%tor explainin o#tcomes in the EU& Indeed, the Co#ncil as it exists and operates today may 'e viewe' as one o! the &iving s. -o&s o! the %ontin"ing #ower o! the e -er states in the EU, and o" the 'esire o! the nationa& govern ents to re ain at the %entre o! the #ro%ess o! E"ro#ean integration&

Sin%e it is a&so re#resentative o! the e -er govern ents who %onstit"te the intergovern enta& %on!eren%es ,IFCs- that initiate constit#tional re"orm in the EU, we %an e+#e%t the Co"n%i& to en'"re an' to %ontin"e to #&a. a %entra& ro&e in the &arger EU(

Arg" entB Co#ncil more toward the s#pranational which not necessary interest o" lar er mem'er stated determine the o#tcome '#t the cooperation with Commission and E? F( Ha.es6RenshawB *espite 'ein the EU6s inter o!ernmental instit#tion par excellence, howe!er, C&&& D in reality, the Co"n%i& is a "ni="e -&en' o! the intergovern enta& an' the s"#ranationa&& It represents mem'er state interests that are a re ated #nder conditions !re="ent&. owing ore to s"#ranationa&it. than to intergovern enta&is , and it is not ne%essari&. the interests o! the &arger e -er states that 'eter ine the !ina& o"t%o es& In addition, the Co"n%i& as an instit"tion wor2s %&ose&. with the Co ission an' the EP, the !iews o" -oth o! whi%h in!or its wor2 an' i #inge in i #ortant wa.s on its o"t#"t&

S"ggest re!or 4 /ecome explicit le islat#re other than exec#ti!e +R has core exec#ti!e power F( Ha.es6RenshawB C&&&D Two o##osing s"ggestions "or the Co#ncil lin er in the de'ate o!er EU instit#tional re"orm& +ne ad!ocates that it sho"&' -e%o e an e+#&i%it&. re#resentative an' &egis&ative rather than an e+e%"tive instit"tion( The other asserts that the Co"n%i& sho"&' -e a'e even ore e+#&i%it&. 'o inant, as the %ore o! e+e%"tive #ower within the EU( The Lis'on Treaty has neither resol!ed this ar #ment nor clari"ied the sit#ation& It is li(ely that the Co#ncil will ha!e to contin#e to ser!e 'oth camps, with all o" the constit#tional and operational am'i #ities that this implies&

Co #osition an' str"%t"re) ministers from nation states appointed by PM indirect legitimacy and indirectly elected! depend on sub"ects The Co#ncil consists o" many le!els& At the top le!el, the Co"n%i& /%onsists o! a re#resentaLive o! ea%h Ge -er State at inisteria& &eve&D( The e -ers o! the Co"n%i& are not 'ire%t&. e&e%te', -"t are 'is#at%he' to the Co"n%i& in their %a#a%it. as inisters o" their respecti!e national o!ernment ,or occasionally, in the case o" /el i#m and Fermany, ministers "rom the re ional le!el-& The. eet in Ir"sse&s or L"+e -o"rg, and eetings &ast a 'a. or two&

As an instit#tion, there is on&. one Co"n%i&, -"t it %"rrent&. eets in ten 'i!!erent %on!ig"rations, dependin on the s#'$ects #nder disc#ssion& o Feneral A""airs ,FACo 8orei n A""airs ,8ACo Economic and 8inancial A""airs ,Eco"ino A ric#lt#re and 8isheries ,A ri"isho E#stice and 5ome A""airs Co#ncil ,E5Ao Employment, Social ?olicy, 5ealth and Cons#mer A""airs Co#ncil ,E?SC+o Competiti!eness ,C+C+@o Transport, Telecomm#nications and Ener y ,TTEo En!ironment ,ENAIo Ed#cation, 9o#th, C#lt#re and Sport ,E9C-& Th#s a ric#lt#re ministers "rom the mem'er states meet to disc#ss and ma(e decisions a'o#t "armin , transport ministers a'o#t transport, and so on&

Ea%h Co"n%i& has the #ower to 'is%"ss iss"es, ena%t &egis&ation within its area o" competence, and .to %o it the govern ent o! the Ge -er State0& Ginisters are "s"a&&. a##ointe' or nominated to that position -. their Pri e Ginister, and th#s en9o. in'ire%t &egiti a%. when the. eet in the Co"n%i&&

) Co#ncil ta(e collecti!e responsi'ility) not clear whom they represent and to whom they acco#nta'le When athered to ether in the Co#ncil, howe!er, the. inevita-&. ta2e on %o&&e%tive res#onsi-i&ities, and it is no &onger %&ear who the. re#resent an' to who the. are a%%o"nta-&e(

) Aotin mostly 'y P@A, sometime area need #nanimo#s or simple ma$ority De#en'ing on the iss"e in ="estion, which is o!erned 'y r#les laid down in the Treaties, inisters in the Co"n%i& vote on the -asis o! si #&e a9orit., MGV, or "nani it.& o Under the Treat. o! Ni%e, si #&e a9orit. voting was "s"a&&. "se' !or #ro%e'"ra& or other non6%ontroversia& atters& Accordin ly, each mem'er state has a sin le !ote and "o#rteen !otes in "a!o#r are re7#ired to adopt a meas#re in the E#ropean Union o" twenty)"i!e pl#s& o Nationa&&. sensitive areas, s#ch as "orei n policy and de"ence, EU enlar ement, taxation, and social sec#rity still ha!e to 'e a reed "nani o"s&. -. a&& e -er states( An aggrieve' e -er state %an e+er%ise its #ower o! veto, or a-stain !ro voting ,which, li(e a yes3 !ote,

allows a reement 'y the others to o ahead-& o Gost 'e%isions 3%a( K?O4 in the Co"n%i& are ta2en -. MGV& Each mem'er state is allocated a certain n#m'er o" !otes to re!&e%t as %&ose&. as #ossi-&e its si1e an' #o#"&ation( rermany, 8rance, Italy, and the United Lin dom Spain and ?oland Romania The Netherlands /el i#m, CGech Rep#'lic, Freece, 5#n ary, and ?ort# al A#stria, /#l aria, and Sweden *enmar(, Ireland, Lith#ania, Slo!a(ia, 8inland, and Croatia Cypr#s, Estonia, Lat!ia, L#xem'o#r , and Slo!enia @alta T+TAL

) New voting s.ste 4 C"#ll e""ect "rom 0);)1J02D de"a#lt #nder P@A system except tax and social sec#rity 'y #nanimo#s The Lis'on Treaty ma(es si ni"icant chan es to the r#les "or calc#latin a 7#ali"ied ma$ority& The %"rrent r"&es wi&&, however, %ontin"e to o#erate e+%&"sive&. "nti& *) O%to-er >?)@> -etween ) Nove -er >?)@ an' *) Gar%h >?)<, an. e -er state %an re="est that a vote revert to these r"&es& That eans that the new r"&es on&. ta2e !"&& e!!e%t !ro ) A#ri& >?)<( Under the Lis-on Treat., MGV -e%o es the 'e!a"&t voting etho' in the Co"n%i& ,Art& 0<,KTEU-, an' in%&"'es areas #revio"s&. s"-9e%t to "nani it. ,these incl#de $#stice and home a""airs, and a n#m'er o" matters

relatin to "orei n and de"ence policy-& Sensitive areas, s"%h as ta+ an' so%ia& se%"rit., however, re ain to -e 'e%i'e' -. "nani it.( /+R O&; T5E C5ANFES T+ P@A UN*ER T5E LIS/+N TREAT90 Treaty o" Nice#sed excl#si!ely #ntil K0 The do#'le ma$ority P@A system #sed +cto'er 1J0; "rom 0 No!em'er 1J0; and excl#si!ely "rom 0 April 1J02 8or a proposal "rom the Commission or 5i h Representati!e to pass4 o there m#st 'e !otes "rom at least HHQ o" Co#ncil mem'ers ,one mem'er, one !ote- ,that is, at least "i"teen mem'er states, c#rrently-> and o representin at least <HQ o" the Union pop#lation& 8or other proposals to pass4 o there m#st 'e !otes "rom at least 21Q o" Co#ncil mem'ers ,one mem'er, one !ote- ,that is, at least twenty mem'er states, c#rrently-> and

o representin at least <HQ o" the Union pop#lation& 0O See4 Art& 1JH TEC> Art& 0< LTEU> Art& 1KO T8EU> ?rotocol on transitional pro!isions& Where not all mem'ers ta(e part, "or a proposal to pass, it needs4 o the same proportion o" wei hted !otes ,2K&:Q-> o the same proportion o" the n#m'er o" Co#ncil mem'ers ,a ma$ority or two) thirds-> and Where not all mem'ers ta(e part, "or a proposal to pass, it needs4 o the same proportion o" !otes ,HHQ or 21Q-> and o the same percenta e o" the pop#lation o" the mem'er states concerned ,<HQ- o" the mem'ers ta(in part& o the same percenta e o" the pop#lation o" the mem'er states concerned ,<1Q- o" the mem'ers ta(in part& So#rce4 5o#se o" Lords E#ropean Union Committee, The Treaty o" Lis'on4 An Impact Assessment,

Tenth Report, Session 1JJ2)JO ,5L ?aper <1)0-&

) P@A only need HHQ as compared to c#rrent Nice treaty need 2K&:Q 8or present p#rposes, it is important to note that #nder the c#rrent allocationalso called wei htin 3o" !otes in the Ni%e Treat., a ="a&i!ie' a9orit. wi&& -e rea%he' i!4 o a a9orit. o! e -er states a##rove ,in some cases, a two) thirds ma$ority-> and o a ini " o! >N? votes is %ast in !avo"r o" the proposal, o#t o" a total o" KH1 !otes ,ro# hly <*(; #er %ent o! the votes-& A e -er state a. as2 !or %on!ir ation that the !otes in "a!o#r represent at &east N> #er %ent o! the tota& #o#"&ation o! the E"ro#ean Union( I! this is !o"n' not to -e the %ase, the 'e%ision wi&& not -e a'o#te'(

The most si ni"icant chan e to 'e made 'y the Lis'on Treaty is the #er%entage re'"%tion !ro <*(; #er %ent to AA #er %ent re="ire' !or MGV an' tota& #o#"&ation nee' NAO on a Commission proposal, -e%a"se it a2es EU &aw6 a2ing easier an' ore e!!i%ient(

6 I&o%2ing inorit.) need ; mem'er states to oppose it Calso pre!ent only K lar er states to 'loc( it, altho# h they may contri'#te more than KH Q oppose pop#lation '#t need ; states to oppose itD The Lis'on Treaty "ormaliGes the r#les re ardin the "ormation o" a -&o%2ing inorit.& At &east !o"r %o"ntries are now nee'e' to !or a -&o%2ing inorit.& This system #&a%es %o"ntries with a s a&&er #o#"&ation on a !airer !ooting with the &arger e -er states& The new r"&e is s#e%i!i%a&&. 'esigne' to #revent an. three o! the &arge states ,the United Lin dom, Fermany, 8rance, and Italy!ro -eing a-&e to -&o%2 a #ro#osa& 3an. three o! these states wo"&' re#resent ore than *A #er %ent o! the Union0s #o#"&ation4(

I" the #o#"&ation re="ire ent 3NA #er %ent4 were not et, a !o"rth state wo"&' -e nee'e'( o I! * &arge state o##ose Ethat ean ore that *AO o##ose'F that ean sti&& nee' @th state to o##ose it i! otherwise, &ess than NAO, the a%t sti&& wi&& -e #asse' The re="ire ent !or at &east !o"r e -er states wo"&' re ain, regar'&ess o! !"t"re 'e ogra#hi% shi!ts in e -er states&

) I" #nanimo#s, then in"l#ence shared e7#ally> i" #nder P@A, ens#re the smaller mem'er states wor(in to ether and "ormin the consens#s So who wie&'s the in the Co"n%i&$ ost in!&"en%e

It is important to note that the Co#ncil, in the words o" the Ferman 8ederal Constit#tional Co#rt, is .the representati!e 'ody o" mas%ters o" the Treaties> correspondin ly, it is not constit#ted accordin to proportional representation, '#t accordin to the ima e o" the e7#ality o" states6& o The Lis'on Treaty decision in /Aer"F, 1 /!E 1IJO, KJ E#ne 1JJ:, at para& 120 /#t e7#ality o" states does not tell the whole story&

8& 5ayes)Renshaw4 In the small n#m'er o" cases in which "nani it. is the r"&e, in!&"en%e is share' e="a&&. a ong the Co"n%i& e -ers& Sin%e an. nationa& re#resentative %an -&o%2 agree ent, the interests o! a&& have to -e ta2en into a%%o"nt( Un'er MGV, n#m'ers matter, and those e -er govern ents with the &argest n" -er o! votes 3or -iggest #o#"&ations4 %o"&' -e e+#e%te' to wie&' the &argest a o"nt o! in!&"en%e( However, sa!eg"ar's ha!e 'een '#ilt into the system to ens"re that the s a&&er e -er states, wor2ing together, have as "%h %han%e as the &arger ones to e+ert in!&"en%e over the !ina& o"t%o e&

Indeed, the 'i @em'er States are "re7#ently o#t)!oted in the Co#ncil C&&& D In!&"en%e %an a&so -e e+erte' -. &arge an' s a&& e -er states a&i2e in ore in!or a& ,and less easily 7#anti"ia'le- wa.s, s#ch as 'y #"tting !orwar' %o #ro ise #ro#osa&s a%%e#ta-&e to a a9orit. o" the mem'er o!ernments, !or ing %oa&itions with li(e)minded states, and ma(in their point o" !iew (nown to the Commission, the presidency, and the Co#ncil Secretariat& The !or ation o! %oa&itions within the Co"n%i& is an intrinsi% #art o! the 'e%ision6 a2ing #ro%ess "n'er MGV, in which 7#ali"ied ma$orities and 'loc(in minorities matter, i" only "or the p#rposes o" calc#latin which mem'er states need to 'e won o!er in order to achie!e a consens#s&

) Assistant )4 Feneral A""air Co#ncil) Coordinate the wor( "or co#ncil The expansion o" the E#ropean Union in territory, and in the scope o" its competences, has nat#rally led to an increased n#m'er o" specialiGed Co#ncil con"i #rations and "ra mentation o" its acti!ity& The Co#ncil is aided in its wor( 'y !ario#s 'odies "rom a'o!e and "rom 'elow& The 7enera& A!!airs Co"n%i& is res#onsi-&e !or %oor'inating the wor2 o! the Co"n%i& as a whole& It also acts as !ina& ar-iter when the other Co"n%i&s %annot agree on a &egis&ative #ro#osa&& I! the 7enera& A!!airs Co"n%i& !ai&s to 'rea( the deadloc(, the atter gets sent "# to the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& !or a #o&iti%a& 'e%ision&

) Assistant >4 C+RE?ER) "rom nation states Cli(e Ci!il Ser!antsD At the lower ,national- le!el, the Co#ncil consists o" the Co ittee o! Per anent Re#resentatives 3COREPER4, and aro"n' >A? %o ittees an' wor2ing gro"#s& Wor(in ro#ps wi&& 'is%"ss the te%hni%a&ities o! i #&e enting a &egis&ative #ro#osa& 3!ro the Co ission4 that nat"ra&&. arise in a "nion o! twent.6eight e -er states( Their wor( pa!es the way "or C+RE?ER, the most important committee, which %he%2s ever. #ro#osa& an' 'ea&s with atters "nreso&ve' in the wor2ing gro"#s& The senior nationa& o!!i%ia&s who %o #rise the Per anent Re#resentatives have a -assa'oria& ran2 and resi'e in Ir"sse&s&

The. #re#are an' %oor'inate the agen'a !or the Co"n%i&(

Agree ent a ong the Per anent Re#resentatives wi&& o!ten -e en'orse' -. the Co"n%i&( Alternati!ely, the areas o! 'isagree ent wi&& -e 2e#t as narrow as #ossi-&e -e!ore sen'ing the !i&e "# to the Co"n%i& !or 'e%ision& On&. high&. #o&iti%a& iss"es have to -e renegotiate' -. the nationa& inisters( 8or these reasons, COREPER is so eti es viewe' as the ost #ower!"& -o'. in the EU0s 'e%ision6 a2ing #ro%ess& Sin%e it is the nationa& a"thorities that "&ti ate&. i #&e ent EU &aw, the early in!ol!ement o" high6%a&i-re nationa& o!!i%ia&s is 2e. to the s ooth a' inistration o! #o&i%.&

The Co"n%i&, there!ore, nee's to !a%i&itate e+e%"tive res#onsi-i&ities(

Trans#aren%. an' a%%o"nta-i&it. ) Acted in le islati!e capacity #sed to 'e 'ehind the door Cleast transparent in EUD The Co"n%i& eets a& ost ever. wee2 in or'er to a'o#t new &egis&ation, '#t #ntil the Lis'on Treaty came into "orce, it ha' re!"se' to eet #"-&i%&. whenever it a%te' in its &egis&ative capacity, nor wo#ld it ho&' #ress %on!eren%es or re&ease trans%ri#ts 3 in"tes4 o! its eetings& 8rom a citiGens3 perspecti!e, the Co#ncil3s 'e%ision6 a2ing #ro%ess has -een 'es%ri-e' as /a se%retive an' s#e%ia&i1e' a!!air0& o Ro'ert Thomson The Co"n%i&0s wor2ing #arties have negotiate' a n" -er o! &aws -ehin' %&ose' 'oors, which were then si #&. r"--er6sta #e' -. the inisters(

The Co"n%i& is the &east trans#arent EU instit"tion and the extent to which ministers are responsi'le to their own ?arliament will 'e also 'e disc#ssed&

@ore transparent now in .le islation deli'eration3 This sit#ation is, howe!er, rad#ally chan in & In *ecem'er 1JJH, the Co#ncil decided to hold meetin s in p#'lic sho#ld the iss#es "all #nder the co)decision proced#re& This, it claims, has increased its openness 'y 1J per cent& CitiGens and $o#rnalists are now a'le to "ollow positions ta(en 'y the ministers in the Co#ncil& The Lis-on Treat. in%&"'es a trans#aren%. %&a"se in Art( )N TEU4 .The Co"n%i& sha&& eet in #"-&i% when it 'e&i-erates an' votes on a 'ra!t &egis&ative a%t(0 Ea%h eeting wi&& -e 'ivi'e' into two #arts, 'ea&ing se#arate&. with &egis&ative an' non6 &egis&ative a%tivities( On&. the !irst ha&! wi&& -e #"-&i%&

Under Art& 2,K- o" the Co#ncil3s R#les o" ?roced#re411 o The o#ening to the #"-&i% o! Co"n%i& eetings re&ating to the DLegis&ative 'e&i-erationsD #art o" its a enda shall 'e a'e thro"gh #"-&i% trans ission 'y a#dio!is#al means, nota'ly in an o!er"low room and thro# h 'roadcastin in all o""icial lan #a es o" the instit#tions o" the E#ropean Union #sin !ideo) streamin & o A recorded !ersion shall remain a!aila'le "or at least one month on the Co#ncil6s Internet site& The o#tcome o" !otin shall 'e indicated 'y !is#al means& The Co"n%i& %an -e %re'ite' !or having -e%o e a ore trans#arent instit"tion&

8or example, most doc#ments are now directly a!aila'le "rom its we'site ,http4IIwww&consili#m&e#&int-& And the Co#ncil Secretariat is wor(in on a data'ase containin all the !otin records in a #ser)"riendly "orm&

) Iss#e o" acco#nta'ility and standard o" le itimacy /#t the #ro-&e s o! a%%o"nta-i&it. are &in2e' to the str"%t"re o! the Co"n%i&, as we&& as to the stan'ar' o! &egiti a%. "se' to assess the Co#ncil&

) Co#ncil made o" ministers on national election there"ore they ha!e the indirect le itimacy Str#ct#rally, the Co"n%i& has e+e%"tive an' &egis&ative #owers, and is there"ore not capt#red 'y the traditional doctrine o" separation o" powers& The Co"n%i& a&so en9o.s #&enar. &egis&ative #ower within the E"ro#ean Union, and it is %o #ose' o! inisters who were e&e%te' in nationa& e&e%tions an' on nationa& iss"es( The Co"n%i& there!ore en9o.s in'ire%t &egiti a%.&

) National ?arliament #na'le to scr#tiniGe the new directi!es and re #lations, they are always res#lt o" ne otiated compromise "rom di""erent state mem'ers, and they ha!e to accept e!en rel#ctant to do so which has lon term e""ect Cr#cially, the Co#ncil as an instit#tion has permanent ten#re ,it cannot 'e !oted o#t o" o""ice 'y the E#ropean ?arliament- and it is not acco#nta'le to national parliaments& V( Iog'anorB The Co#ncil o" @inisters is !re="ent&. a%%"se' o! giving too "%h 'is%retion to the govern ents o! the Ge -er States and &i iting their a%%o"nta-i&it. to the #ar&ia ents an' voters o! the Ge -er States& @any critics 'elie!e that E"ro#ean a%tivities are given ins"!!i%ient s%r"tin. -. nationa& &egis&at"res and that #ar&ia ents 'o not have s"!!i%ient o##ort"nities to e+a ine new 'ire%tives an'

reg"&ations and i!e their opinion on them& De%isions in the E"ro#ean Union are o!ten the res"&t o! a negotiate' %o #ro ise -etween 'i!!erent #oints o! view e+#resse' -. the vario"s govern ents o" the @em'er States& In conse7#ence, nationa& &ines o! a%%o"nta-i&it. %an -e%o e -&"rre', and a national o!ernment can claim that it was o#t!oted SB or o#tmanoe#!red in /r#ssels, e!en when that is not the case& It is sometimes hi hly con!enient "or national o!ernments to 'lame 6/r#ssels6 "or re"orm, the ne%essit. o! whi%h the. the se&ves re%ognise -"t !or whi%h the. are re&"%tant to a%%e#t res#onsi-i&it.& Nationa& govern ents are th"s a-&e to e+#&oit the &a%2 o! a%%o"nta-i&it. !or their own short6ter #o&iti%a& ai s(

I"t this wor2s to the &ong6ter 'isa'vantage o! the #"-&i% stan'ing o! the E"ro#ean Union& ) La%2 o! trans#aren%. d#e to many wor(s done 'y ci!il ser!ant and anno#ncement only made #ntil ministers come into compromise a reement altho# h interested can ain the in"ormation and sometime in"l#ence the o#tcome Contin"eB @any ar #e also that "n%&arit. an' a &a%2 o! trans#aren%. %hara%terise the wor2ing o! the Co"n%il& Its 'a.6to6'a. a%tivities are %on'"%te' ain&. -. %ivi& servants, and its meetin s and decisions sometimes see to -e shro"'e' in se%re%. "nti& the anno"n%e ent o! the !ina& #o&iti%a& %o #ro ise -etween inisters which then "orms part o" E#ropean law& Th#s, compared to national le islat#res which de'ate in p#'lic and attract re #lar media attention,

&aw6 a2ing in the Co"n%i& 'oes not see to -e %hara%terise' -. a #"-&i% e+%hange o! views an' it attra%ts &itt&e e'ia %overage& I"t the actions o" the Co#ncil may not, in reality, 'e as opa7#e as is sometimes claimed, and a9or intereste' #arties in Ir"sse&s an' Stras-o"rg have gaine' a%%ess to #a#ers an' in!or ation whi%h ena-&es the to !o&&ow an' so eti es in!&"en%e the %o"rse o! #rivate 'e-ate within the Co"n%i&& Ne!ertheless, the #er%e#tion o! the Co"n%i& as ina%%essi-&e an' se%retive is an "n'o"-te' -arrier to the %on!i'en%e which E#ropean electors o# ht to ha!e in the Union6s le islati!e system&

) Co#ncil and EU parliament can hardly 'e the "irst and second cham'er as EU instit#tion is not state)'ased model o" o!t and lac( o" acco#nta'ility since sometime can 'ypass the EU parliament In terms o" assessin the Co#ncil, it is te #ting to %on%eive the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent an' Co"n%i& as the !irst an' se%on' %ha -er o" a E#ropean le islat#re, -"t s"%h an ana&og. is a&so !ra"ght with 'i!!i%"&t.& o 8irst, it wo#ld 'e an arti!i%ia& atte #t to shoehorn the e!ol!in E#ropean instit"tions into a state6-ase' o'e& o! govern ent& o Second, it does not address the #ro-&e s o! a%%o"nta-i&it.( There are vario"s wa.s in whi%h the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent %an -e -.#asse' in the na e o! intergovern enta& %oo#eration&

As a res#lt, the 'e o%rati%a&&. e&e%te' -o'. 3the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent4 is not a-&e to ho&' the e+e%"tive 'e%isionL a2er 3the Co"n%i&4 #ro#er&. to a%%o"nt( This acco#nta'ility ap, or .democracy de"icit3, will

%4 THE COGGISSION Commission) exercised the EU exec#ti!e, ali(e the Ci!il ser!ice which is not elected E!ery political system needs an instit#tion that sets the policy a enda, and o""ers #idance and leadership& We ha!e already seen that the E#ropean Co#ncil "#l"ils that role& The other instit"tion o! the E"ro#ean Union that e+er%ises e+e%"tive #ower is the Co ission( The Co ission is o!ten "n'erstoo' as the %ivi& servi%e o! the E"ro#ean Union& The ci!il ser!ice in most states, or state)li(e entities, is a part o" p#'lic administration that is "ormally non) political& In that context, the Co ission ho"ses the Dire%torates67enera&

3D7s4Ca #er anent -"rea"%ra%. that anages the a' inistrative an' #o&i%. a!!airs o" the E#ropean Union& The Commission is also assisted 'y national a encies, which are responsi'le "or the day)to)day implementation o" administrati!e tas(s& I"t more importantly, the Co&&ege o! Co issioners is a&so a so"r%e o! 3E"ro#ean4 #o&iti%a& #ower an' 'ire%tion& The Co issioners are not e&e%te', however, andat least "ormallyare in'e#en'ent o! the e -er states who the. re#resent&

S#pranational nat#re) independent o" national o!t, and promote common interest o" EU as a whole The two)sided nat#re o" the Commission ma(es it ar #a'ly .the stran est administration e!er created&6 The Commission is a s"#ranationa& instit"tionCthat is, it is in'e#en'ent o! nationa& govern ents& It is, accordin to its Secretary Feneral, .the on&. organi1ation that is #ai' to thin2 E"ro#ean(0 As s#ch, it sa!eg"ar's an' #ro otes the %o on interest o! the E"ro#ean Union as a whole&

Initiate and dra"t le islation and implement the decisions ta(en 'y Co#ncil and ?arliament It is the e+e%"tive -ran%h o" the EU that isat least in theory res#onsi-&e !or initiating an' 'ra!ting &egis&ation, as well as "or i #&e enting the 'e%isions ta2en -. the Co"n%i& o! the E"ro#ean Union an' Par&ia ent #nder the co)decision proced#re, and "or ens"ring that e -er states %o #&. with the &aw(

Commission is expensi!e '#rea#cracy and relati!e small siGe, relied on le islati!e proposal and detailed implementation o" EU law on mem'er states The Co ission is so eti es #ortra.e' in the e'ia as a 'istant, over-earing, an' e+#ensive -"rea"%ra%.& In "act, in 1JJ:)0J, the United Lin dom3s payments to EU insti%t#tions amo#nted to TK&O'n and its contri'#tion to the EU3s '#d et to T;&2'n ,these are typical "i #res- which amo#nts to J&O per cent and J&: per cent respecti!ely o" a '#d et o" T;:<'n "or the same year& ,The United Lin dom3s 1J00)01 contri'#tion is "orecast to rise to T2&2 ,or 0&K per cent- and O&2'n ,or 0&; per cent o" the UL '#d et- respecti!ely d#e to planned increases in the EU /#d et&- The E#ropean Union has an a reed '#d et "or the period 1JJ2)0K o"U:2<'n, which is e7#al to 0&01 per cent o" the ross national income ,FNI- o" the mem'er states& The si1e o! the Co ission 3*?,??? %ivi& servants4 is ro"gh&.

e="a& to the n" -er o! sta!! e #&o.e' -. a &arge %it. %o"n%i& in E#rope, and the tota& sta!! in a&& EU instit"tions, -o'ies an' agen%ies a&& over the wor&' is AA,???( The re&ative&. s a&& si1e o! the Co ission means that it re&ies !or &egis&ative #ro#osa&s on the Co"n%i& or the e -er states ,approximately OJ per cent o" proposals stem "rom the Co#ncil or the mem'er states- an' !or the 'etai&e' i #&e entation o! EU &aw on the e -er states(

Appointed e!ery H years The Co ission is a##ointe' ever. !ive .ears, within si+ onths o! the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent e&e%tions& The Commission3s c#rrent term o" o""ice will r#n #ntil K0 +cto'er 1J0;& /+R O&H RECENT C+@@ISSI+NERS 8R+@ T5E UNITE* rR5F/P@ o /aroness ,Catherine- Ashton o" Upholland ,1JJO)present-, "ormer Leader o" the 5o#se o" Lords o ?eter ,now Lord- @andelson ,1JJ;)Jcto'er 1JJO-, "ormerly @inister "or Trade and Ind#stry, and then Secretary o" State "or Northern Ireland in Tony /lairs Ca'inet o Neil Linnoc( ,0::H)1JJ;-, "ormerly leader o" the La'o#r ?arty o Chris ,now Lord- ?atten ,1JJJ)J;-, "ormerly Fo!ernor o" 5on Lon and a minister in @ar aret Thatcher and Eohn @a$ors Ca'inets

o Leon ,now Lord- /rittan PC ,0:O:) ::-, "ormerly a minister in @ar aret Thatchers Ca'inet

How 'oes the Co e+er%ise #ower$

ission

The Co issions res#onsi-i&ities an' #owers are -oth !or a&&. #res%ri-e', and ha!e e!ol!ed ,in"ormally- thro"gh a ne%essit. to res#on' to the re="ire ents o! the E"ro#ean Union(

) Wor( o" Commission Arti%&e )< TEU The Co ission sha&& #ro ote the genera& interest o! the Union an' ta2e a##ro#riate initiatives to that en'( o It shall ens"re the a##&i%ation o! the Treaties, and o" meas#res adopted 'y the instit#tions p#rs#ant to them& o It shall oversee the a##&i%ation o! Union &aw "n'er the %ontro& o! the Co"rt o! :"sti%e o! the E"ro#ean Union& o It shall e+e%"te the -"'get an' anage #rogra es& o It sha&& e+er%ise %oor'inating, e+e%"tive an' anage ent !"n%tions, as laid down in the Treaties& o With the e+%e#tion o! the %o on !oreign an' se%"rit. #o&i%., and other cases pro!ided "or in the Treaties, it sha&&

ens"re the UnionDs e+terna& re#resentation& o It sha&& initiate the UnionDs ann"a& an' "&tiann"a& #rogra ing with a !iew to achie!in interinstit#tional a reements& Union &egis&ative a%ts a. on&. -e a'o#te' on the -asis o! a Co ission #ro#osa&, except where the Treaties pro!ide otherwise& +ther acts shall 'e adopted on the 'asis o" a Commission proposal where the Treaties so pro!ide&

) Appointment standard) competence and independence Arti%&e )< TEU The Commission6s term o" o""ice shall 'e "i!e years& o The e -ers o! the Co ission sha&& -e %hosen on the gro"n' o! their genera& %o #eten%e an' E"ro#ean %o it ent !ro #ersons whose in'e#en'en%e is -e.on' 'o"-t( o In carryin o#t its responsi'ilities, the Commission shall 'e %o #&ete&. in'e#en'ent&

o Witho#t pre$#dice to Article 0O,1-, the e -ers o! the Co ission sha&& neither see2 nor ta2e instr"%tions !ro an. 7overn ent or other instit"tion, -o'., o!!i%e or entit.( o They shall re"rain "rom any action incompati'le with their d#ties or the per"ormance o" their tas(s&

The Commission appointed 'etween the date o" entry into "orce o" the Treaty o" Lis'on and K0 +cto'er 1J0;, shall consist o" one national o" each @em'er State, incl#din its ?resident and the 5i h Representati!e o" the Union "or 8orei n A""airs and Sec#rity ?olicy who shall 'e one o" its Aice) ?residents& As "rom 0 No!em'er 1J0;, the Commission shall consist o" a n#m'er o" mem'ers, incl#din its ?resident and the 5i h Representati!e o" the Union "or 8orei n A""airs and Sec#rity ?olicy, correspondin to two)thirds o" the n#m'er o" @em'er States, #nless the E#ropean Co#ncil, actin #nanimo#sly, decides to alter this n#m'er&

The e -ers o! the Co ission sha&& -e %hosen !ro a ong the nationa&s o! the Ge -er States on the 'asis o" a system o" stri%t&. e="a& rotation -etween the Ge -er States, re"lectin the demo raphic and eo raphical ran e o" all the @em'er States& This system shall 'e esta'lished #nanimo#sly 'y the E#ropean Co#ncil in accordance with Article 1;; o" the Treaty on the 8#nctionin o" the E#ropean Union&

) ?resident wor( Arti%&e )< TEU The ?resident o" the Commission shall4 o &a. 'own g"i'e&ines within which the Commission is to wor(> o 'e%i'e on the interna& organisation o" the Commission, ens"ring that it a%ts %onsistent&., e!!i%ient&. and as a colle iate 'ody> o a##oint Vi%e6Presi'ents, other than the 5i h Representati!e o" the Union "or 8orei n A""airs and Sec#rity ?olicy, "rom amon the mem'ers o" the Commission&

A e -er o! the Co ission sha&& resign i! the Presi'ent so re="ests& o The 5i h Representati!e o" the Union "or 8orei n A""airs and Sec#rity ?olicy shall resi n, in accord%ance with the proced#re set o#t in Article 0O,0-, i" the ?resident so re7#ests&

) Appointment o" ?resident) elected 'y EU ?arliament i" no ma$ority, E& Co#ncil decide 'y 7#ali"ied ma$ority Arti%&e )< TEU Ta(in into acco#nt the elections to the E#ropean ?arliament and a"ter ha!in held the appropriate cons#ltations, the E#ropean Co#ncil, actin 'y a 7#ali"ied ma$ority, shall propose to the E#ropean ?arliament a candidate "or ?resident o" the Commission& o This %an'i'ate sha&& -e e&e%te' -. the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent -. a a9orit. o" its component mem'ers& o I! he 'oes not o-tain the re="ire' a9orit., the E"ro#ean Co"n%i&, a%ting -. a ="a&i!ie' a9orit., sha&& within one onth #ro#ose a new %an'i'ate who sha&& -e e&e%te' -. the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent !o&&owing the sa e #ro%e'"re

6 Appointment o" commission 'ased on consent o" EU ?arliament and appointed 'y EU Co#ncil The Co"n%i&, -. %o on a%%or' with the Presi'ent6e&e%t, shall adopt the list o" the other persons whom it #ro#oses !or a##oint ent as mem'ers o" the Commission& They sha&& -e se&e%te', on the -asis o! the s"ggestions a'e -. Ge -er States, in accordance with the criteria set o#t in para raph K, second s#'para raph, and para raph H, second s#'para raph& The ?resident, the 5i h Representati!e o" the Union "or 8orei n A""airs and Sec#rity ?olicy and the other mem'ers o" the Commission shall 'e s"-9e%t as a -o'. to a vote o! %onsent -. the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent& On the -asis o! this %onsent, the Commission shall 'e a##ointe' -. the E"ro#ean Co"n%i&, a%ting -. a ="a&i!ie' a9orit.(

) EU parliament can !ote on motion o" cens#re and Commission ha!e to resi n as a 'ody The Commission, as a 'ody, shall 'e responsi'le to the E#ropean ?arliament& In accordance with Article 1K; o" the Treaty on the 8#nctionin o" the E#ropean Union, the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent a. vote on a otion o! %ens"re o! the Co ission& I" s#ch a motion is carried, the e -ers o! the Co ission sha&& resign as a -o'. and the 5i h Representati!e o" the Union "or 8orei n A""airs and Sec#rity ?olicy shall resi n "rom the d#ties that he carries o#t in the Commission&

Commission desi ned as depoliticiGed and is a technocratic approach which initially pop#lar consent is not needed The Co ission was initia&&. 'esigne' as a 'e#o&iti%i1e' !"n%tiona&ist -"rea"%ra%., the tas( o" which was to a'van%e the %o on interests o! E"ro#e0s %iti1ens& Its mem'ers were to a%t in'e#en'ent&. o! nationa& govern ents an' were not a%%o"nta-&e to the e -er states& We ha!e already seen that Eean @onnet, the chie" architect o" the "orer#nner o" the Common @ar(et, en'orse' a te%hno%rati% a##roa%h an' the i'ea o! e&ite6&e' gra'"a&is , where'y a%tion was to -e initiate' -. e+#erts rather than -. e&e%te' #o&iti%ians& The "irst tas( was to sec#re the economic 'asis> then, pro!ided that the "r#its o" E#ropean inte ration were 'ene"icial, it was tho"ght that #o#"&ar %onsent wo"&' 'eve&o#

as a %onse="en%e o! those !"n%tiona& agree ents& Interestin ly, #o#"&ar %onsent was initia&&. not seen as a re="ire ent o! the !"n%tiona& organi1ation o! E"ro#e&

S" ar. !"n%tions o! %o ission) initiate le islation, mediator 'tw states and EU, #ardian o" EU 'y ens#re treaty is applied As the process o" E#ropean inte ration has ta(en shapewith more national competences 'ein trans"erred to the E#ropean le!elso the #owers o! the Co ission have grown& It now has a say in a& ost ever. !"n%tion o! EU governan%e( The "ollowin i!e only a sample o" the Commissions m#ltiple identities& o Agen'a settingThe Commissions principal power has always 'een the e+%&"sive right o! initiative in the &aw6 a2ing #ro%ess& The E"ro#ean Co"n%i& an' the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent a. re="est the Commission to s#'mit proposals, '"t the "&ti ate 'e%ision is the Co issions own4 Arts 1;0 and 11H T8EU&

o /Honest -ro2er an' e'iatorThe Commission acts in the /genera& interest o! the UnionB Art& 02,0- TEU& It increasin ly #ses its #o&iti%a& ne"tra&it. an' in'e#en'en%e as a anager ,rather than initiator- o" policies that are made 'y other instit#tions& As a 'ro(er and mediator, the Co ission a%ts as a go6 -etween !or the e -er states an' other EU instit"tions& To ill#strate, when, 'etween 1J0J and 1J01, the e#ro)area @em'er States and the International @onetary 8#nd a reed to pro!ide "inancial s#pport to Freece in the context o" the deterioration o" its "inancin conditions, the E#ropean Commission was entr#sted with the coordination and administration o" the pooled 'ilateral loans and the dis'#rsement to Freece&

o Voi%e o! %o on interestThe Commission acts as the g"ar'ian o! EU &aw -. ens"ring that the Treaties are a##&ie' -. the other instit"tions4 Art& 02,0TEU& I" necessary, it wi&& 'o so -. -ringing an a%tion in the EC: !or !ai&"re to a%t4 Arts 1<K and 1<H T8EU&

Commissions3 in"l#ence Cnot powerD V deli!er opinions which can in"l#ence policy de'ates The Commission has in"l#ence ,rather than power- in two (ey areas4 it a. 'e&iver o#inions on an. EU atter and it m#st #"-&ish an ann"a& re#ort on the acti!ities o" the E#ropean Union& It %an in!&"en%e #o&i%. 'e-ates an' g"i'e the E"ro#ean Union

Not clear whether Commission per"orm 'est in ?ower side or in"l#ence side /#t it is %"rrent&. not %&ear whi%h o! its !"n%tions the Co ission #er!or s -est( :( Peterson, The Colle e o" Commissioners2, in E& ?eterson and @& Shac(leton ,eds- The Instit#tions o" the E#ropean Union, Krd edn ,1J01, +x"ord4 JU?-, ch& H, pp& 00:)01J Any analysis o" the Commission m#st consider the normati!e 7#estion o" what (ind o" or an)iGation the Colle e sho#ld 'e& A policy entreprene#rW An honest 'ro(erW A mana er o" deci) sions ta(en 'y othersW +r an 6en ine o" inte ration6W C&&& D In an enlar ed EU, the Commission may 'e e!en 'etter placed than in the past to act as a tr#ly honest 'ro(er& It may rarely exercise control o!er new cooperati!e networ(s or reclaim its old "#nction as an en ine o" inte ration, '#t it will lo ically remain at the centre o" many EU policy networ(s& In any e!ent, it will o"ten "ind itsel" in a #ni7#e position to steer de'ates in ways that ser!e collecti!e E#ropean interests, as

di""ic#lt as they may 'e to identi"y clearly in the new EU&

Two views on Co issions which is a ents o" mem'er states Cdoes not determine the EU directionsD and a#tonomo#s actor o" EU Cpro!ide policy leadershipD To what e+tent %an the Co ission a%t"a&&. 'eter the 'ire%tion in whi%h the E"ro#ean Union oves$ ine

This 7#estion has 'een s#'$ect to considera'le academic de'ate& As we will see in Chapter 01, s#ccessi!e increases in the E#ropean ?arliament3s power ha!e 'een at the expense o" the Commissions power& *oes the Commission "ace extinction as an independ%ent political 'odyW

S( Ia%he et( a&(B ) The Commission as an A ent o" the @em'er States) help member states to reach compromise by ma#ing a fair decision The intergovern enta&ist view o" the Co ission is that it is on&. an agent o! the e -er states& Its "#nction is to a2e it easier !or govern ents to !in' agree ent on the 'etai&s o! %oo#eration with ea%h other& Where there is a reement on the 'road a enda "or co)operation, it is %onvenient !or e -er states to 'e&egate so e %ontro& over the 'etai&e' agen'a to the Co ission& The. see it as a re&ia-&e so"r%e o! in'e#en'ent #ro#osa&s -e%a"se it has te%hni%a& in!or ation, an' is a ne"tra& ar-iter 'etween con"lictin national interests&

De&egating the a2ing o! #ro#osa&s to the Co ission in this way re'"%es the %osts o" co) operation -. re'"%ing the ris2 that D'e%isions wi&& -e 'e&a.e' -. an in%on%&"sive str"gg&e a ong %o #eting #ro#osa&s, or that the !ina& 'e%ision wi&& -e gross&. "n!airD& Where there are alternati!e proposals that mi ht win ma$ority s#pport, the %hoi%e is o!ten 'e%i'e' -. whi%h #ro#osa& is -a%2e' -. the Co ission& Altho# h this dele ation o" the ri ht to ma(e detailed proposals i!es the Commission a certain "ormal power to set the a enda, in the inter o!ernmentalist !iew the Co ission 'oes not 'eter ine the 'ire%tion in whi%h the EU oves( It is on&. he&#ing the e -er states to agree on the 'etai&s o! what the. have 'e%i'e' that the. want to 'o an.wa.( E(((F

) The Commission as an A#tonomo#s Actor) have the right to initiate legislative process without waiting for member states$ proposals The a&ternative to the view that the Co ission is no ore than an agent o" the @em'er States is that it %an an' 'oes a%t a"tono o"s&. to #rovi'e #o&i%. &ea'ershi# to the EU& *e"enders o" this !iew point to 2e. reso"r%es that a&&ow it to 'o soB o its so&e right o! initiative in the &egis&ative #ro%ess o! the EC> o its a-i&it. to &o%ate a&&ies a ong in!&"entia& interest gro"#s> and o its #owers "n'er the %o #etition %&a"ses o! the Treaties to a%t against ono#o&ies& The Co ission 'oes not have to wait #assive&. !or the Ge -er

States to as2 it to -ring !orwar' #ro#osa&s&

It can i'enti!. a #ro-&e that has a&rea'. starte' to %on%ern govern ents, and #ro#ose a E"ro#ean so&"tion( It can #se its so&e right o! initiative to #a%2age iss"es in the !or &east &i2e&. to engen'er o##osition in the Co"n%i& o! Ginisters or the E?& Where there is opposition "rom mem'er states to the "#ll)'lown de!elopment o" a policy, the Co ission a. #ro#ose instea' a &i ite' s a&&6s%a&e #rogra e> where there is resistance to a directi!e or re #lation, the Co ission a. #ro#ose a &ess threatening re%o en'ation or O#inion& In each case, the &i ite' ste# esta'lishes a precedent "or action in the policy sector and %an -e !o&&owe' "# &ater with !"rther ste#s i! an' when the environ ent in the Co"n%i& o! Ginisters is ore %on'"%ive(

Di!!erent with nationa& e+e%"tiveB Se!eral exec#ti!e powers ma(e the line 'tw political and administrati!e 'l#rred In some ways, the exec#ti!e r#le) ma(in power o" the Commission can 'e compared to the exec#ti!e powers o" a o!ernment& 8or example, the Commission has the sole power to initiate policy and le islation #nder Art& 02,1- TEU, which is a power reminiscent o" the UL o!ernments near)monopoly on policyma(in & The Commission a&so has severa& e+e%"tive res#onsi-i&ities that -&"r the 'istin%tion -etween #o&iti%a& an' a' inistrative #owers(

The Commission consists o"4 o a %ore e+e%"tive ,the Colle e o" Commissioners-, with #o&iti%a& res#onsi-i&ities ,proposin policies, initiatin le islation, ar'itration, and ne otiatin international trade and cooperation a reements-> o a -"rea"%ra%. ,the *Fs-, which is res#onsi-&e !or &egis&ative 'ra!ting, a' inistrative wor2 ,s#ch as mana in the '#d et o" U:2<'n "or the period 1JJ2)0K and r#nnin its Str#ct#ral 8#nds, the main p#rpose o" which is to e!en o#t economic disparities 'etween the richer and poorer parts o" the Union-, and the re #lation o" competition, a ric#lt#re, and trade policy> and o a networ2 o! %o ittees an' agen%ies that s%r"tini1e, monitor, and re #late the i #&e entation o! #ri ar. an' se%on'ar. EU &aw(

Di!!erent with nationa& e+e%"tiveB No power to tax and spend and to coercion as EU has no police "orce The e+e%"tive #owers o! the Co ission are a&so 'i!!erent "rom those o" a national o!ernment& In that sense, the Co ission ight -e viewe' as a new t.#e o! Dreg"&ator. agen%.D& Altho# h the Commission is e7#ipped with r#le)ma(in , policyma(in , and other exec#ti!e powers, it 'oes not have the sa e #ower to ta+ an' s#en' as 'o nationa& govern ents, nor 'oes it have #owers o! %oer%ion ,the E"ro#ean Union has no #o&i%e !or%e or its own i&itar.-& In the words o" a "ormer ECE $#d e, 6the Comm#nity is only a'le to exist as a Comm#nity o" law& o It has no weapons or armies, it is held to ether 'y the a#thority o" law6W

Di!!erent with nationa& e+e%"tiveB No need acco#nta'le to ?arliament or the electorate The 'i!!eren%es -etween the Co ission an' nationa& govern ents ha!e important i #&i%ations !or a%%o"nta-i&it.4 in the eyes o" the Ferman 8ederal Constit#tional Co#rt, the Commission Dnee' not e+tensive&. !"&!i& the %on'itions o! a govern ent that is !"&&. a%%o"nta-&e either to Par&ia ent or to the a9orit. 'e%ision o! the e&e%torate 'eca#se the Co ission itse&! is not o-&ige' to the wi&& o! the e&e%torate in a %o #ara-&e anner(

Di!!erent with nationa& e+e%"tiveB Commission has the power in re #latory policies '#t not in non) re #larity policies Cas this part need to depend on mem'er statesD A "#rther ill#stration also hi hli hts the dissimilarity& Whereas the Co ission has %o #eten%e over %ertain Dreg"&ator. #o&i%iesD ,"or example, %o #etition, agri%"&t"re, tra'e-, it 'oes not have %o #eten%e over Dnon6reg"&ator. #o&i%iesD ,"or example, in%o e re'istri-"tion-& This is '"e to its !inan%ia& 'e#en'en%e on the e -er states( We saw earlier that the EUDs -"'get an' &eve&s o! sta!! are s a&& even when %o #are' to the -"'gets o! e'i" 6si1e' "ni%i#a& %o"n%i&s in the United Lin dom& @oreo!er, #nli(e a state, the E"ro#ean Union has no in'e#en'ent ta+6raising #ower&

As a res#lt o" these '#d etary restrictions and in sharp contrast with national o!ernments, the Co ission is ain&. engage' with reg"&ator. a%tivit. rather than with non6reg"&ator. a%tivit.( C& 5arlow, Acco#nta'ility in the E#ropean Union X1JJ1, +x"ord4 +U?-, pp& <1)K /eca#se it is not in the '#siness o" ser!ice deli!ery nor, except in certain limited areas s#ch as competition policy, o" 6direct administration6, most o" the Commission6s ener ies are de!oted to policy)ma(in and re #lation, a sharp contrast with 'oth national and re ional administrations& The Commission does not, in New ?#'lic @ana ement ,N?@- $ar on, ha!e a direct relationship with 6c#stomers6 to hear their reactions, A ain atypically, the EU admin) istration is not cond#cted thro# h exec#ti!e a encies C&&& D The Commission is conse7#ently hea!ily dependent on the administrations o" @em'er States and their re ions in respect o" ser!ice deli!ery and en"orcement C&&& D To paraphrase the "amo#s aphorism o" +s'orne and

Fae'ler, the Commission is a 'ody which 6steers6 and does not 6row6&

What are the &ega& an' instit"tiona& restraints on that #ower$ ) Commission3s str#ct#re is di""erent, they are appointed 'ased on competence and independence nat#re, and one co#ntry one commission Under the .Westminster model3 o" exec#ti!e power ,at which we loo(ed in Chapter 0 and Chapter 2-, the UL o!ernment consists o" the party ,or parties- a'le to command a ma$ority in ?arliament& The ministers are a""iliated to one party ,or to a coalition o" parties- and are led 'y the ?rime @inister& This system o" exec#ti!e power is eared towards two character%istics4 a shared political a enda and hierarchical or aniGation& The %"rrent Co ission is str"%t"re' ver. 'i!!erent&.& Ever. e -er state 3o! whi%h there are twent.6eight4 is %"rrent&. re#resente' -. one Co issioner(

The Co issioners are not se&e%te' in or'er to ens"re %oheren%e o! #o&iti%a& i'eas and 'elie"s within the Commission> rather, the. are %hosen /on the gro"n' o! their genera& %o #eten%e an' E"ro#ean %o it ent !ro #ersons whose in'e#en'en%e is -e.on' 'o"-t ,Art& 02,K- TEU-& They are also representati!es o" their co#ntry 'ased on the si #&e #rin%i#&e o!/one %o"ntr., one Co issioner0( The Treaty o" Lis'on was s#pposed to pro!ide "or a red#ction in the n#m'er o" Commissioners "rom 1J0; and their selection on the 'asis o" an e7#al rotation system& 5owe!er, a"ter the Irish !oters re$ected the Lis'on Treaty in a re"erend#m, the Irish o!%ernment ens#red additional le al #arantees and ass#rances "rom the heads o" state and o!ernment& 8rench ?resident Nicolas Sar(oGy con"irmed that, #nder the new deal, .e!ery mem'er state will ha!e a commissionerwhich represents a si ni"icant concession to

Ireland ,as well as to small states enerally, which were #nhappy with the red#ction-& This will re7#ire some "orm o" Treaty at some point in the "#t#re& The E#ropean Co#ncil needs to act #nanimo#sly to alter the composition o" the Commission&

) ?resident can dismiss commission with appro!al o" other commissioners The Commission has some "eat#res o" the Westminster system in relation to its interna& str"%t"re& The Commission wor2s /"n'er the #o&iti%a& g"i'an%e o! its Presi'ent0, who 'e%i'es on its interna& organi1ation an' on the a&&o%ation o! res#onsi-i&ities o! the Co issioners& Its Presi'ent %an 3with the a##rova& o! the other Co issioners4 'is iss a Co issioner& Interna&&. at &east, the !"n%tions o! the Presi'ent are si i&ar to the !"n%tion o! the U5 Pri e Ginister as the hea' o! govern ent(

6 E co#ncil and EU ?arliament has the role in appoint '#t not the role to dismiss except in extreme rare, EU parliament can !ote on motion o" cens#re to dismiss co#ncil as a 'ody /#t in contrast to the Westminster model ,in which the o!ernment is elected independently 'y ?arliament-, the Co ission is a##ointe' -. the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& 3whi%h no inates the Presi'ent an' the Co issioners4 an' -. the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent 3whi%h has to %on!ir the no inations4in other words, 'y a #nitary and a "ederal 'ody actin in tandem & The E"ro#ean Co"n%i& has, however, no #ower to 'is iss the Co ission& The E"ro#ean Par&ia ent is e #owere', in an e+tre e %ase, to retire the Co ission -. otion o! %ens"re and with a two6 thir's a9orit.(

S"%h a a9orit. is 'i!!i%"&t to organi1e at the -est o! ti esC an' nigh on i #ossi-&e, i!en the di!ersity o" parties in the E#ropean ?arliament& +n a smaller scale, in 1JJ;, the threat o" a no3 !ote led Italy to withdraw Rocco /#tti lione, opposed 'y mem'ers o" the E#ropean ?arliament ,@E?s- "or his conser!ati!e !iews on homosex#ality> in Ean#ary 1J0J, it led /#l aria3s R#miana Eele!a to withdraw her candidacy, "ollowin alle ations that the declaration o" her "inancial interests did not con%"orm to the Code o" Cond#ct "or mem'ers o" the E#ropean Commission&

) EU parliament scr#tiny the Commission report 'y committee +n a more re #lar 'asis, the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent is %on!ronte' with a -ewi&'ering arra. o! re#orts, 'e-ates, an' ="estions that are 'esigne' to ho&' the e+e%"tiveC#arti%"&ar&. the Co issionCto a%%o"nt& It e+er%ises onitoring #owers -. s%r"tini1ing Co ission re#orts that are reg"&ar&. s"- itte'"or example, the Ann#al Commission Report on the 8#nctionin o" the Comm#nities and the Ann#al Report on the Implementation o" the /#d et& The E"ro#ean Par&ia ent has twent. #o&i%.6s#e%i!i% %o ittees in whi%h its 'etai&e' wor2 is %arrie' o"t( Li(e the select committees in the 5o#se o" Commons and 5o#se o" Lords, the E#ropean ?arliament committees re"lect the political composition o" the E#ropean ?arliament, the. en9o. a high &eve&

o! a"tono ., an' eetings have, sin%e );;;, -een he&' in #"-&i%( Co ittees s%r"tini1e a&& &egis&ative #ro#osa&s -e!ore ret"rning the to the #&enar. !or a vote(

) E#ropean +m'#dsmen recei!e complain "rom EU citiGens and send reports to EU ?arliament Under Arts 1; T8EU and 11O T8EU, the E"ro#ean O -"'s an ,who is elected 'y ?arliament- is e #owere' to re%eive %o #&aints !ro an. %iti1en o" the Union %on%erning instan%es o! a&a' inistration in the acti!ities o" the Union instit#tions& The O -"'s an s"- its an ann"a& re#ort to the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent on the o"t%o e o! her in="iries&

) ?arliament 'y Comitolo y decision can s#spect whether comitolo y committee act in #ltra !ires in meas#res adopted #nder co)decision Cdisc#ssed detailed in later chapterD 8inally, the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent has %onsistent&. #resse' !or s%r"tin. rights e="iva&ent to those o" the Co#ncil o!er the implementin 'odies(nown as %o ito&og. %o ittees0 that are chaired 'y the Commission and which 'rin to ether representati!es o" all o" the mem'er states& A"ter the introd#ction o" the co) decision le islati!e proced#re, new %o ito&og. De%isions Eoversees the a%ts i #&e ente' -. the E"ro#ean Co issionF were intro'"%e' in 0::: and 1JJ<& As a res#lt, the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent now re%eives ore in!or ation an' has the right to re="est re6e+a ination o! eas"res a'o#te' "n'er %o6 'e%ision i! the %o ittee was s"s#e%te' o! a%ting "&tra vires& ,8or more on comi%tolo y, see Chapter 01&-

?L N# ent, The Fo!ernment and ?olitics o" the E#ropean Union ,1J0J, /asin sto(e4 @acmillan-, p& 0KJ &&& comitolo y committees can 'e seen as a means 'y which the o!ernments o" the mem%'er states, and to a lesser extent the E?, see( to ens#re the Commission does not 'ecome too independent o" them& In concept#al terms, the committees are one o" a n#m'er o" mechanisms and de!ices "o#nd thro# ho#t the EU system #sed 'y the EU6s principals mainly the national o!ernments, '#t increasin ly also the E?to maintain control o!er their a ents, especially the Commission, where control is desired& This is achie!ed in a n#m'er o" ways& 8or example, altho# h some o" the committees do exercise important powers, "or the most part they tend to wor( within "airly narrowly de"ined limits& Anythin !ery contro!ersial can 'e re"erred to a Co#ncil meetin , and increasin ly also the E?& There is also the "act that the Co#ncil, and a ain increasin ly the E?, are $ealo#s o" their powers and wo#ld mo!e 7#ic(ly a ainst the Commission i" it was tho# ht comitolo y committees were 'ein #sed to #ndermine those powers& And then there is the (ey point that the

Co#ncil and E? (now that it is $#st not in the Commission6s lon )term interests to a'#se its powers 'y "orcin #nwel%come or #npop#lar meas#res thro# h a committee& The Commission wants and needs the cooperation o" the Co#ncil and E?&

'4 CASE STUD8B THE RESI7NATION OF THE COGGISSION IN );;; Unaccepta'le incidence o" error in operational expendit#re payments The E#ropean Commission resi ned as a 'ody on 0H @arch 0::: "ollowin the p#'lication o" a report 'y a Committee o" Independent Experts entitled Alle ations Re ardin 8ra#d, @ismana ement and Nepotism in the E#ropean Union& Concern o!er the Commission3s mana ement o" the EU '#d et had 'een rowin "or se!eral years& 8rom 0::; to 0::<, "or example, 'etween ; per cent and H per cent o" the EU3s '#d et co#ld not 'e acco#nted "or& The E#ropean Co#rt A#ditors ,ECAconcl#ded that there ha' -een an "na%%e#ta-&e in%i'en%e o! error in o#erationa& e+#en'it"re #a. ents ,OH per cent o" which had ta(en place in the mem'er states-& Stories o" "ra#d and waste went thro# h all o" the E#ropean media and the p#'lic o#tcry was enormo#s& As a res#lt o" the ECA3s ann#al report, the E#ropean ?arliament, in 0:::,

re"#sed to .dischar e3 ,that is, appro!e- the '#d et& To top it all, a Commission employee, ?a#l !an /#itenen, 'lew the whistle on the Commission 'y passin to the E#ropean ?arliament and ECA a dossier in which he detailed e""orts 'y senior Commission o""icials to s#ppress in!esti ations into "ra#d> he also made other alle ations o" mismana ement and nepotism& The ost !a o"s e+a #&e %on%erne' Co issioner E'ith Cresson, who e #&o.e' her #ersona& 'entist an' %&ose !rien' as a high&. #ai' s%ienti!i% a'viser on HIVPAi'sCa #osition !or whi%h he was "ns"ite' an' "n="a&i!ie'( Using Art( >*@ TFEU, the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent ight have -een a-&e to sa%2 the Co ission %o&&e%tive&. in :an"ar. );;K& The two main political ro#ps in the E#ropean ?arliamentthe Socialist ?arty and the E#ropean ?eople3s ?artywere, howe!er, #na'le to mana e the crisis and a ree on a s#ccess"#l !ote o" cens#re&

The. 'i' esta-&ish the Co ittee o! In'e#en'ent E+#erts to investigate the a&&egations( A"ter two months, the Committee deli!ered its hi hly critical report on 0H @arch 0:::, drawin the "ollowin concl#sion& E#ropean Committee o" Independent Experts, 8irst Report on Alle ations Re ardin 8ra#d, @ismana ement and Nepotism in the E#ropean Commission, 0H @arch 0:::, para& 0&<&1 CTheD reprehensi'le cond#ct o" the Commission as a 'ody, or o" Commissioners indi!id#ally, and more partic#larly C&&& D mismana ement in detectin or dealin with "ra#d, mismana e)ment or nepotism perpetrated 'y the administrati!e ser!ices o" the Commission and 'y third parties wor(in "or the Commission, o'!io#sly in!ol!es the responsi'ility o" the Commission as a whole, or o" indi!id#al Commissioners&

The s"-se="ent %o&&e%tive resignation o! the Co&&ege o! Co issioners was "n#re%e'ente' an' -rie!&. &e!t the EU witho"t its De+e%"tive0& ,In "act, the same Commission ret#rned almost immediately to stay in o""ice #ntil the new one was sworn in six months later&-

*i""erent collecti!e ministerial responsi'ility) one man wron , whole 'oat sin( Interestin ly, the Committee o" Independent Experts also said that the Commission had an .ethical responsi'ilityH to act in accordance with proper standards in p#'lic li"e ,para& 0&<&1-, in addition to its le al and political responsi'ility #nder the Treaty& Was the Committee tappin into #nderlyin principles o" constit#tional responsi'ility at EU le!elW Tom(ins identi"ies two pro'lems with this !iew& To 2ins4

The "irst concerns the way in which %o&&e%tive res#onsi-i&it. is e #hasise' over in'ivi'"a& res#onsi-i&it.& The Commission appears to ha!e ta(en the !iew that collecti!e responsi'ility means that Co issioners "st not ro%2 the -oat4 they m#st remain loyal, and spea( with one !oice, re e -ering

at a&& ti es not to %riti%ise !e&&ow Co issioners& The %onstit"tiona& vision o! %o&&e%tive res#onsi-i&it., however, is ="ite the reverse o" this& Collecti!e Commission responsi'ility sho#ld re="ire that ea%h an' ever. e -er o! the Co ission has a %onstit"tiona& o-&igation to 2ee# wat%h over ea%h an' ever. other Co issioner& Collecti!e responsi'ility sho#ld mean that no Co issioner is a-&e to eva'e or avoi' res#onsi-i&it. -. #assing the -"%2 to another Co issioner, at least with re ard to decisions which ha!e 'een arri!ed at, and policies which ha!e 'een de!eloped 'y the Commission as a Colle ewhether nominally or really& On%e a #o&i%. has -een anno"n%e', an' on%e a 'e%ision has -een rea%he', a&& Co issioners are res#onsi-&e !or it, whether the iss#e was act#ally disc#ssed 'y the Commissioners

themsel!es or not, and whether or not any indi!id#al Commissioner was or was not payin attention at the time& This m#st 'e what collecti!e responsi'ility means, otherwise there is no means o" pre!entin one Commissioner "rom e!adin 7#estions on an iss#e merely 'y sayin that this has nothin to do with her, and is the responsi'ility o" some other Commissioner, who, when in his t#rn is 7#estioned, mi ht then also deny responsi'ility and 'lame someone else, and so on& As the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent has e+#resse' it, 6the #rin%i#&e o! %o&&egia&it. re ains i #ortant -"t sho"&' not e+e #t in'ivi'"a& Co issioners !ro the %onse="en%es, not only o" any personal wron doin , -"t a&so o! an. in%o #etent or neg&igent anage ent o! their own areas o! res#onsi-i&it.D(

Resi nation cannot 'e the only one way o" sanction C?arliament can only dismiss as a whole or the ECE dismiss personalD) 0::: o!erall 'eha!ior is not total reprehensi'le Cthe indi!id#al commission re"#se to resi n and lead to resi nation as a wholeD) /#t resh#""le is di""ic#lt in EU le!el) Now ?resident has the ri ht to dismiss personal commission To 2insB

The "inal pro'lem with the way in which constit#tional responsi'ility presently operates is connected to this pri!ile in o" collecti!e responsi'ility o!er indi!id#al&&& As we ha!e seen, #nless the ECE comp#lsorily retires an indi!id#al Commissioner #nder CArt& 1;2 T8EUD, the Commission stands or "alls to ether& In partic#lar, the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent has no #ower to re="ire in'ivi'"a& Co issioners to resign E(((F

Similarly, an in'ivi'"a& Co issioner %an -e !or%e' to resign on&. a!ter %o"rt a%tion, rather than as a res#lt o" parliamentary press#re& Not only is this a rather #nsophisticated approach4 it can also act as a protecti!e shield allow%in Commissioners more easily to escape "acin #p to the conse7#ences o" their actions& 8orcin the entire Commission to resi n is a draconian sanction6n#clear option6 was the phrase #sed to descri'e it in the E#ropean ?arliamentand is li(ely there"ore to 'e employed only in the most serio#s cases& That the Commission stands or "alls to ether in this way may diss#ade the E#ropean ?arliament "rom callin "or heads to roll where it is the resi nation o" an indi!id#al Commissioner which is really appropriate, rather than the premat#re nemesis o" the Commission as a whole&

The ina-i&it. o! the Par&ia ent to re="ire the resignation o! an in'ivi'"a& Co issioner is made more serio#s 'y !irt#e o" the "act that resi nation a##ears to -e the on&. san%tion avai&a-&e when things go wrong& This is a somewhat r#dimentary approach& I'ea&&., a range o! #ossi-&e san%tions wo"&' -e avai&a-&e to whi%hever #erson or -o'. en!or%es or s"#ervises the o-servation o! the #rin%i#&es o! res#onsi-i&it.& Co issioners sho"&' not -e e+#e%te' ne%essari&. to resign in a&& %ases where a ista2e has o%%"rre' !or whi%h sPhe is res#onsi-&e& Resignation sho"&' -e the "&ti ate san%tion, -"t not the on&. one&

The Co ission %risis o! );;; sho#ld not 'e exa erated& It wo#ld a##ear that the %o&&e%tive resignation, as we&& as the #o&iti%a& an' the e'ia rea%tion, were 'is#ro#ortionate to the evi'en%e #ro'"%e'& Tr#e, the Committee "o#nd the Commission6s -ehavio"r to have -een Dre#rehensi-&eD , -"t the overa&& &eve& o! s"%h -ehavio"r within the Co ission was not high& Also, the Committee only dealt with the details o" alle ations which had already 'een madeit did not cond#ct its own detecti!e wor( to #nco!er new cases o" mismana ement& In "act, most o" the alle ations ori inated in the period 'e"ore 0::H ,and were the responsi'il%ity o" the *elors Commission rather than the Santer Commission- and had already 'een ta(en #p internally and 'y the Commission6s anti)"ra#d #nit&

Ha' these a&&egations arisen in a Ge -er State s"%h as the U5, a normal response wo#ld ha!e 'een to sa%ri!i%e %ontroversia& #o&iti%a& !ig"res, s#ch as @s Cresson, in a resh"!!&e& However, the Commission is a m#ltinational instit#tion, and appointments at senior le!el ha!e to consider 7#estions o" national 'alance as well as merit& Trans!erring sta!! -etween #osts is a&so "%h ore %o #&i%ate' at EU than at national le!el& At the time o" the crisis, neither the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent nor the Presi'ent o! the Co ission ha' the #ower to 'is iss an in'ivi'"a& Co issioner, and with "s resson refusing to resign #she claimed she had the support of the $rench government%, the ommission had no alternative but to pledge its collective responsibility and s#'mit itsel" to a !ote o" no con"idence 'e"ore the E#ropean ?arliament&

As we saw, the Commission s#r!i!ed the !ote ,at the expense o" splits within the two lar est party ro#ps alon national lines- '#t had to accept scr#tiny 'y, and the concl#sion o", an independent committee& The Committee in t#rn stressed the concept o" collecti!e responsi'ility, and drew o#t implications which the Commission had ne!er 'e"ore 'een on the Commission6s radar& To'a., the Co ission is -oth %o&&e%tive&. an' in'ivi'"a&&. a%%o"nta-&e to the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent& The E#ropean ?arliament has a ri ht to hear and interro ate commissioners, 'oth orally and in writin , can esta'lish ad hoc committees o" in7#iry, and it %an sti&& resign the entire Co ission in %ase o! gross is%on'"%t( Sin%e the Ni%e Treat., the Presi'ent o! the Co ission has

the #ower to 'e an' the resignation o! in'ivi'"a& %o issioners o Art( )<3N4 TEU ?resident o" Commission3s power) 8irst amon the e7#al The powers o" the Presi'ent o! the E"ro#ean Co issiondescri'ed 'y 5ix as the ost #ower!"& o!!i%e in the E"ro#ean Unionare in%rease' -. the Lis-on Treat. This sa a shows that, #nder the existin Treaty re ime, the Presi'ent re="ires the %onsent o! the Co&&ege to 'is iss an in'ivi'"a& Commissioner& Under Art& 02,<- TEU ,.A e -er o! the Co ission sha&& resign i! the Presi'ent so re="estsD-, the Presi'ent is given the !or a& #ower to /hire an' !ire0 Co issioners& This de!elopment %&ear&. -oosts the Presi'ent0s stan'ing in re&ation to his or her %o&&eag"es, a2ing hi or her #ri "s inter

#ares 3that is, !irst a e="a&s4(

ong

The additional ,and existin - roles o" the ?resident are to sha#e the Co ission0s #o&i%ies as a who&e an' to 'eter ine the !"t"re 'ire%tion o! the EU& The Presi'ent a&so 'e%i'es on the interna& organi1ation o! the Co&&egeB -. a&&o%ating res#onsi-i&ities to in'ivi'"a& Co issioners> 'y ens"ring that the Co ission wor2s e!!i%ient&. an' %onsistent&.> and 'y resh"!!&ing the #ort!o&ios i! ne%essar.( /+R O&2 ?RESI*ENTS +8 T5E C+@@ISSI+N o Eose @an#el /arroso ,1JJ;) present-, a "ormer ?rime @inister o" ?ort# al, was 'ac(ed #nanimo#sly "or a second term as ?resident 'y EU leaders in E#ne 1JJ: and con"irmed 'y the E#ropean ?arliament in Septem'er 1JJ:& o Romano ?rodi ,0:::)1JJ;- ser!ed as ?rime @inister o" Italy 'e"ore and a"ter his term as ?resident o" the Commission&

o @an#el @arin ,0:::-, a Spanish politician, was ?resident on an interim 'asis& o Eac7#es Santer ,0::H)::-, a "ormer ?rime @inister o" L#xem'o#r , wasalon with "ellow commissioners"orced to resi n o!er corr#ption alle ations& o Eac7#es *elors ,0:OH):;- was a "ormer 8rench politician& PUESTI+NS .The Commission has not #nder one any "#ndamental str#ct#ral chan e since its inception& Its role is lar ely #nchan edY *o yo# a reeW Was the Commission ri ht to resi n collecti!ely o!er alle ations o" "ra#d, misman%a ement, and nepotismW Are the powers o" the ?resident o" the E#ropean Commission too !astW To which o""ice in the domestic ,ULcontext can the ?resident3s powers 'e li(enedW .The E#ropean ?arliament already has s#""icient powers and mechanisms to hold the Commission to acco#ntY *o yo# a ree with this statementW

Does the Co ission e+er%ise #ower e!!i%ient&.$ V arguably no, as on politically sensitive issue, politician did not desire to cede their power too much to Commission Ar #a'ly, the Commission does exercise its power e""iciently altho# h not in the tradi%tional way in which o!ernments iss#e r#les and re #lations& The Commission leads thro# h dialo #e, thro# h its powers o" initiation and in"l#ence& The powers o" the Commission ,li(e the powers o" the US president- are desi ned to identi"y new directions o" E#ropean inte ration& The "&ti!ario"s nat"re o! the Co issions tas(s does, howe!er, %arr. with it an inherent &a%2 o! e!!i%ien%.( It has a %hoi%e -etween &ea'ing an' e'iating, an' a&& too o!ten tries to 'o -oth&

It initiates so eti es swee#ing #o&i%. #ro#osa&s, which it then has to se&& as -eing in the %o on interest( The Commission is th#s easily ca# ht 'etween the roc( o" stri(in political 'ar ains and the hard place o" ens#rin "a!o#ra'le receptionand the -igger the EU -e%o es, the ore 'i!!i%"&t it is !or the Co ission to #"t !orwar' sing&e #o&i%. #ro#osa&s& N& N# ent 4 Amon st practitioners, de'ate has tended to 'e "oc#sed mainly on the extent to which an instit#tion that is #nelected sho#ld 'e exercisin si ni"icant powers& 8or those who ta(e a 'roadly inter o!ernmentalist position on what the nat#re o" the EU sho#ld 'e, the powers o" the Commission need to 'e restricted and the exercise o" what powers it has need to 'e "irmly controlled& /#t, "or those who are more inte rationist in spirit, a stron and not o!er%shac(led Commission is !ital i" the EU is to ha!e policies that are s#""iciently creati!e and am'itio#s to

tac(le the many policy pro'lems the EU "aces& /#t whate!er position is ta(en in these and related de'ates, it is indisp#ta'le that the Commission is a core instit#tional presence in the EU& When the EU is Din o#erationD, the Co ission is a& ost invaria-&. invo&ve' in so e signi!i%ant wa.( The "re7#ent appearance on the EU a enda o" #o&iti%a&&. sensitive atters, %o"#&e' with the 'esire o! #o&iti%ians not to %e'e too "%h #ower to others i! the. %an avoi' it, a. have res"&te' in at &east so e e -er states -eing re&"%tant in re%ent .ears to grant too "%h !"rther a"tono . to the Co ission, '#t the Commission nonetheless remains central and !ital to the whole EU system&

A DUAL EXECUTIVE Co#ncil) "or national a#tonomy, Commission) "or inte ration, EU ?arliament "or democracy o!ernance We ha!e seen that the three ain instit"tions per"orm 'i!!erent !"n%tions and that each instit#tion ma(es an in'e#en'ent %&ai o! &egiti a%.( o The Co"n%i& %&ai s to -e the g"ar'ian o! nationa& a"tono .> o the Co ission ,to ether with the Co#rt o" E#stice- %&ai s to -e the g"ar'ian o! e!!e%tive integration> and o the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent %&ai s to -e the g"ar'ian o! 'e o%rati% governan%e&

*o#'le exec#ti!e power) Commission and Co#ncil CCo#ncil dele ate the power to CommissionD I"t where 'oes e+e%"tive #ower in the EU &ie$ Simon 5ix pro!ides the most inno!ati!e answer 'y introd#cin the %on%e#t o! a /'"a& e+e%"tive0, within whi%h the Co"n%i& an' Co ission share the res#onsi-i&ities o! govern ent( The Co"n%i& is res#onsi-&e !or setting the e'i" 6 to &ong6ter agen'a, -. re!or ing the EU Treat., an' 'e&egating #o&iti%a& an' a' inistrative tas2s to the Co ission& In the areas in which e+e%"tive #owers have -een 'e&egate', the Co ission is res#onsi-&e !or 'istri-"ting the EU -"'get, onitoring #o&i%. i #&e entation 'y the mem'er states, and a2ing r"&es an' reg"&ations(

We ha!e seen that the e -er states have &i ite' the Co ission to %ertain reg"&ator. atters, s#ch as competition and a ric#lt#re, while Co"n%i& have retaine' %ontro& o! 2e. e+e%"tive #owers, s"%h as Treat. re!or , #o&i%. a2ing in re&ation to Co on Foreign an' Se%"rit. Po&i%., the "ormer third pillar ,?olice and E#dicial Cooperation in Criminal @atters-, &ong6ter agen'a setting, and the %oor'ination o! nationa& a%roe%ono i% #o&i%ies in the E"ro#ean Co"n%i&&

/#t Commission resem'le a Ca'inet which politically in!ol!ed in policy) ma(in and administrati!ely s#pported 'y own ministries C*FD independent "rom mem'er o" state We ha!e, howe!er, also seen that the Co ission has 'eve&o#e' some o" the attri'#tes o" a s"#ranationa& /govern ent0& The Co&&ege o! Co issioners rese -&es Ca-inet govern ent and the Co ission %risis o! );;; raise' iss"es re&ating to %o&&e%tive res#onsi-i&it.& The Co issioners are %areer #o&iti%ians who -ring their own i'eo&ogi%a& o-9e%tives to the EU0s #o&i%. a2ing #ro%ess E#o&iti%a&&.F A' inistrative&., the Co ission is6s"##orte' -. its own inistries in the !or o! the D7s& In short, the Co ission has the in%entives, the reso"r%es, an' the #ower to #"rs"e its own agen'a, in'e#en'ent&. !ro

those o! the e -er state govern ents( No chie" exec#ti!e and there"ore lin( to democratic acco#nta'ility S( Hi+ an' I( Ha.&an'B The res#lt is a system with stren ths and wea(nesses& The main stren th is that the d#al character o" the EU exec#ti!e "acilitates extensi!e deli'eration and compromise in the adop%tion and implementation o" EU policies& This is a si ni"icant achie!ement "or a continental) scale and m#lti)national political system, and it red#ces the li(elihood o" system 'rea(down& 5owe!er there are two i wea2nesses& #ortant

First, the "lip side o" %o #ro ise is a &a%2 o! overa&& #o&iti%a& &ea'ershi# and '"a&6e+e%"tive s.ste s ten' to -e %hara%teri1e' -. #o&i%. sta-i&it.( Se%on', and &in2e' to this iss"e, there is the #ro-&e o! 'e o%rati% a%%o"nta-i&it.&

There is no sing&e %hie! e+e%"tive, who the E"ro#ean #"-&i% %an Dthrow o"tD(

Chec(s and 'alances needed Constit#tional law, whether at national or at s#pranational le!el, consists o" two sides& +n the one hand, it maps o#t the exec#ti!e powers and "#nctions o" political instit#tions ,it empowers-& We ha!e seen that the EU has a d#almay'e e!en a tripleexec#ti!e that con%sists o" the Co#ncil o" @inisters and the Commission, and 'ehind the scenes, '#t more prominently a"ter the Lis'on Treaty created a "i #rehead, the E#ropean Co#ncil& This chap%ter has so "ar tried to set o#t and analyse the roles and a#thority o" these (ey E#ropean instit#tions-"t #o&iti%a& #ower, on%e %reate', nee's to -e %ontro&&e' an' %onstraine', an' it is to this a&&6i #ortant se%on' iss"e that we now t"rn(

DEGOCRAC8, LE7ITIGAC8, ACCOUNTAIILIT8, AND TRANSPARENC8 ?ower o" EU ha!e rown and ca#se p#'lic mistr#st and le itimacy iss#e As the #owers o! the E"ro#ean Union have grown, so have the #ro-&e s o! #"-&i% istr"st an' the &egiti a%. o! the EU0s %entra& instit"tions& Contrary to Eean @onnet3s "#nctionalist ass#mption, the -ene!its o! E"ro#ean integration are no &onger ta2en !or grante' -. %iti1ens o! the EU e -er states& The rati"ication o" the @aastricht Treaty s#""ered a set'ac( in 0::1 when it was re$ected 'y the *anes in a re"erend#m& The Nice and Lis'on rati"ication crises in Ireland, and the 8rench and *#tch re$ections o" the Constit#tional Treaty hi hli ht the citiGens3 percei!ed pro'lems with the E#ropean Union&

A( LE7ITIGAC8 Le itmacy is important as it has to ain s#pport "rom the o!erned Legiti a%. is an i #ortant %on%e#t in political science, which as2s whether the e+isting #o&iti%a& instit"tions re%eive a'e="ate s"##ort !ro the e -ers o! so%ietythis they may do, "or e+a #&e, 'y -eing s"!!i%ient&. re#resentative an' 'e o%rati%a&&. a%%o"nta-&e& A r"&er a. have the #ower to a2e &aws -. virt"e o! his or her o!!i%e, '#t witho"t the %onsent o! a &arge #ro#ortion o! the #o#"&ation, the r"&er0s e'i%ts a. &a%2 &egiti a%.& Legiti a%. is, there!ore, a -asi% %on'ition !or r"&e an' EU governan%e ,li(e the o!ernment o" any state- wo"&' not -e &egiti ate "n&ess it was %arrie' o"t with the %onsent o! the governe'(

EU adopt !or a& &egiti a%. as treaties rari"ied 'y mem'er states and do#'le democratic mandate Cdirect EU ?arliament and indirect national democraticD and decision) ma(in re7#ire P@AI#nanimity It is #se"#l to 'isting"ish /!or &egiti a%. !ro so%ia&0 &egiti a%.& a&0

The E"ro#ean Union is &egiti ate in a !or a& sense 'eca#se it was esta-&ishe', and has 'een extended, on the -asis o! treaties rati!ie' -. the e -er states& The E"ro#ean Union %&ai s to res#e%t the #rin%i#&e o! the r"&e o! &aw and the Treaties i #ose stri%t &i its on EU a%tivities( +n a day) to)day 'asis, the E#ropean Union e!en has a .'o"-&e 'e o%rati% an'ate0, 'eca#se it deri!es its le itimacy "rom two so#rces4 the nationa& govern ents ,which are represented in the Co#ncil- an' the 'ire%t&. e&e%te' E"ro#ean Par&ia ent&

In relation to acco#nta'ility, even in the #o&i%. areas in whi%h the E"ro#ean Union is %o #etent to a%t a&one, it is sti&& %onstraine' -. 'e%ision6 a2ing #ro%e'"res that re="ire either s"#er a9orities 3MGV4 or even "nani it., as we&& as %on%"rrent a9orities a ong the three ain EU organs& 8ar "rom 'ein distant and detached, there are, in !a%t, "&ti#&e %hanne&s o! #o&iti%a& a%%o"nta-i&it., -oth 'ire%t&. via the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent 3as we have seen4 an' in'ire%t&. via e&e%te' nationa& o!!i%ia&s 3see A%%o"nta-i&it.4(

So%ia& &egiti a%. Csocial acceptance 'y the peopleD is not so stron as ministers m#ch hi her de ree o" isolation in EU "rom the national parliamentary scr#tiny than domestic policy ma(in Cin democratic senseD I" we shi"t the "oc#s away "rom "ormal proced#res and t"rn to ="estions o! -roa'er so%ia& a%%e#tan%e o! the E"ro#ean Union 'y the #eo#&e, then the #ro-&e -e%o es one o! 'e o%rati% %ontro& an', there!ore, o! so%ia& &egiti a%. in the o#eration o! the instit"tions& Th#s, policyma(in at EU le!el has not only 'ranched o#t into new areas that are nationally sensiti!e, -"t it is a&so 'o inate' -. e+e%"tive a%tors ,nationa& inisters in the Co"n%i& and govern ent a##ointees in the Co ission-& E+e%"tive 'o inan%e, -. itse&!, is not #ro-&e ati%#rovi'e' that the a%tions %an -e s%r"tini1e' -. nationa& #ar&ia ents&

The nationa& inisters in the Co"n%i& are "&ti ate&. a%%o"nta-&e to their nationa& #ar&ia ents, -"t on&. in a wea2 anner in relation to EU matters and the ma(in o" EU le islation& In other words, nationa& inisters wor2ing at EU &eve& en9o. a "%h higher 'egree o! iso&ation !ro nationa& #ar&ia entar. s%r"tin. an' %ontro& than the. 'o in the 'o esti% #o&i%. a2ing #ro%ess& As a conse7#ence, one e!!e%t o! E"ro#ean integration has -een an in%rease in the #ower o! e+e%"tives an' a 'e%rease in the #ower o! nationa& #ar&ia ents(

Gore so%ia& &egiti a%. in adoptin the P@A method so that the smaller mem'er states "rom 'ein '#lldoGed 'y lar er mem'er states CE#rope more closer to the peopleD The in%rease' "se o! MGV in the Co"n%i& since the mid)0:OJs an' the %o #arative wea2ness o! the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent ,in relation to the o!ernments in the Co#ncil- ha!e also helped to strengthen the e+e%"tive an' to high&ight the &egiti a%. #ro-&e ( It raises the ="estion "n'er what %ir%" stan%es, and in what areas, are citiGens o" the EU e -er states #re#are' to a%%e#t a9orit. r"&e$ At national le!el, ma$ority r#le is accepted 'y the people precisely 'eca#se there is .a people3in other words, a Staats!ol(, nation, or demos, which #nites the existin political, economic, social, and c#lt#ral interests into a (ind o" socio) psycholo ical l#e that s#pports ma$ority decisions thro# h tolerance and solidarity&

In contrast, the E#ropean Union consists o" n#mero#s mem'er states, the peoples o" which do not share the same s#'stanti!e c#lt#ral !al#es, s#ch as reli ion and lan #a e> in that sense, they clearly lac( the same "o#ndations as a nation state& @ora!osi(4 Li(e most modern polities, the EU rests instead on pra matic political practices consens#ally accepted 'y o!erlappin c#lt#ral and political ro#ps& The tr#e pillars o" the EUeconomic wel"are, h#man ri hts, li'eral democracy, and the r#le o" law appeal to E#ropeans re ardless o" national or political identity&

The res#ltin instit#tion is sta'le not 'eca#se it is c#lt#rally coherent, '#t 'eca#se it ser!es the complex, increasin ly interwo!en interests o" citiGens in interdependent, ad!anced ind#strial democracies& No si ni"icant ro#p in any mem'er state "a!o#rs withdrawal "rom this arran ement C,&&TDhe EU6s s#ccess and d#ra'ility pro!e that alternati!e conceptions are possi'le&

+ne s#ch alternati!e conception is Eoseph Weiler3s principle o" constit#tional tolerance3, which capt#res the E#ropean citiGens3 acceptance o" EU law as 'indin , e!en tho# h their own o!ernment may ha!e disappro!ed o" the le al meas#re& Ge -er states with the s a&&est n" -er o! votes %o"&' -e e+#e%te' to !ee& #arti%"&ar&. v"&nera-&e in &ight o! the in!&"en%e an' voting #ower wie&'e' -. the &arger e -er states( So in or'er to #rote%t the s a&&er e -er states !ro -eing -"&&'o1e' , -. the &arger e -er states, sa!eg"ar's have -een -"i&t into the e+isting s.ste o! weighte' voting in the Co"n%i&( It is even #ossi-&e !or a %oa&ition o! s a&&er %o"ntries to o"tvote their &arger ,pop#lation)wiseco#nterparts, even tho"gh the.

re#resent &ess than one ha&! o! the EU0s tota& #o#"&ation& The intrinsi% a-sen%e o! so%ia& g&"e a ong E"ro#ean %iti1ens ne%essitates %o #&e+ voting e%hanis s and di""#ses exec#ti!e power'#t it a&so high&ights the i #ortan%e o! so%ia& &egiti a%. an' the nee' to -ring the E"ro#ean Union %&oser to the #eo#&e0(

I( ACCOUNTAIILIT8 EU is o!ernance witho#t o!t, there is not desi ned "or political acco#nta'ility Cthere was no di""erent 'tw political "ail#re and personal acco#nta'ilityD A%%o"nta-i&it. is increasin ly !iewed as a ne%essar. %on'ition !or &egiti a%. and is connected to the idea o" representation& In Western 'e o%ra%ies, a%%o"nta-i&it. is the %o"nter#art o! 'e&egation and #s#ally occ#rs alon !ertical linesthat is, the voters 'e&egate !i'"%iar. Etr"stF #ower to their #o#"&ar re#resentatives in e&e%tions, who dele ate power to a ca'inet o" ministers, who dele ate power to their ci!il ser!ants or to other administrati!e 'odies& This 'e&egation o! #ower 'oes, however, %o e with strings atta%he'4 i! the re#resentatives a-"se their #ower, the. %an -e %a&&e' to a%%o"nt(

Po&iti%a& a%%o"nta-i&it. o#erates in the o##osite 'ire%tion to that o! 'e&egation& Po&iti%ians ro"tine&. a#o&ogi1e, resign, an' even &ose e&e%tions, i! the. have &ost the tr"st o! their voters( :(H(H( Wei&erB As re ards acco#nta'ility, e!en the 'asic condition o" representati!e democracy, namely, that at election time the citiGens Mcan throw the sco#ndrels o#tMthat is, re#&a%e the govern entC'oes not o#erate in E"ro#e& The !or o! E"ro#ean governan%e, governan%e witho"t govern ent, is and will remain "or considera'le time, perhaps "ore!er, s#ch that there is no Qgovern entQ to throw o"t& Dis issa& o! the Co ission -. Par&ia ent 3or a##roving the a##oint ent o! the Co ission

#resi'ent4 is not ="ite the sa not e!en remotely so& Startlin ly , the #o&iti%a& a%%o"nta-i&it. o! E"ro#e is s"r#rising&. wea2&

e,

There ha!e 'een some spectac#lar political "ail#res o" E#ropean o!ernance& The em'arrassin Copenha en cli%mate "iasco> the wea( ,at 'est- realiGation o" the m#ch)to#ted Lis'on a enda ,a&(&a& Lis'on strate y or Lis'on process-> the !ery story o" the de"#nct MConstit#tionM, to mention '#t three& It is hard to point, in these instances, to any meas#re o" political acco#nta'ility, o" someone payin a political price, as wo#ld 'e the case in national politics& In !a%t, it is 'i!!i%"&t to #oint to a sing&e instan%e o! a%%o"nta-i&it. !or #o&iti%a& !ai&"re as 'istin%t !ro #ersona& a%%o"nta-i&it. !or is%on'"%t in the annals o" E#ropean inte ration&

This is not, decidedly not, a story o" corr#ption or mal"easance& @y arg" ent is that this !ai&"re is roote' in the ver. str"%t"re o! E"ro#ean governan%e& It is not 'esigne' !or #o&iti%a& a%%o"nta-i&it.&

No acco#nta'ility) red#ce the le itimacy o" EU A%%o"nta-i&it. is one o! the ha&& ar2s o! 'e o%rati% governan%e& The shi"t "rom policyma(in 'y national o!ernments to transnational EU o!ernance has not on&. high&ighte' the a-sen%e o! a so%ia& -asis, or 'e os, -"t a&so a%%o"nta-i&it. 'e!i%its, which in t#rn i #a%t on the #er%eive' &egiti a%. o! the E"ro#ean Union& The (ey 7#estion is whether the E#ropean Union, as a new, transnational, and m#ltile!el "orm o" o!ernance, re7#ires new and di""erent "orms o" acco#nta'ility&

Addition new horiGontal "orm o" acco#nta'ility As we saw in Chapter 1 and Chapter 2, accordin to the .West inster o'e&0, political acco#nta'ility is exercised hierarchically, or verti%a&&., thro# h ministerial res#onsi-i&it. to the U5 Par&ia ent( The system o" hierarchical political acco#nta'ility ,'y con!ention, ministers are acco#nta'le to ?arliament "or all o" the actions o" o!ernment, incl#din those o" ci!il ser!ants- has, howe!er, %o e "n'er #ress"re !ro hori1onta& !or s o! a%%o"nta-i&it., which in%&"'e a%%o"nta-i&it. to a' inistrative !or" s, %iti1ens, an' %ivi& so%iet., as well as more in'ivi'"a& !or s o! a%%o"nta-i&it.& This is not only political rhetoric4 the new Art( )) TEU %reates a re="ire ent in eneral terms "or 'ia&og"e -etween the EU instit"tions an' %ivi& so%iet.(

The Lis-on Treat. a&so #rovi'es !or a E"ro#ean Citi1ens Initiative 3ECI4, an e+#eri enta& !or o! 'ire%t 'e o%ra%. that ena'les ) i&&ion %iti1ens to #"t an iss"e on the Co issions agen'a ,Art& 00,;- TEU> Art& 1;,0- T8EU-& The esta-&ish ent o! o -"'s en, a"'itors, an' ="asi6 a"tono o"s or in'e#en'ent agen%ies %ha&&enge the tra'itiona& s.ste o! #o&iti%a& %ontro& thro"gh the inister an' o!!er a&ternatives to tra'itiona& verti%a& !or s o! a%%o"nta-i&it.( Altho# h these administrati!e "or#ms may report to ?arliament or to the minister, the. 'o not stan' in a hierar%hi%a& re&ationshi# to the a%tors( Nor 'o the. re#&a%e the tra'itiona& !or s o! #o#"&ar %ontro&B

E"ro#ean governan%e re="ires -oth tra'itiona& an' new !or s o! a%%o"nta-i&it.(

Acco#nta'ility is not only a technical pro'lem '#t also a political pro'lem which exacer'ated 'y a'sence o" politician act#ally committed to E#ropean willin to ta(e the ris( inte rate the E#rope 8inally, as Peterson an' Sha%2&eton point o#t, a%%o"nta-i&it. is not 9"st a te%hni%a& #ro-&e that %an -e !i+e' -. tin2ering with the nationa& an'Por E"ro#ean instit"tions& It is a&so a #o&iti%a& #ro-&e that is e+a%er-ate' -. the a-sen%e o! #o&iti%ians who are %o itte' to the E"ro#ean %a"se, wi&&ing to ta2e #o&iti%a& ris2s to 'rive !orwar' the #ro9e%t o! integration, an' 'raw ins#iration !ro the /heroi%0 e#o%h o! E"ro#ean inte ration in the 0:OJs& E& ?eterson and @& Shac(leton, MConcl#sionM, in E& ?eterson and @& Shac(leton ,eds- The Instit#tions o" the E#ropean Union, Krd edn ,1J01, +x"ord4 +U8-, p& K:: I" there is one sin le, '#rnin 7#estion that arises "rom st#dyin

the EU6s instit#tions, it is the !exed acco#nta'ility 7#estion4 how can the Union6s instit#tions, in the a'sence o" a tr#ly E#ropean polity, 'ecome more acco#nta'le to E#ropean citiGens and th#s a more le itimate le!el o" o!ernanceW In o#r !iew, it is di""ic#lt to ima ine that the pro'lem can 'e sol!ed sim%ply with a dose o" direct democracy, s#ch as 'y instit#tin the direct election o" the ?resident o" the Commission, empowerin national parliaments in EU decision)ma(in , or spendin more to "oster tr#ly pan) E#ropean political parties& It mi ht 'e rather easier to en!isa e the "#t#re election o" o!ernments a'le and willin to do a 'etter $o' o" sellin the EU6s instit#%tions to a!era e citiGens as 'oth necessary and competent a ents in the tas(s o" o!ernin E#rope, and de"endin its interests in a new, modern, and increasin ly lo'aliGed world&

C( TRANSPARENC8 8inally, the Lis-on Treat. a&so in%reases the trans#aren%. o! the instit"tions an' their 'e%ision6 a2ing #ro%esses& 9o# will recall that meetin s o" the E"ro#ean Co"n%i& an' o! the Co"n%i& o! the E"ro#ean Union were o!ten he&' in se%ret& That wi&& no &onger -e #ossi-&e in the !"t"re& Arti%&e )A TFEU In order to promote ood o!ernance and ens#re the participation o" ci!il society, the Union instit#tions, 'odies, o""ices and a encies shall %on'"%t their wor2 as o#en&. as #ossi-&e& The E"ro#ean Par&ia ent sha&& eet in #"-&i%, as sha&& the Co"n%i& when %onsi'ering an' voting on a 'ra!t &egis&ative a%t&

An. %iti1en o! the Union, and any nat#ral or le al person residin or ha!in its re istered o""ice in a @em'er State, sha&& have a right o! a%%ess to 'o%" ents o! the Union instit"tions, 'odies, o""ices and a encies, whate!er their medi#m, s#'$ect to the principles and the conditions to 'e de"ined in accordance with this para raph& Feneral principles and limits on ro#nds o" p#'lic or pri!ate interest o!ernin this ri ht o" access to doc#ments shall 'e determined 'y the E#ropean ?arliament and the Co#ncil, 'y means o" re #lations, actin in accordance with the ordinary le islati!e proced#re& Each instit#tion, 'ody, o""ice or a ency shall ens#re that its proceedin s are transparent and shall ela'orate in its own R#les o" ?roced#re speci"ic pro!isions re ardin access to its doc#ments, in accordance with the re #lations re"erred to in the second s#'para raph& The Co#rt o" E#stice o" the E#ropean Union, the E#ropean Central /an(

and the E#ropean in!estment /an( shall 'e s#'$ect to this para raph only when exercisin their administrati!e tas(s& The E#ropean ?arliament and the Co#ncil shall ens#re p#'lication o" the doc#ments relatin to the le islati!e proced#res #nder the terms laid down 'y the re #lations re"erred to in the second s#'para raph&

NATIONAL PARLIAGENTAR8 SCRUTIN8 OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Iss#e whether scr#tiniGed 'y domestic parliament is happened in limited way Do E"ro#ean e+e%"tive instit"tions e+er%ise too #ower$ "%h

Do nationa& #ar&ia ents ere&. r"--er6sta # EU &egis&ation that is #&a%e' -e!ore the W *o they ha!e s#""icient powers o" scr#tinyW We ha!e already hinted that there is a ro&e to #&a. !or nationa& #ar&ia ents in the #o&i%. a2ing #ro%essand it is one o! the e+#&i%it ai s o! the Lis-on Treat. to enhan%e the .democratic le itimacy o" the Union ,see ?ream'le-&

The "ollowin section will examine the role o" the UL ?arliament in that process& It is "# to ea%h e -er state to 'evise its own e%hanis s !or s%r"tini1ing #ro#ose' EU &egis&ation, and "or monitorin and challen in the E#ropean Union& The (ey iss#e is that, in the #"re&. 'o esti% context, a inister wi&& s"%%ee' in steering a Ii&& into an A%t o! Par&ia ent on&. i! the U5 Par&ia ent a%%e#ts the &egis&ative #ro#osa&> at the EU &eve&, however, the sa e inister a. agree to &egis&ation witho"t -eing s"-9e%t to the sa e stringent #ro%e'"ra& sa"e #ards o" a parliamentary democracy& Ie%a"se Co"n%i& #ro%ee'ings are not trans#arent and 'eca#se, in any case, Co"n%i& e -ers a%t %o&&e%tive&. 3so a U5 inister a. have -een o"t6vote'4, it is virt"a&&. i #ossi-&e to esta-&ish

how an in'ivi'"a& in the Co"n%i&&

inister vote'

This section will examine the &i ite' wa.s in whi%h nationa& #ar&ia ents %an s%r"tini1e inisters an' whether their ro&e in the EU0s instit"tiona& s.ste sho"&' -e enhan%e'(

UL own scr#tiny committee Aery soon a!ter the U50s a%%ession to the E"ro#ean Co "nit. in 0:2K, the Ho"ses o! -oth Co ons an' the Lor's set "# %o ittees to s%r"tini1e #ro#ose' EC 'ire%tives an' reg"&ations( Today, the 5o#se o" Commons has two committees dealin with EU matters4 the E#ropean Scr#tiny Committee ,ESC- and the 8orei n A""airs Committee ,8AC-&

A& HOUSE OF COGGONS EUROPEAN SCRUTIN8 COGGITTEE EESCF6 e%amined the ability of national parliaments to scrutini&e proposed E' legislation and to influence it before decisions are made Lac( o" time and in"ormation lead to no scr#tiny ta(en place The E#ropean Scr#tiny Committee ,ESC- in the 5o#se o" Commons e+a ine' the a-i&it. o! nationa& #ar&ia ents to s%r"tini1e #ro#ose' EU &egis&ation and to in!&"en%e it -e!ore 'e%isions are a'e in a E#ne 1JJ1 report entitled De o%ra%. an' A%%o"nta-i&it. in the EU an' the Ro&e o! Nationa& Par&ia ents& It re%ogni1e' that &egis&ative #ro#osa&s are o!ten #"t !orwar' !or agree ent -e!ore nationa& #ar&ia ents ha!e ha' ti e to %onsi'er the , so eti es on the -asis o! &ast6 in"te negotiation(

A( C.ganB The (ey iss#es "or the 5o#se o" Commons when scr#tinisin EU le islati!e proposals are time and the prompt pro!ision o" the necessary in"ormation& The #ri ar. o-9e%tive o! the s%r"tin. #ro%ess is to in!&"en%e the inister #rior to the Co"n%i& a'o#ting its 'e!initive %o 6 on #osition& In this Report, the E#ropean Scr#tiny Committee identi"ied no less than nine occasions 'etween April 1JJJ and E#ne 1JJ0 when a &a%2 o! ti e an' in!or ation #re6vente' a'e="ate, or in some cases an., s%r"tin. !ro ta2ing #&a%e&

In all these instances the ca#se o" the pro'lem was either a !ai&"re -. the re&evant govern ent 'e#art ent to #rovi'e an E+#&anator. Ge oran'" a-o"t the #ro#osa&, or a !ai&"re -. the Co ission to #rovi'e the te+t within the g"i'e&ines contained in the Amsterdam ?rotocol on National ?arliaments&

P"r#ose o! s%r"tin.) 'e in"ormed a'o#t EU proposal and the e""ect on UL, in"l#ence the minister and hold the minister to acco#nt The E#ropean Scr#tiny Committee in the 5o#se o" Commons has set o"t a 'e!inition o! the #"r#ose o! the s%r"tin. s.ste in the Ho"se o! Co ons( Ho"se o! Co S%r"tin. Co ons E"ro#ean itteeB

To ens"re that e -ers are in!or e' o! EU #ro#osa&s &i2e&. to a!!e%t the Unite' 5ing'o , to pro!ide a so#rce o" in"ormation and analysis "or the p#'lic, and to ens"re that the Ho"se an' the E"ro#ean S%r"tin. Co ittee, an' thro"gh the other organisations an' in'ivi'"a&s, have o##ort"nities to a2e Ginisters aware o! their views on EU #ro#osa&s, see2 to in!&"en%e Ginisters an' ho&' Ginisters to a%%o"nt(

The Wor( o" committee It consists o" si+teen GPs, with a party)political %o #osition re!&e%ting #art. re#resentation in the 5o#se o" Commons enerally ,so, in 1J01, ei ht Conser!ati!e, six La'o#r, two Li'eral *emocrat, representati!es-& The ESC re%eives %o#ies o! EU 'o%" ents ,s#ch as Commission proposals-, to ether with an E+#&anator. Ge oran'" !ro the U5 govern ent 'e#art ent responsi'le "or that area o" policy& The ESC s tas( is to assess the /&ega& an' #o&iti%a& i #ortan%e0 o! ea%h o! the EU doc#ments recei!ed over ),)?? a .ear& It also 'eter ines whi%h is to -e 'is%"sse'& eas"re

De-ates wi&& ore %o on&. ta2e #&a%e in the ESC, rather than on the floor of the (ouse of Commons.

The ESC also s%r"tini1es the wor2s o! the Co"n%i& o! the EU ,thro# h parliamentary 7#estions and sometimes 'y 7#estionin ministers in person-, and a. o%%asiona&&. %on'"%t genera& in="iries into &ega&, #ro%e'"ra&, or instit"tiona& 'eve&o# ents in the E#ropean Union&

A "ormer ESC chairman, :i . Hoo' GP, descri'ed the method o" wor( o" the select committee as "ollows& Select Committee on @oderniGation o" the 5o#se o" Commons, @in#tes o" E!idence, H @ay 1JJQ When we come to o#r wee(ly meetin on a Wednesday, yo# are ri ht, we can ha!e a pile a'o#t this hi h, KJ or ;J doc#ments to loo( at& What we ha!e with each doc#ment is an A; paper "rom o#r ad!iser tellin #s the treaty 'ase, whether it is le ally or politically important or not, what it see(s to do, may'e some 'rie" history on it and then there is a recommenda%tion on whether it has 'een loo(ed at and can 'e cleared or whether it is politically or le ally important and it has to 'e "#rther scr#tinised, whether to hold it 'ac( and et "#ller in"or%mation ,that is sendin it to departments "or "#rther in"ormation, the Ca'inet +""ice, etc&-& With the other in"ormation it will then come 'ac( to #s and the recommendation will either 'e to o to de'ate 'eca#se it is le ally or politically important, or e!en then we

et some recommendations that the in"ormation is not satis"actory and we sho#ld despatch a re7#est "or a 'it more in"ormation and then we will ma(e a decision to hold it 'ac( a ain to et the in"ormation, and then e!ent#ally we ma(e the recommendation& It a. go to 'e-ate an' when it goes to 'e-ate then it is %&eare' !ro o"r s%r"tin. process& It is then in the han's o! Par&ia ent, !or the Stan'ing Co ittees or on the F&oor o! the Ho"se(

I( HOUSE OF COGGONS FOREI7N AFFAIRS COGGITTEE The 5o#se o" Commons 8orei n A""airs Committee ,8AC- is one o" the 'e#art enta& se&e%t %o ittees, and is a'e "# o! !o"rteen GPs !ro the govern ent an' O##osition #o&iti%a& #arties( It is char ed with onitoring the wor2 o! the Foreign an' Co onwea&th O!!i%e, so its re it e+ten's "%h wi'er than the E"ro#ean Union, a&tho"gh EU atters are an i #ortant as#e%t o! its wor2( The 8AC can call !or -oth written an' ora& s"- issions !ro intereste' #arties& The Foreign Se%retar. an' his or her inisters o!ten a##ear -e!ore it to give ora& evi'en%e&

The FAC %an &a"n%h in="iries, #"-&ish a re#ort when the in="ir. has !inishe', and re#orts to the Ho"se o! Co ons( These re#orts are so 'e-ate' -. GPs& eti es

/y %onvention, the govern ent res#on's to an FAC re#ort within two onths o! its #"-&i%ation(

C& PARLIAGENTAR8 DEIATES ON EU GATTERS6 on legislative and non)legislative matters and in *hite Paper The U5 Par&ia ent is a-&e to %a&& the govern ent to a%%o"nt !or its #o&i%ies re&ating to the E"ro#ean Union thro"gh 'e-ates on the !&oor o! -oth Ho"ses o! Par&ia ent( Legis&ative 'e-ates wi&& 'ea& with EU &aws 'oth re="iring #ri ar. &egis&ation ,which are 'e-ate' &i2e other Ii&&s- and i #&e ente' -. 'e&egate' &egis&ation ,which may 'e de'ated in stan'ing %o ittee-& Non6&egis&ative 'e-ates wi&& 'ea& with EU #o&i%ies ,"or example, the Common A ric#lt#ral ?olicy-, and will 'e initiate' either -. the govern ent or the O##osition&

Par&ia ent has the %han%e to 'e-ate govern ent White Pa#ers& The six)monthly retrospecti!e White ?apers called *e!elopments in the E#ropean Union ha!e now 'een re#&a%e' -. !orwar'6&oo2ing White Pa#ers %a&&e' Pros#e%ts !or the EU in E.earF(

*& PARLIAGENTAR8 MUESTIONS) +oreign secretary, Minister +or Europe be -uestioned A second mechanism thro# h which the o!ernment can 'e %a&&e' to a%%o"nt in re&ation to EU #o&i%ies is thro# h parliamentary 7#estions ,?Ps-& Either the Foreign Se%retar. or the Ginister !or E"ro#e wi&& a2e state ents an' answer 3written an' ora&4 PMs on the E"ro#ean Union& Until 0:OH, there was a special ,1J) min#te- slot "or oral EU 7#estions, '#t since then, they ha!e 'een answered to ether with other "orei n a""airs 7#estions "or a'o#t an ho#r, once a month on a!era e& Written ="estions are answere' ore !re="ent&.(

E& THE HOUSE OF LORDS SCRUTIN8) report for information, recommend for debates for .ords, subcommittee with speciali&ed area is set up The Ho"se o! Lor's E"ro#ean Union Se&e%t Co ittee a&so s%r"tini1es EU &egis&ative #ro#osa&s and the o!ernment3s response to them& Its "ormal terms o" re"erence are .To %onsi'er E"ro#ean Union 'o%" ents an' other atters re&ating to the E"ro#ean Union&3 It %on'"%ts reg"&ar an' 'etai&e' in="iries into s#e%i!i% #ro#osa&s ,"or example, "ra#d, third)pillar matters, the dra"t Constit#tional Treaty-, and re#orts either !or in!or ation or with re%o en'ation !or 'e-ate in the Lor's&

The EU Committee carries o#t m#ch o" its wor( thro"gh seven s"-%o ittees ,identi"ied as A)F-, ea%h o! whi%h s#e%ia&i1es in a #arti%"&ar s"-9e%t area& The s"-%o ittees #re#are re#orts, whi%h "st -e agree' -. the Se&e%t Co ittee as a who&e -e!ore #"-&i%ation( The Committees in the Commons and the Lords complement each other, and cooperate closely with one another&

?+LIC9 AREAS +8 T5E 5+USE +8 L+R*S EU SU/C+@@ITTEES A Economic and 8inancial A""airs, Trade and International Relations, incl#din the EC /#d et / Internal @ar(et, incl#din comm#nications, ener y, transport, research, and space C 8orei n A""airs, *e"ence, and *e!elopment ?olicy * En!ironment and A ric#lt#re E Law and Instit#tions 8 5ome A""airs F Social ?olicy and Cons#mer A""airs, incl#din health, wor(er protection, and ed#cation

F( THE ROLE OF THE SCOTTISH PARLIAGENT The S%ot&an' A%t );;K gives the S%ottish Par&ia ent a"thorit. to i #&e ent EU &aw "or S%ot&an' in %ases in whi%h the s"-9e%t atter o! the new #ie%e o! &egis&ation !a&&s within or a""ects a 'evo&ve' #o&i%. area& The S%ottish Par&ia ent has its own E"ro#ean an' E+terna& Re&ations Co ittee, the remit o" which is to consider and report on4 o proposals "or E#ropean Comm#nities le islation> o the implementation o" E#ropean Comm#nities le islation> o any E#ropean Comm#nities or E#ropean Union iss#e> o the de!elopment and implementation o" the Scottish Administrations lin(s with co#ntries and territories o#tside Scotland, the E#ropean Comm#nities ,and their instit#tions-, and other international or aniGations> and

o coordination o" the international acti!ities o" the Scottish Administration& Li(e its Westminster co#nterpart, the S%ottish %o ittee onitors #ro#osa&s !or EU &egis&ation an' s%r"tini1es the anner in which the S%ottish 7overn ent i #&e ents EU &egis&ation, or the way in which it examines EU iss#es& The S%ottish 7overn ent has an EU O!!i%e in Ir"sse&s( It s"##orts the EU6re&ate' wor2 o! the govern ent an' he&#s to in%rease S%ot&an'0s in!&"en%e in the 'e%ision6 a2ing #ro%ess& It also wor2s %&ose&. with the Unite' 5ing'o 0s Per anent Re#resentation to the EU, ULRE?, which re ains res#onsi-&e !or re#resenting the views o! the Unite' 5ing'o as a who&e to the EU instit"tions(

7( SHOULD NATIONAL PARLIAGENTS PLA8 A 7REATER ROLE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION$ TEC and TEU witho#t in!ol!ed o" domestic parliament and in!ol!e parliament may lead to sel"ish state What role sho#ld national parliaments play in the EU instit#tional systemW +n the one hand, the #ar&ia ents o! the e -er states were given no !or a& !"n%tions "n'er TEC an' TEU ,'#t note the o'li ations in the Lis'on Treaty-, a&tho"gh the. are res#onsi-&e !or i #&e enting EU &egis&ation& There!ore, invo&ving nationa& #ar&ia ents in the EU3s law)ma(in process a. "#set the -a&an%e -etween nationa& #ar&ia ents an' the EU instit"tions(

In partic#lar, the nationa&i1ing0 &aw6 a2ing #ro%ess a. #ro'"%e Dse&!ish State6%entri% o"t%o es3, which #a. ins"!!i%ient attention to E"ro#ean e%ono i% an' so%ia& #o&i%ies&

?arliament scr#tiny may not 'e the matter as national o!t may o#t!oted @oreo!er, while 7#ali"ied ma$ority !otin in the Co#ncil has made decision)ma(in more e""icient ,mem'er states do not ha!e a !eto and %an -e o"tvote' -. the a9orit.-, it has a&so !"rther argina&i1e' nationa& #ar&ia ents within the integration #ro%essB 'oes s%r"tin. -. nationa& #ar&ia ents atter when nationa& govern ents a. -e o"tvote' in the Co"n%i&$

?arliament is important in inte ration o" E#rope, a lin( 'tw people and Union, so Treaty o" Nice pro!ide s#'sidiarity control +n the other hand, national parliaments ha!e lost o#t in the process o" E#ropean inte% ration and so, ar #a'ly, nationa& #ar&ia ents o"ght to have a "%h greater ro&e than at present& Nationa& #ar&ia ents are an i #ortant so"r%e o! &egiti a%. !or the Union, and a 'ire%t an' esta-&ishe' &in2 -etween the Union an' the #eo#&es o! the e -er states, and the Treat. o! Ni%e 3>??)4 renewe' interest in giving nationa& #ar&ia ents a ore !or a& ro&e in the EU0s &egis&ative #ro%essespecially in relation to s#'sidiarity control&

The s"-si'iarit. #rin%i#&e) competences not conferred upon the 'nion in the Treaties remain with the Member /tates S"-si'iarit. is a ne-"&o"s 'o%trine that is !re="ent&. #o&iti%i1e' an' is"n'erstoo' The principle was introd#ced ,altho# h not 'y name- in the Sin le E#ropean Act 0:O<,HH which a#thoriGed Comm#nity action re ardin the en!ironment to the extent that its o'$ecti!es .can 'e attained 'etter at the Comm#nity le!el3& S#'sidiarity was ele!ated to a . eneral principle3 o" Comm#nity law 'y the @aastricht Treaty in 0::1& It is c#rrently enshrined in the "ollowin pro!ision&

Arti%&e A TEU Ee+#&aine' -e&owF o The limits o" Union competences are o!erned 'y the principle o" con"erral& The #se o" Union competences is o!erned 'y the principle o" s#'sidiarity and proportionality& o Under the principle o" con"erral, the Union shall act only within the limits o" the competences con"erred #pon it 'y the @em'er States in the Treaties to attain the o'$ecti!es set o#t therein& Competences not con"erred #pon the Union in the Treaties remain with the @em'er States& o Un'er the #rin%i#&e o! s"-si'iarit., in areas whi%h 'o not !a&& within its e+%&"sive %o #eten%e, the Union sha&& a%t on&. i! an' in so !ar as the o-9e%tives o! the #ro#ose' a%tion %annot -e s"!!i%ient&. a%hieve' -. the Ge -er States, either at central le!el or at re ional and local le!el, '#t can rather, 'y reason o" the scale or e""ects o" the proposed action, 'e 'etter achie!ed at Union le!el&

The instit#tions o" the Union shall apply the principle o" s#'sidiarity as laid down in the ?rotocol on the application o" the principles o" s#'sidiarity and proportionality& National ?arliaments ens#re compliance with the principle o" s#'sidiarity in accordance with the pro)ced#re set o#t in that ?rotocol& o Under the principle o" proportionality, the content and "orm o" Union action shall not exceed what is necessary to achie!e the o'$ecti!es o" the Treaties&

S#'sidiarity remain the so!erei n power o" states In its proced#ral "orm, s"-si'iarit. is a %a"tio"s 'evi%e to 'eter ine the 'ivision o! #o&i%. a2ing res#onsi-i&ities 'etween the E#ropean Union and the @em'er States& The #rin%i#&e 'oes not threaten the sovereign #owers o! the Ge -er States4 Art( @ TEU clari"ies "or the "irst time and in express terms that %o #eten%es not %on!erre' "#on the Union in the Treaties re ain with the Ge -er States3, and that the EU /sha&& res#e%t their essentia& State !"n%tions, incl#din ens#rin the territoria& integrit. o! the State, aintaining &aw an' or'er an' sa!eg"ar'ing nationa& se%"rit.&3 In partic#lar, nationa& se%"rit. re ains the so&e res#onsi-i&it. o! ea%h Ge -er State(3

S#'sidiarity sho#ld not applied when EU has the excl#si!e competence S"-si'iarit. a&so 'oes not a##&. in the !ew #o&i%. areas where the EU has e+%&"sive %o #eten%es ,s#ch as the common commercial policy, "isheries conser!ation, or monetary policy "or the E#ro)states-&

Where share competence, then EU only act where EU action 'etter than mem'er states Instead, it applies in areas o! share' %o #eten%es where there is a %hoi%e -etween "sing %o&&e%tive a%tion thro"gh the EU instit"tions, or "sing in'ivi'"a& nationa& #ower& The #rin%i#&e o! s"-si'iarit. in Art( A3*4 TEU re7#ires that le islati!e action 'e ta(en at the appropriate le!el, which means that the EU sho"&' a%t on&. i! it %an a%hieve the o-9e%tives o! the #ro#ose' EU a%tion -etter than the Ge -er States, and !ice !ersa& @oreo!er, the principle o" proportionality in Art( A3@4 TEU stip#lates that .Union a%tion sha&& not e+%ee' what is ne%essar. to a%hieve the o-9e%tives o! the Treaties0(

S#'sidiarity ali(e to "ederation while UL is not "ederally in str#ct#re S"-si'iarit. also, howe!er, has a s#'stanti!e "orm, 'eca#se it s"ggests that #o&iti%a& 'e%isions sho"&' -e ta2en %as %&ose&. as #ossi-&e to the %iti1en ,Art& 0 TEU-, implying, where possi'le, a #re!eren%e !or 'evo&ve' 'e%ision6 a2ing even within the e -er state& This was the "orm that was relied #pon 'y the /ritish o!ernment to reconcile the electorate to the "ederaliGin implications o" the @aastricht Treaty& S"-si'iarit. ten's to -e is"n'erstoo' in the Unite' 5ing'o , -e%a"se it is not !e'era&&. str"%t"re'&

In "ederal states, .s"-si'iarit.0, or /!e'era&is 0, are wa.s in whi%h to 'e!ine an' &i it %entra& #owers an' %o #eten%ies& As R""' L"--ers, a !or er Pri e Ginister o! the Nether&an's once remar(ed4 .I res#e%t s"-si'iarit.( As .o" 2now, !or the 7er ans, the wor' !or this is !e'era&is (D

Example o" in!ol!ement o" ?arliament The eneral !iew is that the Treaty o" Lis'on and the ?rotocol on the Role o" National ?arliaments in the E#ropean Union ,which will 'e annexed to the Treaty- wi&& enhan%e the ro&e o! nationa& #ar&ia ents in EU decision)ma(in & The Lis-on Treat. a2es n" ero"s re!eren%es to nationa& #ar&ia ents and introd#ces the "ollowin new pro!ision&

Arti%&e )> TEU National ?arliaments contri'#te acti!ely to the ood "#nctionin o" the Union4 o thro# h 'ein in"ormed 'y the instit#tions o" the Union and ha!in dra"t le islati!e acts o" the Union "orwarded to them in accordance with the ?rotocol on the role o" national ?arliaments in the E#ropean Union> o 'y seein to it that the principle o" s#'sidiarity is respected in accordance with the pro)ced#res pro!ided "or in the ?rotocol on the application o" the principles o" s#'sidiarity and proportionality> o 'y ta(in part, within the "ramewor( o" the area o" "reedom, sec#rity and $#stice, in the e!al#ation mechanisms "or the implementation o" the Union policies in that area C&&&D> o 'y ta(in part in the re!ision proced#res o" the Treaties C&&&D> o 'y 'ein noti"ied o" applications "or accession to the Union C&&&D> 'y ta(in part in the inter) parliamentary cooperation 'etween national ?arliaments and with the E#ropean

?arliament, in accordance with the ?rotocol on the role o" national ?arliaments in the E#ropean Union& @oreo!er, Art( A TEU an' Art( N; TFEU 'ea& with nationa& #ar&ia ents, ens"ring %o #&ian%e with s"-si'iarit. ,as we shall see-& These #rovisions !or a&i1e the right o! nationa& #ar&ia ents to -e invo&ve' in EU &aw6 a2ing& The Proto%o& see2s to en%o"rage /greater invo&ve ent o! nationa& Par&ia ents in the a%tivities o! the E"ro#ean Union and to enhance their a-i&it. to e+#ress their views on 'ra!t &egis&ative a%ts o! the E"ro#ean Union as well as on other matters which may 'e o" partic#lar interest to them&

It pro!ides that a&& Co ission %ons"&tation 'o%" ents "st -e !orwar'e' 'ire%t&. to nationa& #ar&ia ents "#on #"-&i%ation and it empowers national parliaments, !or the !irst ti e, to en!or%e s"-si'iarit. a%%or'ing to the !o&&owing #ro%ess(

8e&&ow %ar' #ro%e'"re6 0IK *omestic parliament can propose that the dra"t did not comply with s#'sidiarity, then Commission re) examine howe!er, Commission still can decide a ainst the o'$ection and #p to EU parliament and Co#ncil to decide The Lis-on Treat. intro'"%es new #ro%e'"res 2nown as the /.e&&ow an' orange %ar's0& Nationa& #ar&ia ents have eight wee2s ,rather than six, as #nder the Constit#tional Treaty- to st"'. 'ra!t EU &egis&ative a%ts& Any nationa& #ar&ia ent a. then 'e%i'e to !&ag a #ro#osa& ,that is, to express concerns- 'ire%t&. to the instit"tion that initiate' the #ro#osa& !or not %o #&.ing with the #rin%i#&e o! s"-si'iarit.& This cearly)warnin mechanism ,or yellow card- consists o" a two6ste# #ro%ess(

I! one thir' o! nationa& #ar&ia ents ,one 7#arter in the "ield o" "reedom, sec#rity, and $#stice%onsi'er that the #ro#osa& is not in &ine with s"-si'iarit., the Co ission wi&& have to re6 e+a ine it an' 'e%i'e whether to maintain, ad$#st, or withdraw it& The Co ission %an 'e%i'e to aintain its #ro#osa& against the o-9e%tions 'y the national parliaments& In that case, it wi&& have to e+#&ain its reasons, and it will 'e "# to the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent an' the Co"n%i& to 'e%i'e whether or not to contin#e the le isla%ti!e proced#re&

Orange %ar') stron er s#'sidiarity control) re7#ire hi her threshold to ma(e Commission to re)exam The .orange %ar'0 e%hanis is a stronger s"-si'iarit. %ontro& e%hanis that applies only to the ordinary le islati!e proced#re& A ain, it in!ol!es a two6ste# #ro%ess'#t this time nationa& #ar&ia ents re="ire a higher thresho&' 3a si #&e a9orit.4 'e"ore the Co ission %an -e o-&ige' to re6 e+a ine the proposal& The Co ission a. aintain it, -"t "st give reasons( I! the #ro#osa& is aintaine', the Co"n%i& an' E"ro#ean Par&ia ent "st, in a se%on' ste#, %onsi'er the #ro#osa& in li ht o" the s#'sidiarity principle 'e"ore the end o" the "irst readin & This step leads to the de"initi!e dismissal o" the proposal i" the Co#ncil ,'y a ma$ority o" HH per cent- or the E#ropean ?arliament ,'y a ma$ority o" !otes cast- "inds a ainst the proposal&

9ellow and +ran e mechanism act as warnin o" crisis o" con"idence "rom national parliament on important E#ropean iss#e Ho"se o! Co S%r"tin. Co ons E"ro#ean itteeB

Ew KO4 @emorand#m s#'mitted 'y Andrew *#"" SUER Spo(esman on Constit#tional A""airs, Alliance o" Li'erals and *emocrats "or E#rope ,AL*E C&& ,TDhere is a dan er that, in assessin the Treaty o" Lis'on, national parliaments 'ecome o'sessed 'y the early warnin mechanism on s#'sidiarity& It was #nderstood 'y those o" #s in!ol!ed in its dra"tin and, then, re)dra"tin that the mechanism, altho# h a necessary addition to the system o" o!ernance o" the Union, was not really intended to 'e #sed& It is, in /a ehot6s terms, more a di ni"ied part o" the E#ropean constit#tional settlement than an e""icient one&

+r, in other words, i" it were e!er necessary act#ally to 'e#&o. the e%hanis to -&o%2 a &egis&ative #ro#osa&, that 'e#&o. ent wo"&' signa& a %riti%a& !ai&"re o! the nor a& #ro%e'"res( We wo"&', in short, -e !a%ing a %risis o! %on!i'en%e in whi%h a a9orit. o! e 6-er state govern ents ha' &ost the s"##ort o! their nationa& #ar&ia ents on an i #ortant E"ro#ean iss"e, and in which the E#ropean Commission had not listened to warnin si nals "rom national parliaments at the earlier sta e o" proceedin s&

The principle o" s#'sidiarity has a respecta'le part to play in EU decision ma(in '#t its importance sho#ld not 'e exa erated& Instead, law ma(in at the EU le!el wo#ld pro"it "rom more re #lar dialo #e with national parliaments not on the pro'lematic iss#e o" s#'sidiarity '#t on the 7#ality or direction o" the act#al meas#re& @E?s hear many !iews a'o#t o#r le is)lati!e wor("rom trade, '#siness and pro"essional 'odies, NF+s, social partners and mem'er state and other o!ernments4 we hear little at the appropriate early phase o" le islation "rom the rele!ant committees o" national parliaments&

S#'sidiarity "oster the cooperation 'tw the nations state and EU, reason i!en 'y Commission to a ainst the o'$ection can challen ed 'e"ore ECE Aside "rom per"ormin the tas( o" instit#tional chec(s, promotin e""ecti!eness and addin s#'stanti!e !al#e to E#ropean le islation, onitoring the a##&i%ation o! the s"-si'iarit. #rin%i#&e has the a''itiona& si'e6e!!e%t o! !ostering a %oo#erative re&ationshi# -etween nationa& #ar&ia ents an' EU instit"tions, and a ong nationa& #ar&ia ents the se&ves( The #ro%ess is -est "n'erstoo' as an instit"tiona& 'ia&og"e4 the Co ission a. a!!ir , a en', or ann"& its #ro#osa& 3whi&e giving reasons4, and the nationa& #ar&ia ents a. %ha&&enge the reasons -e!ore the EC: i! the. %onsi'er the ina'e="ate& /#t #ltimately, the EU instit"tions have the !ina& sa. on the !ate o! the origina& #ro#osa&(

Altho# h national parliament can a ainst EU le islation '#t !otin threshold is hi h and Co#ncil and EU ?arliament has the last word In s#m, the Lis-on Treat. an' the Proto%o& %&ear&. enhan%e the visi-&e ro&e o! nationa& #ar&ia ents in the decision)ma(in process& Nationa& #ar&ia ents %an tor#e'o #ro#ose' EU &egis&ation on s"-si'iarit. gro"n's-"t the voting thresho&'s are high, and the !ina& 'e%ision &ies with the Co"n%i& an' the E"ro#ean Par&ia ent& Nationa& #ar&ia ents, there!ore, sti&& ran2 -e&ow the E"ro#ean instit"tions in the EU0s instit"tiona& #e%2ing or'er(

?arliament role still limited, the chan es is not new, less power"#l and only can challen ed on s#'sidiarity ro#nd /o danor4 These new instit#tional chan es mar( the "irst time that national parliaments are 'ein directly associated with the E#ropean policy process& Neverthe&ess, their i re ain &i ite'& #a%t a.

It needs, a'o!e all, to 'e as(ed whether national parliaments are in "act 'ein ranted a new and si ni"icant power thro# h the 6early warnin mechanism6& The #ower is not who&&. new sin%e nationa& #ar&ia ents were a&rea'. a-&e to o-9e%t in!or a&&. to EU &egis&ation thro"gh their s%r"tin. #ro%e'"res i" they wished to do so&

Nor is this #ower as signi!i%ant as it mi ht seem, since it is a #"re&. negative #ower& o Par&ia ents are on&. a-&e to e+#ress a 'issenting view, whi%h 'oes not even a o"nt to a veto& /#t national parliaments cannot 'e constr#cti!e actors 'y, "or example, placin new le islation on the a enda& 8#rthermore, as we ha!e seen, #ar&ia ents %an o-9e%t to &egis&ation on&. on the s#e%i!i% gro"n' o! s"-si'iarit.& 9et this see s to -e a %o #arative&. inor #ro-&e in EU #o&i%.6 a2ing, since c#rrent e!idence indicates that only a small proportion o" le islati!e proposals i!es rise to en#ine iss#es o" s#'sidiarity&

Increase role o" national parliament 'rin closer the citiGen since they more "amiliar with national parliament The principal ar #ment "or an in%rease' ro&e !or the nationa& #ar&ia ents in EU matters is that it wo#ld -ring the EU %&oser to the %iti1ens -. a2ing the #art o! the EU #ro%ess( A"ter all, %iti1ens are ore !a i&iar with their nationa& #ar&ia ent an' the iss"es 'is%"sse' there(

The mechanism still ine""icient) ?arliament not yet ready, diminish their le itimate capacity, lac( o" so#rces, short o" notices, too technical dra"tin , di""erent contri'#tions o" ?arliament to the process At the same time, nationa& #ar&ia ents a. not -e rea'. !or their new res#onsi-i&ities( Altho# h they ha!e adapted their str#ct#res and proced#res to (eep #p with the pace and scope o" E#ropean inte ration, these ste#s have not -een s"!!i%ient, whi%h 'i inishes their &egiti ating %a#a%it.( Some national parliaments 'o not have the reso"r%es to s%r"tini1e in depth and at short noti%e the %o #&i%ate' &egis&ative #ro#osa&s made 'y the Commission&

Dra!t E"ro#ean #ro#osa&s are o!ten high&. te%hni%a&, and s#ch detailed and metic#lo#s inspection is o"ten not the strong #oint o! a nationa& GP ,note that, in the United Lin dom, it is the non6 e&e%te' %ha -er, the Ho"se o! Lor's, whi%h has -een ore e!!e%tive at s%r"tin. than the 'e o%rati%a&&. e&e%te' Ho"se o! Co ons-& Also, the nationa& #ar&ia ents o! e -er states var. great&., and the. have their own "n'erstan'ing o! their ro&es an' #riorities& As a res#lt, their %ontri-"tion to the &egiti ating #ro%ess a. 'i!!er great&.& In other words, whi&e the EU has re%ogni1e' that nationa& #ar&ia ents "st #&a. a ore i #ortant ro&e in the "#t#re, -"t the e+tent o! that i #ortan%e wi&& 'e#en' %onsi'era-&. on the interna& #o&iti%a& an'

%onstit"tiona& sit"ation o" the mem'er states themsel!es&

Role o" ?arliament in EU also needed to 'e concerned "rom internal The ro&e that nationa& #ar&ia ents #&a. in EU a!!airs 'e#en's essentia&&. on three considerations4 o the %onstit"tiona& -a&an%e o! #ower insi'e the nationa& s.ste -etween #ar&ia ent an' govern ent> o o the nat"re o! #art. govern ent and the related iss#es o" the nat"re o! the #art. s.ste , and partic#larly interna& #art. re&ationshi#s> o and the extent to whi%h EU a!!airs are regar'e' as 'o esti% as o##ose' to !oreign a!!airs(

CONCLUDIN7 COGGENTS This chapter has e+a ine' the %onstit"tiona& !ra ewor2s thro"gh whi%h e+e%"tive !"n%tions o! the E"ro#ean Union are exercised and how it is held to acco#nt& To carry on explorin the E#ropean Union, t#rn to Cha#ter )>, which %onsi'ers &egis&ative !"n%tions re&ating to EU atters& To carry on explorin exec#ti!e "#nctions related to the UL o!ernment, t#rn to Chapter :, which loo(s at the #se o" prero ati!e powers&