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Philip Roth

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Philip Roth

 

Philip Roth

Philip Roth Roth in 1973 Born Philip Milton Roth March 19 <a href=, 1933 Newark, New Jersey , USA Occupation Novelist Nationality American Period 1950s – present Genres Literary fiction Spouse(s) Margaret Martinson Williams ( 1959-1963 ) Claire Bloom (1990-1994) " id="pdf-obj-0-16" src="pdf-obj-0-16.jpg">
 

Roth in 1973

Born

Philip Milton Roth March 19, 1933 Newark, New Jersey, USA

Occupation

Novelist

Nationality

American

Period

1950spresent

Genres

Spouse(s)

Margaret Martinson Williams

(1959-1963)

Claire Bloom (1990-1994)

Philip Milton Roth (born March 19, 1933) is an American novelist.

He first gained attention with the 1959 novella Goodbye, Columbus, an irreverent and humorous portrait of American-Jewish life for which he received the U.S. National Book Award for Fiction. [1] Roth's fiction, regularly set in Newark, New Jersey, is known for its intensely autobiographical character, for philosophically and formally blurring the distinction between reality and fiction, for its "supple, ingenious style" and for its provocative explorations of Jewish and American identity. [2] His profile rose significantly in 1969 after the publication of the controversial Portnoy's Complaint, the humorous and sexually explicit psychoanalytical monologue of "a lust-ridden, mother-addicted young Jewish bachelor," filled with "intimate, shameful detail, and coarse, abusive language." [3]

Roth is one of the most awarded U.S. writers of his generation: his books have twice received the National Book Award, twice the National Book Critics Circle award, and three times the PEN/Faulkner Award. He received a Pulitzer Prize for his 1997 novel, American Pastoral, which featured one of his best-known characters, Nathan Zuckerman, the subject of many other of Roth's novels. The Human Stain (2000), another Zuckerman novel, was awarded the United Kingdom's WH Smith Literary Award for the best book of the year. In 2001, Roth received the inaugural Franz Kafka Prize.

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Biography

Philip Roth grew up in the Weequahic neighborhood of Newark, New Jersey, as the second child of Bess (née Finkel) and Herman Roth, first-generation American parents, Jews of Galician descent. He graduated from Newark's

Weequahic High School in or around 1950. [4] "It has provided the focus for the fiction of Philip Roth, the novelist

who evokes his era at Weequahic High School in the highly acclaimed Portnoy's

Complaint....

Besides identifying

Weequahic High School by name, the novel specifies such sites as the Empire Burlesque, the Weequahic Diner, the Newark Museum and Irvington Park, all local landmarks that helped shape the youth of the real Roth and the fictional Portnoy, both graduates of Weequahic class of '50." The Weequahic Yearbook (1950) describes Roth as "A boy of real intelligence, combined with wit and common sense." Roth was known as a comedian during his time at school. [5] Roth attended Bucknell University, earning a degree in English. He pursued graduate studies at the University of Chicago, where he received an M.A. in English literature in 1955 and worked briefly as an instructor in the university's writing program. Roth taught creative writing at the University of Iowa and Princeton University. He continued his academic career at the University of Pennsylvania, where he taught comparative literature before retiring from teaching in 1991.

While at Chicago, Roth met the novelist Saul Bellow, as well as Margaret Martinson in 1956, who became his first wife in 1959. Their separation in 1963, along with Martinson's death in a car crash in 1968, left a lasting mark on Roth's literary output. Specifically, Martinson was the inspiration for female characters in several of Roth's novels, including Lucy Nelson in When She Was Good, and Maureen Tarnopol in My Life As a Man. [6] Between the end of his studies and the publication of his first book in 1959, Roth served two years in the United States Army and then wrote short fiction and criticism for various magazines, including movie reviews for The New Republic. Events in Roth's personal life have occasionally been the subject of media scrutiny. A post-operative breakdown mentioned in the pseudo-confessional novel Operation Shylock (1993) and others [7][8][9] drew on Roth's experience of the temporary side-effects of the sedative halcion (triazolam), prescribed post-operatively in the 1980s. (It was subsequently discovered that unfavorable studies had been suppressed by triazolam's manufacturer, Upjohn, which showed the drug carried a high risk of causing short term psychiatric disturbance. When this became known, the drug was banned in some countries and its withdrawal due to high risk and poor clinical benefit was also discussed in the United States.)

In 1990, Roth married his long-time companion, English actress Claire Bloom. In 1994 they separated, and in 1996 Bloom published a memoir, Leaving a Doll's House, which described the couple's marriage in detail, much of which was unflattering to Roth. Certain aspects of I Married a Communist have been regarded by critics as veiled rebuttals to accusations put forth in Bloom's memoir.

Career

Roth's first book, Goodbye, Columbus and Five Short Stories, won the National Book Award in 1960, and afterwards he published two novels, Letting Go and When She Was Good. The publication of his fourth novel, Portnoy's Complaint, in 1969 gave Roth widespread commercial and critical success. During the 1970s Roth experimented in various modes, from the political satire Our Gang to the Kafkaesque The Breast. By the end of the decade Roth had created his alter ego Nathan Zuckerman. In a series of highly self-referential novels and novellas that followed between 1979 and 1986, Zuckerman appeared as either the main character or an interlocutor.

Sabbath's Theater (1995) may have Roth's most lecherous protagonist, Mickey Sabbath, a disgraced former puppeteer; it won his second National Book Award. In complete contrast, American Pastoral (1997), the first volume of his so-called second Zuckerman trilogy, focuses on the life of virtuous Newark athletics star Swede Levov and the tragedy that befalls him when his teenage daughter transforms into a domestic terrorist during the late 1960s; it won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. I Married a Communist (1998) focuses on the McCarthy era. The Human Stain examines identity politics in 1990s America. The Dying Animal (2001) is a short novel about eros and death that revisits literary professor David Kepesh, protagonist of two 1970s works, The Breast and The Professor of Desire. In

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The Plot Against America (2004), Roth imagines an alternate American history in which Charles Lindbergh, aviator hero and isolationist, is elected U.S. president in 1940, and the U.S. negotiates an understanding with Hitler's Nazi Germany and embarks on its own program of anti-Semitism.

Roth's novel Everyman, a meditation on illness, aging, desire, and death, was published in May 2006. For Everyman Roth won his third PEN/Faulkner Award, making him the only person so honored. Exit Ghost, which again features Nathan Zuckerman, was released in October 2007. According to the book's publisher, it is the last Zuckerman novel. [10] Indignation, Roth's 29th book, was published on September 16, 2008. Set in 1951, during the Korean War, it follows Marcus Messner's departure from Newark to Ohio's Winesburg College, where he begins his sophomore year. In 2009, Roth's 30th book The Humbling was published, which told the story of the last performances of Simon Axler, a celebrated stage actor. Roths 31st book, Nemesis, was published on October 5, 2010. According to the book's notes, Nemesis is the final in a series of four "short novels," which also included Everyman, Indignation and The Humbling.

In October 2009, during an interview with Tina Brown of The Daily Beast website to promote The Humbling, Roth considered the future of literature and its place in society, stating his belief that within 25 years the reading of novels will be regarded as a "cultic" activity:

I was being optimistic about 25 years really. I think it's going to be cultic. I think always people will be reading them but it will be a small group of people. Maybe more people than now read Latin poetry, but

somewhere in that range

To read a novel requires a certain amount of concentration, focus, devotion to

... the reading. If you read a novel in more than two weeks you don't read the novel really. So I think that

kind of concentration and focus and attentiveness is hard to come by it's hard to find huge numbers of people, large numbers of people, significant numbers of people, who have those qualities[.]

When asked his opinion on the emergence of digital books and e-books as possibly replacing printed copy, Roth was equally negative and downbeat about the prospect:

The book can't compete with the screen. It couldn't compete [in the] beginning with the movie screen. It

couldn't compete with the television screen, and it can't compete with the computer screen have all those screens, so against all those screens a book couldn't measure up.

...

Now we

This interview is not the first time that Roth has expressed pessimism over the future of the novel and its significance in recent years. Talking to the Observer's Robert McCrum in 2001, he said that "I'm not good at finding 'encouraging' features in American culture. I doubt that aesthetic literacy has much of a future here." In October 2012, in an interview with the French magazine Les Inrockuptibles, Roth announced that he would be retiring from being an author [11] and confirmed subsequently in Le Monde that he would no longer publish any fiction. [12]

Influences and themes

Much of Roth's fiction revolves around semi-autobiographical themes, while self-consciously and playfully addressing the perils of establishing connections between the author Philip Roth and his fictional lives and voices, [citation needed] including narrators and protagonists such as David Kepesh and Nathan Zuckerman or even the character "Philip Roth", who appears in The Plot Against America and of whom there are two in Operation Shylock. In Roth's fiction, the question of authorship [citation needed] is intertwined with the theme of the idealistic, [citation needed] secular Jewish-American son who attempts to distance himself from Jewish customs and traditions, and from what he perceives as the at times suffocating influence of parents, rabbis, and other community leaders. Roth's fiction has been described by critics as pervaded by "a kind of alienation that is enlivened and exacerbated by what binds it". [13]

Roth's first work, Goodbye, Columbus, featured his irreverent humor of the life of middle-class Jewish Americans, and was met by controversy among reviewers, who were highly polarized in their judgments; one reviewer criticized it as infused with a sense of self-loathing. In response, Roth, in his 1963 essay "Writing About Jews" (collected in Reading Myself and Others), maintained that he wanted to explore the conflict between the call to Jewish solidarity

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and his desire to be free to question the values and morals of middle-class Jewish Americans uncertain of their identities in an era of cultural assimilation and upward social mobility:

The cry "Watch out for the goyim!" at times seems more the expression of an unconscious wish than of a warning: Oh that they were out there, so that we could be together here! A rumor of persecution, a taste of exile, might even bring with it the old world of feelings and habits something to replace the new world of social accessibility and moral indifference, the world which tempts all our promiscuous instincts, and where one cannot always figure out what a Jew is that a Christian is not.

In Roth's fiction, the exploration of "promiscuous instincts" within the context of Jewish-American lives, mainly from a male viewpoint, plays an important role. In the words of critic Hermione Lee:

Philip Roth's fiction strains to shed the burden of Jewish traditions and

proscriptions. ...

The liberated

Jewish consciousness, let loose into the disintegration of the American Dream, finds itself deracinated and homeless. American society and politics, by the late sixties, are a grotesque travesty of what Jewish immigrants had traveled towards: liberty, peace, security, a decent liberal democracy. [14]

While Roth's fiction has strong autobiographical influences, it has also incorporated social commentary and political satire, most obviously in Our Gang and Operation Shylock. Since the 1990s, Roth's fiction has often combined autobiographical elements with retrospective dramatizations of postwar American life. Roth has described American Pastoral and the two following novels as a loosely connected "American trilogy". Each of these novels treats aspects of the postwar era against the backdrop of the nostalgically remembered Jewish-American childhood of Nathan Zuckerman, in which the experience of life on the American home front during the Second World War features

prominently. [citation needed]

In much of Roth's fiction, the 1940s, comprising Roth's and Zuckerman's childhood, mark a high point of American idealism and social cohesion. A more satirical treatment of the patriotism and idealism of the war years is evident in Roth's comic novels, such as Portnoy's Complaint and Sabbath's Theater. In The Plot Against America, the alternate history of the war years dramatizes the prevalence of anti-Semitism and racism in America at the time, despite the promotion of increasingly influential anti-racist ideals during the war. In his fiction, Roth portrayed the 1940s, and the New Deal era of the 1930s that preceded it, as a heroic phase in American history. A sense of frustration with social and political developments in the US since the 1940s is palpable in the American trilogy and Exit Ghost, but had already been present in Roth's earlier works that contained political and social satire, such as Our Gang and The Great American Novel. Writing about the latter novel, Hermione Lee points to the sense of disillusionment with "the American Dream" in Roth's fiction: "The mythic words on which Roth's generation was brought up winning, patriotism, gamesmanship are desanctified; greed, fear, racism, and political ambition are disclosed as the motive forces behind the 'all-American ideals'."

Awards and honors

Two of Roth's works have won the National Book Award for Fiction; four others were finalists. Two have won National Book Critics Circle awards; again, another five were finalists. He has also won three PEN/Faulkner Awards (Operation Shylock, The Human Stain, and Everyman) and a Pulitzer Prize for his 1997 novel, American Pastoral. In 2001, The Human Stain was awarded the United Kingdom's WH Smith Literary Award for the best book of the year. In 2002, he was awarded the National Book Foundation Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters Literary critic Harold Bloom has named him as one of the four major American novelists still at work, along with Thomas Pynchon, Don DeLillo, and Cormac McCarthy. [15] His 2004 novel The Plot Against America won the Sidewise Award for Alternate History in 2005 as well as the Society of American HistoriansJames Fenimore Cooper Prize. Roth was also awarded the United Kingdom's WH Smith Literary Award for the best book of the year, an award Roth has received twice. [16] He was honored in his hometown in October 2005 when then-mayor Sharpe James presided over the unveiling of a street sign in Roth's name on the corner of Summit and Keer Avenues where Roth lived for much of his childhood, a setting prominent in The Plot Against America. A plaque on the house where

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the Roths lived was also unveiled. In May 2006, he was given the PEN/Nabokov Award, and in 2007 he was awarded the PEN/Faulkner award for Everyman, making him the award's only three-time winner. In April 2007, he was chosen as the recipient of the first PEN/Saul Bellow Award for Achievement in American Fiction. [17]

The May 21, 2006 issue of The New York Times Book Review announced the results of a letter that was sent to what the publication described as "a couple of hundred prominent writers, critics, editors and other literary sages, asking them to please identify 'the single best work of American fiction published in the last 25 years.'" Six of Roth's novels were in the 22 selected: American Pastoral, The Counterlife, Operation Shylock, Sabbath's Theater, The Human Stain, and The Plot Against America. [18] The accompanying essay, written by critic A.O. Scott, stated, "If we had asked for the single best writer of fiction of the past 25 years, [Roth] would have won." [19] In 2009, he was awarded the Welt-Literaturpreis of the German newspaper Die Welt.

In May 2011, Roth was awarded the Man Booker International Prize for lifetime achievement in fiction on the world stage, the fourth winner of the biennial prize. One of the judges, Carmen Callil, a publisher of the feminist Virago house, withdrew in protest, referring to Roth's work as "Emperor's clothes". She said "he goes on and on and on

about the same subject in almost every single book. It's as though he's sitting on your face and you can't breathe "

dont rate him as a writer at all ...

...

I

Observers quickly noted that Callil had a conflict of interest, having published a

book by Claire Bloom which had criticized Roth. In response, one of the two other Booker judges, Rick Gekoski, remarked:

"In 1959 he writes Goodbye, Columbus and it's a masterpiece, magnificent. Fifty-one years later he's 78

years old and he writes Nemesis and it is so wonderful, such a terrific novel

who 50 years apart writes masterpieces

Tell me one other writer

... If you look at the trajectory of the average novel writer, there

... is a learning period, then a period of high achievement, then the talent runs out and in middle age they

start slowly to decline. People say why aren't Martin [Amis] and Julian [Barnes] getting on the Booker prize shortlist, but that's what happens in middle age. Philip Roth, though, gets better and better in middle age. In the 1990s he was almost incapable of not writing a masterpiece The Human Stain, The Plot Against America, I Married a Communist. He was 6570 years old, what the hell's he doing writing that well?"

In 2012 he received the "Prince of Asturias prize" for literature. [20] On March 19, 2013, Roth's 80th birthday was celebrated in public ceremonies at the Newark Museum.

Films

Four of Philip Roth's novels and short stories have been adapted as films: Goodbye, Columbus; Portnoy's Complaint; The Human Stain; and The Dying Animal, which was adapted as the movie Elegy.

List of works

Novels

Zuckerman

(The above four books are collected as Zuckerman Bound)

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List of awards and nominations

1960 National Book Award for Goodbye, Columbus []

1975 National Book Award finalist for My Life As A Man

1978 NBCCA finalist for The Professor Of Desire

1980 Pulitzer Prize finalist for The Ghost Writer

1980 National Book Award finalist for The Ghost Writer

1980 NBCCA finalist for The Ghost Writer

1984 National Book Award finalist for The Anatomy Lesson

1984 NBCCA finalist for The Anatomy Lesson

1986 National Book Critics Circle Award (NBCCA) for The Counterlife

1986 National Book Award finalist for The Counterlife

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1991 National Book Critics Circle Award (NBCCA) for Patrimony

1994 PEN/Faulkner Award for Operation Shylock

1994 Pulitzer Prize finalist for Operation Shylock

1995 National Book Award for Sabbath's Theater []

1994 Pulitzer Prize finalist for Sabbath's Theater

1997 IMPAC Award longlist for Sabbath's Theater

1998 Pulitzer Prize for American Pastoral []

1998 NBCCA finalist for American Pastoral

1998 Ambassador Book Award of the English-Speaking Union for I Married a Communist

1999 IMPAC Award longlist for American Pastoral

2000 Prix du Meilleur Livre Étranger (France) for American Pastoral

2000 IMPAC Award shortlist for I Married a Communist

2001 PEN/Faulkner Award for The Human Stain

2001 Gold Medal In Fiction from The American Academy of Arts and Letters

2001 WH Smith Literary Award for The Human Stain

2002 IMPAC Award longlist for The Human Stain

2002 Prix Médicis Étranger (France) for The Human Stain

2003 Honorary Doctor of Letters degree from Harvard University

2005 NBCCA finalist for The Plot Against America

2005 Sidewise Award for Alternate History for The Plot Against America

2006 PEN/Nabokov Award for lifetime achievement

2007 PEN/Faulkner Award for Everyman

2008 IMPAC Award longlist for Everyman

2009 IMPAC Award longlist for Exit Ghost

2010 The Paris Review Hadada Prize

2012 Prince of Asturias Awards for literature

2013 PEN/Allen Foundation Literary Service Award for lifetime achievement and advocacy. [21][22]

2013 Commander of the Legion of Honor by the Republic of France. [23]

Notes

[1]

Brauner (2005), pp.437

[2] U.S. Department of State, U.S. Life, "American Prose, 19451990: Realism and Experimentation" (http:/ / infousa. state. gov/ life/ artsent/

 

[[33]] Saxton (1974)

 

[4]

Lubasch, Arnold

The New York Times, February 28, 1969. Accessed September 8, 2007

[5]

Weequahic Yearbook (1950)

[6] Roth, Philip. The Facts: A Novelist's Autobiography. New York, 1988. Roth discusses Martinson's portrait in this memoir. He calls her "Josie" in When She Was Good on pp. 149 and 175. He discusses her as an inspiration for My Life As a Man throughout the book's second half, most completely in the chapter "Girl of My Dreams," which includes this on p. 110: "Why should I have tried to make up anything better? How could I?" Her influence upon Portnoy's Complaint is seen in The Facts as more diffuse, a kind of loosening-up for the author: "It took time and it took blood, and not, really, until I began Portnoy's Complaint would I be able to cut loose with anything approaching her gift

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for flabbergasting boldness." (p. 149)

[7] p5

Roth, The Facts: A Novelist's

Autobiography, Random House, 2011: "I'm talking about a breakdown. Although there's no need to delve into particulars

...

what was to have

been minor surgery ...

led to an extreme depression that carried me right to the edge of emotional and mental dissolution. It was in the period

of post-crack-up medication, with the clarity attending the remission of an illness

"

...

Timothy Parrish (ed.), The Cambridge

Companion to Philip Roth, Cambridge University Press, 2007: "In point of fact, Roth's surgeries (one the knee surgery, which is followed by a

nervous breakdown, the other heart surgery) span the period

"

...

[9] pp108-9, Harold Bloom, Philip Roth, Infobase Publishing, 2003

New Yorker 2012-11.

[12] Philip Roth : "I don't wish to be a slave any longer to the stringent exigencies of literature" (http:/ / www. lemonde. fr/ livres/ article/ 2013/

Le Monde. 2013-02-14.

[17] PEN American Center. "Philip Roth Wins Inaugural PEN/Saul Bellow Award" (http:/ / www. pen. org/ viewmedia. php/ prmMID/ 1406/

prmID/ 1331). April 2, 2007.

[18] The New York Times Book Review. "What Is the Best Work of American Fiction of the Last 25 Years?" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ ref/

[19] Scott, A.O. "In Search of the Best" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 05/ 21/ books/ review/ scott-essay. html). The New York Times. May

21, 2006.

[20] US author Philip Roth wins Prince of Asturias prize for literature. (http:/ / www. eitb. com/ en/ news/ entertainment/ detail/ 900803/

[[2323]] See The New York Times, Monday, September 30, 2013, p. C4. Congratulations Philip Roth on being named Commander of the Legion of

Honor by the Republic of France. Vintage/Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

References

Brauner, David (1969) Getting in Your Retaliation First: Narrative Strategies in Portnoy's Complaint in Royal,

Derek Parker (2005) Philip Roth: new perspectives on an American author (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=bDwtIqaWessC), chapter 3 Greenberg, Robert (Winter 1997). "Trangression in the Fiction of Philip Roth" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/

Saxton, Martha (1974) Philip Roth Talks about His Own Work Literary Guild June 1974, n.2. Also published in Philip Roth, George John Searles (1992) Conversations with Philip Roth (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6Vbc4K3wqUYC) p. 78

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Further reading and literary criticism

Bloom, Harold, ed., Modern Critical Views of Philip Roth, Chelsea House, New York, 2003.

Bloom, Harold and Welsch, Gabe, eds., Modern Critical Interpretations of Philip Roth's Portnoy's Complaint,

Chelsea House, 2003.

Cooper, Alan, Philip Roth and the Jews (SUNY Series in Modern Jewish Literature and Culture), SUNY Press, Albany, NY, 1996. Finkielkraut, Alain, "La Plaisanterie" (about The Human Stain), in Un coeur intelligent, Stock/Flammarion, Paris,

2009.

Finkielkraut, Alain, "La complainte du désamour" (about The Professor of Desire), in Et si l'amour durait, Stock,

Paris, 2011. Kinzel, Till, Die Tragödie und Komödie des amerikanischen Lebens. Eine Studie zu Zuckermans Amerika in

Philip Roths Amerika-Trilogie (American Studies Monograph Series), Heidelberg: Winter, 2006. Milowitz, Steven, Philip Roth Considered: The Concentrationary Universe of the American Writer, Routledge,

New York, 2000. Morley, Catherine, The Quest for Epic in Contemporary American Literature, Routledge, New York, 2008.

Parrish, Timothy, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Philip Roth, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007.

Podhoretz, Norman, "The Adventures of Philip Roth," Commentary (October 1998), reprinted as "Philip Roth,

Then and Now" in The Norman Podhoretz Reader, 2004. Posnock, Ross, Philip Roth's Rude Truth: The Art of Immaturity, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New

Jersey, 2006. Royal, Derek Parker, Philip Roth: New Perspectives on an American Author, Praeger Publishers, Santa Barbara,

CA, 2005. Safer, Elaine B., Mocking the Age: The Later Novels of Philip Roth (SUNY Series in Modern Jewish Literature

and Culture), SUNY Press, Albany, NY, 2006. Searles, George J., ed., Conversations With Philip Roth, University of Mississippi Press, Jackson, Mississippi,

1992.

Searles, George J., The Fiction of Philip Roth and John Updike, Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale,

Illinois, 1984.

Shostak, Debra B., Philip Roth: Countertexts, Counterlives, University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC,

2004.

the-nicest-boy-in-the-world/ )," The New York Review of Books, Vol. LV, No. October 15, 9 2008. Swirski, Peter, "It Can't Happen Here, or Politics, Emotions, and Philip Roth's The Plot Against America."

American Utopia and Social Engineering in Literature, Social Thought, and Political History. New York, Routledge, 2011. Wöltje, Wiebke-Maria, My finger on the pulse of the nation. Intellektuelle Protagonisten im Romanwerk Philip Roths (Mosaic, 26), Trier: WVT, 2006.

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External links

Informational

Interviews

Hermione Lee (Fall 1984). "Philip Roth, The Art of Fiction No. 84" (http:/ / www. theparisreview. org/

Roth interview (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ 2005/ dec/ 14/ fiction. philiproth) from The Guardian, December 2005

Roth

interview

Roth

interview

Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors

Philip Roth Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=582026499 Contributors: ACEOREVIVED, AFox2, AKMask, Accotink2, Afterwriting, Alan.ca, Alansohn, Alexanderingle, All Hallow's Wraith, Alsandro, AmyMicheleWilson, Anakronik, Anthrophilos, Arcadian, Aristophanes68, AshcroftIleum, Atlant, Attilios, BKH2007, BTfromLA, Baldaquino, Barbara Osgood, BartlebytheScrivener, Bdegfcunbbfv, Bearcat, Bender235, Bestperson, Bibliosophe, Bigsean0300, BillFlis, Bobo192, Boivie, Boleyn2, Booklit, Calton, Canned Soul, Cantkant, Chrisahn, Classicfilms, CommonsDelinker, Crzrussian, Cuchullain, D Monack, D6, Dagestan, Damian.kelleher, Darkcore, Davidm82, Dbsherman, Declan Clam, Defrosted, DelDav, Demiurge, Dental Floss Tycoon, Dicdoc, Dimadick, Dinopup, Djnjwd, Dobbs, Donmike10, Download, Dproyal, Dvyost, Elnathano, Esowteric, FT2, Fairlane75, Fat&Happy, FatBrad, Fielding99, Fisher.jc, Foxj, Foxtrotamus, G-Dett, Gaius Cornelius, Gamaliel, Ged UK, Geology1001, GiantSnowman, Goatasaur, Grafen, Green Cardamom, Greenguy6, Gregs US, Grunge6910, Gunnar Hendrich, GustavM, Haham hanuka, HalSF, Hatami2010, Hb2019, Henry Flower, Heslopian, Highland14, Hullaballoo Wolfowitz, IZAK, Inoculatedcities, Iridescent, Irishguy, Jackohare, Jayen466, Jdcooper, Jeanenawhitney, Jeleslie, Jim Michael, Jleybov, Jmj713, Joaquín Martínez Rosado, Johannes Nordiek, John, John K, Johnpacklambert, Jonaslopes, Jpers36, Jspmartin1, Jtian1167, KF, Kbdank71, Keri, Khazar, Koavf, Koba-chan, Kondi, Kowalmistrz, Kumioko (renamed), LPLT, Lawsonstu, Lbtreasure, Lcarscad, Lestrade, Liftarn, Light show, Lights, LilHelpa, Linealgae65421, Lockesdonkey, Loopielo, Lovepool1220, Lpgeffen, Lucidity1, Malcolmxl5, Marklemire, Mateo LeFou, Materialscientist, Mattis, Mav, Mayumashu, Mcshadypl, Mike Rosoft, Mintguy, Mitchellanderson, Mithrandir2, Moncrief, Msbailey, NYKenny, NickBurns, Nikolaj Christensen, Nikthestunned, Ninmacer20, Nsacks, Ocracoke72, Oliver Chettle, Omegar, Omnipaedista, Omphaloscope, Oskral, Ost316, Oxymoron83, P64, PDH, Parkwells, Paul MacDermott, Paulcliff, PeterCanthropus, Phil-San, Philip Cross, Pohick2, Polynova, Quadell, RHodnett, Ragib, Randombath, Rbjob, Reaverdrop, Rehals, Rjwilmsi, Robina Fox, Robynsen, Ronhjones, Rrburke, Sadr312, Schmiteye, Sd2, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, ShelfSkewed, Shsilver, Slo, Smedley Hirkum, Sp, Spanglej, SpeedyGonsales, Stubblyhead, Styrofoam1994, SummerWithMorons, Tassedethe, Techauthor, The wub, TheaterMarine, Thedraz, Thefreewheelin, Threeafterthree, Tileahoy, Tinton5, Tony1, TonyTheTiger, Tonytula, Tregoweth, Treybien, Trnj2000, Turkmenpolar, Ubiquity, Utcursch, Vaganyik, Vulturell, Wassermann, Weerth, Wfeidt, Wik, Wikipelli, Winkyland, Woohookitty, Yidisheryid, Yill577, Yintan, Zenohockey, Zoidbergmd, ^demon, 374 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors License

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