UD 6-81-5 E

A Guide to Cold Weather Operations
Booklet 5

Movement

HEADQUAKTERS DEFENCE COMMAND NORWAY THE ARMY STAFF 1989

UD 6-81-5 E (English edition) A Guide to Cold Weather Operations - booklet 5 Movement has been issued for use by the allied wintercourses and foreign units exercising under Norwegian Command.
Oslo December 1987.

D. Danielsen Major General Inspector General of the Norwegian Army

A. Pran Brigader Inspector of Infantry

UD 6-81 E A GUIDE TO COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS includes: UD6-81- l E UD6-81- 2 E UD6-81- 3 E UD6-81- 4 E UD6-81- 5 E UD6-81- 6 E UD6-81- 7 E UD6-81- 8 E UD6-81- 9 E UD6-8HOE

(Booklet (Booklet (Booklet (Booklet (Booklet (Booklet {Booklet {Booklet (Booklet (Booklet

D 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

Winter Conditions Personal Clothing Food Frostbite and Other Injuries Movement Bivouacs Cold Weather Equipment Field Works and Camouflage Snow, Avalanches and Rescue Weapon effects

. . . . . . . Wheeled vehicles General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 16 16 16 19 Skijoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ski bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The pulk General . . . Special techniques of advancing . . . . . . . 45 46 47 48 49 20 20 20 20 21 Helicopters General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transportation of personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Improvised ski sled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS Para Page Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movement on snowshoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 51 52 53 21 21 21 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Snowshoes General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pulling the pulk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oversnow vehicles 27 28 29 31 The large pulk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chains . . . . . Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Skis and pulks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 The BV (oversnow vehicle) route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Skiing techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l 6 Sluing General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 9 11 17 20 21 22 23 26 7 7 7 9 9 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 15 Maintenance . . . . . . . . . The pulk trail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Snow clearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Landing site (LS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Skijoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 The snowmobile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Route selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . 17 Hitching up . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . 22 Surface water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 23 Unit marches General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . » » » » » 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Pulk trall . . . . . F1GURES 58 58 61 62 65 66 68 69 72 76 25 25 25 25 26 27 28 28 28 29 Figure » » » » » » » l. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Land navigation . . . 12 Pulling the pulk . . Route selection . . Measures to be tåken during the march . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . Page Moving "bear-fashion" . . . . . . . . . Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Skis made ready for sliding . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 23 Movement on ice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Concealing the trail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 22 Water on ice . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Skijoring . . . . . 2. . . . 17. . . . . . . Route reconnaissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 The compass patrol . . . . . . . . . . 24 The trail breaking patrol . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Lifesaving on ice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Para Page Danger areas General . . . The trail breaking party . . 8 Improvised ski sled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Braking downhill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparations for the march . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Pulling the pulk uphill . 55 22 Avalanche areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . 18 Crossing a lake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . March formations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Ski bundle . . . . . . . » » » » 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Compass march . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Halts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The wind and the cold together can make movement impossible. 5. 2. But it increases the mobility of units when they are equipped with oversnow vehicles. the personnel are in danger of frostbite. it is only after a first hand look at the terrain that you can select the best route. the length of the march. with considerable changes in temperature over short periods of time. Therefore it is often necessary to move in darkness. Movement in cold weather is of ten tactically and technically difficult. 7. The following factors influence movement: -snow -cold . The weather is more changeable in the winter. When there is a lot of snow on the ground the road network is altered. the deciding factors are. and it takes a lot of work to conceal it. and skis or snowshoes. every movement in snow leaves a trail. vegetation. The further north you go. unit proficiency. On the other hand. To move undetected will be difficult. When choosing between skis or snowshoes. the tactical situation. or in a helicopter. When selecting the route due consideration must be given to the tactical situation. and the proficiency standard of the troops. f rozen ground and ice on water increase the mobility of vehicles and personnel. The map must be consulted when selecting the route. and time available.INTRODUCTION 1. because some roads cannot be kept open under such conditions. . 4. 6. The purpose of this booklet is to consider the cold weather conditions that influence movement on foot. but remember. topography. the diesel oil nearly freezes. Cold can cause great problems.standard of training 3. The period of daylight is short in wintertime. the snow conditions. in wheeled and tracked vehicles. On the other hand it is relatively simple to make new roads in the snow. the vehicles are difficult to start. the darker it becomes.weather . The choice of routes is therefore very important. battery life is reduced. snow conditions. The snow reduces the mobility of wheeled vehicles and personnel on foot. on skis or snowshoes.light conditons .

and such movement requires training. Skiing techniques 9. under the same conditions. between trees and across open fields.SKIING General 8. that can move in darkness and daylight. With l metre of snow on the ground. or around the neck. often under enemy threat. Also. . The soldier's proficiency at skiing is all-important when choosing the equipment. skis are better than snowshoes. strength and stamina. a skier can move at least 3 kilometres in l hour. The soldier walks between the skis. It takes a lot of practice to make good skiers and good ski units. The ski unit must often move outside prepared trails. skis rather than snowshoes might be preferred. he can perhaps move 500 metres. uphill and downhill. The rifle is slung under the chest. It måkes no difference for technique whether civilian or military skis are used. and uphill. where skijoring is possible. with sleds and packs. by inserting them through the binding straps from the front. The poles are carried on the skis. It takes a lot of training to make good skiiers . This is a technique used in deep and loose snow. 12. If a unit is to move a considerable distance. The state of preparedness is always decisive when choosing the method of movement and the carrying of arms. in deep loose snow. On foot.training for technique. To maintain unit formation is also difficult. cross-country. supporting his hands on them. Special techniques of advancing 11. gripping the toe-bindings. Advancing in a crouching form ("bear-fashion"). In section 12 to 15 are described some techniques when approaching enemy forces. For far-ranging patrols in easy terrain and on supply routes. 10. uphill and downhill skiing require the same techniques. and training is necessary. under conditions that are otherwise good. and contact with the enemy improbable. in easy terrain.

The poles are carried through the bindings. pushing himself forward with arms and legs. For braking the legs are used. and downhill. crusted snow. Skis. and the skier måkes a small target for enemy fire. The weapon may be placed on the skis or kept slung on the body. poles and pack are made into a sled. for steering both legs and poles. with little effort. inserted from the front (the disc might be over the ski tips). Figure 2 2-skis made ready for sliding . and up hill. Sliding requires little effort. Sliding is best on frozen. it is best to creep with the skis. supporting his hands or lower arms on them. In deep loose snow. Or the skis and the poles only are made into a sled. or in some other suitable manner. The soldier creeps between the skis. On a hard surface (crusted snow) it may be better to creep and haul the skis behind on a 5 m long rope. and in good order. The soldier lies down on the skis. Advancing by creeping a. Downhill he steers with the legs. Even poor skiiers can in this manner move quickly down a slope. b. on flat ground.Figure l Moving "bear-fashion " 13. 14. Down steep slopes it is often best to sit on the skis.

In bivouac the skis must not be exposed to snow. there is usually need for a helper to do the braking. . for fitting them snugly over the indiviual skis. ride on the poles in order to brake. If the sled is to be used downhill. increasing the braking effect.15. This technique is necessary when the enemy has pinned you down. in the field and in camp. Figure 3 shows how a ski-sled is made. Brush the snow off the skis after use. Braking. and you are going to use the skies for further movement. This reduces the speed quite considerably. Downhill it might be a good idea to utilize the speed and move in one bound all the way to the bottom of the slope. This måkes it easier to avoid dislocation of the sticks. It is important to wax the skis. the sticks ought to have notenes made in them. For pulling the sled a 5 m rope can be used. To get to the bottom of a hill in orderly formation. Leaping from cover and taking cover normally takes longer with the skies on than on foot. Maintenance 17. The improvised ski-sied 20. The officer in charge decides on which kind of wax is to be used. He can use a 5 m rope fastened to the sled. the scissors position may be equally good. 16. 19. the troops in a unit sit on the poles at the same time as they stem (form the skis into a V position). to avoid icing. the deeper the tips dig into the snow. The harder the poles are pressed against the body. Be sure that a complete set of wax is brought along into the field. on crusted snow and uphill. and 4-5 cm in diameter. to ensure that the skis in a unit are equaliy good. The skis must receive the necessary care and maintenance. to keep them from freezing. On even ground the leap from cover is quickest when the ski tips are kept to the right. Rusking with theskis on. two 5 m ropes and two sticks about 50 cm long. An improvised ski-sled can be made with 2 pairs of skis. Straps and bindings that are wet ought to be dried out during rest periods of some duration. Under certain conditions. On downhill slopes where the speed might get too high. Otherwise it is impossible to use thern again before they have been thawed out. But in deep snow the movement itself is faster with the skis on. Put the poles between the legs and sit on them. If the sled is to be used for hauling over a considerable distance. 18.

Each man can pull or carry his own skis. man from each section can pull the skis forward. One bundle per section/squad is suitable.10 Figure 3 Improvised ski-sled Ski bundles 21. they can lea ve the skis behind and collect them later. A. If the troops are to advance on foot. Figure 4 A ski-bundle . or ski bundles can be made.

c. A snowshoe-unit can move through the same areas where personnel move on foot in summertime. The equipment does not require waxing. Also. The reasons are several. 24. in dense forest. at least when pulling a sled. d.11 SNOWSHOES General 22. snowshoes have proved to be more suitable than skis for movement of individuals and units in wintertime. Maintenance 26. It might be a good idea to use poles. it is often necessary to have a rear unit collect the skis (battalion logistic area). gullies and other difficult terrain. among them the following: a. Snowshoes require little upkeep in the fteld. Walking on snowshoes is about the same as walking on foot. To facilitate the collection each section/squad ought to have the pairs of skis bundled up and marked. e. ie. Formation and tactics remain the same as in summer conditions. The more difficult the terrain. Therefore. when selecting the route. over ground that gives the unit concealment and cover. or when engaged in trail breaking. . cover and tactical advantages. in comparison with a ski unit. In most conditions. b. This means that a snowshoe-unit can move through terrain where ski-units cannot move. The unit stays together during the movement. primary consideration can be given to concealment. Movement on snowshoes 23. 25. It takes very little training to make good use of snowshoes. If a unit is to change from skis to snowshoes. the poles are required when using the familiar wintertime firing positions. the faster a snowshoe-unit will move.

the carrying capacity of a unit can be considerably increased by the use of pulks. Soldier No 2 in the file ought to walk with his left or right ski outside the trail made by the soldier in front. To ease the pulling of the pulk a trail for it ought to be broken in the following manner.12 THE PULK General 27. The men pulling the pulk ought to be as far back in the unit as possible. and close attention should be paid to the loading of the pulk. If snowshoes are used. however. the most important factor to be considered when selecting the route. Thorough preparation is therefore important. The physical condition of the men has to be good. It is a good idea to let the trail breakers go without their packs. For personnel on skis it is technically difficult to pull a pulk. The pulk trail 28. Of the soldiers following behind. . and for casualty evacuation. every other man will move with one ski to the right of the trail made by the point man. It is hard work to pull a pulk. Figure 5 Pulk trail Route selection 29. and to maintenance. The distance from the rear end of the pulk to the men pulling it is such that moving through dense forest or brush takes a lot of time and effort. the width of the trail ought to be 2-3 snowshoe widths. This improves the pace of the unit. but it may also be used as a weapon carrier. to make a triple trail. The selection of route is important. A pulk is normally used for the transport of ammunition and equipment. When raoving in winter. and every other man will move with a ski to the left (Figure 5). The tactical situation is.

The pulling ought to be at an easy and even tempo. the forward braking rope ought also to be used. Figures 6-8 show how a pulk can be moved through various types of terrain. On even ground the rope to the assistant puller ought to be tight. and hitched up again when the bottom has been reached. Figure 6 Pulling the pulk Notice how the soldier in the rear pushes the pulk with his pole from behind. uphill and downhill movement requires a lot of effort. If the slope is very steep and long. If the route has to go uphill. . The soldier behind the pulk takes the rear braking rope and helps with the braking. {figure 7} this is of great help for the men pulling. Try to keep at the same altitude. jerky movements ought to be avoided. and the skiing conditions good. Pulling the pulk 31. Remember that the tarpaulin cover is to fit snugly to prevent the snow from getting into the pulk. On long downhill slopes the assistant puller ought to be disengaged. make the ascent in gentle traverses.13 30.

14 Figure 7 Pulling the pulk uphill .

. The BV206 can pull about 2. the BV202 somewhat less. and on roads. the number of pulks may be increased. The pulks are so constructed that a number of them can be joined together and pulled behind an oversnow vehicle. Experience shows.15 Figure 8 Braking downhill The larg pulk 32. The pulk has a cargo capacity of 250 kilos. 2 in each track. that in difficult terrain no more than 4 pulks ought to be hitched up behind the tracked vehicle. however. It is very difficuit to back the vehicle with more pulks than that. The towing device must be in place on the vehicle before pulks can be pulled. Where the terrain is open and fairly even.5 tons.

The best thing is to drive around such marshes. Skijoring 37. freezes solid in a few minutes in cold weather. If this is not possible. and the vehicle skids out of control. passed through the padeyes mounted above the track. Snow and ice increase the mobility of the oversnow vehicle outside roads. Wet mud that sticks to the stearing gear or tracks. The tracks lose their grip on the surface. . Deep snow reduces the mobility. Find another route instead. to avoid ground where it might overturn. the braking doesn't work. It saves you from gripping the rope and the poles too hard. The mud must therefore be removed at once. if necessary. the route for the oversnow vehicles ought to be reconnoitred and. One pole ought to be inserted in the other. It is impossible to get up an ice-covered slope. keeping the marshes below wet throughout the winter. In dense forest and on steep downhill slopes ski joring is not to be recommended. Driving downhill in such places is dangerous. The soldiers hitch on to the rope with their poles. from the vehicie rearwards. towing of personnel by an oversnow vehicle will facilitate the movement of units on skis. especially uphill. and will ruin the vehicle if driving is continued. The mobility of the oversnow vehicle can be further increased if roads are made in the snow through particularly difficult terrain. Remember that snowdrifts tend to form in depressions in the ground while crests are relatively bare. Sloping ground ought to be kept clear of. 38. 36. On difficult terrain a man ought to walk in front of the vehicles and direct it to the best and safest route. Up to 20 men can be pulled by an oversnow vehicle. The ropes are fastened to the tow-hook. to avoid turning over. and thence stretched out behind. In some places there is a layer of ice on the ground. 35. screes and various uneven features. If the conditions for it are good. Keep the disc against the body as shown to facilitate the pulling. in such a manner that they stand on the outside of the ropes. making them easy to get across. The BV (oversnow vehicle) route 34. 10 men on each rope.OVERSNOW VEHICLES General 33. prepared. an experienced man ought to be in charge of the BV transport through the terrain. The snow covers rocks. The snow provides good insulation. or break down in some other way. In some years a lot of snow falls before the marshes freeze over. Before moving out.

17 1 1/2 ski Figure 9 Skijoring .

If the vehicle has to stop because a soldier has fallen off the rope. then let the rope pull you forward . The signals used are as follows. try to keep the rope tight at all times . Some advice to the soldiers skijoring . 40. your feet and your body as best you can. Remember that the personnel on the rope are standing still. everyone ought to unhitch. one long buzz for stop. the personnel must have on proper clothing. In that way you can keep warm better than if you stand stock still .when starting up. two short buzzes for drive. If the skijoring is to last for any length of time. The wind created when driving increases the chill factor. let go the rope and the poles and throw yourself out of the track to avoid being run into from behind . The rucksacks ought to be loaded onto the vehicle.if you should fall. take a few steps to get a gliding start.on a dowhill slope of any length. .it can be very cold to stand still during the joring. therefore.avoid running into the man ahead. Figure 10 Hitching up 41. the soldier in the rear is to use the buzzer to signal the driver to stop. and then hitch up again when the bottom of the slope has been reached . if possible.18 39. or for any other reason.to fellow in the track when the BV turns. Move your toes. the personnel must press or pull the rope outwards.use the stemming technique to brake on easy downhill slopes . A soldier is to sit in the rear cab to oversee the skijoring.

.up to two men on the snowmobile . It is well suited for reconnaissance.250 kilos on pulk . Personnel can also be pulled behind the snowmobile. but it can seat two persons fairly comfortably. The snowmobile is a fast and effective vehicle for use outside roads in wintertime. For planning purposes. That is a drawback with this type of vehicle.19 THE SNOWMOBILE 42. intelligence gathering and small security tasks.up to 4 men on a rope 44. . The snowmobile måkes such a lot of noise that it can be heard over a considerable distance. Normally only one person rides on the snowmobile. A pulk can be pulled by hitching it up to the snowmobile's tow-hook. the carrying capacity is. 43.

Chains 48.warning. Also the equipment skis. or take along hot drink in containere. the roads that have been cleared will tend to canalize traffic. If men fall they receive serious injuries. however. . The snow reduces the mobility of all kinds of wheeled vehicles. chains are normally needed to move the vehicle. the danger of frostbite and hypothermia is great.oncoming traffic. Transportation of personnel 46. Set up a soup station along the way.20 WHEELED VEHICLES General 45. The person in charge of such movement must remember the following: . Also. a soldier is to sit in the rear of the vehicle to oversee the personnel on the rope. When personnel are carried for periods of considerable length in trucks or other unheated vehicles. Frequent stops ought to be made to let the personnel exercise themselves warm. The skis should be made up by the pair for the trip. Frostbite also occurs more frequently. packs and pulk . it is easy to commit the mistake of driving too fast. Skijoring behind wheeled vehicles on roads is possible. outside the roads or in loose snow. etc. the personnel on the rope can slide over to the opposite låne and crash into an oncoming vehicle . but 30 centimetres or less of snow on the groimd is no great hindrance. This basic rule varies. When driving on ice or hard-packed snow the vehicle must be fitted with chains.ought to be on the same vehicle as the sol diers that are to use them. It is also a good idea to serve hot drinks. If necessary the sleeping bag and sleeping mat are to be used. snowshoes. If there is more than 30 centimetres of snow. Skijoring 47. . with such local conditions as the consistency of the snow and the nature of the ground.. He should be able to notify the driver to stop at once.speed. In order to avoid such injury the personnel must wear the proper clothing. but it is fraught with danger.

Safety 53. the vegetation and the nature of the ground ought to be reconnoitred and a snow clearing plan made out. On debarking it is important that the personnel get out quickly. and on some models they can be fastened to the outside of the fuselage. . the personnel ought to become familier with their characteristics at an early stage. The snow whirled up by the rotor wash måkes it difficult to see for the pilot and the personnel on the ground. or by tracked vehicle. The soldier marking the LS ought therefore to remain in position until the helicopter has landed. Landing Site (LS) 51. on landing.21 SNOW CLEARING 49. In addition to other wintertime field works. Moreover. Some helicopters . Before moving to a new area the proper roads must be cleared. sink deep into the snow and perhaps be damaged by stones or stumps.are not fitted with skis. To plan their use. A good snow clearing plan is an absolute prerequisite when the commanding officer måkes out the operational plan. causing traffic jams. skis. The use of helicopters in wintertime does not change the rules otherwise in effect. .train areas . The snow at the LS should therefore be packed hard by men stamping feet. HELICOPTERS General 50. Various civilian helicopters will at mobilization or outbreak of war be requisitioned by the Armed Forces.unit locations . Skis and pulks can be tåken on board the helicopter. routes and areas have to be cleared of snow as follows. The skis ought to be made up by the pair before transportation by helicopter. Two men are responsible for loading and unloading the skis. These helicopters will. lie down and remain lying down until the aircraft has lifted off and flown out of the area. Skis and pulks 52.kitchen and base areas Such work takes a long time. Otherwise vehicles get stuck on the road. and the pairs ought to be bundled by the section/squad. The personnel that are to embark must see the aircraft properly before moving. such vehicles are easy targets for enemy aircraft.axes of advance and snow-covered roads . but also some Allied machines .mainly civilian. snowshoes. The amount of snow.

also on lakes in high altitudes. UD 2-1 (Safety Regulationsfor the Army) gives a detailed description of the rules to be observed when crossing rivers or lakes in wintertime. which can be found all winter long. Be aware of the danger of water on ice (surface water). See Figure 12.22 DANGER AREAS General 54. . Figure U Crossing a lake Water on ice 55. or when passing through danger areas. Follow the rules! The safety of personnel and matériel must be decisive when selecting the route.

Behaviour in avalanche areas is described in Booklet 9. Movement on ice 57.23 Snow Thin layer of ice Surface water Water Figure 12 Surface water Surface water is normally found close to shore. time consuming. The bayonet may be fastened to the body by rope. and cold.wet. Avalanche areas 56. The combination of water. It might be a good idea to take along the bayonet when crossing a lake or river with rotten ice. But don't delay. coid and metal måkes it worse if you do. especially in the vicinity of heights or mountain tops. but in peacetime it is an absolute requirement. the interval in the column ought to be increased so that only one person is in the danger area at the time. In war this rule may have to be waived. When passing through an avalanche area. It is very handy when it comes to getting out of the water and back onto the ice. If personnel should go through the ice they may be helped as shown in Figure 13. it is hard work to get it out again . . Once a vehicle has gone into the water.

24 Figure 13 Lifesaving on ice .

The trail breaking party 62. a force ought to be sent out in good time to prepare the route.25 UNIT MARCHES General 58. to break pulk trails. or by vehicle. clear forest where it is necessary.weather forecast 60.unit proficiency . helicopter or plane.ice conditions .ground conditions . on skis or snowshoes. Experienced officers or NCOs ought to carry out the reconnaissance. In cold weather conditions small details can be entirely decisive for maintaining combat effectiveness. In wintertime there may be so many trails in a given area that they may need to be marked. ice. They can move on foot. and construct or improve routes for oversnow vehicles. frozen ground. Route reconnaissance 61. . If the tactical situation permits.snow conditions . Planning 59. the need for snow clearing etc. Ignorance. Add one hour for each 300 meters of climbing or 800 meters of descent.bottlenecks. The tactical situation and the type of unit to be moved decide whether reconnaissance is necessary. Paragraphs 59-78 are mainly devoted to unit marches on skis or snowshoes. It takes greater physical and psychological stamina in the individual to cope with the snow and the cold. Contacts among the civilian population can provide much information. This requires good planning and preparation. the following conditions must be considered: . than with summer conditions. inexperience and poor preparation may have dangerous consequences. For planning purposes it is normal to use the pace of 3 km per hour for ski and snowshoe units. especially for vehicles . Marching in cold weather conditions is very strenuous. danger areas.timing . to give the CO the essentials he needs for planning the movement. topography.. When planning movement in wintertime. Its tasks may be to mark trails. The purpose of the reconaissance is to gather information about snow.roads that are cleared / not cleared .existing tracks that can be used .

from the ground or from the air. or a platoon. The route chosen must be suitable for the unit that is to move over it. The squad stops. It is very strenuous to move in front of the unit. Route selection 65. hedges. the second squad in the formation takes over at the front. The two lead soldiers ought to be relieved frequently. . breaking the trail. steps aside. If time is short.26 Figure 14 The trail breaking party The trail breaking party must be organized and equipped as necessary. 64. If the party is larger than a section/squad. and the relieved squad falls in at the rear of the unit. or in shaded areas. The trail should run along places where it is least likely to be detected by the enemy. The two men move aside. Through open terrain the trail ought to run along fences. 63. Ski units ought to move around large obstacles such as dense brush. The leader of the trail breaking party ought to be at point to guide the advance and to see that the best route is chosen. Normally it will be a section/squad. and then move to the rear of the line. tree-felling areas and steep slopes. then the lead squad ought to be relieved frequently. let number 3 and 4 take their places. the tasks of route reconnaissance and trail breaking can be combined.

eating. In darkness even small obstables are difficult to pass. 67. The following factors may be mentioned: replenishment of supplies. especially where rivers issue into and out of lakes. and along the shores. the trail broken for night marching must therefore be better prepared than one broken for a day march. both by the individual soldiers and the units. use gentle traverses to ascend ordescend. and work on trails and routes. Avalanche prone areas ought to be avoided. especially for personnel pulling a sled. control and maintenance of matériel and equipment. Preparations for the march 66. hot food.27 Figure 15 Concealing the trail If the trail has to run up or down a hill or steep slope. reconnaissance. Sharp turns are difficult. rest and personal hygiene. When crossing lakes or rivers it must be remembered that the ice can be very trim in places. sleeping. Be sure that the normal field routines are followed. waxing of skis and pulks. . orders groups. At the same time there should be planning.

there still remain 50 minutes during which the personnel can be comfortable within the shelter of the tent. remove clothing and other outfit as necessary. The weather and skiing conditions. perhaps because of problems with his bindings. A snow wall can also be useful. 70. put his bindings right. he ought to step out of the trail. On contact with the enemy. If there is a danger that the speed may become too great. the personnel must put on warm clothing as necessary. A unit marching måkes a halt to rest and for the off icer in charge to inspect his troops. Halts 72. When contact with the enemy is probable. the skis ought to be tåken off and carried. the physical condition of the unit. and 5 more minutes to strike it. Halts must be tåken as the tactical situation permits. but in a formation that keeps the larger part of the main body together. For a unit moving on skis the intervals will often be greater than for a unit on snowshoes. 71. In wintertime it is a good idea to set up a tent where the personnel can take shelter. Short and frequent halts are better than long and infrequent ones. 73. or if the slope is too difficult. It is important to avoid perspiration. . stop the march. a platoon or a company ought not to be in single file. On steep and long downhill slopes it is important that each man keeps his place in the formation.28 March formations 68. passing is prohibited. If a soldier has to stop. Even if it takes 5 minutes to pitch the tent. a ski unit takes longer to react than a snowshoe unit. A thing to be avoided in cold and windy weather is to let the personnel sit on the pack for an hour and eat cold food. almost twice as long. If the halt is to be of longer duration. The halt must not be so long that the personnel begin to freeze. After 10 to 15 minutes. In cold weather the personnel will often start out wearing plenty of clothing. 74. are also important when deciding on a halt. The usual tactical formations are used. A long halt of about one hour is tåken to let the personnel eat and make themselves some warm drink. and the availability of a suitable place. Measures to be tåken during the march 69. and take his place in the formation again as soon as possible. A unit skijoring should make a halt of 5-10 minutes to let the personnel warm up by walking or running. The unit then descends on foot.

with map and compass . the map reader must be very attentive during the march. with watch and means for measuring (cord) The patrol can be reinforcd by radio operators and trail breakers. or during a heavy snowfall. it is a good idea to have the jersey on while moving. who is to see that the right course is followed. in certain tactical situations. . Therefore. The compass man also assists in measuring distance . loose snow. 77.29 75. and adjust the clothing with the quilted trouser liner. On the other hand. the unit must deploy a compass patrol to lead the way to the destination. Measuring distance can be very difficult for a ski unit. which is quick to take on and off.compass man. Land Navigation 76. Navigation in wintertime is of ten more difficult than in summer. Weather and visibility might make it necessary to proceed as follows.leader. the clothing must be sufficient to keep personnel from freezing to death if pinned down for a considerable period of time. and good at picking out points for each leg of the march. or none at all. if a unit is to move in fog. vanish under the snow in winter. Therefore. or on the high plateaus where there are few distinguishing features. and the time it takes to cover a given distance is consequently less. The compass patrol may consist of: . On a good crust the speed of the unit is much greater than in deep. Many terrain features that are used for navigation in summertime. It is important to avoid perspiration on the march.distance measuring man.

30 Figure 15 The compass patrol The compass man and the distance measuring man are used as movable bearing points for the man in charge. The march proceeds slowly and surely. the compass patrol works as follows. 78. In very poor visibility. .

Phase 2. . First bearing point moves forward until the leader orders him to halt. If the visibility is so poor that you have to proceed in this manner. « ? 0 (51) Phase 1 Pha se 2 Phase 3 Figure 17 Compass march Phase I. New starting position as in Phase 1. Phase 3. A ny deviation from the course is corrected by the command of "Right" or "Left". First bearing point stands still. The patro! at the starting point. the compass has to be reliable. and you have to be absolutely accurate in starting out on a course. reading the direction of the compass.31 A i i 1 1 1 > c:> > 1 1 * i 0 P i i l i l i © o 1 ? i I 1 . while second bearing point and leader move forward. The man in charge stands in the rear.

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