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The purpose of this document is to familiarize you with the blueprints and drawings of products produced in an Aerospace Environment. This text is general information and may change from one customer’s prints to another’s. Drawings define engineering requirements and are used to support the actual build process of the part. Detail and assembly drawings are commonly used to aid in the production process. Detail drawings give all the information for fabricating single parts, while assembly drawings show two or more parts joined. They may also contain some detail part definition. Detail Drawings A detail is usually one completely defined part. In a detail drawing of a part, the picture sheet and bill of material together give complete manufacturing data needed to fabricate each part. Like most drawings, a detail drawing will typically reference other engineering information such as process specifications (which control manufacturing processes) and standard part specifications (which define standard parts that are used on a variety of drawings). A detail drawing may contain single or multiple parts, but each part usually remains separate and is not joined together. Detail information includes: • Size and shape description • Tolerance information • Stock size and material requirements • Heat treating requirements • Machine finish requirements • Part numbering and marking instructions • Hole locations • Protective finish • Process specifications and standards • Next higher drawing number (where the part will be used) Detail drawings can be very small or very large. The size of the drawing picture sheet is determined by the size and complexity of the part being detailed (see Figure 1). Detail drawings do not show location, position, or fastening methods. However, they may give reference information about where a fastener or part will eventually be installed.
HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS
Most current detail drawings are drawn with Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) software. Therefore, dimensions are usually contained in part model data sets and not shown on picture sheets. CAD software is needed by the manufacturer to determine the size and shape of parts. If a print is controlled by a CAD dataset it will be noted on the picture sheet (see Figure 15). Many older detail drawings are dimensioned or issued as full-scale PCM’s (see Photo Contact Master).
Figure 1: Detail Drawing Assembly (ASSY) Drawings Assembly drawings show how to attach two or more parts or assemblies together. Assembly drawings can also show detail part information. Assembly information includes: • List of required components • How parts fit together • Part numbering and marking instructions
An assembly drawing can show more than one assembly. If a part is detailed on an assembly drawing. all information needed to make that part will be given. it is an assembly drawing (see Figure 2).HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS • • • • Fastening methods Protective finish requirements Process specifications and standards Next higher drawing number (where the assembly will be used) Assembly drawings are easily recognized by their titles. Figure 2: Assembly Drawing Picture Sheet Introduction . If the word “assembly” or the abbreviation “ASSY” appears in the title.
The picture sheet shows the size and shape of parts and how the parts fit together.Names of the people responsible for the original release of the drawing. The picture area Figure 3: Picture Sheet Title Block Area The title block is always located in the lower right corner of the picture sheet. The general tolerance that applies to the dimensions on the sheet. Scale. . this are says “NOTED. The title block 2. The title block contains the following information (see Figure 4): 1. Sheet number. Standard preprinted PCM note on un-dimensioned drawings forms.Drawing sheets are numbered consecutively starting at Sheet 1. Size. The revision block 3. 5.Scale defines the size of the picture as compared to the size of the actual part. Drawing number 2.” and the scale is shown under each view in the picture area.HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS The picture sheet is what most people have in mind when they think about drawings. Title 3. Signature Block. 8. 7. 4. 6. Picture sheet forms are standardized. If more than on scale is used. The three main areas of a picture sheet are (see Figure 3): 1.Letter size designator indicates the size of the drawing form.
The latest Drawing Change Notice (DCN) revision of the drawing sheet. reason. This column also shows the change number. their numbers will also be listed. The REV column shows the latest DCN (Drawing Change Notice) revision of the drawing sheet. If ADCNs were incorporated. The Description column describes the changes that were made to the picture sheet. Revision. . indicated by letter. Figure 4: Title Block Revision Block The revision block is always located in the upper right corner of the picture sheet.HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS 9. On zoned picture sheets the ZONE column shows the location where changes have occurred. and production information. A dash (-) is used to indicate a new drawing sheet. The revision block contains the following information (see Figure 5): 1. A dash (-) is used to indicate a new drawing sheet. It also shows when the change was made. indicated by a letter. 3. 4. The Date and Approved columns show who is responsible for the change. 2. It is used to record incorporated changes.
assembly. and installations. Words. symbols. the revision block has a note “See DCN” and a date. . or installation is the remaining area of the picture sheet. assemblies. The DCN is then filed with the picture sheet. Specific tolerances or geometric dimensioning and tolerances if used can also be found in the picture area. and lines are used to show different views of parts. In that case. Figure 5: Revision Block Picture Area The drawing picture area shows the detail.HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS A separate form is used if there is too much information to fit in the revision block.
” “…sheet2. Although. the picture sheet along with the parts list provides complete drawing information. the letters are located along the right side and usually also along the left side. and/or there are many variations. The scale of a picture sheet is shown in the title block. it is referred to as a “multi-sheet” drawing. Picture sheets are listed in numerical order.” and “…sheet 3. The letter designator found in the title block indicates the drawing size. Picture Sheet Sizes Picture sheet size varies from 8-1/2 x 11 inches to 36 x 138 inches. a part is very complex. such as “picture sheet 1. Examples of scale are: Scale Type No Scale Full (Preferred) Scale Entry None 1/1 . full is the preferred scale engineering will often use reduced or enlarged scales to show large or small parts in more detail. The most commonly used sizes are listed below. The letters and numbers provide a zone location that makes it easier to find desired parts or views (see Figure 1 & 2). Multi-sheet drawings are used when a part is too large. Smaller drawing forms may not have zones. When a drawing requires more than one picture sheet.” The drawing will have as many sheets as it takes to convey the information. The numbers are located along the bottom and usually also along the top. Remember.HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Picture Sheet Numbering Drawings may have only one picture sheet or they may have many. Size 8-1/2 x 11 11 x 17 22 x 34 36 x 50 30 x 46 36 x 94 and/or 36 x 138 Letter Designator “A” size “B” size “C” size “D” size “F” size “J” size Picture Sheet Zones The borders on some picture sheets contain letters and numbers that divide the picture area into drawing zones. Picture Sheet Scale Picture sheets will be drawn to an appropriate scale that is determined by Engineering.
There will be an obvious lack of dimensions on the features of parts on the drawing. Un-dimensioned Picture Sheets An un-dimensioned picture sheet is accurately drawn to full scale on stable material which provides a photographically reproduced template for the tooling and fabrication of parts and assemblies (see Figure 6). it’s just a matter of producing a scale copy. Photo Contact Master The Photo Contact Master is a full-scale production drawing on heavy drafting film (. Un-dimensioned picture sheets are always drawn on heavy drafting film. 1/40 2/1. An REPT is available for all PCM drawings. (On some older drawings they may be spaced 5 inches apart). You may even hear REPTs or PCMs referred to as “Mylar drawings” or just “Mylars”. you need a dimensionally stable copy of the original PCM. There letters PCM will be printed near the title block usually underneath it. . These grid lines will be spaced 10 inches apart.0075 inch thick). 2/1 & Noted. 4/1 Noted. The intent is to scale dimensions off the drawing.HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Reduced Enlarged Multiple 1/2. 3. and has letters “PCM” on the picture sheet form. 2. Measurements can be taken directly from this film. which is called a “PCM” (Photo Contact Master). 1/1 & Noted. There may be some dimensions (on close tolerance hole patterns for example) but most features will not have explicit dimensions. This copy is called an “REPT” (Reference Engineering Template). The heavy drafting film that PCM drawings are drawn on and REPT’s are printed on is called Mylar. This material is dimensionally stable. 1/10. To get accurate dimension information. 1/4. There are (3) keys to identifying a PCM drawing: 1. 1/20. There will be vertical and horizontal grid lines drawn across the picture area of the drawing. etc.
• Where the part is located on the drawing picture sheet. through perhaps several levels of assembly build-up. A parts list was designed to go hand in hand with picture sheets. They augment picture sheets with textual information that would be cumbersome and difficult to maintain on the face of a drawing. . description). They also define the Bill of Materials (BOM) which takes part definition from single detail parts. and finally to installation. • Quantity of the part required per assembly or installation. • Information that defines the part (such as raw material call-out). • Information on how to fabricate the part (process requirements).HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Figure 6: PCM Drawing Parts List A parts list is a listing of all components used in the production of a parent item that does not reflect its structure or intermediate levels. nomenclature. Parts lists provide the following information: • Part Identification (number.
Figure 7: Parts List Figure8: Parts List . or they can be a separate sheet that is referenced as a sheet number of the drawings (see Figure 8).HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Parts lists can be located on picture sheets right above the title block (see Figure 7).
HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Line Standards. Symbols are used to prevent needless repetition of information and to make the picture sheet easy to read. Engineering groups use these standards to describe information contained on picture sheets. and Drawing Symbols Line standards. and installation. assemblies. . and drawing symbols are shown on drawing picture sheets in this section. These are standardized for industrial use. • • • Line standards are used to describe geometric characteristics of parts. Part callouts are used to identify items located on the picture sheet. Part Callouts. part callouts.
HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Line Standards .
HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Figure 9: Line Standards Figure10: Line Standards .
are called out with the use of leader lines that point to the edge of the part they are associated with. All parts. The term “-1 ASSY” in Figure 11 is a View Label that indicates that the view above is the -1 assembly from this drawing. • A substitute for a part number as a callout on the picture sheet. • Enclosed in a circle.HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Part Callouts On the picture sheet parts are identified by their part number. Find Numbers as Part Callouts A find number is: • A method for cross referencing an item from the picture area of a drawing to the parts list. will be called out in the parts list. This is so the reader of the drawing knows where to go get more information on the part. In Figure 11 a -1 ASSY is shown. All part numbers shown on the picture sheet. . The 123N5123-1 part is defined on another drawing (we know this because the drafter used the complete part number). The -3 part is defined on this drawing (we know this because the drafter identifies the part with its dash number only). Part numbers defined on other drawings will be called out by their complete part number. except for some standard parts. except the view label.
the drawing number is shown without a dash number and the letters REF are shown after the number (see Figure 12). Examples of symbols used for fasteners are shown in Figure 13.HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Figure 11: Part Call Out Reference Callouts When items are identified with phantom lines for reference purposes. rivets. . bolts. etc. shims. Standard parts are shown on the picture sheet but not always listed in the parts list. Figure 12: Reference Call Outs Standard Parts Standard parts are commonly used items purchased in bulk quantities such as: nuts.
HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Symbols .
HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Figure 13: Symbols .
HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Figure 14: Symbols Notes .
A symbol may also include: • Grip length. in the lower left quadrant. documents. Permanent Type Fasteners Rivets and other permanent fasteners. General notes pertains to the entire drawing and are is not identified on the picture sheets. in the lower right quadrant. and standard notes. The fastener symbol shows the location of the hole and identifies the type of fastener used at that location (see Figure 15). and industry standards that pertain to all drawings. They are usually listed on the first sheet of all drawing sheets. like hi-loks. are called out with fastener symbols. • The diameter of the fastener. A symbol includes: • A two or three letter code in the upper left quadrant to indicate the type of fastener to be installed. Therefore.HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Notes are used to give more detailed information on drawing sheets. All production drawings will have the same standard notes. identified by flagnote symbols. it is necessary to cross reference the flagnotes with the picture sheets in order to fully understand the engineer’s intent. General notes stand alone. • Countersink or dimple instructions. They are labeled and then referenced throughout the other drawing sheets where applicable. in the upper right quadrant. Standard notes used for listing specifications. . in 32nds of an inch. general notes. There are three types of notes: flagnotes. pertain to specific information on the drawing picture sheet and are explained in the parts list. in 16ths of an inch. and lockbolts. Flagnotes.
HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Figure 15: Fastener Symbols When fastener symbols are shown on a picture sheet. . next to the revision block (see Figure 16). the drawing includes a fastener symbol code block that cross-references the fastener code with the part number of the fastener. The fastener symbol code block is usually in the upper right-hand corner of the picture sheet.
.HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Figure 16: Fastener Symbol Table on Picture Sheet In Figure 17. This is engineering’s way of saving on drafting time and keeping the drawing from getting too “cluttered”. all fasteners between “YOF/5” fasteners symbols shown are implied to be “YOF/5” fasteners.
They are shown using a centerline for hole location and a complete part number callout. are not shown using fastener symbol codes. The hole diameter will be called out explicitly. as shown below (see Figure 18). such as nuts and bolts. Figure 18: Example of Removable Fastener Callouts .HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Figure 17: Permanent Fastener Symbol on Picture Sheet Removable Fasteners Symbols Removable fasteners.
HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS PICTURE SHEET VIEWS Standard Airplane Views and Standard Orthographic Views Standard Airplane Views are used on installation drawings whenever part location and position are required. Standard Orthographic Views are used on detail and assembly drawings. Figure 19: Orthographic View Detail Views A detail view shows an object or an area of an object in greater detail to clarify that area. Details are . Detail parts or assemblies do not require location and/or position information within the airplane structure. These views follow orthographic view principles. The detail view is in the same plane as the principle view.
These are sometimes called cross sections. The view is identified by a leader type indicator. in degrees. A section view is indicated by a cutting plane line with arrowheads. Section Views A section view is like a thin slice cut through a part. In Figure 20. A heavy dashed circle around the area is an acceptable alternate. The amount.HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS usually drawn in a larger scale (see Figure 20). The cross section may be through the whole object. Figure 20: Detail View Detail View Rotation Sometimes detail views are rotated to clarify the drawing. and the direction of rotation is shown with the view identification. Section views show interior construction or hidden features that cannot be shown clearly by an outside view. or show only part of an object. The arrows show the direct from which the view is taken (see Figure 21). They may be rotated in either of two directions. 90 degrees. . CCW 90 stands for counterclockwise rotation.
true angle. Auxiliary views show the exterior of an object as if looking from a particular direction. and true length of complex objects (see Figure 22). An auxiliary view is indicated by a viewing plane indicator similar to the section cutting plane except that it is placed outside the object.HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Figure 21: Section View Auxiliary Views Auxiliary views show features that cannot be shown clearly in standard views. . They are used to show true size and shape.
To do this. the part is shown tilted and rotated. . Isometric drawings should not be scaled because tilting shortens some of the lines.HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Figure 22: Auxiliary View Isometric Drawings An isometric drawing shows three sides of a part in the same view.
HOW TO READ AEROSPACE BLUEPRINTS AND DRAWINGS Figure23: Isometric View .
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