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B GIO DC V O TO

TRNG I HC S PHM TP. H CH MINH







ng Vit H









Chuyn ngnh : L lun v phng php dy hc Ha hc
M s : 60 14 10



LUN VN THC S GIO DC HC




NGI HNG DN KHOA HC:
TS. NGUYN PH TUN






Thnh ph H Ch Minh - 2008
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LI CM N

Lun vn ny l kt qu ca qu trnh hc tp ti i hc S phm
Tp.HCM. Tc gi lun vn xin chn thnh cm n Ban Gim Hiu, Phng
Khoa hc cng ngh - Sau i hc, Khoa Ha hc trng i hc S phm
Tp.HCM.
Tc gi xin cm n cc bn cng lp lun to iu kin gip ,
ng vin nhau trong sut qu trnh hc tp v thc hin ti nghin cu.
c bit, tc gi xin c by t lng bit n chn thnh v su sc n
TS. Nguyn Ph Tun, TS. Trnh Vn Biu, nhng ngi thy tn tnh
gip , hng dn tc gi nghin cu trong sut qu trnh thc hin lun
vn.
Cui cng, tc gi xin by t lng bit n i vi gia nh, bn b ng
nghip ng vin, gip trong thi gian hc tp, nghin cu tc gi c
th hon thnh lun vn ny.
ng Vit H


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DANH MC CC CH VIT TT

CSP : Cao ng S phm

CNTT : Cng ngh thng tin

C : i chng

HSP : i hc S phm

LVTN : Lun vn tt nghip

NCKH : Nghin cu khoa hc

THCS : Trung hc c s

THPT : Trung hc ph thng

TN : Thc nghim




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M U

1. L do chn ti
Vic i mi phng php dy hc l mt yu cu cp thit c t ra vi
nn gio dc nc ta hin nay. Mt trong nhng hng i mi phng php dy
hc l kt hp cc phng php dy hc vi cc phng tin k thut dy hc hin
i (phng tin nghe nhn, my vi tnh) nhm nng cao hiu qu ca qu trnh.
Cc c ch phn ng trong chng trnh Ha hc hu c trng Cao ng
S phm thng kh tng tng v kh ghi nh nn cn c s ci tin trong
phng php dy hc, c th s dng mt s phn mm tin hc h tr nh:
Microsoft Powerpoint, Macromedia Flash..c bit phn mm tin hc
Macromedia Flash, c th h tr c lc cho vic m phng cc c ch phn ng
gip cho vic hc c ch phn ng tr nn trc quan v d hiu hn.
Vi mong mun nng cao cht lng vic dy v hc Ha hu c trng
Cao ng S phm chng ti chn ti: THIT K H THNG M PHNG
C CH PHN NG HA HU C TRNG CAO NG S PHM
NHM NNG CAO CHT LNG DY V HC.
2. Lch s vn nghin cu
Vic s dng phn mm Macromedia Flash xy dng cc on phim hot
hnh c thit k nhiu. Tuy nhin vic s dng nhng ng dng ny vo tng
bi ging c th i vi gio vin l mt vic rt kh khn.
Mt s kha lun tt nghip c nhn ha hc trng HSP TP.HCM cng
c nghin cu vic m phng mt s c ch phn ng ha hu c nhng ch
dng mc n gin dng trong trng ph thng.
V d:
ng dng Macromedia Flash trong phng php dy hc phc hp nhm
nng cao cht lng dy hc mt s bi ln lp chng hidrocacbon thm, kha
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lun tt nghip ca SV V Anh Th, nm hc 2004, m phng c ch phn ng
thuc chng Hirocacbon thm lp 11, gm cc c ch ca phn ng halogen ha,
nitro ha, sunfo ha.
ng dng Macromedia Flash trong phng php dy hc phc hp nhm
nng cao cht lng dy hc mt s bi ln lp chng hirocacbon no, kha lun
tt nghip ca SV L Minh Hng Phng, nm hc 2004, m phng c ch phn
ng thuc cc bi ankan lp 11.
ng dng Macromedia Flash trong phng php dy hc phc hp nhm
nng cao cht lng dy hc mt s bi ln lp chng anken, kha lun tt
nghip ca SV Nguyn Bch Duyn, nm hc 2004, m phng c ch phn ng
thuc chng anken lp 11.
ng dng phn mm Macromedia Flash trong dy hc ha hc trng
THPT, kha lun tt nghip ca SV inh Th Xun Tho, nm hc 2005, m
phng c ch phn ng th clo vo metan v th clo vo benzen. Hai c ch ny
thuc chng trnh Ha THPT lp 11.
ng dng phn mm Macromedia Flash vo vic thit k mt s th nghim
ha hc trung hc ph thng, kha lun tt nghip ca SV Trn Th Kim Trang,
nm hc 2008, m phng cc c ch: phn ng cng brm vo etilen, phn ng
cng HBr vo propilen, phn ng cng nc vo propilen (xc tc axit), phn ng
cng ihiroxyl ha anken (A
E
), phn ng cng 1,2 v cng 1,4 ca ien lin hp,
phn ng cng ng vng 1,4 ca ien lin hp. Cc c ch phn ng ny thuc
chng trnh Ha THPT lp 11.
Nm 2005, hc vin Phm Ngc Sn bo v lun vn tt nghip cao hc
ti HSP H Ni vi ti: ng dng CNTT xy dng mt s ha v c ch
phn ng trong dy hc Ha hu c. ti ny s dng phn mm
Macromedia Flash m phng cc c ch phn ng: S
N
1
,
S
N
2
,
S
E
1, S
E
2, S
E
i, E
1
, E
2
,
A
E
, A
N
, A
R
, cng nucleophin A
N
(CO), th nguyn t O trong CO, th X trong
RCOX, th nhn thm S
E
(Ar), cng ng vng inx An, crackinh xc tc,
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s chuyn ha gia cc dng cu to ca glucoz trong dung dch. Tng cng c 17
ha. Nhng cc ha ny ch m phng c ch di dng s phn ng dng
ch, khng m phng di dng m hnh 3D ca phn t. Mt khc, cc ha ny
c thit k kh n gin, khng li cun c v mu sc, b cc v hiu ng hot
hnh.
3. Mc ch nghin cu ti
S dng ch yu phn mm tin hc Macromedia Flash minh ha c ch
ca cc phn ng ha hc trong chng trnh Ha hu c h Cao ng S phm
nhm nng cao hiu qu dy hc.
4. Nhim v ca ti
- Nghin cu tng quan v phn mm Macromedia Flash.
- Dng Flash m phng c ch cc phn ng Ha hu c chng trnh Cao
ng S phm.
- Thit k bi ging in t chng Dn xut Halogen.
- Thc nghim xc nh kt qu cht lng mt s bi ln lp chng Dn
xut Halogen trong gio trnh Ha hc hu c 2 Cao ng S phm.
5. Khch th v i tng nghin cu
5.1. Khch th nghin cu
Qu trnh dy hc trng Cao ng S phm.
5.2. i tng nghin cu
Vic thit k h thng m phng cc c ch phn ng phn Ha hc hu c
h Cao ng S phm.
6. Phm vi nghin cu
Cc c ch phn ng Ha hu c trong gio trnh Ha hc hu c 1 v 2 h
Cao ng S phm.
Mt s bi ln lp chng Dn xut halogen gio trnh Ha hc hu c 2 h
Cao ng S phm.
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7. Gi thuyt khoa hc
Nu cc m phng c ch ha hu c c thc hin m bo tnh khoa hc,
tnh s phm, tnh thm m s gip sinh vin tip thu tt v hiu r c ch phn
ng; qua nng cao c cht lng dy hc mn Ha hu c h Cao ng S
phm.
8. Phng php v phng tin nghin cu
- c v nghin cu cc ti liu c lin quan n ti.
- Phn tch, tng hp.
- S dng my tnh v cc phn mm tin hc thit k cc m phng c ch
phn ng ha hu c.
- iu tra thc tin.
- Thc nghim s phm.
- Tng hp v x l kt qu iu tra, kt qu thc nghim s phm theo
phng php thng k ton hc.
9. ng gp mi ca lun vn
Thit k h thng cc m phng c ch phn ng Ha hu c di dng m
hnh phn t 3D (mt s c ch c km theo m phng s phn ng di dng
cng thc phn t) gip cho vic dy hc c ch tr nn sinh ng, trc quan v
hp dn. Cc c ch ny c thit k km theo cc nt iu khin nn vic s
dng trong dy hc tr nn d dng v thun li hn.
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Chng 1
C S L LUN V THC TIN
CA TI NGHIN CU

1.1. Cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng (ICT) trong dy hc ha hc
1.1.1. Tm quan trng ca cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng trong dy
hc ha hc
Cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng (cng ngh 4T), (ting Anh l
information and communication technology vit tt l ICT) c ng dng v cng
quan trng trong dy hc.
1.1.1.1. Nh ICT ta c kh nng chn nhp nhng thng tin cn thit v
x l nhanh bin thnh tri thc [4], [5]
Chng ta ang sng u th k 21, thi i thng tin, nhn loi ang qu
sang nn kinh t tri thc m c im ca n l s bng n ca thng tin, tri
thc. Chnh ICT, c bit l ICT mi, trc tip sinh ra thi i ny, thi i m
khi lng thng tin ni chung tng nhanh theo hm s m. Trong tnh hnh ,
cng ch nh cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng mi mi c kh nng chn nhp
t b c thng tin nhng thng tin cn thit v x l nhanh chng chng bin
thnh tri thc.
Cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng cn l mt kha cnh vn ha ca th
gii mi, v nh mi th vn ha, n s c tip cn tt nht tui tr, gip cho
hc sinh, sinh vin nh hng t duy v thi ca mnh trong thi i mi. Do
cn lm cho th h tr nhanh chng lm quen vi ICT thng qua dy hc v
hnh thnh cho h phong cch vn ha mi.
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1.1.1.2. ICT ang to ra nhng thay i mang mm mng ca mt cuc
cch mng gio dc thc s [6], [7]
Hi ngh Paris v gio dc i hc trong th k 21 do UNESCO t chc
thng 10/1998 c tng kt 3 m hnh gio dc trong bng 1.1.
Bng 1.1. M hnh gio dc
M HNH TRUNG TM VAI TR NGI HC CNG NGH
Truyn thng Ngi dy Th ng Bng/ TV/ Radio
Thng tin Ngi hc Ch ng PC (my tnh)
Tri thc Nhm Thch nghi PC + mng

Trong cc m hnh trn, m hnh tri thc l m hnh gio dc hin i nht
hnh thnh khi xut hin thnh tu mi quan trng nht ca ICT mng Internet.
Cng vi m hnh mi nht ny nhng yu t thay i su sc sau y trong gio
dc xut hin:
- Yu t thi gian khng cn b rng buc cht ch, xut hin kh nng gio
dc khng ng b;
- Yu t khng gian s khng cn rng buc qu cu thc; xut hin kh nng
sinh vin tham gia hc tp m khng cn n trng i hc;
- Gi thnh ton b ca gio dc gim nhiu, v xut hin cc lp o c qui m
ln m khng cn trng lp kiu thng thng;
- S chuyn giao tri thc khng cn chim v tr hng u ca gio dc na;
sinh vin phi hc cch truy tm thng tin h cn, nh gi v x l thng tin
bin thnh tri thc qua giao tip;
- Mi quan h gia ngi dy ngi hc theo chiu dc s c thay th
theo chiu ngang, ngi dy tr thnh thc y, chuyn gia hng dn hay
ng nghip, ngi hc phi ch ng thch nghi. Nhm tr nn rt quan
trng v l mi trng i thoi, t vn, hp tc;
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- Th trng gio dc s c ton cu ha v khng cn b rng buc v
khng gian. Ngn ng tr thnh mt yu t thc p mnh;
- Vic nh gi khng cn da vo kh nng thi c nh trc m da nhiu
hn vo qu trnh tiu ha tri thc tr thnh lnh ngh, biu hin nng
lc tin hnh nghin cu, thch nghi, giao tip, hp tc;
- S khc bit gia loi hnh v cp bc gio dc (tiu hc, trung hc, i hc,
dy ngh) s t quan trng nh trc y, v gio dc thng xuyn s tr
thnh quan trng nht.
Nh vy, bc ngot i vo nn vn minh tr tu hin nay, ICT ang to ra
nhng thay i mm mng ca mt cuc cch mng gio dc thc s, c cu
cng nhc theo truyn thng v mi quan h khng gian- thi gian trt t thang
bc s b ph v.
1.1.2. Hng ng dng ca cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng trong dy
hc ha hc [4], [5], [6], [7], [32]
- S dng cc phng php tnh s, gii quyt cc bi ton l thuyt ha hc
(ha lng t, c hc thng k, ng lc ha hc, nhit ng hc, ng ha
hc).
- Ghp ni tr gip cho cc o c th nghim, nng cao tnh nng cc cng c
o.
- Xy dng cc a CD th nghim m phng hoc th nghim o, xy dng
mt s trang Web dy hc mt s ni dung ha hc c cc m hnh xy dng
khi nim v c th nghim m phng.
- Lm cc bi ging tin nghi c th dy cho lp hc ng ngi, dy t xa,
lm cc phn mm qun l, chm bi trc nghimphc v dy hc.
Hng th nht rt quan trng nhng s ngi tham gia cn t, cn c
tng cng; hng th hai, th ba v th t c nhiu cn b nhiu b mn
tham gia. Hng th t c bit ph hp vi gio vin ha hc cc trng trung
hc.
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Trc mt cn khuyn khch tnh sng to trong lnh vc ny nhiu mc
khc nhau:
- To ra cc phn mm mi trong dy hc hay th nghim ha hc bng ting
Vit. cc nc tin tin nh M, Anh, Php, c, c, to ra cc
phn mm mi v ha hc bng ting Anh c ngha khoa hc, gio dc v
o to nhng mt s ni dung khng ph hp vi nc ta.
- Da vo cc chng trnh c sn c lp trnh hoc khng lp trnh to ra
cc hnh nh th nghim mi hay cc m hnh mi trong dy hc.
- Da trn cc a CD sn c cc nc trn th gii, ly lm ngun
nguyn liu (base date) xy dng nn a CD ca mnh theo ni dung
hay mt hng nht nh bng ting Vit (vit c cc trang Web s
dng cc video clip, movies, animation, image, module,). Vi mc ch
phi thng mi th vic s dng a CD sn c cho dy hc l c php.
Khi nim sng to th ba ny c th ph hp i vi ha hc v cc
CyperChem cc a CD v ha hc, cc CD Chemistry Comes Alives kh tt, cc
videoclip, movies, animation, image v nhiu th nghim v cc m hnh xy
dng khi nim c sn.
1.1.3. Phn mm Macromedia Flash [17]
1.1.3.1. Gii thiu

Hnh 1.1. Giao din phn mm Macromedia Flash 8
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Ngy nay, Flash tr thnh mt phn mm ha hot hnh chun trn
web. Vi Flash, bn s c b sung cc hiu ng th v cho trang Web, lm cho
trang Web c tnh tng tc cao hn v hp dn hn bi nhng hnh nh ng gi
l hot cnh (Animation).
Nhng hnh nh to ra t cc cng c ca Flash l hnh nh Vector, tuy nhin
Flash vn cho php ta a c cc hnh nh Bitmap vo trong cc hot cnh. Bn
cnh , Flash khng nhng cho php lng m thanh vo hot cnh v m cn c
php hiu chnh v trng m thanh trong .
cp cao hn, Flash c th h tr cho cc lp trnh vin trn ngn ng
kch bn Javasript, do t thn Flash c th thit k c c mt Website hon
chnh.
1.1.3.2. Cng dng ca Flash
a. To cc hnh nh cho Web
Word Wide Web ni ngn ngn l Web, l mt thnh phn ca Internet, n
i hi c tnh sng to trc quan. Khi lt Web bn s thy rt nhiu tng
khc nhau lm cho Website tr nn hp dn.
Vi cc hnh nh ca Flash c mt chng trnh th hin Flash (Flash
Player), thng c ci t sn trn cc trnh duyt ca ngi dng. Khi trnh
duyt gp mt on phim Flash trong mt trang Web, trnh duyt s t ng ti
chng trnh th hin Flash bn c th xem c on phim Flash (v cc hnh
nh c trong on phim).
b. Hot hnh website ca bn
Flash lm cho vic to hot hnh tr nn d dng bng cch s dng mt qu
trnh c gi l bin hnh. V bn cht trong qu trnh ny bn s bo cho Flash
bit ni bn mun hot hnh bt u v ni hot hnh kt thc. Khi thc hin xong
iu ny, Flash s t ng pht sinh tt c cc khung hnh trung gian. V th nu
bn cn to ra 24 khung hnh hon tt hot hnh ca mnh, c th bn ch cn to
ra 2 khung hnh v Flash t ng to ra 22 khung hnh cn li.
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c. Xy dng cc on phim tng tc
Ngoi hot hnh n gin, bn c th s dng Flash xy dng cc Website
tng tc. V d, bn c to mt on phim Flash cho php ngi dng chn mt
trong s video-clip hoc mt trong cc on m thanh. V Flash xy dng theo
hng i tng, on phim ca bn cng bit cch tng tc vi ngi dng. Tt
c nhng g cn lm l bo cho on phim v nhng g bn mun chng thc hin
khi ngi dng thc hin mt iu g , v nh nhp vo mt nt.
Mt s iu c th thc hin trong cc on phim Flash:
- Cho php ngi dng chn on phim m h mun xem.
- To cc tr chi cho php ngi dng ko v th cc i tng.
- B sung nt quay ngc v cc nt kim sot khc cho php ngi s dng
kim sot qu trnh pht li on phim.
- Ti cc on phim khc nhau ty thuc vo thi im ngi s dng truy
cp Website ca bn.
- Cho php ngi s dng tt m thanh ca on phim.
- Gi thng tin ca ngi s dng n mt a ch th in t.
d. Hin th cc nt nhn (Buttons)
Cc nt nhn l cc phn t giao din mi ngi u hiu m khng cn phi
gii thch vi ngi dng v cch s dng cc nt nhn . Nh , ta c th cho
on film hot ng, dng li hoc chn cnh cn quan st mt cch rt d dng v
n gin ch vi mt ci click chut vo nt nhn.
e. Bin i hnh dng (Shape tween)
Mt trong nhng k thut ca hot hnh trong Flash cho php bn thay i
mt i tng t mt hnh dng ny sang mt hnh dng hon ton khc. Qu trnh
ny gi l qu trnh bin dng.
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f. Hin th bng vn bn cun (Scrolling)
Bn tng thy cc bng vn bn cun trn mt s Website. Cc bng vn
bn ny thng c s dng to ra kt qu mong mun. Bn bt u vi mt
bin hnh chuyn ng di chuyn mt khi vn bn ngang qua stage. Sau , bn
b sung mt mt n kim sot lng vn bn thy c ti thi im bt k. Khi
bn thc hin iu ny, ngi dng khng th ni rng ton b khi vn bn ang
chuyn ng. Tt c nhng g h thy l phn ca khi vn bn ang c nhn
thy thng qua mt mt n.
1.1.3.3. Cc phn t c bn ca Flash v cch s dng
Lp (Layer) Bng tin trnh (Timeline) Cc bng iu khin (Panels)


Hp cng c (Toolbox) Stage
Hnh 1.2. Giao din s dng ca phn mm Macromedia Flash 8
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a. Stage
Stage l ni trnh din cc hot cnh hay cn gi l sn khu. Ngi dng s
nh ra cng vic ca mnh nh: v cc hnh nh trc tip bng cng c ca Flash
hoc nhp cc file hnh nh ca cc phn mm ha khc nh: Photoshop, Corel,
Ilustrator...
a cc File hnh nh ca nhng phn mm ha khc vo Flash, ta
thc hin bng cch: vo Menu File Import xut hin ca s v chn File cn
a vo.
Trong mt hot cnh c th c nhiu cnh (Scene). Mi cnh c th c nhiu
chuyn ng v c qun l trn nhiu Layer khc nhau. chn thm mt cnh
vo Insert Scene.
b. Layer
Dng qun l cc i tng trn mt cnh hay hot cnh theo tng lp
hoc theo tng chuyn ng. Trong mt hot cnh c th c nhiu Layer. Chng ta
c th chn cc ty chn ca mt Layer hoc tt c cc Layer nh:
- Show/hide all Layers: Hin hoc n tt c cc Layer.
- Lock /Unlock all Layer: Kha hoc m kha tt c cc Layer.
- Show all layer as outline: Ch trnh by ng ca tt c cc Layer hoc
ngc li.
- Insert Layer: Chn thm mt Layer mi.
- Insert Layer Folder: Chn mt hng mc qun l Layer theo nhm hay
trt t.
- Add Guide Layer: Chn thm mt Layer mi lm ng dn cho mt chuyn
ng Layer khc.
- Delete Layer: Xo mt Layer.
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Insert Layer Show/hide all Layers
Lock /Unlock all Layer
Show all Layer as outline


Add Motion guide
Insert Layer Folder Delete Layer
Hnh 1.3. Giao din hp thoi layer
c. Timeline
L ni qun l tng khung hnh v nh thi gian chuyn ng cho hot
cnh. bt tt Timeline, ta vo View Timeline.
Cc thut ng v khung hnh trn Timeline:
- Frame: Khung hnh.
- Keyframe: Khung hnh ch.
- Blank keyframe: Khung hnh ch rng.
- Tween animation : Chuyn ng ni suy gia 2 khung hnh ch.
Blank KeyFrame
KeyFrame
Frame

Tween animation
Hnh 1.4. Giao din hp thoi timeline
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d. Toolbox (hp cng c)


Cng c Selection Cng c Subselection
Cng c Free Transform Cng c Fill Transform
Cng c Line Cng c Lasso
Cng c Pen Cng c Text
Cng c Oval Cng c Rectangle
Cng c Pencil Cng c Brush
Cng c Ink Bottle Cng c Paint Bucket
Cng c Eyedropper Cng c Eraser
Cng c Hand Cng c Zoom

Mu nt v
Mu t
Mu mc nh Chuyn i mu
Mu nt v
ty chn




Hnh 1.5. Giao din hp thoi toolbox
1) Cng c Selection (mi tn): S dng cng c ny chn i tng. Bn
c th nhp vo mt i tng chn n, nhp p chn mt i tng v tt
c cc thnh phn ca n hoc ko cng c mi tn to mt hp chn nhm chn
tt c nhng g nm trong phm vi hp chn ny.
2) Cng c Line (v ng): S dng cng c ny v cc ng. Gi phm
Shift khi bn v cc ng nm ngang, thng ng hoc nghing 45 .
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3) Cng c Pen (bt mc): S dng cng c ny v cc ng cong. Cng
c Pen s v cc ng cong Bezier (l nhng ng cong vi cc nt kim sot m
bn c th dng kim sot ng cong).
4) Cng c Oval: S dng cng c ny v cc i tng hnh val. Gi
phm Shift v cc ng trn.
5) Cng c Pencil (bt ch): S dng cng c ny v tng im hoc cc
ng t do.
6) Cng c Free Transform (bin i t do): S dng cng c ny thay i
hnh dng ca i tng.
7) Cng c Ink Bottle (hp mc): S dng cng c ny b sung hoc sa
i mu ca mt ng.
8) Cng c Eyedropper (ng nh mt): S dng cng c ny chn mu t
mt i tng, bn c th chn c cng mt mu cho cc hnh v ca mnh.
9) Cng c Hand (bn tay): S dng cng c ny ko stage (v tt c cc
i tng) ti cc v tr khc. iu ny c th s rt hu dng nu bn phng qu
ln v khng thy c ton b stage v bn mun lm vic vi cc phn khc nhau
ca stage.
10) Mu v: Nhp vo biu tng ny m hp chn mu, bn c th chn
mu dng cho nt v t hp ny.
11) Mu t: Nhp vo biu tng ny chn hp mu t hoc mt mu
gradient dng t pha trong cc i tng c v.
12) Cc mu mc nh: Nhp vo biu tng ny chuyn mu nt v thnh
mu en v mu t thnh mu trng.
13) Khng mu: Nhp vo y thay i mu v hoc mu t hin ti (ph
thuc vo mu ang c chn) thnh khng mu. Bn khng th chn ty chn
ny trong mt s trng hp nu iu khng c ngha (chng hn nh thit lp
mu nt v thnh khng mu khi bn v mt ng thay v cho mt i tng c
t).
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14) Bng ty chn: Nhiu cng c c cc thit lp ty chn xut hin trong
bng ty chn hp cng c. xem cc ty chn lm g, hy gi con tr chut
pha trn biu tng ca mi ty chn mt thi gian cho n khi mt hp gii thch
nh xut hin k bn con tr chut.
15) Cng c Subselect: Cng c ny dng sa i cc ng m bn v
bng cng c bt mc.
16) Cng c lasso (dy thng lng): s dng cng c ny to mt vng
chn ty . iu ny gip bn chn bt k i tng no c trong vng chn.
17) Cng c text (vn bn): s dng cng c ny b sung mt hp vn bn.
Nhp mt ln to ra mt hp vn bn, bn c th m rng theo hng ngang
hoc ko to ra mt hp vn bn c chiu rng c nh.
18) Cng c Rectangle (hnh ch nht): s dng cng c ny v hnh ch
nht. Gi phm shift v hnh vung. Ph thuc vo ty chn bn chn, hnh
ch nht ny s c gc vung hoc bo trn.
19) Cng c brush (c v): s dng cng c ny v t do. Cng c ny c
mt s ty chn kim sot hiu ng c to ra bng cch s dng n.
20) Cng c Fill Transform: s dng cng c ny thay i hnh dng v v
tr t mu gradient.
21) Cng c paint Bucket (hp sn): s dng cng c ny b sung hoc sa
i mu t hoc mu gradient.
22) Cng c Eraser (ty xa): s dng cng c ny xa cc vng trn bn
v.
23) Cng c Zoom(thu phng): s dng cng c ny phng to hoc thu nh
bn v.
24) Hon chuyn mu: Nhp vo biu tng ny hon chuyn mu nt v
mu t.
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1.1.3.4. Tng quan v cch dng layer
a. Gii thiu
Layer ging nh cc t giy trong sut xp chng ln nhau. Khi bn to ra
mt on phim mi trong Flash, n to mt Layer. Bn c th thm vo nhiu Layer
sp xp cc nh, nh chuyn ng v cc thnh phn khc trong on phim. Bn
c th v v hiu chnh cc i tng trong mt Layer m khng nh hng n cc
i tng trong nhng Layer khc. Khi khng c i tng no trn Layer u tin,
bn c th thy xuyn qua Layer bn di n.
S lng Layer bn c th to ra khng gii hn, ch ty thuc vo b nh
my tnh ca bn v khng lm tng kch thc file khi bn xut on phim. Bn c
th lm n, kha hoc cho hin th ni dung.
Khi lm vic vi cc cnh v s chuyn ng phc tp ta nn dng Layer
t chc qun l. Bng cch t cc phn t khc bit (nh nh nn, cc biu tng,
cc s chuyn ng) trn cc lp ring bit sp xp th t ca s chuyn ng
theo nhiu cch khc nhau.
Ngoi ra, Layer cn c dng lm ng dn cho mt i tng chuyn
ng theo (Guide layer) hoc dng lm bn che hay cn gi l mt n (Mask layer).
b. Cc cng dng ca Layer (lp)
Khi to mt php bin hnh, tt c cc i tng trn lp c cha php bin
hnh phi di chuyn vi nhau. Nu bn mun cc cc i tng tnh trong phim
phi c b tr trn cc lp khng cha cc php bin hnh. Nu bn c cc php
bin hnh khc nhau, chng phi nm trn cc lp ring bit.
Nu bn mun to mt phim ni m cc i tng ch thy mt phn ca
stage, bn cn phi s dng mt lp c bit c tn l lp mt n (Mask).C th s
dng lp ny to hiu ng mt k t di chuyn pha sau mt ca s.
Khi to mt php bin hnh chuyn ng, cc i tng lm hot hnh nhn
chung di chuyn theo mt ng thng. Nu mun chng di chuyn theo mt
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ng cong no , bn c th s dng mt lp c bit gi l lp dn (Guide
layer).
Vi mc ch t chc, phn ln cc nh pht trin Flash b sung cc lp
ring bit dnh cho ghi ch, ghi nhn v cho cc m lnh Actionscript. Khi thc
hin nh vy s gip bn d dng tm ra nhng mc mong mun trong bng tin
trnh.
c. To guide layer
Dng lm ng dn cho i tng ca Layer khc chuyn ng theo.
d. To mask layer
Ta c th dng Mask Layer trnh din mt phn chuyn ng cho ngi
duyt xem bng cch to mt bng che. Bng che cng c th l mt hot cnh.
Nhng g nm Layer bn di ch xut hin bn trong lng i tng ca Mask
Layer.
e. nh thuc tnh layer
nh thuc tnh ca Layer, ta chn Layer cn nh ri vo Modify
Layer xut hin ca s ta nh cc thnh phn sau :
Name: nh tn Layer.
Show: n/hin Layer.
Lock: Kha/m kha.
Type:
o Normal: Layer thng.
o Guide: Layer ng dn.
o Guided: Layer chuyn ng theo ng dn.
o Mask: Layer bng che.
o Masked: Layer b che
Outline Color: Mu ca ng vin i tng c hin th khi chn View
as outline.
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View as outline: Ch hin th ng vin ca i tng.
Layer height: nh chiu cao ca Layer.
1.1.3.5. Symbol v instance
a. Gii thiu
Trong Flash, c nhng i tng c s dng nhiu ln trong cc hot
cnh. Do , ta nn bin chng thnh Symbol v lu tr vo trong th vin
Library.
Nhng i tng a vo Library gi l Symbol v cc i tng c ly
ra t Library vo Stage c gi l Instance. Nu ta chnh sa mt Symbol th tt c
cc Instance trong hot cnh s c cp nht.
Trong mi tp tin hot cnh ca Flash c 2 loi th vin :
Library: Th vin ring ca tng tp tin hot cnh.
Common Library: L th vin chung v l ni lu tr nhng loi Symbol c
sn ca phn mm Flash cung cp.
b. Symbol
Trong Flash c 3 loi Symbol :
Movie Clip: Symbol hot hnh ni dung l nhng loi chuyn ng.
Button: Symbol loi nt. Mt Button gm c bn trng thi :
- Up: Trng thi chut c th ngoi vng Hit.
- Over: Trng thi chut c ln qua vng Hit.
- Down: Trng thi chut c nhn trn vng Hit.
- Hit: Phm vi chut c tc dng.
Graphic: Symbol ha ni dung l cc i tng tnh mang tnh ha.
c. Hiu chnh mt Symbol
Nhp p chut vo Symbol cn hiu chnh.
Chn Symbol cn hiu chnh, vo menu Edit chn Edit Symbol.
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Chn Symbol cn hiu chnh, n phi chut chn Edit.
kt thc vic hiu chnh ta vo Edit chn Edit Movie (Ctrl-E) tr v
hot cnh chnh.
1.1.3.6. Cc loi bin hnh
a. Chuyn ng dng bin i chuyn ng (motion tween)
nh gi tr cc php bin i ca chuyn ng loi ny, ta nhp chut
vo khung hnh ch ca chuyn ng ri nh li trn thanh Properties.
Frame: tn khung hnh.
Tween: Loi chuyn ng.
Scale: Va chuyn ng va co gin.
Ease: Chuyn ng nhanh dn u hoc chm dn u (gi tr dng tng,
gi tr m gim).
Rotate: Va chuyn ng va xoay.
- Auto: T ng.
- CW: Cng chiu kim ng h.
- CCW: Ngc chiu kim ng h.
- Times: S vng xoay qua mi khung hnh.
Option:
- Orient to path: Chuyn ng theo ng dn.
- Synchronize: Chuyn ng ng b.
- Snap: Kt dnh ng dn.
Vi loi chuyn ng ny ta c th nh li mt s thuc tnh ca i tng
khi chuyn ng nh : mu sc, trong sut, sng ti, v tr, kch thc,
Color: Hiu ng mu sc, nh sng ca i tng khi chuyn ng.
- Tint: Hiu ng mu sc.
- Brightness: Hiu ng sng ti.
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- Alpha: Hiu ng trong sut.
- Advance: Hiu ng canh chnh tng mu.
b. Chuyn ng dng bin i hnh dng (shape tween)
nh gi tr cc php bin i ca chuyn ng loi ny ta ln lt chn
v nh li cc thuc tnh trn thanh Properties.
Frame: t tn khung hnh.
Tween: Kiu chuyn ng phi l Shape.
Ease: Chuyn ng nhanh hoc chm dn u.
c. Shape hint
Dng nh cch bin i hnh dng theo mnh ca chuyn ng Shape.
Thc hin trn hai khung hnh ch ca chuyn ng Shape:
Chn keyframe u tin ca chuyn ng Shape v thc hin cc bc sau:
- Vo Modify Shape Add Shape Hint cc vng trn mu c cc
k t ch ci (a z) xut hin tm i tng.
- Ln lt cho cc Shape Hint tip theo xut hin.
- Ko cc Shape Hint vo nhng v tr cnh ca i tng nh mong mun.
- Chn keyframe cui cng ca chuyn ng Shape ri ln lt ko v t
vo cc v tr cnh ca i tng nh mong mun (cc vng trn c mu
xanh).
xa cc Shape Hint ta thc hin bng cch cc cch sau:
- Vo Modify Shape Remove All Hints.
- Chn mt im Shape Hint bt k ri n phi chut v chn cc ty chn
ph hp
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1.2. Chng trnh ha hu c trng Cao ng S phm
V mt l thuyt, chng trnh Ha hu c trng Cao ng S phm gm
3 hc phn: C s ha hc hu c 1, C s ha hc hu c 2, C s ha hc hu c
3. Do phm vi nghin cu ca lun vn l cc c ch phn ng thuc chng trnh
Ha hc hu c 1 v 2 nn di y ch tp trung gii thiu chng trnh C s ha
hc hu c 1, 2 h Cao ng S phm.
1.2.1. Chng trnh ha hu c 1 [8], [20], [21]
1.2.1.1. Mc tiu ca chng trnh
Hc xong chng trnh ny sinh vin phi t c cc yu cu sau y:
1. C hiu bit s b v lch s pht trin ca ha hc hu c, v cc ngun ti
nguyn trong nc rt phong ph (thc vt nhit i, than m, du m, kh
thin nhin) lm c s cho s pht trin khoa hc v cng ngh ha hc
hu c Vit Nam. T trau di thm lng yu ngnh, yu ngh v yu t
quc.
2. Nm c cc kin thc c bn v hin i mang tnh cht i cng v ha
hc hu c, bao gm: nhng khi nim v cht hu c v ha hu c vi
nhng c th ring; nhng khi nim v cu trc phn t hu c; hiu ng
cu trc v phn ng hu c. T , bc u nhn ra rng ha hc hu c
l mt ngnh khoa hc thc nghim rt giu quy lut.
3. Nm c tnh cht, iu ch v nhng ng dng quan trng ca cc loi
hirocacbon no, khng no v thm, c bit l cc hirocacbon c trong
chng trnh trung hc c s.
4. Nhn r s lin quan gia hc phn ny vi cc hc phn ha i cng
c hc, v c c s hc tt cc hc phn tip sau ca ha hc hu c.
Bit vn dng cc kin thc v ha i cng vo vic hc ha hu c.
5. C kh nng gii cc bi tp v cc ch i cng v hirocacbon, nht
l cc bi tp c lin quan trc tip vi kin thc dy hc THCS.
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6. Bit vn dng nhng kin thc tip thu c hc phn ny vo vic nm
bt ni dung ca cc ti liu lin quan THCS, trn c s trnh c
nhng sai phm v ni dung khoa hc v phng php t duy.
7. C kh nng dy tt chng trnh ha hu c THCS, nht l bi "M u"
v bi "Hirocacbon".
8. C ch v kh nng t bi dng nng cao trnh v ha hc hu c
v cc mn hc c lin quan, tin ti t trnh i hc v c th cao hn
na.
1.2.1.2. Ni dung chng trnh Ha hu c 1
Chng trnh Ha hu c 1 gm 5 chng:
CHNG I: I CNG (24 tit gm 19 tit l thuyt + 5 tit bi tp)
1. Hp cht hu c v ha hc hu c
1.1. nh ngha v i tng nghin cu ca ha hc hu c
1.2. Lc s pht trin ha hc hu c
1.3. c im chung ca cc hp cht hu c
1.4. Phn loi hp cht hu c
1.5. Cht tinh khit. Phng php tch bit v tinh ch cht hu c
2. Cu to phn t hp cht hu c
2.1. Thnh phn nguyn t v cng thc phn t
2.2. Cng thc cu to. Thuyt cu to ha hc
2.3. Khi nim v ng ng v ng phn cu to
3. Cu trc khng gian v ng phn lp th
3.1 Khi nim v cu trc khng gian v cng thc m t cu trc khng
gian
3.2. ng phn hnh hc
3.3. M u v ng phn quang hc
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3.4. S lc v cu dng
4. Cu trc electron. Lin kt cng ha tr v cc lin kt yu
4.1. Bn cht v c im ca lin kt cng ha tr
4.2. Lin kt hiro
4.3. Lc ht Van de Van
5. Hiu ng cu trc
5.1. Hiu ng cm ng
5.2. Hiu ng lin hp
5.3. Hiu ng siu lin hp
5.4. Khi nim v thuyt cng hng
5.5. Hiu ng khng gian
6. Phng php xc nh cu trc phn t hp cht hu c
6.1. Khi nim chung v cc phng php xc nh cu trc phn t
6.2. Phng php ph electron
6.3. Phng php ph hng ngoi
6.4. Phng php ph cng hng t ht nhn
6.5. Phng php ph khi lng
7. Phn ng hu c
7.1. Phn loi phn ng hu c
7.2. Cc sn phm trung gian km bn vng trong phn ng:
cacbocation, cacbanion, gc cacbo t do
7.3. Khi nim v c ch phn ng
8. Nguyn tc chung ca danh php hu c
8.1. Cc loi danh php c bn
8.2. Danh php thay th
8.3. Danh php gc chc
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CHNG II: HIROCACBON NO (9 tit gm 6 tit l thuyt + 3 tit bi tp)
1. Ankan
1.1. ng phn, danh php v cu trc (lin kt C-C v cu dng)
1.2. Tnh cht vt l
1.3. Tnh cht ha hc: phn ng th v c ch S
R
; phn ng tch hiro
v phn ng crackinh; phn ng oxi ha
1.4. iu ch: tch t ngun thin nhin; t hirocacbon khng no; t
dn xut halogen; t mui natri ca axit cacboxylic
1.5. ng dng
1.6. Gii thiu ring v metan
2. Xicloankan
2.1. Phn loi, danh php v ng phn (ng phn cu to v ng
phn hnh hc)
2.2. Cu trc (cc sc cng, lin kt C-C, cu dng)
2.3. Tnh cht ha hc: phn ng cng - m vng; phn ng th; phn
ng oxi ha; phn ng ng phn ha
2.4. iu ch
2.5. Gii thiu v xiclohexan
CHNG III: HIROCABON KHNG NO
(12 tit gm 8 tit l thuyt + 4 tit bi tp)
1. Anken
1.1. ng phn (ng phn cu to v ng phn hnh hc). Danh php
1.2. Tnh cht vt l
1.3. Tnh cht ha hc: phn ng cng v cc c ch cng; phn ng
trng hp; phn ng th; cc phn ng oxi ha
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1.4. iu ch: t ankan, ancol, dn xut halogen (phn ng tch) v t
ankin (phn ng cng)
1.5. iu ch t hp cht cacbonyl
1.6. ng dng
1.7. Gii thiu ring v etilen
2. Polien
2.1. Phn loi, ng phn v danh php
2.2. Cu trc phn t ien lin hp
2.3. Tnh cht ha hc ca ien lin hp: phn ng cng v c ch cng;
phn ng trng hp; phn ng inx-An
2.4. Gii thiu ring v buta-1,3-ien v isopren
2.5. Khi nim v tecpen
3. Ankin
3.1. ng phn. Danh php
3.2. Tnh cht vt l
3.3. Tnh cht ha hc: phn ng cng; phn ng oligome ha; phn ng
oxi ha; phn ng th nguyn t H C
sp

3.4. iu ch: cc phng php chung (t dn xut halogen) v cc
phng php ring iu ch axetilen
3.5. ng dng
3.6. Gii thiu ring v axetilen
CHNG IV: HIROCACBON THM
(9 tit gm 6 tit l thuyt + 3 tit bi tp)
1. Benzen v cc cht ng ng
1.1. Cu trc phn t benzen
1.2. ng phn v danh php cc ng ng ca benzen
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1.3. Tnh cht vt l
1.4. Tnh cht ha hc: phn ng th nhn thm, c ch th v hng
th; phn ng cng; phn ng oxi ha; cc phn ng mch nhnh
1.5. iu ch benzen v cc ng ng
1.6. ng dng
1.7. Gii thiu ring v benzen
2. Cc aren khc
2.1. Hirocacbon thm c mch nhnh khng no: stiren, phenylaxetilen
2.2. Hirocacbon thm cha nhiu vng benzen ring r: biphenyl,
iphenylmetan, triphenylmetan
2.3. Hirocacbon thm cha nhiu vng benzen gip nhau: naphtalen,
antraxen, phenantren
3. Hp cht thm khng c vng benzen
3.1. Tnh cht thm v c im cu trc ca vng thm
3.2. Hp cht thm khng c vng benzen, cha cc h vng 5 cnh v
7 cnh
3.3. Hp cht thm khng c vng benzen, cha cc h vng 6 cnh, 8
cnh v cc vng ln
CHNG V: NGUN HIROCACBON TRONG THIN NHIN
(6 tit gm 4 tit l thuyt + 2 tit bi tp)
1. Kh thin nhin v kh du m
1.1. Trng thi thin nhin
1.2. Thnh phn
1.3. ng dng
2. Du m
2.1. Tnh cht vt l. Trng thi thin nhin
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2.2. Ngun gc ca du m. Qu trnh hnh thnh v pht trin ngnh
du kh trn th gii v Vit Nam
2.3. Thnh phn du m
2.4. Chng ct du m. Cc sn phm chng ct du m. Ch s octan
2.5. Ch bin ha hc cc phn on du m: cracking, rifominh
3. Than m
3.1. Cc loi than m. S chng ct than m
3.2. Cc sn phm thu c t kh l cc
3.3. Cc sn phm thu c t nha than m
3.4. S chuyn ha than m thnh nhin liu lng
1.2.1.3. Hng dn thc hin chng trnh
1. Hc phn " C s ha hc hu c 1" cn c thc hin sau cc hc phn v
Ha i cng v Ha v c vn dng cc kin thc ha v c i cng
vo ha hu c.
Hc phn ny t c s cho vic hc cc phn khc nh Cu to cht, Ha hc
cng ngh v mi trng, Ha sinh hc, v.v v c bit cn thit cho vic
hc cc hc phn C s ha hu c 2, 3 v 4.
2. Cu trc chng trnh hc phn ny c xy dng theo cc nguyn tc chnh
sau y:
- Hnh thnh cc khi nim v pht trin cc loi i tng kho st t n
gin n phc tp.
- Vic nghin cu tng loi hirocacbon tun theo mt trnh t logic: cu
trc tnh cht ng dng iu ch, nhm th hin r mi lin h cht
ch gia cc khi nim hoc cc ch .
- Nhng vn kh hoc tru tng nh hiu ng cu trc, ng phn lp
th, c ch phn ng c phn tn mt cch hp l, va nng cao
hiu qu dy hc va trnh nng n qu ti.
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3. Ni dung ca hc phn mang tnh c bn, tng i hin i v gn b vi
thc tin ging dy ha hc hu c cc trng ph thng cng nh thc tin
sn xut Vit Nam.
Ngoi ni dung ct li l chnh, chng trnh c c phn mm v phn m
rng (c in ch nh v nh du *).
4. So vi chng trnh nm 1996, chng trnh ny c mt s im khc bit nh
sau:
- Phn nh r phn ct li v phn mm.
- Chuyn mt s kin thc sang phn mm gim nh ni dung.
- Thm mt s t kin thc (khi nim cng hng) vo phn mm.
- a danh php hu c theo hai vng (vng 1: nhng nguyn tc chung
nht, vng 2: cch gi tn c th) tit kim thi gian v tng hiu qu
dy hc.
- iu chnh s phn b thi lng (cc chng I, II, VI).
5. Ni dung c bn ca tt c 5 chng trong chng trnh c lin quan trc tip
vi ni dung chng trnh ha hc hu c THCS v THPT. V vy, trong
qu trnh thc hin chng trnh hc phn ny cn thng xuyn lin h vi
cc chng trnh v sch gio khoa ha hc hu c bc ph thng.
1.2.2. Chng trnh ha hu c 2 [8], [20], [21]
Chng trnh C s ha hc hu c 2 h Cao ng S phm c thi lng l
60 tit, gm 40 tit l thuyt, 20 tit thc hnh.
1.2.2.1. Mc tiu ca chng trnh
Hc xong hc phn "C s ha hc hu c 2", sinh vin phi t c cc
yu cu sau y:
1. Nm c cc kin thc c bn v hin i v cc loi hp cht hu c n
chc v a chc, c bit l cc cht hu c c trong chng trnh ha hc
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hu c THCS v THPT nc ta. l nhng kin thc v cu trc, tnh
cht, ng dng v iu ch cc loi dn xut quan trng ca hirocacbon.
2. Nhn r s lin quan cht ch gia hc phn ny vi hc phn "C s ha
hc hu c 1" v cc hc phn Ha hc i cng hc. Bit vn dng cc
kin thc hc, nht l kin thc thuc hc phn 1, vo vic hc hc phn
ny. Mt khc, cn c c c s vng chc c th hc tt cc hc phn 3
v 4 ca chng trnh ha hu c.
3. C kh nng gii cc loi bi tp v dn xut ca hirocacbon, nht l cc
bi tp c lin quan trc tip vi cc kin thc thuc chng trnh ha hc
hu c THCS.
4. Bit vn dng nhng kin thc tip thu c hc phn ny vo vic o
su v m rng ni dung ca nhng bi lin quan THCS; trn c s
trnh c nhng sai phm v ni dung khoa hc v phng php t duy.
5. C kh nng dy tt chng trnh ha hc hu c THCS, nht l bi "Dn
xut ca hirocacbon".
6. C ch v kh nng t bi dng nng cao trnh v ha hc hu c
v cc mn hc c lin quan, tin ti t trnh i hc v c th cao hn
na.
1.2.2.2. Ni dung chng trnh
Chng trnh C s ha hc hu c 2 gm c 6 chng, c nh s th t
ni tip theo chng trnh C s ha hc hu c 1 (c 5 chng). Ni dung c th
gm:
CHNG VI: DN XUT HALOGEN CA HIROCACBON HP
CHT C NGUYN T (10 tit gm 7 tit l thuyt + 3 tit bi tp)
1. Dn xut halogen ca hirocacbon
1.1. Danh php v ng phn
1.2. Tnh cht vt l
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1.3. Tnh cht ha hc: phn ng th v c ch th; phn ng tch v c
ch tch; phn ng vi kim loi
1.4. iu ch: t hirocacbon v t ancol
1.5. c tnh ha hc ca cc dn xut flo
1.6. Gii thiu ring v mt s dn xut halogen quan trng
1.7. ng dng thc tin v tc hi ca mt s dn xut halogen i vi
mi trng
2. Hp cht c nguyn t
2.1. Hp cht c magie
2.2. Mt s loi hp cht c kim khc
2.3. Hp cht photpho
2.4. Mt s loi hp cht c phi kim khc
CHNG VII: ANCOL PHENOL ETE
(11 tit gm 7 tit l thuyt + 4 tit bi tp)
1. Monoancol
1.1. Danh php v ng phn
1.2. Tnh cht vt l
1.3. Tnh cht ha hc: phn ng lm t lin kt O-H; phn ng lm
t lin kt C-OH; phn ng oxi ha
1.4. iu ch: t anken, t dn xut halogen, t hp cht cacbonyl
1.5. Gii thiu ring v metanol v etanol
1.6. Mt s ancol c trong tinh du (geraniol, mentol)
2. Poliancol
2.1. Danh php
2.2. Tnh cht vt l
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2.3. Tnh cht ha hc: cc phn ng tng t monoancol; cc phn ng
to phc vi Cu(OH)
2
v H
3
BO
3

2.4. Gii thiu ring v glixerol
3. Phenol
3.1. Danh php
3.2. Tnh cht vt l
3.3. Tnh cht ha hc: phn ng nhm OH, phn ng nhn thm,
phn ng oxi ha kh
3.4. Gii thiu ring v phenol (C
6
H
5
OH)
3.5. Eugenol v naphtol
4. Ete
4.1. Danh php
4.2. Tnh cht ha hc: phn ng vi HI, phn ng oxi ha
4.3. Gii thiu ring v ietylete
4.4. Khi nim v epoxit
CHNG VIII: ANEHIT XETON (9 tit gm 6 tit l thuyt + 3 tit bi tp)
1. Monoanehit v monoxeton
1.1. Danh php
1.2. Tnh cht vt l
1.3. Tnh cht ha hc: Phn ng cng vo nhm C=O v c ch cng;
phn ng th nguyn t oxi ca nhm C=O; cc phn ng kh v oxi
ha; cc phn ng gc hirocacbon
1.4. iu ch: cc phng php iu ch chung; cc phng php iu
ch ring anehit xeton thm
1.5. Gii thiu ring fomanehit v axeton
1.6. Mt s anehit v xeton c trong tinh du (xitral, campho,)
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2. ianehit v ixeton
S lc v cc hp cht 1,2-icacbonyl; hp cht 1,3-icacbonyl v
quinon
CHNG IX: AXIT CACBOXYLIC DN XUT CA AXIT LIPIT
(12 tit gm 8 tit l thuyt + 4 tit bi tp)
1. Axit cacboxylic
1.1. Danh php. Cu to ca nhm cacboxyl
1.2. Tnh cht vt l
1.3. Tnh cht ha hc: tnh axit, phn ng to thnh dn xut, c ch
este ha, cc phn ng kh v ecacboxyl ha; cc phn ng gc
hirocacbon
1.4. iu ch: tng hp gi nguyn mch, gim mch v tng mch
cacbon
1.5. Gii thiu ring v mt s axit monocacboxylic: axit fomic, axetic,
acrilic, benzoic
1.6. Gii thiu ring v mt s axit icacboxylic: cc axit oxalic,
malonic, phtalic
2. Dn xut ca axit cacboxylic
2.1. Phn loi v danh php
2.2. Tnh cht ha hc: thy phn v mt s phn ng tng t, c ch
thy phn este AcA2 v AcB2; phn ng vi hp cht c magie; phn
ng gc hirocacbon; phn ng kh
2.3. Gii thiu ring v mt s este (etyl axetat, ietyl malonat)
2.4. Khi nim v mt s dn xut ca axit cacbonic: ure, axit cacbamit,
photgen
3. Lipit
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3.1. Triglixerit: cu trc, tnh cht vt l, tnh cht ha hc (thy phn,
hiro ha, oxi ha); cc ch s ha hc ca cht bo
3.2. Khi nim v sp v photpholipit
3.3. Khi nim v x phng v cc cht git ra tng hp: cu to, tnh
cht git ra
CHNG X: HP CHT CHA NIT
(12 tit gm 8 tit l thuyt + 4 tit bi tp)
1. Amin
1.1. Phn loi v danh php
1.2. Tnh cht vt l
1.3. Tnh cht ha hc: tnh baz; phn ng vi axit nitr; phn ng th
hiro nhm amino; phn ng th hiro nhn thm ca amin thm
1.4. iu ch: phng php th, phng php kh
1.5. Gii thiu ring v metylamin v anilin
1.6. Khi nim v hp cht amoni bc bn
2. Mui areniazoni
2.1. Cu trc ca ion benzeniazoni
2.2. Tnh cht ha hc: cc phn ng th nhm
+
2
N , phn ng ghp (tip
v) vi phenol v amin thm
3. Hp cht mu azo v phm nhum
3.1. Khi nim v mu, cht mu v phm nhum
3.2. Quan h gia cu trc v mu
3.3. Cc loi phm nhum quan trng

CHNG XI: HP CHT D VNG (6 tit gm 4 tit l thuyt + 2 tit bi tp)
1. M u v d vng
1.1. nh ngha v phn loi
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1.2. Danh php
1.3. Tm quan trng ca cc d vng
2. D vng thm nm cnh c mt d t
2.1. Cu trc ca pirole, furan v thiophen
2.2. Tnh cht ha hc: phn ng th, phn ng kh
2.3. S lc v cc d vng thm nm cnh c hai d t: imiazole,
thiazole v oxazole
3. D vng thm 6 cnh c mt d t
3.1. Cu trc ca piriin
3.2. Tnh cht ha hc: tnh baz, cc phn ng th, cc phn ng kh
v oxi ha
3.3. S lc v cc d vng thm su cnh c hai d t: pirimiin v
purin cng cc dn xut hiroxi v amino ca chng
4. S lc v ancaloit
1.2.2.3. Hng dn thc hin chng trnh
1. Hc phn " C s ha hc hu c 2" cn c thc hin ngay sau hc phn
"C s ha hc hu 1" m bo s k tip lin tc, to iu kin thun li
cho vic hnh thnh nhng khi nim mi trn c s vn dng v pht trin
nhng hiu bit m sinh vin tip thu c qua hc phn 1.
Hc phn ny t c s cho vic hc cc hc phn Ha hc cng ngh - mi
trng, Ha sinh hc,.. v c bit khng th thiu c cho vic hc cc
hc phn C s ha hc hu c 3 v 4.
2. Cu trc ca hc phn ny c xy dng theo nguyn tc pht trin cc
nhm chc t n gin n phc tp, t hp cht n chc n hp cht a
chc. Mi loi chc c kho st theo trnh t logic nh khi kho st cc
hirocacbon hc phn trc; c th l: cu trc tnh cht - ng dng
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iu ch. Cc vn l thuyt kh, nh c ch phn ng, hiu ng cu trc
c phn tn mt cch hp l cc chng thch hp.
3. Ni dung ca hc phn ny mang tnh c bn, tng i hin i v gn vi
thc tin ging dy ha hc hu c trng ph thng (cc lp 9, 11 v 12)
cng nh thc tin sn xut (tecpen, tinh du, cng nghip ha cht, bo v
mi trng, v.v) Vit Nam.
Ngoi ni dung ct li l ch yu, chng trnh hc phn ny c c phn
mm v phn m rng (c in ch nh v nh du *).
4. Chng trnh ny v c bn tng t chng trnh nm 1996, song c mt
s iu khc bit nh sau:
- Phn nh r phn ct li v phn mm.
- Tinh gin bt mt s kin thc, mt khc chuyn bt mt s kin thc
khc sang phn mm gim nh ni dung.
- Tng cng tnh thc tin.
- Chnh l i cht v cu trc v iu chnh s phn b thi lng ca cc
chng.
5. Ni dung c bn ca hu ht cc chng trong chng trnh hc phn ny
u c lin quan trc tip vi ni dung chng trnh ha hc hu c THCS
v THPT. V vy, trong qu trnh thc hin chng trnh ny cn thng
xuyn lin h vi chng trnh v sch gio khoa bc ph thng.
1.3. Mt s phn ng ha hu c trng Cao ng S phm [18], [19],
[20], [21], [22], [24], [30]
1.3.1. Phn ng th nguyn t cacbon no (Substitution at saturated cacbon
atom)
1.3.1.1. C ch phn ng th nucleophin
Trong hp cht no, phn ng th theo c ch Nucleophin l quan trng v
ph bin nht.
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S phn ng th nucleophin (Nucleophilic substitution)
Y + R X R Y + X
Y
: OH
-
, RO
-
, RCOO
-
, I
-
, H
2
O, ROH, NR
3
....
X: I, Cl, Br, OH, OR, OSO
2
Ar...

1. C ch S
N
2

a. c im c ch
C ch lng phn t, mt giai on i qua trng thi chuyn tip.
Y
+
X X Y
. . . . . .
X
o o
Y +

ttct

V d:
HO
-
+ CH
3
Br HO
o-
CH
3
Br
o-
HO CH
3
+ Br
-

S trn p dng trc tip cho trng hp X l halogen. Khi X = OH hoc
OR, trc khi thc hin phn ng S
N
2 cn hot ha nhm OH hoc OR
V d:
CH
3
OH HI
nhanh
CH
3
OH
2
I
I
S
N
2
I CH
3
OH
2
o o
CH
3
OH
2
I CH
3
H
2
O

Khi tc nhn nucleophin trung ha in (R
3
N, ROH, H
2
O) cp electron t do
l tc nhn nucleophin.
ttct
H
3
CNH
2
CH
3
Br
o
o
H
3
C N C Br
H
H
H
H H
H
3
C N
H
H
CH
3
Br

b. Tin trnh lp th
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Xt v nh hng khng gian cng nh n nh ca trng thi chuyn tip
trong phn ng S
N
2; Y
-
tn cng C
o+
t pha khng c X thun li hn t pha c X.
+ Y
(-)
-X
(-)
-X
(-)
quay cau hnh
o
gi nguyen cau hnh
Y
o
X
o
C
ttct kem ben
Y
o
X
o C
ttct ben
Y C
X C
Y C

c. Dn chng
- Phn ng c bc 2 (bc 1 i vi cht phn ng v tc nhn phn ng).
- Tc v = k[RX][Y
(-)
]. Tc phn ng ph thuc vo nng , tnh
cht ca cht phn ng v tc nhn phn ng.
- Nu xut pht t RX cu hnh R s thu c RY c cu hnh S v ngc
li.
V d: (S) MeCHBrBu v NaOH trong hn hp ru nc cho (R) -
MeCHOHBu
(S)
+

OH
(-)
HO C Br C
Bu
Me
H
Bu
H
Me
(R)
+ Br
(-)

2. C ch S
N
1

a. c im c ch
Phn ng n phn t, hai giai on to ra sn phm trung gian l
cacbocation R
+
giai on chm quyt nh tc phn ng.
S :
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C X
cham
C + X
C
+ Y
nhanh
C Y

V d:
Me
3
C - Br
cham
+ Br Me
3
C
Me
3
C
+ OH
nhanh
Me
3
C - OH

Khi X l OH hay OR cn hot ha bng H
+
hoc ZnCl
2
:
Me
3
C - OH
+ H
+
nhanh
Me
3
C - OH
2
Me
3
C - OH
2
Me
3
C + OH
2
cham
Me
3
C + Cl
nhanh
Me
3
C - Cl

Me
3
C - OH
ZnCl
2
Me
3
C O
H
ZnCl
2
o o
cham
Me
3
C+ Zn(OH)Cl
2
Me
3
C + Cl
nhanh
Me
3
C - Cl

b. Tin trnh lp th
Cacbocation R
(+)
c cu hnh phng hay gn nh phng nn xc sut tin
cng ca Y
(-)
t hai pha vo C
(+)
l tng ng nhau. Cho nn, nu xut pht t
RX quang hot (dng R hoc S) sau phn ng phi thu c hn hp raxemic.
Br C
cham
C
hon hp Raxemic
+ Y
(-) quay cau hnh
Y C
gi nguyen cau hnh
Y C
nhanh

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c. Dn chng
- Phn ng c bc 1.
- Tc phn ng v = k[RX]. Tc phn ng khng ph thuc vo tc
nhn, ch ph thuc vo bn cht v nng ca cht phn ng.
- Khi bn ca cacbocation cng tng th t l ng phn gi nguyn cu
hnh tng.
V d:
Thy phn bng ru nc thu c ancol tng
ng gm 66% dng S v 34% dng R, S. Trong iu kin tng t R - phCHBrMe
cho 95% sn phm (R, S) v ch 5% sn phm S.
*
6 13 3
(R)-n-C H CHBrCH
1.3.1.2. Phn ng th theo c ch gc t do (S
R
)
S phn ng theo c ch gc t do:
R H + X Y RX + HY
X Y: Hal
2
, SO
2
Cl
2
, R
3
C-O-Cl, CCl
3
Br, CF
3
I,
Phn ng xy ra c chiu sng hoc c cht khi mo.
a. c im c ch
Phn ng dy chuyn to ra sn phm trung gian l gc cacbo t do R
-
.C 3
bc chnh.
V d phn ng halogen ha:
- Bc khi mo:
X
hv
X 2X
.
(1)

- Bc pht trin:
+ RH HX
.
X
+ (2a)
(2b)
n lan
+ X X RX + X
.
R
.
R
.

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- Tt mch:
R - R + (3a)
(3b)
(3c)
X
2
R
.
R
.
R
.
.
X +
+
X R
.
X
.
X

Bc quyt nh to thnh sn phm l bc pht trin mch, trong (2a)
l giai on chm.
Cu trc ca giai on (2a) nh sau:
+ -
[R ....H...X ]
b. Tin trnh lp th
Giai on quyt nh cu hnh ca sn phm l 2b, v c cu trc phng
hay gn nh phng nn X
2
tin cng R
R
-
-
t hai pha vi sc xut gn nh nhau, vy
tng t phn ng S
N
1
phn ng S
R
dn n s raxemic ha.
1.3.2. Phn ng tch to lin kt bi cacbon - cacbon
Nhng phn ng tch | - quan trng u l nhng phn ng nucleophin xy
ra trong dung dch (c ch E
1
, E
2
).
1.3.2.1. C ch E
2
(Bimolecular elimination)
a. c im c ch
E
2
l phn ng lng phn t, mt giai on, to thnh trng thi chuyn tip
tng t S
N
2 v thng xy ra song song vi S
N
2.
Y + Y- - H - - - C
C - - -X
-

-

-

-
o
o
+ X YH + C C H C C X
o
|
ttct

X: Cl, Br, I, OSO
2
Ar
Y- : OH-, RO-, NR
3

V d:
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C
2
H
5
O
-
+
C C
Br
H
H H
3
C
H
H
C
2
H
5
O


C
Br
H
H
H
3
C
H
H
C
o
o
- C
2
H
5
OH
- Br
H H
3
C
H
C
C
H

b. Tin trnh lp th
V mt l thuyt c th tch theo 2 kiu:
Tch trans (hay anti) (X v H
|
b tch khc pha)
Tch cis (hay syn) (X v H
|
b tch cng pha)
Tach trans (hay anti)
Hp chat cha no Hp chat no
H
X
X
H
C C


X H
C C
Hp chat cha no Hp chat no


H
X

Tach cis (hay syn)

Cc trng thi chuyn tip to ra t cc kiu tch trans (anti) hay cis ( syn).
X
H
C C
ttct ben hn
Y
o
o
H
X
o
Y
o
ttct ttct
ttct t ben hn
H
C C
Y
o
X
o
H Y
o
X
o
ttct ttct


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Trng thi chuyn tip to ra t kiu tch trans (anti) c 2 nhm cng bn
cht in X, Y xa nhau nn trnh c tng tc y.
Trng thi chuyn tip to ra t kiu tch cis (syn) c 2 nhm cng bn cht
in X, Y gn nhau lm cho tng tc y gia cc nhm ny mnh, do E
a
ln,
trng thi chuyn tip khng bn.
Mt khc trng thi chuyn tip anti c cc nhm th v tr i xng nhau
tng i mt nn orbital t d to thnh hn.
X
H R
H
R
CHAT AU
ANKEN
Y
o
H
o X
H R
H
R
o
+ HY + X
R
H R
H

Phn ng tch E
2
xy ra theo kiu trans (anti) tc 4 trung tm phn ng (H
C C H) trn mt mt phng, trong cc nguyn t hay nhm nguyn t b
tch (H v X) v tr anti vi nhau.
c. Dn chng
- Phn ng tch H-Hal t dn xut R-Hal c bc 2.
- Tc phn ng v = k[R-Hal][Y
-
]
1.3.2.2. C ch E
1
a. c im c ch
Tng t S
N
1, E
1
l phn ng hai giai on to sn phm trung gian l R
+

S c ch:
C C H X +
X C C H
C C H C C
+
H
Cham
Nhanh

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X: Cl, Br, OSO
2
Ar, OH
2


V d:
(CH
3
)
3
Br (CH
3
)
3
C
+
+ Br

Cham
Nhanh
(CH
3
)
2
C CH
3
+
(CH
3
)
2
C CH
2
+
H
+

b. Tin trnh lp th
E
1
khng c tnh c th lp th nh E
2
v R
+
c cu trc phng hoc gn
nh phng. Khi R
+
sinh ra c th quay v cu dng bn, th cu hnh ca anken sinh
ra ph thuc vo cu dng ca R
+
nh sau:
-
H
+
N
L
N'
L'
H
N L
N' L'

c. Dn chng
- Tc phn ng ch ph thuc vo nng ca cht phn ng: v = k[RX].
- Nhng yu t lm thun li cho S
N
1
cng lm thun li cho E
1
.
1.3.3. Phn ng cng vo lin kt bi cacbon - cacbon
1.3.3.1. C ch phn ng cng electrophin (A
E
)
a. c im c ch
Phn ng qua nhiu giai on trong giai on tn cng ca tc nhn
electrophin to cacbocation R
+
l giai on chm quyt nh tc phn ng.
S c ch:
C C
X
+
-
+ +
C = C X Y C C Y
X
+

+

-
cham
+
Y
-
C C
X Y
nhanh

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X-Y: Hal-Hal, Hal-Hal, H-Hal, Ha-OH, H
2
SO
4
, H
2
O
- Trc khi to cacbocation c th cn to ra phc t gia anken v tc nhn
X Y
X Y
+
C
C
C
C

+

-
X Y


- Trong mt s trng hp cacbocation tn ti di dng vng 3 cnh.
V d:
C C

-
+
Br

Br

+
C C
Br
+
+
Br
-
Ion bromoni

C ch cng A
E
vo ni ba tng t c ch A
E
vo ni i
b. Tin trnh lp th
V mt l thuyt, phn ng c th xy ra theo 2 kiu cng l: cng cis (syn)
hoc cng trans (hay anti).
Cng cis (syn): tc nhn X-Y tn cng vo cng pha ca ni i.
H
H
X
Y
R
R
cong
cis
cong
cis
H
H X
Y
R
R
Y
R
H
X
R
R
H
X
H
R
H
Y
D,L-Erytro
Cis - anken

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Cng trans (anti): tc nhn X-Y tn cng vo hai pha ca ni i.
H
D,L-Treo
trans
cong
trans
cong
Y
H
X
R
R
H
Y
H
X
R
R
H
H
R
R
X
Y
Trans - anken
H
H
R
R
X
Y

Phn ng cng trans to ra sn phm c cc nhm th ging nhau xa nhau
nn trnh c tng tc y. V th phn ng cng A
E
xy ra theo kiu cng trans
l ch yu, nht l khi to c cacbocation vng 3 cnh th phn ng c tnh c
th lp th l cng trans.
V d:
Phn ng cng Br
2
vo anken, khi Br
+
tn cng anken to ion bromoni l
vng 3 cnh n ng mt pha nn bt buc tc nhn Y
-
phi vo pha i din.
C
Br
+
Br
2
1
Br
Br
Br
Br
(1)
(2)
+
C = C
o
+
o

Br Br
cham
Br
C

c. Dn chng
Phn ng qua nhiu giai on, to cacbocation l sn phm trung gian
V d:
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Cho etylen tc dng vi Br
2
c mt cc mui NaCl, NaNO
3
v CH
3
OH thu
c mt hn hp sn phm gm CH
2
BrCH
2
Br, CH
2
BrCH
2
Cl, CH
2
BrCH
2
ONO
2
v
CH
2
BrCH
2
OCH
3
.
Kt qu trn ch c th gii thch nh sau:
CH
2
= CH
2
+
o
+
o

cham
Br Br
sptg
+
CH
2
CH
2
Br + Br

+
CH
2
CH
2
Br +
CH
2
Br - CH
2
Br
CH
2
Br - CH
2
Cl
CH
2
Br - CH
2
ONO
2
CH
3
OH CH
2
Br -CH
2
OCH
3
Cl
ONO
2
nhanh
Br
nhanh
nhanh
H
+
nhanh

Khi cho axit maleic tc dng vi Br
2
thu c cp D, L 2,3 dibrom
succinic axit, trong khi axit fumaric tc dng vi Br
2
cho hp cht meso.
Kt qu ch c th gii thch bng phn ng cng trans.
COOH
H
H
HOOC
H
COOH
COOH
+
Br
H
axit fumaric
hp chat meso
o
+
o

Br Br
Br
Br
Br
Br
COOH
H
COOH
H
Br
Br
(1)
(2)
COOH
H
H
COOH
D, L - treo
H
H
COOH
COOH
(
2
)
(
1
)
+
Br
axit maleic
COOH
COOH
H
H
Br
Br
Br
H COOH
H
COOH
o
+
o

Br Br
Br

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1.3.3.2. C ch phn ng cng A
E
vo h ien lin hp
Cc ien lin hp c kh nng phn ng A
E
cao hn cc ien khng lin hp.
Sau phn ng thu c 2 sn phm: sn phm cng 1, 2 v sn phm cng 1, 4. Ty
vo iu kin c th ca phn ng, mt trong hai sn phm chim u th.
a. S phn ng
cong 1,2
cong 1,4
(sp cong 1,2)
(sp cong 1,4)
- C = C - C = C - + X - Y
4 2 3 1
o o
+ -
Y
- C = C - C - C -
X
- C - C = C - C - X
Y

C ch:
Y
- C = C - C - C -
X
cong 1,4
cong 1,2
X
- C C - C C
..... .....
(+)
Y
(sp cong 1,2)
(sp cong 1,4)
Y
- C = C - C - C -
X
- C - C = C - C -
Y
X
- C C - C C
..... .....
(+)
- C = C - C = C - + X - Y
4 2 3 1 o
+
o
-
X

b. T l sn phm cng 1,2 v 1,4
Bn cht tc nhn XY:
XY l Br
2
v I
2
cho sn phm cng 1,4 l chnh.
2
ng 1,4.
Nhit :
p cho sn phm cng 1,2 l chnh.
Nhit cao cho sn phm cng 1,4 l chnh.
T l ny ph thuc vo cc yu t sau:
XY l Cl cho sn phm cng 1,2 bng sn phm c

Nhit th
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cong 1,2
cong 1,4
- 80
0
C
40
0
C
CH
2
= CH - CH - CH
3
80%
Br
CH
2
- CH = CH - CH
3
80%
Br
+ HBr
4
2 3 1
CH
2
= CH - CH = CH
2

1.3.4. Phn ng cng v th ca hp cht cacbonyl
1.3.4.1. Phn ng cng nucleophin A
N
vo nhm C=O
Phn ng cng nucleophin A
N
vo nhm C=O ca hp cht cacbonyl xy ra
theo s :
- C - C = O + X - Y
o
+
o
+
o
-
o
-
- C - OX
Y

X Y: H OH, H CN, H SO
3
Na, R Li, R MgHal, LiAlH
4
.
a. c im c ch
Phn ng lng phn t, hai giai on sn phm trung gian l mt anion.
- C = O + X - Y
cham
+
nhanh
- X
-
o
+
o
-
X
+
- C - O
Y
- C - OX
Y
- C - O
Y

Phn ng c xc tc bi axit hoc baz
Xc tc axit hot ha nhm C = O
H
+
- - C OH
- C=O +
nhanh
-
H
+
cham
+ ROH
..
OH - C
....
- C
H
OH
O-R
OH
OR
- C

Xc tc baz hot ha tc nhn
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R-OH
OH
-
RO
-
+ H
2
O
RO
-
+ - C=O +
RO
-
cham
O
-
OR
- C
ROH
nhanh
OH
OR
- C

b. Tin trnh lp th
Khi cng X Y vo R
1
R
2
C=O thng khng c tnh c th lp th v nhm
C=O c cu to phng. Nu trong phn ng to ra sn phm c cacbon bt i th
sn phm phi l hn hp raxemic, v xc xut tn cng ca Y
-
t hai pha vo
cacbon cacbonyl l nh nhau:
hon hp raxemic C
R
1
R
2
OX
Y
C= O +
R
1
R
2
Y - X
o
-
o
+

Khi cacbon ca nhm C=O ni vi cacbon bt i th s u tin to ra mt
ng phn quang hc khng i quang no theo qui tc Cram. Tc nhn Y X
cng vo nhm C=O t pha t b n ng khng gian v to ra trng thi chuyn tip
n nh hn.
c. Dn chng
ng hc: Phn ng cng HCN vo Me
2
C=O c xc tin bng OH v tc
phn ng s gim khi cho thm H
+
.
HCN H
+
+ CN
-
(*).
CN
-
cham
C= O +
Me
Me
C
CN
O
-

CN
-
: l tc nhn tn cng giai on chm.
Thm OH
-
lm cho cn bng (*) dch chuyn v bn phi, lm tng nng
CN
-
.
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Thm H
+
lm cho cn bng dch chuyn v bn tri, lm gim nng CN
-

1.3.4.2. C ch phn ng este ha
V mt l thuyt d on c th xy ra theo 4 c ch:
Cch phn ct Xc tc axit
Ct Ac O


(Ct Acyl oxi)
H
+
R - C - O - R'
O

Ac A
2
Ac A
1

Ct Al O

(Ct Alkyl oxi)
H
+
R - C - O - R'
O

Al A
2
Al A
1


- Thc nghim cha tm thy A1 A2
- Rt t gp Ac A1
- Ph bin nht l Ac A2
- Sau l Al A1
a. c im c ch Ac A2
Thc cht l c ch S
N
2
(CO)
H
+
hoac
R - C - OH
O
+
R - C - OH
O
2
R - C - OH
+
OH
+R'OH
-H
+
R - C - OH
O
+
H
R'
OH
R - C - OH
2
+
OR'
OH
R-C
OR'
OH
+
R-C-OR'
O
-H
2
O
R - C - OH
+
OH
+ H
2
O
+ H
+

Tt c cc giai on u thun nghch. Chiu thun l phn ng este ha.
Chiu nghch l phn ng thy phn este.
b. Dn chng
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- Phng php nguyn t nh du:
18
Ph-C-OH + CH
3
OH
O
Ph-C-O-CH
3
+ H
2
O
18
O

Chng t trong phn ng c s phn ct acyl oxi.
- Phng php ha lp th:
Nu xut pht t ancol c cu hnh (S), sau khi este ha v thy phn ta nhn
li ancol vn c cu hnh (S).
R - C - OH
O
+
HO-R'
(S)
R-C-OR'
O
+H
2
O
RCOOH + R'OH
(S)

Chng t lin kt R O khng b phn ct.
- Phng php ng hc: Tc phn ng thy phn este:
v = k [RCOOR][H
2
O][H
+
].
Nng nc trong dung dch khng thay i nn v = k [RCOOR][H
+
].
1.3.4.3. C ch phn ng thy phn este trong mi trng kim
V mt l thuyt d on c 4 c ch.
Cch phn ct Xc tc axit
Ct Ac O

(ct Acil oxy)
R - C - O - R'
O

Ac B
2
Ac B
1


Ct Al O

(ct Alkyl oxy)
R - C - O - R'
O

Al B
2
Al B
1


Thc nghim:
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- Cha thy Ac B1
- Rt t gp A1 B2
- Ph bin nht l Ac B2
- Sau n A1 B1
a. c im c ch Ac B2
Thc cht l c ch S
N
2 (CO)
cham
R'OH
+ + R'O RCOO
nhanh
+ HO R-C-OR'
O
R - C - OH
O
R-C-OR'
O
OH
y l phn ng mt chiu v giai on cui l bt thun nghch.
b. Dn chng
- Phn ng c bc 2: v = k [RCOOR][OH
-
].
- Thy phn CH
3
COOC
5
H
11
trong
18
2
H O c
18
3
-
v C
5
H
11
OH. CH COO
+
CH
3
-C-O-C
5
H
11
+ H-OH CH
3
C-OC
5
H
11
CH
3
-C-O-H + C
5
H
11
OH
18
18
O
18
O
OH
2
O
CH
3
COOH + OH CH
3
COO + H
2
O
18 18

1.3.5. Phn ng th nhn thm
1.3.5.1. C ch phn ng th electrophin
Phn ng gia hp cht thm Ar H v tc nhn E
+
to ra sn phm Ar-E v
H
+
c th xy ra theo 3 c ch khc nhau:
- C ch mt giai on: tng t c ch S
N
2 dy no
E
+
+ Ar H E-Ar + H
+

+ +
E .......Ar......H
- C ch hai giai on n phn phn t: tng t c ch S
N
1 dy no.
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Ar - H Ar + H
+
cacbanion
cham
-
Ar + E
+
Ar - E
nhanh -

- C ch hai giai on lng phn t: (C ch phc o )
Ar - H + E Ar - H + H
+
nhanh

cham
Ar
H
E
phc o

Kt qu nghin cu bng thc nghim cho thy hu ht cc phn ng th
electrophin nhn thm u xy ra theo c ch 2 giai on lng phn t. Cn gi
l c ch phc o hay c ch S
E
2 Ar.
C ch S
E
2 Ar
a. c im c ch
Phn ng lng phn t, nhiu giai on, sn phm trung gian l mt
cacbocation vng gi l phc o .
R
R
+ E
+
E
+
R
+
E
H
R
E
H
+
R
E
H
+
+
Phc
San pham Phc
II
t
I
t
Phc o

Nu b qua phc
I
t v
II
t ta c:
cham
nhanh
R
+ E
+
R
+
E
H
B
R
E
BH
+
Phc o

E
+
l tc nhn electrophin trc tip tn cng vo vng thm.
E
+
c th l mt ion dng thc s , R
+
, hoc ch mang mt phn in
tch dng nh:
+
2
NO
+ - -
3
S O I CI , I Br....
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b. Cu to ca phc o
- L sn phm trung gian khng bn.
- L mt cacbocation vng khng no trong 4e t c phn b 5 nguyn
t cacbon, cn nguyn t cacbon th 6 trng thi lai to sp
3
.

hoac
1
3
+
+
1
3
+
1
3
+
hoac
E
E
H
H
+
E
H
sp
3
sp
3
H




- S c mt ca phc o : Trong mt s phn ng, ngi ta tch c phc
o .
Th d:
C
2
H
5
F
xt BF
3
, 80
0
C
H
3
C
C
2
H
5
H
CH
3
Menilen
[BF
4
]
-HF
-BF
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
C
2
H
5
H
3
C
Phc o

Phc o l mt cht rn, T
nc
= - 15
0
C.
Bng nhiu phn ng khc nhau, ngi ta chng minh s c mt ca tc
nhn E
+
nh
+
+
2
NO , Br , R
+
Th d:
Ngi ta tch c mui nitronipeclorat , ClO
2
N O
+
4

, Trn ph khuch tn
t hp ca hn hp HNO
3
v H
2
SO
4
c vch 1400cm
-1
c trng cho ion .
2
N O
+
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1.3.5.2. C ch phn ng halogen ha
Halogen hay dng l Cl
2
, Br
2
, xc tc l bt Fe hoc cc mui AlBr
3
, AlCl
3
,
ZnCl
2
.
Th d: phn ng Brom ha xc tc l bt Fe.
2Fe + 3Br
2
= 2FeBr
3

FeBr
3
+ Br Br . , FeBr
3
.
+
Br
-
Br
Hoc:
+
4
Br [FeBr ]

Hoc: Br
+
+ [FeBr
4
]
-

+
o
Br
+
.....
- o
Br.FeBr
3
HBr FeBr
3
cham
+ FeBr
4
-
+
+
Phc o
H
Br
nhanh
+ FeBr
4
-
H
Br
Br
+
+


1.3.5.3. Phn ng th nucleophin - C ch S
N
2Ar
C ch S
N
2Ar xy ra khi v tr ortho hoc para trong nhn thm c nhm
th Z vi hiu ng C mnh: NO
2
, CN, COR
a. c im c ch
Phn ng lng phn t, hai giai on sn phm trung gian l mt anion
vng tng t phc o nhng mang in tch m.
X
Z
Z
X
+
Y
Y
X
Z
+
X
-
-
Anion trung gian

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Nhm Z c tc dng lm gim in tch m nn lm tng bn ca anion
trung gian.
Th d: Khi Z = NO
2
, X = Cl, Y
-
= C
2
H
5
O
-
, anion trung gian c cu to nh
sau:

Cl
OC
2
H
5
N
O
O




b. Dn chng
- Phn ng c bc hai: v = k[ArX][Y
-
]
- Trong mt s trng hp, tch c sn phm trung gian.
NO
2
Anion trung gian
OCH
3
NO
2
C
2
H
5
O
-
-
O
2
N
CH
3
O OC
2
H
5
NO
2
-CH
3
O
-
O
2
N
O
2
N
OC
2
H
5
NO
2
NO
2
NO
2
2,4,6 - trinitro anizol

Khi a thm nhm th cng knh vo v tr ortho i vi nhm Z, kh nng
phn ng gim v hiu ng S
II
.
Thc nghim xc nhn iu .
co knp
27 lan
>
O
2
N Br
CH
3
O
2
N
Br
CH
3

c. nh hng ca cu trc n kh nng phn ng
- Bn cht ca Z: Z ht electron cng mnh th kh nng phn ng cng cao.
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- Bn cht ca X: X ht electron cng mnh th kh nng phn ng cng cao:
Ar-F >> Ar-Cl >> Ar-Br >> Ar-I.
1.4. Thc trng dy hc phn c ch phn ng ha hu c cc trng
Cao ng S phm
1.4.1. Mc ch iu tra
gp phn kho st, phn tch nh gi ng thc trng vic dy hc phn
c ch phn ng ha hu c cc trng Cao ng S phm chng ti ra mt
s mc ch c th ca vic iu tra nh sau:
a. C c s nhn nh v nh gi mt cch khch quan v thc trng dy v
hc phn c ch phn ng ha hu c cc trng Cao ng S phm hin
nay.
b. Thng qua qu trnh iu tra, i su phn tch cc phng php dy phn c
ch phn ng ha hu c m cc ging vin ang s dng v vic tip thu
phn kin thc ny sinh vin. Tm ra u, nhc im ca phng php dy
v hc. Nguyn nhn?
c. Nm c mc ng dng cng ngh thng tin trong vic dy hc phn c
ch phn ng ha hu c cc trng Cao ng S phm hin nay.
1.4.2. Ni dung, i tng, phng php iu tra
a. Ni dung iu tra
- iu tra v tnh hnh dy hc phn kin thc c ch phn ng Ha hu c
trong phn phi chng trnh mn hc ny h Cao ng S phm m cc
ging vin ang thc hin.
- iu tra thi , kh nng tip thu ca sinh vin i vi phn kin thc c
ch phn ng trong phn mn Ha hu c h Cao ng S phm.
- iu tra vic s dng phng php dy hc ph hp vi ni dung dy hc
phn c ch phn ng Ha hu c h Cao ng S phm.
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- iu tra kh nng v thi ca cc ging vin trong vic ng dng cng
ngh thng tin nhm nng cao cht lng ging dy phn c ch phn ng
Ha hu c h Cao ng S phm.
b. i tng iu tra
Chng ti tin hnh iu tra:
- 23 ging vin trc tip ging dy b mn Ha hu c cc trng Cao ng
S phm ng Nai, Lt, B Ra Vng Tu, Bnh Dng, k Lk, Cn
Th, Long An, Nha Trang.
- 78 sinh vin hc nm 2, nm 3 cc trng Cao ng S phm ng Nai,
Lt, B Ra Vng Tu.
c. Phng php iu tra
- Gp g trc tip, trao i qua email, in thoi v phng vn cc ging vin
dy Ha hu c cc trng Cao ng S phm ng Nai, Lt, B Ra
Vng Tu, Bnh Dng.
- Gp g trc tip, phng vn cc sinh vin cc trng Cao ng S phm
ng Nai, Lt, B Ra Vng Tu.
- Pht phiu thu thp kin (ph lc 1) cho 23 ging vin cc trng Cao
ng S phm ng Nai, Lt, B Ra Vng Tu, Bnh Dng, k Lk,
Cn Th, Long An, Nha Trang.
- Pht phiu thu thp kin (ph lc 2) cho 78 sinh vin cc trng Cao
ng S phm ng Nai, Lt, B Ra Vng Tu.
1.4.3. Kt qu iu tra
1.4.3.1. Kt qu iu tra ging vin
a. V kh ca bi truyn t kin thc v c ch phn ng
Phn ln ging vin (95,65%) cho rng vic truyn t kin thc v c ch
phn ng cho sinh vin h CSP l kh.
Mt khc, khi phng vn trc tip cc ging vin cho bit thm:
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Phn c ch phn ng trong chng trnh Ha hu c h Cao ng S phm
c lng chung vo bi dy ca tng chng, ch khng tch ring ra thnh mt
mn nh mn C s l thuyt Ha hu c h i hc. Vi thi gian t, khi lng
kin thc nhiu, ging vin khng th no truyn t chi tit ni dung ca tng c
ch. Mt khc, trnh ca sinh vin h Cao ng cng hn ch nn vic tip thu
mng kin thc ny gp kh khn.
b. V thi tip thu ca sinh vin i vi kin thc v c ch phn ng
Phn ln ging vin (91,3%) cho bit sinh vin khng tp trung ch hoc
ch hi ht.
Theo gii thch ca cc ging vin khi c phng vn, nguyn nhn l a s
cc sinh vin u cho phn kin thc ny kh, tru tng nn thi tip thu hi
ht, khng tp trung. Mt khc, nh trn ni, vi vic phn b chng trnh
khng hp l (lng ghp vo cc chng v cc cht c th ch khng tch ring
thnh phn c ch phn ng, thi gian hn hp), ging vin khng th dy k nn
sinh vin cng c thi xem nh phn kin thc ny. Thm vo , trnh u
vo ca sinh vin h Cao ng S phm cn thp nn kh nng tip thu phn c ch
phn ng cn km.
c. V vic s dng phng php dy hc ph hp vi ni dung dy hc
phn c ch phn ng ha hu c
Mc thng xuyn s dng cc phng php dy hc trong bi ging v
c ch phn ng ha hu c c thng k qua bng 1.2:
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Bng 1.2. Mc thng xuyn s dng cc phng php dy hc trong bi
ging v c ch phn ng ha hu c
STT Phng php Rt
thng
xuyn
Thng
xuyn
Thnh
thong
Khng
s dng
1 Din ging, m t c ch bng
cc hnh v trn bng
100% 0% 0% 0%
2 Dng gio n in t, s dng
cc phn mm m phng
m t cc c ch.
0% 0% 13% 87%

Qua bng 1.2 c th nhn thy 100% ging vin rt thng xuyn s dng
phng php din ging thng thng, m t bng li ni v hnh v trn bng en
truyn t cho sinh vin. Phng php ny c u im l ch ng nhng li c
nhc im l tn thi gian, tru tng, khng trc quan. Cn phng php dng
gio n in t, s dng cc phn mm m phng m t cc c ch th ch c
13% ging vin thnh thong c s dng, cn li phn ln ging vin (87%) khng
s dng phng php ny. Phng php ny i hi ging vin phi c trnh
cng ngh thng tin tt c th ch ng thit k v iu khin bi ging ca
mnh.
d. V kh nng v thi ca cc ging vin trong vic ng dng cng
ngh thng tin nhm nng cao cht lng ging dy phn c ch phn
ng ha hu c
kho st thc trng ng dng CNTT vo trong ging dy c ch phn ng
Ha hu c trng CSP, chng ti iu tra mc thng xuyn v kh nng
s dng cc phn mm powerpoint, cc phn mm ha hc, cc phn mm ha
trong ging dy c ch phn ng.
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Mc thng xuyn s dng cc phn mm powerpoint, cc phn mm
ha hc v ha trong ging dy c ch phn ng c thng k qua bng 1.3:
Bng 1.3. Mc thng xuyn s dng cc phn mm powerpoint, cc
phn mm ha hc v ha trong bi ging v c ch phn ng ha hu c
STT Phn mm Rt
thng
xuyn
Thng
xuyn
Thnh
thong
Khng
s
dng
1 Powerpoint 0% 0% 34,8% 65,2%
2 Cc phn mm ha hc
(Chemwin, Chemdraw, Chem
3D)
0% 0% 8,7% 91,3%
3 Cc phn mm ha (Flash,
Corel draw)
0% 0% 0% 100%

Qua bng 1.3 c th nhn thy phn ln ging vin thnh thong (34,8%)
hoc khng s dng (65,2%) phn mm powerpoint, a s ging vin (91,3%)
khng s dng cc phn mm ha hc (Chemwin, Chemdraw, Chem 3D) v
100% ging vin khng s dng cc phn mm ha (Flash, Corel draw) trong
bi ging v c ch phn ng ha hu c ca mnh.
V kh nng s dng cc phn mm ha hc v ha trong ging dy, c
8,7% ging vin cho bit c kh nng s dng thnh tho, 26% khng thnh tho v
65,21% khng bit s dng.
Qua cc kt qu kho st trn c th thy a s (65,21% - 91,3%) ging vin
cha ng dng CNTT trong ging dy c ch phn ng, ng thi cng thy c
trnh CNTT ca cc ging vin cn yu. Tuy nhin, 100% ging vin u cho
rng vic thit k mt h thng cc flash m phng c ch phn ng ha hu c
dng cho ging dy l cn thit hoc rt cn thit.
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1.4.3.2. Kt qu iu tra sinh vin
a. V kh ca kin thc v c ch phn ng
Theo kt qu kho st sinh vin, c 87,18% sinh vin cho rng kin thc v
c ch phn ng rt kh hiu nn kh tip thu. C 57,69% sinh vin cho bit kin
thc v c ch phn ng c dy s lc; 12,82% sinh vin cho bit h khng
c dy phn kin thc ny.
Mt khc, khi phng vn trc tip cc sinh vin cho bit thm:
Phn c ch phn ng c dy rt s lc, khng c tnh h thng. Mt s
ging vin khng dy phn ny m ch tp trung vo cc phn: danh php, ng
phn, tnh cht vt l, tnh cht ha hc hoc ch nhc ti tn c ch phn ng c
lin quan n bi hc, sinh vin c thc mc th hi thm. Nu khng hi thm, sinh
vin nghe ging bit tn c ch v v nh t tham kho gio trnh. Mt s ging
vin c dy phn c ch ny th cng dy mt mc chung chung: m t, cho v
d ch khng o su thm sinh vin c th t vn dng gii thch c ch
cc bi tp nng cao.
b. V tm quan trng ca vic hc kin thc c ch phn ng
Ch c 2,56% sinh vin cho rng vic hc c ch phn ng l rt quan trng,
17,95% kin cho l quan trng v 76,92% sinh vin cho l khng quan trng.
iu ny cng ph hp vi s liu kho st v mc hng th v mc tp
trung ca sinh vin trong gi hc v c ch phn ng.
c. V mc hng th i vi gi hc v c ch phn ng
Ch c 6,41% kin hng th vi gi hc v c ch phn ng, phn ln
kin (64,10%) khng hng th v 29,49% kin chn.
d. V mc tp trung trong gi hc v c ch phn ng
Ch c17,95% sinh vin tp trung ch trong gi hc v c ch phn ng.
Phn ln sinh vin khng tp trung ch (51,28%) hoc ch ch mt cch hi ht
(30,77%).
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e. V kh nng gii bi tp sau khi c hc cc bi v c ch phn ng
Phn ln sinh vin cho bit h ch gii c bi tp d (61,54%) hoc khng
gii c bi tp (15,38%), ch c 12,82% sinh vin gii c bi tp mc
trung bnh v 5,13% sinh vin gii c bi tp mc kh.
f. V mc thng xuyn c hc bi v c ch phn ng bng gio n
in t c s dng m phng
Phn ln kin cho bit khng c hc (97,43%), ch c 2,56% kin cho
bit thnh thong c hc v khng c kin no (0%) cho bit vic hc theo
phng php ny c din ra thng xuyn.
T kt qu kho st trn c th thy rng vic dy v hc c ch phn ng
Ha hu c trng CSP cha c ch trng nn cht lng dy v hc cha
cao. Qua , c th thy nhu cu c mt h thng cc m phng c ch phn ng
nng cao cht lng ng dng CNTT trong bi ging in t ca ging vin l rt
ln. V vy vic thit k h thng cc m phng c ch phn ng Ha hu c l rt
cn thit.
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Kt lun chng 1

Trong chng ny, chng ti trnh by nhng vn thuc v c s l
lun v thc tin ca ti lun vn.
1. Trc ht chng ti trnh by v vai tr ca cng ngh thng tin v truyn
thng trong dy hc ha hc. ng thi trnh by v phn mm Macromedia
Flash, l phn mm c s dng thit k cc c ch phn ng ca ti
lun vn.
2. Chng ti nghin cu v trnh by chng trnh Ha hu c h Cao ng
S phm v cc mt: mc tiu chng trnh, ni dung chng trnh v nhng
yu cu khi thc hin chng trnh. y l phn c s gip vic thit k
gio n ging dy c hp l v ng chun.
3. Vi t cch l s s l lun trc tip ca ti, ni dung ca cc c ch phn
ng Ha hu c s thit k trong ti c ch trng i su nghin cu
theo cc ni dung: c im c ch (s m t c ch), tin trnh lp th,
dn chng. Cc c ch c nghin cu bao gm: C ch phn ng th
nguyn t cacbon no (S
N
1, S
N
2, S
R
); C ch phn ng tch to lin kt bi
cacbon-cacbon (E
1
, E
2
); C ch phn ng cng vo lin kt bi Cacbon-
cacbon (A
E
); C ch phn ng cng vo hp cht cacbonyl (A
N
); C ch
phn ng th nhn thm (S
E
2Ar, S
N
2Ar).
4. Phn cui ca chng 1 l kt qu iu tra thc trng dy hc phn c ch
phn ng Ha hu c cc trng Cao ng S phm hin nay. Kt qu
iu tra cho thy rng vic dy v hc c ch phn ng ha hu c trng
CSP hin nay cha c ch trng nn cht lng dy v hc cha cao.
Phng php dy hc ch yu hin nay l din ging thng thng (100%),
cn vic dng gio n in t s dng cc m phng trong ging dy cn t
(13%). Thc t i hi rt cn thit c mt h thng cc m phng c ch
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phn ng p ng nhu cu nng cao cht lng dy v hc mn ha hu c
trng CSP.
Tt c nhng vn trn l c s l lun v thc tin gip chng ti quyt
nh s dng phn mm Macromedia Flash thit k m phng cc c ch phn ng
p dng vo dy hc mn Ha hu c trng Cao ng S phm. chnh l ni
dung chng 2 m chng ti s trnh by sau y.
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Chng 2
THIT K CC M PHNG C CH PHN NG
HA HU C TRNG CAO NG S PHM

2.1. Qui trnh chung khi thit k m phng c ch phn ng ha hu c
2.1.1. Nguyn tc chung
C ch phn ng ha hc l ton b cc trng thi xy ra ni tip nhau hay
l con ng chi tit m h cc cht phi i qua to ra sn phm.
V vy, m hnh ha mt c ch phn ng ha hu c th cn m bo cc
nguyn tc chung sau:
- Hiu r c ch phn ng: cht tham gia, cht to thnh, cc cht trung gian, cht
xc tc, cc giai on, tc phn ng ca tng giai on
- Nm c cu trc hp l ca cc cht, cc ion trong tng giai on ca phn
ng. T , s dng cc cng c ca Flash thit k cc i tng (symbol) v
m hnh phn t ca cc cht c lin quan n c ch phn ng cn thit k.
- Chuyn tng i tng v (hnh cu nguyn t, cc lin kt, cc biu tng
in tch, cc on text) vo tng layer ring r, mi i tng l mt layer.
- S dng th mnh ca Flash to hot hnh th hin c ch da trn cc bin
i hp l ca cc giai on phn ng tm hiu. i vi lun vn ny, chng
ti s dng ch yu dng bin hnh chuyn ng (motion tween): s dng cc
cng c trong Flash to cc trng thi khc nhau ca h phn t cht hai frame
khc nhau trn cng mt layer, sau chn motion tween gia hai frame ny ta
s to ra mt hot hnh chuyn ng.
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2.1.2. Cc bc tin hnh trn Flash
2.1.2.1. Chun b cc i tng to hot hnh
Cc i tng cn chun b y l m hnh cc nguyn t nh: cacbon,
hiro, oxi, nit, brom, Fe, Clo. Cc nguyn t ny c v bng cng c oval,
ch mu radial, c hiu chnh bng bng cng c Gradient transform. Bng
cch hiu chnh hp l cc mu trn thanh mu trong bng Color mixer, ta s to ra
cc qu cu c dng khng gian 3D.

Hnh 2.1. M hnh 3D cc nguyn t cacbon, hiro, brom, oxi

Ngoi ra cn c cc i tng l cc thanh lin kt. Cc thanh ny c v
bng cng c Rectangle tool, chn loi phi mu l Type: linear.

Hnh 2.2. M hnh 3D thanh lin kt gia cc nguyn t
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2.1.2.2. Phi hp cc i tng thnh mt cu trc hp l
Mi mt nguyn t v lin kt u c mt trt t sp xp trong khng gian.
Do , v mt cu trc phn t hp l cn c kin thc v phn b khng gian
ca phn t. m bo khoa hc, chnh xc, trong lun vn ny, chng ti s
dng thm phn mm Chem3D Ultra 9.0 v cu trc ca cc h phn t cn m
phng, chn cc gc quay cho h phn t, sau copy hnh v trong Chem3D qua
Flash v s dng cc cng c v ca Flash v li.
V d:

Hnh 2.3. M hnh phn t metan trong Chem 3D
2.1.2.3. Chuyn cc i tng v tng layer ring r
Mt h phn t gm nhiu i tng. Mun hot hnh cho mt phn t th
phi hot hnh cho tng i tng. lm c iu , ta chn ton b h phn t
v, click phi chut, dng lnh distributed to layers chuyn tng i tng v
tng layer ring r.
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V d: Phn t CH
4
c 9 i tng: 4 lin kt, 4 nguyn t H v 1 nguyn t
C. Ta s chuyn 9 i tng ny v 9 layer nh sau:

Hnh 2.4. M hnh 3D phn t metan trong Flash trn mt layer


Hnh 2.5. M hnh 3D phn t metan trong Flash trn cc layer
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2.1.2.4. Chun b kch bn to hot hnh
Sau khi v cc i tng cn thit cho mt m phng, chuyn cc i
tng v tng layer, ta cn chun b mt "kch bn" lm hot hnh cho c ch .
Ngha l, phi phc tho ra tng v nhng hot cnh s din ra trong c
ch , cn nhng hot hnh no, i tng no s bin i ra sao, th th bin i
v tr nh th no. C c mt kch bn tt s tit kim c nhiu thi gian cho
vic to hot hnh. Bi v, mt hot hnh trong Flash cn rt nhiu thao tc,
lnhch cn nhm ln mt vi ch s kh tm ra chnh sa, c khi phi lm li
t u.
Do , vic ln sn tng cho mt kch bn m phng c ch phn ng l
iu cn thit phi lm.
V d: Kch bn cho m phng phn ng th ca Cl
2
vo CH
4
s cha ng nhiu
on hot hnh. Sau y ch m t mt on hot hnh u tin.
Hot hnh 1: Cl
2
b tch ra thnh 2 nguyn t Cl
.
di tc dng ca nh
sng:
Gm cc hnh ng sau:
- nh sng xut hin, tc ng vo lin kt Cl Cl.
- Lin kt Cl Cl b m dn v bin mt, thay vo l 2 nguyn t

Cl xut hin.
- 2 nguyn t

Cl chuyn ng ra xa trung tm mn hnh chun b cho hot hnh


2: xut hin phn t CH
4
.
.
2.1.2.5. To hot hnh cho tng i tng
S dng lnh Insert keyframe (hay F6) to ra cc v tr mi cho tng i
tng cn to hot hnh trn thanh Timeline. Sau , ti v tr mi ny, ta thay i v
tr, hoc kch thc, hoc cc gi tr mu sc, alpha ca i tng. Cui cng, chn
lnh Create Motion Tween to mt hot hnh cho i tng .

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Hnh 2.6. Hp thoi thit lp lnh insert keyframe cho phn t metan


Hnh 2.7. Hp thoi thit lp lnh motion tween cho phn t metan
Nh vy, ta to ra c mt hot hnh cho i tng cn m phng trong
c ch phn ng.
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2.1.3. Yu cu i vi mt m phng c ch phn ng
2.1.3.1. m bo tnh khoa hc
C ch c m phng phi chnh xc, khoa hc, ng theo gio trnh chun
ca B Gio dc v o to.
Phi m bo m phng chnh xc, hp l cc cu trc trong khng gian ca
phn t, h cc cht trung gian
Mi phn ng c nhng giai on nhanh, giai on chm cn phi m phng
r rng, c th phn bit c.
2.1.3.2. m bo tnh thm m
C ch c m phng cn p ng cc yu cu v thm m sau:
- M hnh cc cht trong c ch phi c thit k hi ha v b cc, mu sc,
ng trt t phn b trong khng gian (m bo qui lut xa, gn, che khut,
n hin).
- Hot hnh phi lu lot, nhp nhng, u n, lin mch, khng b nhe hnh.
- Hnh nh r nt, d phn bit gia cc cht, cc giai on phn ng.
2.1.3.3. m bo tnh s phm
C ch c m phng cn p ng cc yu cu v s phm sau:
- R rng, d hiu.
- D s dng trong dy hc: ging vin, sinh vin c th ch ng trong vic
iu khin m phng, phc v cho vic dy v hc ca mnh.
2.2. Thit k cc m phng c ch phn ng ha hu c
2.2.1. M phng c ch phn ng th nguyn t cacbon no
2.2.1.1. C ch S
N
1
a. S phn ng
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Hnh 2.8a Hnh 2.8b

Hnh 2.8c Hnh 2.8d

Hnh 2.8e Hnh 2.8f
Hnh 2.8(af). M phng din tin s phn ng c ch S
N
1


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b. V d minh ha c ch S
N
1

Hnh 2.9a Hnh 2.9b


Hnh 2.9c Hnh 2.9d

Hnh 2.9e Hnh 2.9f

Hnh 2.9(af). M phng din tin v d minh ha c ch S
N
1

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2.2.1.2. C ch S
N
2

Hnh 2.10a Hnh 2.10b


Hnh 2.10c Hnh 2.10d
Hnh 2.10(ad). M phng din tin s phn ng c ch S
N
2
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Hnh 2.11a Hnh 2.11b


Hnh 2.11c Hnh 2.11d

Hnh 2.11(ad). M phng din tin v d minh ha c ch S
N
2
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2.2.1.3. C ch S
R

Hnh 2.12a Hnh 2.12b

Hnh 2.12c Hnh 2.12d

Hnh 2.12e

Hnh 2.12(ae). M phng din tin c ch S
R
(giai on khi mo)
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Hnh 2.13a Hnh 2.13b


Hnh 2.13c Hnh 2.13d


Hnh 2.13e Hnh 2.13f

Hnh 2.13(af). M phng din tin c ch S
R
(giai on pht trin mch)

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Hnh 2.14a Hnh 2.14b


Hnh 2.14c Hnh 2.14d


Hnh 2.14e Hnh 2.14f

Hnh 2.14(af). M phng din tin c ch S
R
(giai on tt mch)

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2.2.2. M phng c ch phn ng tch to lin kt bi cacbon-cacbon
2.2.2.1. C ch E
1


Hnh 2.15a Hnh 2.15b

Hnh 2.15c Hnh 2.15d

Hnh 2.15e Hnh 2.15f

Hnh 2.15(af). M phng din tin c ch E
1
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2.2.2.2. C ch E
2
a.Tch theo qui tc Zaytsev

Hnh 2.16a Hnh 2.16b

Hnh 2.16c Hnh 2.16d

Hnh 2.16e Hnh 2.16f
Hnh 2.16(af). M phng din tin s phn ng c ch E
2
(theo qui tc Zaytsev)
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Hnh 2.17a Hnh 2.17b

Hnh 2.17c Hnh 2.17d


Hnh 2.17e Hnh 2.17f

Hnh 2.17(af). M phng din tin v d minh ha c ch E
2
(theo qui tc Zaytsev)
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b. Tch theo qui tc Hofmann


Hnh 2.18a Hnh 2.18b

Hnh 2.18c Hnh 2.18d


Hnh 2.18e Hnh 2.18f

Hnh 2.18(af). M phng din tin c ch E
2
(theo qui tc Hofmann)
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2.2.3. M phng c ch phn ng cng vo lin kt bi cacbon-cacbon
2.2.3.1. C ch cng X
2
vo anken

Hnh 2.19a Hnh 2.19b

Hnh 2.19c Hnh 2.19d

Hnh 2.19e Hnh 2.19f

Hnh 2.19(af). M phng din tin c ch cng X
2
vo anken
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2.2.3.2. C ch cng HX vo anken


Hnh 2.20a Hnh 2.20b


Hnh 2.20c Hnh 2.20d


Hnh 2.20e Hnh 2.20f

Hnh 2.20(af). M phng din tin c ch cng HX

vo anken
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2.2.3.3. C ch cng HX vo hp cht ien (Cng 1,2 v cng 1,4)


Hnh 2.21a Hnh 2.21b


Hnh 2.21c Hnh 2.21d
Hnh 2.21(ad). M phng din tin c ch cng HX vo hp cht ien
(Cng 1, 2)





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Hnh 2.22a Hnh 2.22b


Hnh 2.22c Hnh 2.22d
Hnh 2.22(ad). M phng din tin c ch cng HX vo hp cht ien
(Cng 1, 4)





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2.2.4. M phng c ch phn ng cng v th vo hp cht cacbonyl
2.2.4.1. C ch cng H
2
O vo xeton

Hnh 2.23a Hnh 2.23b

Hnh 2.23c Hnh 2.23d

Hnh 2.23e Hnh 2.23f

Hnh 2.23(af). M phng din tin c ch cng H
2
O vo xeton
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2.2.4.2. C ch phn ng este ha

Hnh 2.24a Hnh 2.24b

Hnh 2.24c Hnh 2.24d

Hnh 2.24e Hnh 2.24f
Hnh 2.24(af). M phng din tin c ch phn ng este ha (giai on cng H
+
)
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Hnh 2.25a Hnh 2.25b

Hnh 2.25c Hnh 2.25d

Hnh 2.25e Hnh 2.25f
Hnh 2.25(af). M phng din tin c ch phn ng este ha
(giai on tch H
2
O)
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2.2.4.3. C ch phn ng thy phn este trong mi trng kim


Hnh 2.26a Hnh 2.26b

Hnh 2.26c Hnh 2.26d

Hnh 2.26e Hnh 2.26f
Hnh 2.26(af). M phng din tin c ch phn ng thy phn este trong mi
trng kim
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2.2.5. M phng c ch phn ng th nhn thm
2.2.5.1. C ch phn ng th halogen vo benzen (S
E
2-Ar)

Hnh 2.27a Hnh 2.27b

Hnh 2.27c Hnh 2.27d

Hnh 2.27e Hnh 2.27f
Hnh 2.27 (af). M phng din tin c ch phn ng th halogen vo benzen
(S
E
2-Ar)
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2.2.5.2. C ch phn ng th halogen vo phenol (S
E
2-Ar)


Hnh 2.28a Hnh 2.28b

Hnh 2.28c Hnh 2.28d


Hnh 2.28e Hnh 2.28f
Hnh 2.28 (af). M phng din tin c ch phn ng th halogen vo phenol
(S
E
2-Ar)
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2.2.5.3. C ch phn ng th nucleophin vo nhn thm (S
N
2Ar)


Hnh 2.29a Hnh 2.29b

Hnh 2.29c Hnh 2.29d

Hnh 2.29e Hnh 2.29f

Hnh 2.29 (af). M phng din tin c ch phn ng th nucleophin vo
nhn thm (S
N
2Ar)
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2.3. Thit k bi ging in t chng Dn xut halogen
2.3.1. Cc c ch phn ng c s dng trong chng Dn xut halogen
Trong chng ny, ch yu gii thiu 4 c ch phn ng: S
N
1, S
N
2, E
1
, E
2
.
- C ch S
N
1c hai m phng: mt m phng v s phn ng v mt m
phng v c ch vi cht c th.
- C ch S
N
2 c mt m phng, m phng ny bao gm c m phng v s
phn ng v m phng v c ch vi cht c th.
- C ch E
1
c mt m phng: m phng v c ch vi cht c th.
- C ch E
2
c hai m phng: mt m phng v s phn ng v mt m
phng v c ch vi cht c th.
Cc m phng ny c s dng di dng file *.exe nn c th s dng
tt c cc my tnh nu khng c ci chng trnh Flash player.
2.3.2. ng dng cc c ch thit k xy dng gio n chng Dn xut
halogen
Cc m phng c ch nu trn c a vo gio n in t son bng
phn mm powerpoint. nhng slide cn minh ha, cc c ch ny s c
hyperlink n cc m phng thit k.
Sau y l hai gio n in t v cc c ch phn ng trong chng Dn
xut halogen.
2.3.2.1. Gio n 1: C ch phn ng th nucleophin

Original slide
prepared for the
PHN NG TH
NUCLEOPHIN
Original slide
prepared for the
C CH PHN NG TH
NUCLEOPHIN
S phn ng:
Y + R X R Y + X
X : I, Cl, Br, OH, OR, OSO
2
Ar,
Y : OH
-
, RO
-
, RCOO
-
, I
-
, H
2
O, ROH, NR
3


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Original slide
prepared for the
C CH PHN NG TH
NUCLEOPHIN
Gm 2 loi:
1. C ch S
N
2
( Bimolecular nucleophilic substitution)
2. C ch S
N
1
( Unimolecular nucleophilic
substitution)
Original slide
prepared for the
C CH S
N
2


Original slide
prepared for the
C CH S
N
2
c im c ch:
C CH S
N
2
i qua
trng thi
chuyn tip
Lng phn t Mt giai on
Original slide
prepared for the
C CH S
N
2
c im c ch:
Y +
+ X
X Y
o
X
o
Y
ttct


Original slide
prepared for the
C CH S
N
2
V d minh ha:
HO
-
+ CH
3
Br HO
o-
CH
3
Br
o-

HO CH
3
+ Br
-
Khi X = OH hoc OR, trc khi thc hin phn
ng S
N
2
cn hot ha nhm OH hoc OR
V d:
CH
3
OH HI
nhanh
CH
3
OH
2
I
CH
3
OH
2
I
S
N
2
I CH
3
OH
2
o o
I CH
3
H
2
O
Original slide
prepared for the
C CH S
N
2
Khi tc nhn nucleophin trung ha in
(R
3
N, ROH, H
2
O) cp electron t do l tc
nhn nucleophin.
H
3
CNH
2
CH
3
Br
o
o
H
3
C N C Br
H
H
H
H H
ttct
H
3
C N
H
H
CH
3
Br


Chia s: CN. Nguyn Thanh T - Email: tuhoahocqn@gmail.com - Facebook: www.facebook.com/daykem.quynhon
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Original slide
prepared for the
C CH S
N
2
Tin trnh lp th:
Y
-
tn cng C
o+
t pha khng c X thun li
hn t pha c X.
+ Y
(-)
-X
(-)
-X
(-)
quay cau hnh
o
gi nguyen cau hnh
Y
o
X
o
C
ttct kem ben
Y
o
X
o C
ttct ben
Y C
X C
Y C
Original slide
prepared for the
V d: (S) MeCHBrBu v NaOH trong hn
hp ru nc cho (R) - MeCHOHBu
(S)
+

OH
(-)
HO C Br C
Bu
Me
H
Bu
H
Me
(R)
+ Br
(-)


Original slide
prepared for the
hydroxyl vi etylbromua
CH
3
CH
2
Br + OH
-
CH
3
CH
2
OH + Br
-
(aq)
V d minh ha
CH
3
CH
2
I (etanol) + CN
-
(aq) CH
3
CH
2
CN + I
-
ion cyanua vi etylIodua
ammoniac vi etylbromua
CH
3
CH
2
Br + NH
3
CH
3
CH
2
NH
2
2 + NH
4
+
Br
-
C ch
C ch
C ch
Original slide
prepared for the
o+ o-
CH
3
H
Br C
H
-
OH
CH
3
H
OH C
H
Br
-
C CH PHN NG TH NUCLEOPHIN
etanol
hydroxyl vi etylbromua
PTP



Original slide
prepared for the
o+ o-
CH
3
H
Br C
H
CN
-
CH
3
H
CN C
H
Br
-
propannitril
C CH PHN NG TH NUCLEOPHIN
cyanua ion vi etylIodua
PTP
Original slide
prepared for the
aminoetan
C CH PHN NG TH NUCLEOPHIN
o+ o-
CH
3
H
Br C
H
Br
-
H
CH
3
H
NH
2
C
H
+
CH
3
H
NH
2
C
H
NH
3
H NH
3
+
Br-
NH
3
ammoniac vi etylbromua
PTP


Chia s: CN. Nguyn Thanh T - Email: tuhoahocqn@gmail.com - Facebook: www.facebook.com/daykem.quynhon
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Original slide
prepared for the
C CH S
N
1
Original slide
prepared for the
C CH S
N
1
c im c ch:
C CH S
N
1
n phn t Hai giai on
To sn phm
trung gian R
+
giai on chm


Original slide
prepared for the
c im c ch:
C X
cham
C + X
C
+ Y
nhanh
C Y
C CH S
N
1
Original slide
prepared for the
C CH S
N
1
V d minh ha:
Me
3
C - Br
cham
+ Br Me
3
C
Me
3
C
+ OH
nhanh
Me
3
C - OH


Original slide
prepared for the
Khi X l OH hay OR cn hot ha bng H
+
hoc ZnCl
2
:
Me
3
C - OH
+ H
+
nhanh
Me
3
C - OH
2
Me
3
C - OH
2
Me
3
C + OH
cham
Me
3
C + Cl
nhanh
Me
3
C - Cl
Me
3
C - OH
ZnCl
2
Me
3
C O
H
ZnCl
2
o o
cham
Me
3
C+ Zn(OH)Cl
2
Me
3
C + Cl
nhanh
Me
3
C - Cl
C CH S
N
1
Original slide
prepared for the
Tin trnh lp th:
R
+
c cu hnh phng hay gn nh
phng nn xc sut tin cng ca Y
-
t hai
pha vo C
+
l tng ng nhau. Cho nn,
nu xut pht t RX quang hot (dng R
hoc S) sau phn ng thu c hn hp
raxemic.
Khi bn ca cabocation cng tng th
t l ng phn gi nguyn cu hnh tng.
C CH S
N
1


Chia s: CN. Nguyn Thanh T - Email: tuhoahocqn@gmail.com - Facebook: www.facebook.com/daykem.quynhon
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Original slide
prepared for the
Tin trnh lp th:
Br C
cham
+ Y
(-)
quay cau hnh
Y C
gi nguyen cau hnh
Y C
nhanh
C hon hp Raxemic
C CH S
N
1
Original slide
prepared for the
Nhng yu t nh hng n
phn ng S
N
1, S
N
2
1. Cu trc gc hirocacbon
2. Bn cht ca nhm c thay th
3. Bn cht v nng tc nhn
necleophin
4. Dung mi


Original slide
prepared for the
1. Gc no
2. Gc khng no v gc thm
nh hng ca cu trc gc
hirocacbon
Original slide
prepared for the
Gc no
Bc ca gc R trong RX
cng cao
Kh nng p S
N
2
cng gim
Kh nng p S
N
1
cng tng
nh hng ca cu trc gc
hirocacbon no


Original slide
prepared for the
nh hng ca cu trc gc
hirocacbon no
S
N
2:
o
+
trn nguyn t cacbon trung tm cng ln,
Y
(-)
tn cng cng mnh.
Xt cc ttct: o
1
+
> o
2
+
> o
3
+
> o
4
+
Y
C X
o o
-
-
X
o+
C Y +
CH
3
H
3
C X > H
3
C H
3
C CH
2
X > CH X >
CH
3
H
3
C X
CH
3
C
o
o1
+ o o
2
+ +
3
+
4
Original slide
prepared for the
nh hng ca cu trc gc
hirocacbon no
S
N
2:
ttct cacbon trung tm lin kt vi 5 nhm th.
Cc nhm th cng cng knh tng tc y gia
cc nhm cng ln, nng lng hot ha (Ea) cng
ln v ttct cng khng bn.
Y
C X
R
1
R
2
R
3
o
-
o
-



Chia s: CN. Nguyn Thanh T - Email: tuhoahocqn@gmail.com - Facebook: www.facebook.com/daykem.quynhon
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Original slide
prepared for the
nh hng ca cu trc gc
hirocacbon no
S
N
1:
Giai on chmquyt nh tc phn ng
cng bn p xy ra cng d dng, tc cng tng.
cng bn khi lin kt nhiu nhmth y e.
RX R + X
R
R
C
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
< H
3
C CH
2
< H
3
C CH
CH
3
< H
3
C
Original slide
prepared for the
nh hng ca cu trc gc
hirocacbon khng no v thm
Gc khng no
v thm
Gc anlyl
v benzyl
Kh nng p
S
N
2 v S
N
1 tng
Gc vinyl
v phenyl
Kh nng p
S
N
2 v S
N
1 gim


Original slide
prepared for the
nh hng ca cu trc gc
hirocacbon khng no v thm
Dn xut alyl v benzyl:
d tham gia phn ng S
N
2 v ttct c n
nh ha nh hiu ng +C ca ni i
hoc vng benzen.
d phn ng S
N
1 v cacbocation
CH
2
=CH-CH
2
+
v phCH
2
+
c n nh
cao nh hiu ng +C ca CH
2
=CH v
vng thm.
Original slide
prepared for the
nh hng ca cu trc gc
hirocacbon khng no v thm
Dn xut vinyl v phenyl:
rt kh tham gia phn ng c S
N
1 v S
N
2 v
hiu ng +C ca X lm cho lin kt C X ngn
li, c bc > 1 v km phn cc.
H
2
C CH X CH
2 CH X
X


Original slide
prepared for the
Bn cht ca nhm c thay th
Khi R khng thay i kh nng phn ng th
nucleophin ca X trong RX gim theo th t sau:
X: phSO
2
O
-
> I > Br ~
+
OH
2
> Cl > ONO
2
> F > OH
Nhn xt: trong dy cc dn xut halogen: I > Br >
Cl >> F l do s gim di lin kt v
phn cc ha (t I F). Nu cho thm Ag
+
vo
dn xut halogen th kh nng phn ng tng mnh
v Ag
+
lm cho s phn ct lin kt C Hal tr nn
d dng:
R Hal + Ag
+
R Hal ---Ag
+
R
+
R Y
-AgCl
+ Y
-
Original slide
prepared for the
X: phSO
2
O
-
> I > Br ~
+
OH
2
> Cl > ONO
2
> F > OH
Trong dy cc ancol, do lin kt C O km phn
cc nn kh nng tch ca nhm OH rt km v
th phi proton ha to thnh tng
phn cc ca lin kt C O.
R OH
2
Bn cht ca nhm c thay th


Chia s: CN. Nguyn Thanh T - Email: tuhoahocqn@gmail.com - Facebook: www.facebook.com/daykem.quynhon
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Original slide
prepared for the
Bn cht v nng tc nhn
nucleophin
Phn ng S
N
1 khng ph thuc tc nhn
nucleophin.
Phn ng S
N
2 ph thuc vo tc nhn
nucleophin.
Tc S
N
2 tng theo nng v lc
nucleophin ca tc nhn
Original slide
prepared for the
Lc nucleophin ph thuc vo cu trc ca
tc nhn theo qui lut
Anion c tnh nucleophin cao hn phn t
trung ha tng ng:
Lc nucleophin ca anion cng cao nu
nguyn t mang m in cng nh.
Lc nucleophin tng theo kch thc ca
nguyn t trung tm
Bn cht v nng tc nhn
nucleophin


Original slide
prepared for the
Lc nucleophin c biu th mt cch nh
lng bng s nucleophin, l hiu l Nu (tng
t kb i vi baz)
V d:
3,6 C
5
H
5
N 5,0 I
-
3,9 Br
-
5,1 CN
-
4,2 HO
-
5,1 HS
-
Nu Nhm Nu Nhm
Bn cht v nng tc nhn
nucleophin
Original slide
prepared for the
nh hng ca dung mi
Khng c dung mi cc phn ng S
N
1, S
N
2
kh c th xy ra.
Khi chuyn t dung mi ny sang dung mi
khc khng nhng tc phn ng bin i
m i khi bin i c c ch phn ng.
V d:
Phn ng ca cc dn xut halogen bc 1:
Trong axeton nc l S
N
2
Trong axit fomic l S
N
1


Original slide
prepared for the
Khi tng phn cc ca dung mi, tc
phn ng tng hay gim ty thuc in tch
trng thi chuyn tip tp trung hn hay
phn tn hn so vi h cc cht u.
nh hng ca dung mi
Original slide
prepared for the
Tng nhiu
Gim t
Tp trung hn
Phn tn
P S
N
1 ttct
R X R
o+
.X
o-
R X
+
R
o+
.X
o+
phn cc ca dung mi
tng dn
Tc phn
ng
in tch ttct
Gim t
Tng
Gim nhiu
Phn tn
Tp trung hn
Phn tn
P S
N
2 ttct
Y
-
+ R-XY
o-
.R...X
o-
Y + R-XY
o-
R
o+
...X
o-
Y
-
+ R-X
+
Y
o-
R
o+
...X
o-


Chia s: CN. Nguyn Thanh T - Email: tuhoahocqn@gmail.com - Facebook: www.facebook.com/daykem.quynhon
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Original slide
prepared for the
V d
Khi phn cc ca dung mi tng ln, tc
phn ng:
Thy phn MeCl ( S
N
2) v t-BuCl (S
N
1) tng
Phn ng (S
N
2) gim
Gii thch:
MeCl + H
2
O H
2
O
o+
Me Cl
o-
in tch tp
trung hn nn tc p tng.
t-BuCl t-Bu
o+
Cl
o-
in tch tp trung hn nn
tc p tng.
phCH
2
NMe
3 + OH
-
Original slide
prepared for the
Gii thch:
Phn ng (S
N
2):
in tch phn tn hn nn tc phn ng gim.
HO
-
+
C NMe
3
HO C NMe
3
o o
H
ph
H
TTCT
phCH
2
NMe
3 + OH
-


2.3.2.1. Gio n 2: C ch phn ng th nucleophin

Original slide
prepared for the
PHN NG TCH
NUCLEOPHIN
C CH PHN NG
TCH NUCLEOPHIN
Gm 2 loi:
C ch E
2
C ch E
1
Original slide
prepared for the



Original slide
prepared for the
C CH E
2
Original slide
prepared for the
C CH E
2
c im c ch:
C CH E
2
i qua
trng thi
chuyn tip
Lng phn t Mt giai on

Chia s: CN. Nguyn Thanh T - Email: tuhoahocqn@gmail.com - Facebook: www.facebook.com/daykem.quynhon
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Original slide
prepared for the
Y + Y- - H - - - C
C - - -X
-

-

-

-
H C C X
o
| o
o
+ X YH + C C
X: Cl, Br, I, OSO2Ar
Y
-
: OH
-
, RO
-
, NR
3
Original slide
prepared for the


Original slide
prepared for the
V d
C
2
H
5
O
-
+ C C
Br
H
H H
3
C
H
H
C
2
H
5
O


C
Br
H
H
H
3
C
H
H
C
o
o
- C
2
H
5
OH
- Br
H H
3
C
H
C C
H
Original slide
prepared for the
Tin trnh lp th
V mt l thuyt c th tch theo 2 kiu:
Tch trans (hay anti) ( X v H| b tch khc
pha)
Tch cis (hay syn) ( X v H| b tch cng
pha)


Original slide
prepared for the
Tin trnh lp th
Original slide
prepared for the
Cc trng thi chuyn tip
H Y
o
X
o
ttct ben hn
H Y
o
X
o
ttct t ben hn


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Original slide
prepared for the
Trng thi chuyn tip to ra t kiu tch trans
(anti) c hai nhmcng bn cht in X, Y xa
nhau nn trnh c tng tc y.
Trng thi chuyn tip to ra t kiu tch cis (syn)
c hai nhm X, Y gn nhau lmcho tng tc y
gia cc nhmny mnh, do Ea ln, trng thi
chuyn tip khng bn.
Tin trnh lp th
Original slide
prepared for the
Mt khc, trng thi chuyn tip anti c cc nhm
th v tr i xng nhau tng i mt nn orbital
t d to thnh hn.
Phn ng tch E2 xy ra theo kiu trans (anti) tc
4 trung tmphn ng (H C C H) trn mt
mt phng, trong cc nguyn t hay nhm
nguyn t b tch ( H v X) v tr anti vi nhau.
H
o X
H R
H
R
X
H R
H
R
R
H R
H
+ HY + X
CHAT AU
ANKEN
Y
o
o


Original slide
prepared for the
V D
Original slide
prepared for the
Elimination of HBr from 2-bromopropane
CH
3
H H
H
C C
OH
-
CH
3
H H
H C C
Br H
propen
H OH Br
-
CH
3
CHBrCH
3
+ OH
-
CH
3
CH=CH
2
+ H
2
O + Br
-
(trong etanol)
TCH HX T DN XUT
HALOGEN CA ANKAN


Original slide
prepared for the
Tch H
2
O t propan-1-ol
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
OH CH
3
CH=CH
2
+ H
2
O
TCH NC T RU
un nng vi H
2
SO
4
c
Original slide
prepared for the
CH
3
H H
H
C C
propene
H OH
H
+
CH
3
H H
OH C C
H H
CH
3
H H
OH C C
H H
H
+
CH
3
H H
C C
H H
+
H OH
H
+
Proton ha alcol
carbocation
C CH TCH H
2
O T PROPAN -1 - OL
ptp



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Original slide
prepared for the
C CH E
1
Original slide
prepared for the
C CH E
1
c im c ch:
C CH E
1
To sn phm
trung gian R
+
n phn t Hai giai on


Original slide
prepared for the
c im c ch:
nhanh
cham
C H
C X C H
C
+ X
C H
C
C C + H
C CH E
1
Original slide
prepared for the
V d minh ha:
(CH
3
)
3
C - Br
cham
+ Br
nhanh
(CH
3
)
3
C
(CH
3
)
2
C - CH
3

(CH
3
)
2
C CH
2
+ H
C CH E
1


Original slide
prepared for the
Tin trnh lp th:
E
1
khng c tnh c th lp th nh E
2
v R
+
c
cu trc phng hay gn nh phng.
Khi R
+
sinh ra c th quay v cu dng bn, th
cu hnh sinh ra ph thuc vo cu dng ca R
+
nh sau:
N L
N'
L'
N L
N'
L'
C CH E
1
Original slide
prepared for the
HNG TCH E
1
V E
2
PHN NG E
1
PHN NG E
2


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Original slide
prepared for the
Hng tch trong phn ng E
1
Nhm X tch ra cng vi H lin kt vi C
|
c bc cao nht (to ra ni i c nhiu
nhmth nht). (Qui tc Zaixp)
V d:
H
3
C CH CH
2
CH
3
OH
H
H
2
O
H
3
C CH CH CH
3
H
2
C CH CH
2
CH
3
SP CHNH SP PHU
Original slide
prepared for the
Nu nhm th khng mang in tch dng
v khng c nhm th ln (Cl, Br,..) th X
s tch ra cng vi H C
|
bc cao nht.
(Qui tc Zaytsev)
Hng tch trong phn ng E
2
H
3
C CH CH CH
3
H
2
C CH CH
2
CH
SP CHNH SP PHU
H
3
C 3 CH CH
2
CH
3
OH
Br
H
2
O Br ,


Original slide
prepared for the
Nu X mang in tch dng, km hot
ng, cng knh (
+
NR
3
,
+
SR
2
, OSO
2
Ar,..)
th X s tch ra cng vi H C
|
bc thp
nht. (Qui tc Hofmann)
Hng tch trong phn ng E
2
H
3
C CH CH CH
2 H
3
C C CH CH
3
SP CHNH SP PHU
CH CH
2
CH
3 (CH
3
)
2
CH
N(CH
3
)
3
N(CH
3
)
3
OH
H
2
O
CH
3 CH
3


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Kt lun chng 2

Trong chng ny, chng ti trin khai vic p dng phn mm
Macromedia Flash thit k m phng cc c ch phn ng ha hu c thuc
chng trnh Ha hu c h Cao ng s phm. Ni dung gm cc phn sau:
1. a ra mt qui trnh chung cho vic thit k mt c ch phn ng ha hu c.
Bao gm: nguyn tc chung, cc thao tc tin hnh, yu cu ca mt m phng
c ch phn ng c thit k.
2. M t chi tit cch thc hin m phng ca tng loi c ch phn ng trnh
by chng 1.
a. Cc thao tc chung cho ton b cc c ch:
- Cch v cc m hnh nguyn t cacbon, hiro, oxi, nit, clo
- Cch v cc lin kt.
- Cch kt hp cc m hnh nguyn t, lin kt to thnh mt cu trc hp
l, c tnh khng gian 3D.
- To giao din chung cho ton b cc c ch phn ng s thit k, gm cc
phn: background, cc nt iu khin (nt play, stop, go back, nt tin trnh).
Tt c cc i tng trn c lu vo th vin library dng chung cho
ton b cc c ch phn ng, va gip tit kim thi gian, cng sc, va to s
thng nht, tnh h thng cho cc c ch s thit k.
b. Cc thao tc ring cho tng loi c ch:
- Da trn cc i tng lu sn trong library, v m hnh cc phn t
trong khng gian. Kt hp vi phn mm Chem 3D Ultra 9.0 (Chemoffice
2005) m bo cu trc phn t v trong Flash hp l, cc nguyn t v
lin kt c phn b ng trt t khng gian 3D.
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- i vi c ch th, s c chuyn ng i ra khi h ca nguyn t b thay
th, v chuyn ng i vo h ca nguyn t mi, ng thi vi s bin i
v tr ca cc nguyn t trong h so vi v tr ban u.
- i vi c ch tch, s c chuyn ng i ra khi h ca nguyn t b tch
v c s to thnh ca lin kt pi mi. Tng t c ch th cng s c s
bin i nhp nhng i v tr ca cc nguyn t trong h so vi v tr ban u
ph hp vi mi giai on phn ng.
- i vi c ch cng, s c chuyn ng i vo h ca nguyn t c cng
vo v s to thnh lin kt mi cho nguyn t ny. Tng t cng s c s
bin i nhp nhng i v tr ca cc nguyn t trong h so vi v tr ban u
ph hp vi mi giai on phn ng.
Nhn chung, vic to hot hnh cho tng loi c ch phi ph hp. Do , i
hi s quan st, kin nhn trong vic thit k cc trng thi ca h phn t, h ion
sao cho khoa hc v thm m.
c. ng dng thit k cc c ch phn ng c th, bao gm 15 c ch:
- C ch phn ng th S
N
1.
- C ch phn ng th S
N
2.
- C ch phn ng th S
R
(th Cl
2
vo metan).
- C ch phn ng tch E
1.

- C ch phn ng tch E
2.

- C ch phn ng cng HX vo anken.
- C ch phn ng X
2
vo anken.
- C ch phn ng cng HX vo ien (cng 1,2).
- C ch phn ng cng HX vo ien (cng 1,4).
- C ch phn ng th halogen vo benzen.
- C ch phn ng th halogen vo phenol.
- C ch phn ng cng H
2
O vo hp cht cacbonyl.
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- C ch phn ng este ha.
- C ch phn ng thy phn este trong mi trng kim.
- C ch phn ng th nucleophin vo nhn thm (S
N
2Ar).
3. ng dng cc m phng c ch thit k son gio n in t chng Dn
xut Halogen, gm 4 c ch S
N
1, S
N
2, E
1
, E
2
.
Trn c s dng phn mm powerpoint thit k gio n in t, chng ti
lng cc m phng c ch vo nhng phn l thuyt mt cch hp l. Cc m
phng c a vo mc "c im c ch" sinh vin c th nm c c ch
mt cch trc quan nht. Bn cnh , l cc phn kin thc khc, c thit k da
trn cc ng dng c sn ca phn mm powerpoint.
4 c ch trn c chia thnh 2 gio n:
Gio n 1: C ch phn ng th nuclephin (S
N
1, S
N
2).
Gio n 2: C ch phn tch to lin kt kp cacbon-cacbon (E
1
, E
2
).
Mi gio n c xy dng gm cc ni dung:
Gio n 1: C ch phn ng th nuclephin (S
N
1, S
N
2).
1. c im c ch (s m t c ch)
2. Tin trnh lp th
3. Dn chng
4. V d minh ha
5. Cc yu t nh hng n phn ng S
N
1, S
N
2
Gio n 2: C ch phn tch to lin kt kp cacbon-cacbon (E
1
, E
2
).
1. c im c ch (s m t c ch)
2. Tin trnh lp th
3. Dn chng
4. V d minh ha
5. Hng tch E
1
v E
2

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Tm li, trong chng ny chng ti a ra mt qui trnh chung cho vic
thit k mt c ch phn ng ha hu c. Da vo quy trnh , chng ti m t
v vn dng thit k c 15 c ch phn ng c th.
ng thi, da trn 4 c ch phn ng S
N
1, S
N
2, E
1
, E
2
chng ti xy
dng c 2 gio n in t phc v cho vic thc nghim s phm cc trng
Cao ng S phm m chng ti s trnh by chng sau.











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Chng 3
THC NGHIM S PHM

3.1. Mc ch thc nghim
1. Kim chng hiu qu ca cc m phng thit k trong vic gip sinh vin
hiu cc c ch phn ng ha hu c.
2. Khng nh hng i ng n v cn thit ca ti trn c s l lun v
thc tin.
3. nh gi kh nng p dng cc m phng thit k vo cc bi dy mn
Ha hu c h Cao ng S phm.
3.2. i tng thc nghim
3.2.1. a bn thc nghim, ging vin thc nghim
a bn thc nghim l hai trng Cao ng S phm ti ng Nai v
Lt. Hai trng ny m bo yu cu v cc mt: iu kin c s vt cht v
phng tin phc v cho vic ging dy gio n in t (Phng chuyn dng, my
tnh, my chiu); iu kin hc tp, thi gian hc tp, gio trnh, ti liu tham
kho, cht lng sinh vin, i ng ging vin (c th s dng phn mm
Powerpoint ging dy).
3.2.2. i tng thc nghim
i tng thc nghim c chn theo cc yu cu sau:
a. Sinh vin nm 2 hoc nm 3, tng ng nhau v cht lng hc tp,
hc qua hc phn i cng v ha hu c.
b. La chn cp lp i chng v lp thc nghim theo cc yu cu tng
ng nhau v cc mt:
- S lng sinh vin.
- Cht lng hc tp cc mn chuyn ngnh ha ni chung v mn ha
hu c ni ring.
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- Trnh ging vin dy mn Ha hu c (hoc cng mt ging vin dy
ha tng cp lp i chng-thc nghim).
- Thc hin cng mt bi dy theo hai phng php khc nhau: Lp i
chng dy theo phng php din ging truyn thng; Lp thc
nghim dy bng gio n in t c s dng cc m phng c ch
phn ng thit k.
T chng ti la chn cc cp lp thc nghim v i chng trn hai a
bn nh sau:
Bng3.1. Bng thng k cc lp thc nghim v i chng trn hai a bn
TN C
a im GV ph trch
Lp S s Lp S s
Trng CSP ng
Nai
C
Nguyn Th Hin
Ha
3A
(TN1)
25
Ha
3B
(C1)
25
Trng CSP
Lt
C
Nguyn Th o
Ha
Sinh
K29-1
(TN2)
25
Ha
Sinh
K29-2
(C2)
25

3.3. Ni dung thc nghim
thc hin c mc ch thc nghim nu trn chng ti trin khai cc
cng vic sau:
1. Son cc bi ging thc nghim c s dng cc m phng thit k vi mc
ch gip sinh vin hiu r cc c ch phn ng chng Dn xut halogen.
Chng ti chn thc nghim cc bi v 4 c ch phn ng S
N
1, S
N
2, E
1
, E
2
(xem phn 2.3). Gm hai bi:
Bi 1: C ch phn ng th nuclephin (S
N
1, S
N
2).
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Bi 2: C ch phn tch to lin kt kp cacbon-cacbon (E
1
, E
2
).
2. Trao i vi cc ging vin Cao ng S phm v phng php tin hnh bi
thc nghim (cch t chc, tin hnh bi ging, cch s dng cc m phng
thit k a vo gio n in t).
3. Kim tra, nh gi, phn tch v x l kt qu thc nghim s phm xc
nh cht lng hc tp ca sinh vin v cc mt:
- Mc nm kin thc c bn, c th ti hin kin thc v c ch phn ng.
- Mc hiu su v bit vn dng linh hot kin thc c ch phn ng gii
quyt yu cu ca cc bi tp c tnh m rng, nng cao.
4. nh gi c hiu qu ca cc m phng c ch phn ng vi vic nng cao
cht lng tip thu bi hc ca sinh vin, to hng th hc tp cho sinh vin;
pht huy tnh cc, t lc trong nhn thc ca sinh vin qua hot ng hc tp
(nhn thc) ca sinh vin trong cc gi thc nghim.
5. Khng nh tc dng ca vic p dng cc m phng vo vic dy v hc ni
dung c ch phn ng Ha hu c h Cao ng S phm:
- i vi ging vin: gip tit kim thi gian, nng cao cht lng bi ging
(trc quan, sinh ng).
- i vi sinh vin: nng cao kh nng tip thu, hng th v s tp trung hc
tp vi cc gi ha hu c c ng dng cng ngh thng tin, s dng cc m
phng r rng, d hiu.
6. Khng nh tnh kh thi ca vic p dng cc m phng vo vic dy v hc
ni dung c ch phn ng Ha hu c h Cao ng S phm:
- Cc m phng c s dng c hay khng trong cc gio n in t ca
ging vin.
- Vic s dng cc m phng d hay kh i vi vic dy ca ging vin v
vic hc ca sinh vin.
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3.4. Tin trnh thc nghim
3.4.1. Chun b thc nghim
Trc khi tin hnh mi bi thc nghim v i chng, chng ti gp g v
trao i vi cc ging vin tham gia dy v cc vn sau:
a. Thng nht v khi lng, ni dung kin thc ca hai bi ln lp v bi kim
tra cht lng l nh nhau.
b. Trao i, bn bc v cch s dng cc m phng thit k a vo gio n
in t sao cho hp l, hiu qu, khai thc c ti u li ch ca cc m
phng.
c. Chun b sn cc bi kim tra cht lng:
Chng ti son mt bi kim tra trc nghim gm 30 cu kim tra kin
thc v 4 loi c ch phn ng: S
N
1, S
N
2, E
1
, E
2
(Xem ph lc 3)
Cc cu trc nghim c bin son m bo yu cu:
- Kim tra kh nng nm kin thc ca sinh vin mc ti hin c bn.
- Kim tra kh nng vn dng kin thc gii quyt cc vn c tnh m
rng, o su i vi tng loi c ch phn ng.
Bi kim tra trc nghim c son thnh 4 m c cng ni dung kin
thc (m 01, 02, 03, 04) m bo tnh khch quan, chnh xc khi kim tra cht
lng hc tp ca sinh vin.
3.4.2. Tin hnh thc nghim
Thc nghim s phm c tin hnh trong nm hc 2007-2008 theo ng
nhng mc ch, yu cu t ra.
cc lp i chng, ging vin dng phng php din ging truyn thng,
m t cc c ch phn ng bng cc hnh v trn mt phng bng.
cc lp thc nghim, sinh vin c hc trong phng chuyn dng vi y
my tnh, my chiu, mn chiu. Ging vin dng phng php din ging vi
s h tr ca gio n in t. Ging vin truyn t kin thc v c ch phn ng
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da trn cc m phng trc quan, sinh ng. Cc m phng thit k c th ch
ng iu khin cc on hot hnh gip ging vin linh hot trong bi ging ca
mnh: c th dng li hoc quay li on hot hnh v c ch m t mt cch cn
k cho sinh vin.
i vi mi tit dy lp thc nghim hoc i chng, chng ti u tham
d v ghi nhn li cc ni dung tin hnh ca ging vin; thi , s tp trung,
hng th ca sinh vin khi tip thu bi hc.
Sau mi tit d gi, chng ti trao i vi ging vin v ni dung v phng
php nhm kim im, nh gi kt qu tit hc so vi mc ch, yu cu ca thc
nghim s phm ra.
Cui t thc nghim s phm, chng ti phi hp vi cc ging vin t
chc cho sinh vin lm bi kim tra trc nghim nh gi kt qu thc nghim.
3.5. Kt qu thc nghim
3.5.1. Phng php x l kt qu thc nghim theo phn tch nh lng
[14], [27]
Thc cht ca phng php ny l dng ton hc thng k x l cc s liu
thc nghim rt ra nhng kt lun khoa hc v thc tin.
a. Cch trnh by s liu thng k: c 2 phng php:
- Phng php dng bng phn phi thc nghim v phn phi tn sut.
- Phng php dng th (l hnh nh trc quan ca cc bng trn).
b. Phn tch s liu thng k
Mc ch l thu gn cc bng s liu thnh mt s tham s c trng nh
sau:
- Trung bnh cng: l tham s c trng cho s tp trung s liu. N c
xc nh bi cng thc:
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1 1 2 2 k k
1 2 k
k
i i
i=1
n x +n x +...+n x
X =
n +n +...+n
1
X = n x (1)
n


Vi:
n
i
: l tn s ca cc gi tr x
i
.
n: s sinh vin tham gia thc nghim
- lch chun: phn nh s sai lch hay dao ng ca cc s liu
xung quanh gi tr trung bnh cng. Mun tnh c lch chun (k
hiu l S) th trc ht phi tnh c tham s phng sai S
2
theo cng
thc sau:

2 2
i i
1
S = n (x -X) (2)
n-1


V lch chun l cn bc hai ca phng sai:

2
i i
1
S = n (x -X) (3)
n-1


ngha: S cng nh bao nhiu th s liu cng t phn tn by nhiu.
- Sai s tiu chun:
S
m = (4)
n

Gi tr X s dao ng trong khong X m
- H s bin thin: nu hai bng s liu c cc gi tr trung bnh cng khc
nhau th phi tnh h s bin thin:

S
.100% (5)
X
V=
Nh vy, so snh cht lng hc tp ca hai tp th sinh vin khi tnh gi
tr trung bnh s c hai trng hp:
- Nu gi tr trung bnh bng nhau th ta phi tnh lch chun. Tp th no c
lch chun b th c cht lng tt hn.
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- Nu gi tr trung bnh khng bng nhau th phi tnh h s bin thin V. Tp
th no c h s bin thin V nh th cht lng u, c X ln th trnh tt
hn.
- Cui cng, khi so snh s khc bit gia hai nhm thc nghim v i chng,
ta s dng php th Student kt lun s khc nhau v kt qu hc tp gia
hai nhm thc nghim v i chng l c ngha.
Cng thc tnh c dng:
TN
2 2
TN
X X ). (6)
S S
t = (
n

+
C
C

Trong :
n: s sinh vin ca lp thc nghim (TN).
TN X : trung bnh cng lp TN
XC : trung bnh cng lp i chng (C)
v : phng sai ca lp TN v lp C
2
TN
S
2
S
C
s dng cng thc (6) cn thm cc i lng o l xc sut sai ( t 0,02
0,05) v lch t do k = 2n 2. T phi tm t
o
gii hn. Nu t > t
o
th s khc
nhau gia hai nhm l c ngha, cn nu t < t
o
th s khc nhau gia hai nhm l
khng c ngha.
3.5.2. X l kt qu thc nghim
Trn c s cc phng php phn tch nh lng kt qu kim tra trnh
by trn, chng ti tin hnh x l kt qu cc bi kim tra trong qu trnh thc
nghim s phm. Cc kt qu c trnh by theo bng sau:
Bi: C ch phn ng S
N
1, S
N
2, E
1
, E
2

Cu hi kim tra (xem ph lc)

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Bng 3.2. Phn phi kt qu v % SV t im x
i
tr xung.
im x
i

Lp
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Phn phi kt qu kim tra
Thc
nghim
0 0 0 0 4 10 18 12 5 1 0
i
chng
0 0 1 13 11 14 7 4 0 0 0

% Sinh vin t im x
i

Thc
nghim
0 0 0 0 8 28 64 88 98 100 100
i
chng
0 0 2 28 50 78 92 100 100 100 100

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
im s xi
%

S
V

m

x
i

TN
C

Hnh 3.1. th ng ly tch % sinh vin t im x
i
tr xung
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Bng 3.3. Tng hp phn loi kt qu hc tp ca sinh vin
Km (%) Trung bnh (%) Kh-gii (%)
TN C TN C TN C
8 50 56 42 36 8


0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Km Trung bnh Kh-Gii
Kt qu hc tp
T


%

S
V

TN
C

Hnh 3.2. th phn loi kt qu hc tp ca sinh vin


Bng 3.4. Tng hp cc tham s c trng
X m S V (%)
TN C TN C TN C
6,14 0,16 4,50 0,18
1,16 1,29 18,90 28,83

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3.6. Phn tch kt qu thc nghim s phm
3.6.1. Kt qu v mt nh tnh
Qua t thc nghim, chng ti theo di v nh gi cht lng hc tp
ca sinh vin. Kt qu l:
- Vic hc tp phn c ch phn ng ca cc lp thc nghim tt hn. Sinh vin
cc lp thc nghim tip thu kin thc v phn c ch c dy c hiu qu
hn.
- a s cc sinh vin lp thc nghim nm c kin thc c bn v c ch
phn ng, kt qu bi kim tra kin thc cc lp thc nghim tt hn kt qu
cc lp i chng.
- Khng kh hc tp ca cc lp thc nghim hng th hn, sinh vin tp trung
hn vo bi hc nn hiu qu ca gi dy hc c nng cao r rt.
3.6.2. Kt qu v mt nh lng
Cc kt qu kim tra c trnh by cc bng 3.2, 3.3, 3.4.
3.6.2.1. Xt v t l sinh vin yu km, trung bnh kh gii
Xem bng 3.3, tng hp phn loi kt qu hc tp ca sinh vin thc
nghim v i chng, ta thy:
- T l sinh vin km ca lp thc nghim 8% thp hn lp i chng 50%.
- T l sinh vin trung bnh ca lp thc nghim 56% cao hn lp i chng
42%.
- T l sinh vin kh gii ca lp thc nghim 36% cao hn lp i chng 8%.
Nh vy, vic dy hc c ch phn ng bng cc m phng trn phn mm
Flash c tc dng pht trin nng lc nhn thc ca sinh vin, gp phn gim t
l sinh vin km v tng t l sinh vin kh gii.


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3.6.2.2. Xt gi tr cc tham s c trng
- Gi tr trung bnh cng: X
TN
ln hn X
C
.
- Gi tr lch chun S: S
TN
nh hn S
C
.
- Gi tr h s bin thin V: V
TN
nh hn V
C

Nh vy, im trung bnh ca lp thc nghim ln hn lp i chng. Lp
thc nghim c S v V u nh hn.
3.6.2.3. Xt th cc ng ly tch
Hnh 3.1 trnh by ng ly tch kt qu bi kim tra thc nghim ca
lp thc nghim v lp i chng.
ng ly tch ca lp thc nghim nm v bn phi v pha di ng ly
tch ca lp i chng. iu chng t cht lng ca lp thc nghim tt hn
cht lng ca lp i chng.
3.6.2.4. Xc nh theo php th student
kt lun v s khc nhau v gi tr trung bnh gia hai phng n thc
nghim v i chng l c ngha chng ti s dng php th student.
trn, ta so snh tham s X th thy X
TN
ln hn X
C
. Vn t ra l
kt qu khc nhau c thc s l do hiu qu ca phng php khng hay ch l
do "may ri". xc nh c mt trong hai cu tr li , ta tnh gi tr t:
t ( )
2
50
6,14 4, 50
1,16 1, 29
=
+
2
= 6,68
Ly o = 0,05, tra bng phn phi Student ng vi o = 0,05; k = 2n -2 = 2.50
2 = 98; ta c t
o, k
= 1,985.
Nh vy: t > to, k . Tc l s khc nhau gia
X
TN (6,14) v
X
C (4,50) l
c ngha. Phng n thc nghim (dy hc c ch phn ng ha hu c bng cc
m phng thit k) c hiu qu hn phng php truyn thng vi mc ngha
0,05.
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Kt lun chng 3

Trong chng ny, chng ti trnh by ni dung ca vic trin khai qu
trnh thc nghim s phm nh gi hiu qu cng nh tnh kh thi ca vic thc
nghim. Sau y, l cc vn t c:
Nhng kt lun rt ra t vic phn tch, x l kt qu thc nghim s phm:
Cc kt qu kim tra ( cc lp thc nghim v i chng) c x l v
trnh by bng 3.2 v hnh 3.1 ( th ng ly tch). T cc s liu x l v
th ng ly tch (yu t nh lng v trc quan) ta thy rng:
a. Cc m phng c ch thit k c tc dng nng cao hiu qu dy hc
phn c ch phn ng ha hu c trn cc phng din: gip sinh vin tip
thu tt v hiu r c ch phn ng, pht trin t duy tru tng, pht trin
nng lc c lp gii quyt vn v gy hng th trong hc tp.
b. Trong qu trnh hc tp phn c ch phn ng ha hu c vi cc m phng
thit k, a s sinh vin ho hng tip thu bi hc mt cch tch cc v
ch ng. Sinh vin c thi tp trung hn vo bi hc, bit t gic t ra
cc cu hi tm hiu bi, khc hn vi vic hc th ng theo cch dy
hc c (din ging, m t c ch phn ng bng li ni v hnh v trn
bng).
c. Qua kt qu bi kim tra, cho thy a s cc sinh vin lp thc nghim
nm c kin thc c bn v c ch phn ng (mc ti hin). Mt s
sinh vin c kh nng vn dng cc kin thc c bn tr li cc cu hi
mang tnh nng cao, m rng v c ch phn ng c dy.
d. Cc ging vin tha nhn u im ca cc m phng thit k trong
vic nng cao hiu qu dy hc phn c ch phn ng, gip bi dy tr nn
trc quan, sinh ng hn, kin thc tru tng tr nn d hiu, li ko c
s tp trung, ch ca sinh vin vo bi hc. ng thi, gip ging vin tit
kim thi gian, cng sc, c th ging dy su hn cc kin thc lin quan
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n c ch phn ng. Nh , ging vin cm thy c hng th hn i vi
bi dy ca mnh. Chnh hng th ca ging vin truyn cho khng kh
lp hc v truyn cho sinh vin mt tinh thn, thi hc tp tch cc, ch
ng.
Tm li, trong chng ny chng ti kim tra c hiu qu ca vic thc
nghim cc m phng c ch phn ng thit k trong chng 2. Qua , khng
nh c ngha ng gp ca ti lun vn i vi vic nng cao cht lng
dy hc phn c ch phn ng Ha hu c h Cao ng S phm.






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KT LUN

1. Kt lun
T mc ch v nhim v ca ti nghin cu, trong qu trnh hon thnh
lun vn, chng ti gii quyt cc vn sau:
Nghin cu c s l lun ca ti: tm quan trng ca cng ngh thng tin
v truyn thng, hng ng dng cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng trong
dy hc ha hc; chng trnh Ha hu c h Cao ng S phm; c s l
thuyt v cc c ch phn ng Ha hu c s m phng trong ti.
iu tra, tm hiu thc trng dy v hc c ch phn ng Ha hu c mt s
trng Cao ng S phm hin nay.
a ra mt qui trnh chung khi thit k c ch phn ng Ha hu c, bao gm:
nguyn tc chung v cc thao tc tin hnh trn Flash.
Thit k cc m phng c ch phn ng thuc chng trnh Ha hu c 1 v 2
h Cao ng S phm: m t chi tit cc bc thc hin vic thit k m
phng ca 15 c ch phn ng (c hnh minh ha).
Xy dng gio n in t dy hc 4 c ch phn ng S
N
1, S
N
2, E
1
, E
2
thuc
chng Dn xut Halogen nhm mc ch thc nghim s phm.
Bin son bi kim tra trc nghim v 4 c ch phn ng S
N
1, S
N
2, E
1
, E
2

nhm mc ch kim tra kt qu thc nghim s phm. Bi kim tra ny gm
30 cu hi trc nghim vi cc cu hi c thit k t mc ti hin kin
thc n mc vn dng sng to kin thc hc gii quyt vn lin
quan n tng c ch phn ng.
Tin hnh thc nghim s phm hai trng: Cao ng S phm ng Nai v
Cao ng S phm Lt. Qua , chng ti rt ra c nhng kt lun b
ch v hiu qu v tnh kh thi ca vic p dng cc m phng c ch phn
ng thit k bng phn mm Macromedia Flash i vi vic dy v hc c ch
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phn ng Ha hu c trng Cao ng S phm. Vi vic s dng cc m
phng thit k, cht lng ca vic dy v hc c ch phn ng Ha hu c
c nng cao. iu khng nh ngha ng gp ca ti i vi
vic dy hc c ch phn ng Ha hu c ni ring v vic dy hc b mn
Ha hu c trng Cao ng S phm ni chung.
2. Kin ngh
to iu kin thun li cho vic p dng cc m phng vo vic dy hc
c ch phn ng Ha hu c v nng cao cht lng dy hc b mn Ha hu c
cc trng Cao ng S phm, chng ti c mt s ngh sau:
V cng tc bi dng kin thc cng ngh thng tin cho cc ging vin
Hin nay, vn cn mt s ging vin cha thc s bit s dng thnh tho
cc kin thc cng ngh thng tin vo trong ging dy. V vy, cn c ch tha
ng cho cc ging vin nng cao trnh tin hc, cn khuyn khch h tch cc p
dng cng ngh thng tin trong vic nng cao cht lng dy v hc.
V vic cung cp thit b, phng tin dy hc
Cn tng cng u t cc phng my tnh vi y trang thit b hin i,
dnh ring cho tng b mn, m bo cho cc ging vin ch ng thi gian trong
vic ging dy. Thc t hin nay mt s trng Cao ng S phm c cc phng
my phc v cho ging dy, nhng s lng t, cht lng thit b thp cha p
ng kp nhu cu ging dy bng gio n in t ngy cng cao ca cc ging vin.
Mt khc, cng cn u t h thng mng my tnh cho cc phng my cng
nh h thng mng wireless ging vin c th hng dn sinh vin hc tp,
tham kho cc ti liu trc tuyn trn mng internet.
3. Hng pht trin ca ti
T nhng kt qu t c ca lun vn, chng ti s pht trin ti theo
nhng hng sau:
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- Hon thin cc c ch thit k v tin hnh thit k thm nhiu c ch
phn ng trong chng trnh Ha hu c, to thnh mt b m phng c ch
phn ng.
- Xy dng website gip sinh vin t hc mn Ha hu c trong c s dng
cc m phng c ch phn ng thit k.

Trn y l tt c nhng cng vic chng ti lm hon thnh lun vn.
Chng ti hi vng rng cng trnh ny c th ng gp mt phn vo vic nng cao
cht lng dy hc b mn Ha ni chung v hc phn C ch phn ng ha hu
c ni ring. Chng ti rt mong nhn c nhng nhn xt nh gi v gp
ca cc chuyn gia, cc thy c v cc bn ng nghip nhm b sung v hon
thin hn.
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TI LIU THAM KHO

1. Trnh Vn Biu (2005), Phng php thc hin ti nghin cu khoa hc,
HSP TP.HCM.
2. Trnh Vn Biu (12/2007), Mt s kinh nghim thc hin cng trnh nghin
cu lun vn, lun n, Hi tho nghin cu khoa hc sau i hc, Trng
HSP TP.HCM.
3. Nguyn Cng (5/2006), Tip tc i mi phng php trng CSP, Hi
tho tp hun trin khai chng trnh gio trnh CSP, B Gio dc v
o to.
4. Nguyn Cng, Nguyn c Chuy, L Trng Tn (2002), Bc u ng dng
tin hc v CNTT vo vic i mi phng php dy hc trong bi ln lp
ha hc trng THCS v THPT, K yu hi tho nng cao cht lng
o to, Khoa Ha HSP TP. H Ch Minh.
5. Mnh Cng (thng 11/2005), Nhng c trng bi ging c s h tr
my tnh, K yu hi tho khoa hc nng cao cht lng dy hc trong
trng ph thng, TP. H Ch Minh.
6. Mnh Cng (thng 11/2005), ng dng CNTT truyn thng thc hin m
hnh gio dc thng tin v gio dc tri thc, K yu hi tho khoa hc
nng cao cht lng dy hc trong trng ph thng, TP. H Ch Minh.
7. Nguyn Mnh Cng (5/2004), S dng CNTT vin thng nng cao hiu
qu dy hc v i mi phng thc o to, K yu hi tho i mi
phng php dy hc bc trung hc, HSP TP. H Ch Minh.
8. Nguyn Tinh Dung (Trng tiu ban), Nguyn Cng, Nguyn Mnh Dung,
Trn Th , Phng Tin t, Trn Hip Hi, Nguyn Th Hun, Trn
Thnh Hu, Nguyn Xun Ninh, Trn Quc Sn, Phm Mnh Tin,
Nguyn Vn Tng (2004), Chng trnh chi tit cc mn hc/hc phn
ngnh S phm ha hc (chng trnh 1), D n o to gio vin trung
hc c s, B Gio dc v o to.
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9. L Vn Dng (2001), Pht trin nng lc nhn thc v t duy cho hc sinh
trung hc ph thng thng qua bi tp ha hc, Lun n tin s Gio dc
hc, Trng HSP H Ni.
10. Trn Quc c (1992), Hon thin h thng th nghim ha hc nng cao
cht lng dy hc trng PTCS Vit Nam, Lun n tin s khoa hc
S phm Tm l, Trng HSP H Ni.
11. V Cao m (1996), Phng php lun NCKH, H Ni.
12. V Gia (2000), Lm th no vit lun vn, lun n, bin kho, Nxb Thanh
nin.
13. Nguyn Th Minh Li (5/2006), ng dng CNTT trong dy hc ha hc
trng CSP Qung Bnh, thc trng v gii php, Hi tho tp hun
trin khai chng trnh gio trnh CSP, B Gio dc v o to.
14. L Vn Nm (2001), S dng dy hc nu vn rixtic nng cao hiu
qu dy hc chng trnh ha i cng v ha v c trng trung
hc, Lun n tin s Gio dc hc chuyn ngnh PPGD ha hc,
Trng HSP H Ni I.
15. Trn Trung Ninh (5/2006), Thit k gio n in t trong dy hc ha hc,
Hi tho tp hun trin khai chng trnh gio trnh CSP, B Gio dc
v o to.
16. ng Th Oanh, Phm Ngc Bng (11/2005), Nghin cu v xy dng h
thng m phng h tr dy v hc mn ha hc, K yu hi tho khoa
hc nng cao cht lng dy hc trong trng ph thng, TP H Ch
Minh.
17. Nguyn Trng Sinh (2007), Macromedia Flash 8.0, Nxb Thng K.
18. Trn Quc Sn (2000), Mt s phn ng ca hp cht hu c, Nxb Gio dc.
19. Trn Quc Sn (1979), C s l thuyt ha hu c, Nxb Gio dc.
20. Trn Quc Sn, ng Vn Liu (2001), C s ha hc hu c (Sch Cao
ng S phm), tp I, Nxb Gio dc.
21. Trn Quc Sn, ng Vn Liu (2001), C s ha hc hu c (Sch Cao
ng S phm), tp II, Nxb Gio dc.
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22. Phan Tng Sn Trn Quc Sn ng Nh Ti (1976), C s ha hc hu
c, tp I, Nh xut bn i hc v Trung hc chuyn nghip H Ni.
23. Dng Thiu Tng (2005), Phng php nghin cu khoa hc gio dc v
tm l, Nxb Khoa hc x hi.
24. T Minh Thnh (2002), Gio trnh ha hc hu c, tp I, Trng HSP
TP.HCM.
25. Phm Trung Thanh, Nguyn Th L (2000), Phng php thc hin ti
nghin cu khoa hc trong sinh vin, Nxb KHKT H Ni.
26. L T Thnh (1995), Logic hc v phng php lun NCKH, TP. HCM.
27. Cao Th Thng (1995), Hnh thnh k nng gii bi tp ha hc trng ph
thng trung hc c s, Lun n tin s Gio dc hc, Vin nghin cu
quc gia.
28. Nguyn Trng Th (2002), ng dng tin hc trong dy hc ha hc, Nxb
Gio dc .
29. Trn Anh Tun (thng 11/2005), Mt s vn p dng c hiu qu phn
mm dy hc trong cng tc ging dy trng ph thng, K yu hi
tho khoa hc nng cao cht lng dy hc trong trng ph thng, TP
H Ch Minh.
30. Trn Th Tu (2002), C s l thuyt ha hu c, tp II, Trng HSP
TP.HCM.
31. Phm Vit Vng (1997), Phng php lun NCKH, H Ni.
32. Nguyn c Vng (thng 5/2006), My tnh trong dy hc i hc v Cao
ng, Hi tho tp hun trin khai chng trnh gio trnh CSP, B
Gio dc v o to.

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PH LC

1. Ph lc 1 : Phiu iu tra thc trng v vic dy v hc c ch phn ng
ha hu c trng CSP (phiu iu tra thng tin ging
vin)
2. Ph lc 2 : Phiu iu tra thc trng v vic dy v hc c ch phn ng
ha hu c trng CSP (phiu iu tra thng tin sinh vin)
3. Ph lc 3 : v p n ca bi kim tra thc nghim ni dung c ch
S
N
1, S
N
2, E
1
, E
2


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PH LC 1. PHIU IU TRA THC TRNG DY V
HC C CH PHN NG HA HU C TRNG
CSP (PHIU IU TRA THNG TIN GING VIN)
Trng i hc S phm TPHCM
Phng KHCN-SH
Khoa Ha
------------------------------------
PHIU IU TRA THNG TIN GING VIN

Knh cho qu thy c!
Hin nay chng ti ang thc hin ti nghin cu khoa hc THIT K
H THNG M PHNG C CH PHN NG HA HU C TRNG
CAO NG S PHM NHM NNG CAO CHT LNG DY V HC.
Nhng thng tin ca qu thy (c) cung cp trong phiu iu tra s gip chng ti
nh gi thc trng dy hc c ch phn ng Ha hu c cc trng Cao ng S
phm hin nay. Chng ti xin m bo mi thng tin qu thy (c) cung cp s
khng c s dng vo mc ch no khc ngoi mc ch khoa hc ca ti
nghin cu. Rt mong nhn c cc kin ca qu thy c!
Xin qu thy (c) vui lng in vo mt s thng tin c nhn:
- Thy (c) ang dy ti Tnh (Thnh ph): ..........................................................
- S nm kinh nghim:
Di 5 nm. T 5 n di 15 nm.
T 15 n 25 nm. Trn 25 nm.
Xin qu thy (c) vui lng hy nh du vo nhng phng n ph hp nht.
1. Thy (c) nh gi kh ca vic truyn t kin thc v c ch phn ng
nh th no?
Rt kh. Kh.
Trung bnh. D.

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2. Thy (c) nhn xt thi tip thu ca sinh vin i vi kin thc v c ch
phn ng nh th no?
Tp trung. Khng tp trung.
Hi ht. Khng c kin.
3. Thy (c) thng s dng phng php dy hc no trong bi ging v c
ch phn ng Ha hu c?
STT Phng php
Rt
thng
xuyn
Thng
xuyn
Thnh
thong
Khng
s
dng
1 Din ging, m t c ch bng cc
hnh v trn bng

2 Dng gio n in t, s dng cc
phn mm m phng m t cc c
ch.

3 Phng php khc:
..


4. Thy (c) thng s dng phn mm powerpoint, cc phn mm ha hc v
ha trong ging dy nh th no?
STT Phn mm
Rt
thng
xuyn
Thng
xuyn
Thnh
thong
Khng
s
dng
1 Powerpoint
2 Cc phn mm ha hc (Chemwin,
Chemdraw, Chem 3D)

3 Cc phn mm ha (Flash, Paint,
Corel draw)



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5. Kh nng s dng cc phn mm ha hc v ha trong ging dy ca thy
(c) nh th no?
Rt thnh tho. Thnh tho.
Khng thnh tho. Khng bit s dng.
6. Thy (c) c thng xuyn s dng internet h tr cho vic ging dy c ch
phn ng khng?
Rt thng xuyn. Thng xuyn.
Thnh thong. Khng s dng.
7. Thy (c) c cm thy vic s dng cc m phng c ch phn ng h tr
cho vic ging dy bng gio n in t l cn thit khng?
Rt cn thit. Cn thit.
Khng cn thit. Khng c kin.


Xin chn thnh cm n kin ca qu thy (c)!
Mi chi tit xin lin h:
ng Vit H- Khoa T Nhin - Trng Cao ng S phm ng Nai

Chia s: CN. Nguyn Thanh T - Email: tuhoahocqn@gmail.com - Facebook: www.facebook.com/daykem.quynhon
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PH LC 2. PHIU IU TRA THC TRNG DY V
HC C CH PHN NG HA HU C TRNG
CSP (PHIU IU TRA THNG TIN SINH VIN)

Trng i hc S phm TPHCM
Phng KHCN-SH
Khoa Ha
------------------------------------
PHIU IU TRA THNG TIN SINH VIN


Cho cc bn sinh vin!
Hin nay chng ti ang thc hin ti nghin cu khoa hc THIT K
H THNG M PHNG C CH PHN NG HA HU C TRNG
CAO NG S PHM NHM NNG CAO CHT LNG DY V HC.
Nhng thng tin ca cc bn cung cp trong phiu iu tra s gip chng ti nh
gi thc trng dy hc c ch phn ng Ha hu c cc trng Cao ng S
phm hin nay. Chng ti xin m bo mi thng tin cc bn cung cp s khng
c s dng vo mc ch no khc ngoi mc ch khoa hc ca ti nghin
cu. Rt mong nhn c cc kin ca cc bn!
Xin cc bn vui lng in vo mt s thng tin c nhn:
- Trng: ................................................................................................................
- Lp:.
Xin cc bn vui lng hy nh du vo nhng phng n ph hp nht.
1. Trong qu trnh hc ca cc bn, c ch phn ng Ha hu c c Thy
(c) dy nh th no?
Rt k. K.
S lc. Khng dy.


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2. Mc ch ca cc bn trong gi hc v c ch phn ng nh th no?
Tp trung. Khng tp trung.
Hi ht. Khng c kin.
3. Theo cc bn, kin thc v c ch phn ng c tm quan trng nh th no
i vi vic hc mn Ha hu c?
Rt quan trng. Quan trng.
Khng quan trng. Khng c kin.
4. Cc bn cm thy nh th no khi hc kin thc v c ch phn ng?
Rt hng th. Hng th.
Khng hng th. Chn.
5. Sau khi tip thu bi ging v c ch ca thy c, cc bn c th t mnh gii
c cc bi tp mc no?
Bi tp d. Bi tp trung bnh.
Bi tp kh. Khng gii c bi tp.
6. Cc bn c thng xuyn c hc v c ch phn ng bng gio n in t
c s dng cc m phng khng?
Rt thng xuyn. Thng xuyn.
Thnh thong. Khng s dng.
7. Thy (c) c thng xuyn s dng phn mm powerpoint, cc chng trnh
ha hc v ha khi ging dy cc bi v c ch phn ng khng?
Rt thng xuyn. Thng xuyn.
Thnh thong. Khng s dng.

Xin chn thnh cm n kin ca cc bn!

Mi chi tit xin lin h:
ng Vit H- Khoa T Nhin - Trng Cao ng S phm ng Nai

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PH LC 3. V P N CA BI KIM TRA KT
QU THC NGHIM C CH S
N
1, S
N
2
,
E
1
, E
2

Thi gian: 45 pht
M 01
Hy khoanh trn vo cc p n ng
Cu 1: c im ca c ch S
N
2
l
A. lng phn t, mt giai on.
B. n phn t, hai giai on.
C. lng phn t, hai giai on.
D. n phn t, mt giai on.
Cu 2: c im ca c ch S
N
1
l
A. lng phn t, mt giai on.
B. n phn t, hai giai on.
C. lng phn t, hai giai on.
D. n phn t, mt giai on.
Cu 3: C ch phn ng no sau y to ra sn phm trung gian l cacbocation R
+
?
A. C ch S
N
1
.
B. C ch S
N
2
.
C. C ch E
2
.
D. C ch S
N
1
v E
2
.
Cu 4: Cho s phn ng sau:

Y + Y- - H - - - C
C - - -X
-

-

-

-
o
o
+ X YH + C C H C C X
o
|
ttct

Hy cho bit s trn m t c ch ca phn ng no?
A. C ch S
N
1
. C. C ch E
1
.
B. C ch S
N
2
. D. C ch E
2
.
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Cu 5: Cho s phn ng sau:

Y
+
X X Y
. . . . . .
X
o o
Y +

ttct

Hy cho bit s trn m t c ch ca phn ng no?
A. C ch S
N
1
.
B. C ch S
N
2
.
C. C ch E
1
.
D. C ch E
2
.
Cu 6: Cho s phn ng sau:

C X
cham
C + X
C
+ Y
nhanh
C Y

Hy cho bit s trn m t c ch ca phn ng no?
A. C ch S
N
1
.
B. C ch S
N
2
.
C. C ch E
1
.
D. C ch E
2
.
Cu 7: Cho phn ng: CH
3
-Br + NaOH/H
2
O . Hy cho bit phn ng ny xy ra
theo c ch no?
A. C ch E
1
.
B. C ch E
2
.
C. C ch S
N
1
.
D. C ch S
N
2
.
Cu 8: Cho phn ng:

(S)
+

OH
(-)
Br C
Bu
Me
H

Sn phm ng ca phn ng ny l

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A.
B. HO C
Bu
H
Me
C
OH
Me
Bu
Br C. D.
C
Me
Bu
Br
HO
HO C
Bu
Me
H
.
.
.
.

Cu 9: Cho cc cht: RF, RCl, RBr, RI. Th t gim dn kh nng phn ng tch
loi ca cc cht trn vi baz mnh l
A. RI > RBr > RCl > RF.
B. RI > RCl >RBr > RF.
C. RF> RCl > RBr > RI.
D. RCl > RF> RBr > RI.
Cu 10: C ch phn ng no sau y lm quay cu hnh ca phn t?
A. C ch S
N
1
.
B. C ch S
N
2
.
C. C ch S
N
1
.
D. C ch E
2
.
Cu 11: Cp c ch phn ng no sau y c trng thi chuyn tip tng t nhau?
A. S
N
1
v S
N
2
.
B. S
N
1
v E
2
.
C. S
N
2
v E
2
.
D. S
N
2
v E
1
.
Cu 12: Cho cc phn ng sau:
(1) (R) 2 bromhexan
2 5
OH
C H OH


(2) (S) 2 Iodobutan
3
NaSCH

(3) (R) 3 brom 3 metylhexan
2 5
OH
C H OH


(4) (R) 2 bromhexan
3
0
CH OH
t

Phn ng xy ra s nghch o cu hnh l
A. (1), (2). B. (3), (4). C. (2), (3). D. (1), (4).

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Cu 13: Cho cc phn ng:
(1) CH
3
Br + CH
3
NH
2

(2) CH
3
CHBrCH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
+ NaOH/ H
2
O
(3) (CH
3
)
3
CBr + NaOH
Phn ng xy ra theo c ch S
N
1
l
A. (1).
B. (2).
C. (3).
D. (2) v (3).
Cu 14: Trong c ch phn ng S
N
1
, nu xut pht t dn xut halogen RX c cu
hnh (R) th sau phn ng thu c sn phm
A. c cu hnh R.
B. c cu hnh S.
C. c cu hnh khng quang hot.
D. l hn hp raxemic.
Cu 15: Cho cc cht: CH
3
Br, CH
3
CHBrCH
3
, CH
3
CH
2
Br. Th t gim dn kh
nng phn ng th halogen vi KI trong axeton theo c ch S
N
2
ca cc cht trn l
A. CH
3
Br > CH
3
CHBrCH
3
> CH
3
CH
2
Br.
B. CH
3
CHBrCH
3
> CH
3
CH
2
Br > CH
3
Br.
C. CH
3
Br > CH
3
CH
2
Br > CH
3
CHBrCH
3
.
D. CH
3
CH
2
Br > CH
3
CHBrCH
3
> CH
3
Br.
Cu 16: Cho cc phn ng sau:
(1) CH
3
CH
2
CHBrCH
3
+ H
2
O
(2) CH
3
CH
2
CHBrCH
3
+ Ag
+

(3) CH
3
CH
2
CHBrCH
3
+ NaI
C ch phn ng ca cc phn ng (1), (2), (3) ln lt l
A. S
N
1
, S
N
2
, E
1
.
B. S
N
1
, E
1
, S
N
2
.
C. S
N
1
, S
N
2
, E
2
.
D. E
1
, S
N
2
, S
N
1
.

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Cu 17: Cho cc phn ng sau: (dm: dung mi)
(1) Etyl ioua + CH
3
OK dm CH
3
OH
(2) Tert-butyl ioua + NaOH dm H
2
O
(3) Anlyl bromua + CH
3
COONa dm H
2
O
(4) Metyl iodua + KSCN dm C
2
H
5
OH
Cc phn ng theo c ch S
N
2
l
A. (1) v (3).
B. (1) v (4).
C. (2) v (3).
D. (2) v (4).
Cu 18: Cho cc cht:
(1) CH
3
-CHBr-CH
2
-CH
2
-CH
3

(2) (CH
3
)
2
CHCH
2
-CH
2
Br
(3) (CH
3
)
2
C=CBr-CH
2
-CH
3

(4) CH
3
)
2
C=CH-CH
2
Br
Th t gim kh nng phn ng th S
N
2
ca cc cht trn l
A. (4) > (2) > (1) > (3).
B. (2) > (1) > (3) > (4).
C. (1) > (2) ) > (4) > (3).
D. (3) > (1) > (2) > (4).
Cu 19: Cho phn ng th: (R)-CH
3
CHBrCH
2
CH
3
+ CH
3
O

. Sn phm ca phn
ng trn l
A. (R) CH
3
CH(OCH
3
)CH
2
CH
3
.
B. (R) CH
3
CH(CH
3
)CH
2
CH
3
.
C. (S) CH
3
CH(OCH
3
)CH
2
CH
3
.
D. (S) CH
3
CH(CH
3
)CH
2
CH
3
.
Cu 20: Cho cc cht:
(1) I
-

(2) C
2
H
5
O
-
, C
2
H
5
OH, t
0

(3) CH
3
S
-

(4) CH
3
NH
2

(5) NH
2

Cc cht khi tng tc vi 2-clo-3- metylbutan cho phn ng th S
N
2
l

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A. (1), (4).
B. (2), (3), (4).
C. (1), (3), (4).
D. (2), (5).
Cu 21: Cho cc cht:
(1) I
-

(2) C
2
H
5
O
-
, C
2
H
5
OH, t
0

(3) CH
3
S
-

(4) CH
3
NH
2

(5) NH
2
-

Cc cht khi tng tc vi 2-clo-3- metylbutan cho phn ng tch E
2
l
A. (1), (4).
B. (2), (3) , (4).
C. (1), (3), (4).
D. (2), (5).
Cu 22: Cho hai cht:
H
H
H
3
C
H
3
C CH
3
H
H
H
3
C
trans-2-Buten cis-2-Buten
(1) (2)

Sn phm ca phn ng tch loi meso-2,3-ibrombutan bng I
-
theo c ch E
2
l
cht
A. (1).
B. (2).
C. (1)-chnh, (2)-ph.
D. (2)-chnh, (1)-ph.


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Cu 23: Cho hai cht:
H
H
H
3
C
H
3
C CH
3
H
H
H
3
C
trans-2-Buten cis-2-Buten
(1) (2)

Sn phm ca phn ng tch loi (S,S)-2,3-ibrombutan bng I
-
theo c ch E
2
l
cht
A. (1).
B. (2).
C. (1)-chnh, (2)-ph.
D. (2)-chnh, (1)-ph.
Cu 24: Cho phn ng:
H
3
C C CH
2
C CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
Br
H
3
C C CH C CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
H
3
C C CH
2
C CH
2
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
+
OH
-
18% 82%
(1) (2)

Pht biu no sau y gii thch ng nguyn nhn lm cho phn ng nu trn xy
ra khng theo quy tc Zaizev?
A. Phn ng xy ra theo c ch E
1
, do hiu ng lp th ca nhm (CH
3
)
3
C
gy ra nn sn phm (2) c hnh thnh thun li hn v mt nng lng.
B. Phn ng xy ra theo c ch E
2
, do hiu ng lp th ca nhm (CH
3
)
3
C
gy ra nn sn phm (2) c hnh thnh thun li hn v mt nng lng.
C. Phn ng xy ra theo c ch gc, do hiu ng lp th ca nhm (CH
3
)
3
C
gy ra nn sn phm (2) c hnh thnh thun li hn v mt nng lng.
D. Phn ng xy ra theo E
i
, do hiu ng lp th ca nhm (CH
3
)
3
C gy ra
nn sn phm (2) c hnh thnh thun li hn v mt nng lng.



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Cu 25: Cho hai cht:
H CH
3
H
3
C
OCH
3
H
CH
3
H
3
C OCH
3
(1) (2)

Cht no l sn phm ca phn ng:
CH
3
OH
H CH
3
Br H
3
C

nu n xy ra theo c ch S
N
1?
A. ch c (1).
B. ch c (2).
C. (1)-chnh, (2)-ph.
D. (2)-chnh, (1)-ph.
Cu 26: Cho cc phn ng:

(1) NaCl + CH
3
CH
2
OH
axeton
(2) NH
3
+ Br
etanol
(3) CH
3
CH
2
O + CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
Cl
etanol
(4) LiCl + CH
4

axeton

Cc phn ng xy ra theo c ch th nucleophin l
C. (3), (4). A. (1), (2).
B. (2), (3). D. (1), (4).
Cu 27: Cho cc tc nhn nucleophin:
(1) NH
3
.
(2) H
2
O.
(3) OH
-
.
(4) (CH
3
)
2
CHO
-
.
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Th t tng dn kh nng phn ng th nucleophin ca cc tc nhn trn l
A. (1) < (2) < (4) < (3). B. (4) < (2) < (1) < (3).
C. (2) < (1) < (3) < (4). D. (4) < (3) < (1) < (2).
Cu 28: Cho hai cht sau:
C
2
H
5
(1) C = C (2) C = C
CH
3
CH
3 C
2
H
5
H H H
H

Sn phm ca phn ng

C
2
H
5
H
H
H
CH
3
Br
E
2

l
A. (1). B. (2).
C. (1) v (2) sai. D. (1) v (2) ng.
Cu 29: Cho hai cht sau:
CH
3
H
C
6
H
13
(R) - Octan-2-ol
C OH
C
CH
3
H
HO
C
6
H
13
(S) - Octan-2-ol
(1)
(2)

Sn phm ca phn ng
CH
3
H
C
6
H
13
(R) - 2 - Bromoctan
C Br
NaOH

l
A. (1). B. (2).
C. (1)-chnh, (2)-ph. D. (2)-chnh, (1)-ph.

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Cu 30: Cho 4 cht sau:
CH
3
CH
2
CH=CH
2

(1)
C = C
CH
3
H H
CH
3
C = C
H
H
CH
3
CH
3
(3)
(4) (2)
CH
3
CH
2
CHCH
3
OH

Sn phm ca phn ng
CH
3
CH
2
CHCH
3
Br
KOH
ancol

l
A. (1). B. (2).
C. (3). D. (4).

P N

1 A 11 C 21 D
2 B 12 A 22 A
3 A 13 C 23 B
4 D 14 D 24 A
5 B 15 C 25 D
6 A 16 B 26 B
7 D 17 B 27 C
8 B 18 A 28 A
9 A 19 C 29 A
10 B 20 C 30 D

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