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Lectures on Insight Meditation

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Biogra$h% Pre&ace Ac'no()edg*ent Ha$$iness through Right !nderstanding Pre)i*inar% Instructions &or Meditators Se+en Bene&its o& Mind&u)ness Meditation The ,our ,oundations o& Mind&u)ness Se+en Stages o& Puri&ication Nine a%s to Shar$en the Menta) ,acu)ties The ,i+e ,actors o& a Meditator Meditation -uide)ines Retreat Ti*e.ta/)e

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
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Ta'en ,ro*0 ni//ana1co*

Sayadaw Ashin Janakabhivamsa received the higher ordination in 1947 a ter which he contin!ed advance st!dies o "!ddhist scri#t!res. $e #ractised %i#assana meditation !nder the instr!ction o the most %enerab&e 'ahasi Sayadaw in 1953(54. )hen he was invited by the State Buddha Sasana Organization to #er orm Palipatiwisodhaka *editoria& d!ties+ or reciting "!ddhist scri#t!res at the Si,th -reat "!ddhist .o!nci&. /n 1957 the %enerab&e Sayadaw s#ent si, years in Sri 0anka1 where he contin!ed his st!dies o 2ng&ish1 Sanskrit1 $indi and Sinha&ese &ang!age. /n 1967 he was a##ointed by %enerab&e 'ahasi Sayadaw as a meditation teacher at Mahasi Sasana Yeikhta1 3angon. /n 1977 Sayadaw Ashin Janakabhivamsa took !# residence at .hanmyay 3eiktha 'editation .entre which was donated to him by some devotees and became the abbot o the centre. $e has been since then we&&(known as .hanmyay Sayadaw. $e accom#anied the most %enerab&e 'ahasi Sayadaw as and assistant in 4hamma mission to 2!ro#e and 5SA in 1979(67. 8rom 1961 onwards he has been !ndertaking 4hamma missions a&one to twenty ive co!ntries in Asia1 A!stra&ia1 2!ro#e1 the 5nited States1 A rica and .anada. )he Sayadaw has cond!cted severa& meditation co!rses a&& over the wor&d and is a&so wide&y known thro!gh his ta&ks1 5niversity &ect!res1 broadcasts and books on "!ddhism1 es#ecia&&y meditation1 inc&!ding this book 9 %i#assana 'editation 9 which Sayadaw has kind&y a&&owed !s to #!b&ish on this 9"!ddhism9 :eb Site d!ring his &atest ro!nd o the wor&d 4hamma 'ission in 1996.

Sudassam vajjamannesam Attano pana duddasam Easi)% seen are others2 &au)ts Hard indeed to see are one2s o(n

)he statement is a&so very re&evant or meditators *yogi+. A yogi may kee# making the same mistakes and yet and remain b&ind to them1 !nti& someone shar# and e,#erienced eno!gh comes a&ong and #oints them o!t. Again1 a ter some time1 we may orget and need to be reminded. ;n the 37th 'arch to 6th A#ri& 19631 we were very ort!nate to have a very e,#erienced %i#assana master to ho&d a retreat at the 'a&aysian "!ddhist 'editation .entre1 <enang1 to g!ide1 teach1 correct and remind !s regarding %i#assana meditation. :e a&& have bene itted great&y by his #recise instr!ctions1 strict disci#&ine and enco!raging words. :e have here a com#i&ation o them or the bene it o a&& Seekers o 5ttermost sec!rity rom bo!nds. )hey are the evening &ect!res de&ivered by the Sayadaw 5 Janakabhivamsa or the yogis9 bene it. Some are instr!ctions taken main&y rom the interviews between the Sayadaw and the yogis. )hey have been arranged according to their vario!s items to be made into a com#rehensive book&et. Some statements are a##&icab&e on&y to those sit!ations concerned and sho!&d not be taken too genera&&y. S#ecia& thanks to the Sayadaw or a&&owing !s to #rint this book and #roo reading it himse& . :e are a&so grate !& to a&& who have he&#ed to make this book #ossib&e.

Venera/)e Su3i+a
"une 45671



/t is my great #&eas!re that we can #!b&ish this new edition o %i#assana 'editation which so ar has been #rinted three times in 'a&aysia and 'yanmar. :e are dee#&y grate !& to the %enerab&e "hikkh! S!=iva or his tire&ess e orts to com#i&e and edit my &ect!res and instr!ctions given or the bene its o yogis in the retreat / cond!cted in <enang1 'a&aysia in A#ri& 1963. )his new edition was made d!ring my 4hamma(to!r in the :est in 1992. "hikkh! <esa&a o the "!rmese %ihara1 0ondon1 rendered me inva&!ab&e assistance in this res#ect. >oyce :i&es1 my st!dent in medication1 has #o&ished the &ang!age in the man!scri#t that was entered onto com#!ter by 5 4hammas!bha1 a 'a&aysian bhikkh!1 'a!ng A!ng -yi and 'a!ng ?aw 'yint ;o. / thank them a&& a great dea&. No+e*/er 78 4559.

Ashin "ana'a/hi+a*sa8
Chan*%a% Sa%ada(1


HAPPINESS THRO!-H RI-HT !NDERSTANDIN2verybody in the wor&d wants ha##iness and #eace. )his is the reason why #eo#&e are seeking the tr!e #ath which &eads them to the cessation o s! ering. A&& kinds o re&igions in the wor&d arise beca!se o this search. ;ne great re&igion in the wor&d is "!ddhism1 it &eads #eo#&e to the cessation o s! ering. The Cause o& Su&&ering )he 0ord "!ddha o!nd o!t the ca!se o s! ering *dukkha+. According to his teachings1 everything arises de#endent on conditions. 2verything in the wor&d has its ca!seA nothing arises witho!t a ca!se. :hen the "!ddha wanted to get rid o s! ering *dukkha+1 he had to ind o!t the ca!se. :hen the ca!se had been eradicated1 there wi&& not be any e ect. :hen the omniscient "!ddha became en&ightened1 he discovered that the ca!se o s! ering is attachment *tanha+. )he word 9tanha9 means greed1 &!st1 desire1 craving and the &ike. "!ddhist scho&ars have trans&ated 9tanha9 into attachment so that it covers a&& orms o desire. So in 2ng&ish1 we !se the word 9attachment9 or 9tanha9. Tanha or attachment is the ca!se o s! ering. :hen there is tanha there is dukkha *s! ering+. :hen a man can e&iminate tanha1 he is s!re to get rid o dukkha. )his tanha a&so arises de#endent on a ca!se. :itho!t a ca!se1 tanha wi&& not arise. Tanha is a menta& state and a #rocess o menta&ity which is conditioned. )he ;mniscient "!ddha discovered that the ca!se o attachment *tanha+ is wrong view1 i.e. the a&se view o a so!&1 a se& 1 an 9/9 or a 9yo!9 a #ersona&ity or an individ!a&ity known as sakkaya-ditthi or atta-ditthi. So thissakkaya-ditthi or atta-ditthi is the ca!se o tanha which ca!ses dukkha. )hen what is the ca!se o this a&se view *sakkaya-ditthi or atta-ditthi+ B )he ;mniscient "!ddha #ointed o!t that ignorance *moha or avijja in <a&i+ o the nat!ra& #rocesses o menta&ity and #hysica&ity is the ca!se o the a&se view o a so!& or a se& . )h!s by rea&iCation or right !nderstanding o this d!a& #rocess in its tr!e nat!re1 we can e,terminate ignorance. )hen we come to know the &aw o .a!se and 2 ect. :e can s!mmariCe the chain o ca!se and e ect &ike thisD /gnorance is the ca!se1 a&se view *sakkaya-ditthi or atta-ditthi+ is the e ect. 8a&se view is the ca!se1 attachment is the e ect. Attachment is the ca!se1 s! ering is the e ect. )hen what we come to know is D i menta& and #hysica& #rocesses are right&y !nderstood1 that right !nderstanding wi&& do away with ignorance. :hen ignorance has been eradicated1 then there wi&& not be any a&se view o a so!&1 a se& 1 a #erson or a being. :hen this a&se view has been destroyed1 there wi&& not arise any s! ering. )hen we reach a stage in which a&& kinds o s! ering cease to e,it ( the cessation o s! ering *Nirodha-sacca+ is attained.

)his desire to be a E!een or a #resident etc. )hen1 that #erson1 that being1 that 9/9 or that 9yo!9 has a desire to be rich1 or to be a king1 a E!een or a #resident1 a #rime minister or a mi&&ionaire.a)se Vie( :e sho!&d consider how ignorance o the mind(body #rocesses ca!ses a&se view o a so!& or a se& 1 a #erson or a being1 an 9/9 or 9yo!9A and how this a&se view ca!ses attachment to arise. :hen we attached to o!r ho!se1 a non(&iving thing1 we are worried abo!t o!r ho!se. )hat s! ering is ca!sed by o!r attachment to o!r ho!se. :e sho!&d be very attentive and mind !& o it as it rea&&y is 8or e.aminations1 we are worried1 we ee& sorry and sad. :here does this attachment come romB )his attachment comes rom the a&se conce#tion o bodi&y and menta& #rocesses as #erson or a being1 a so!& or a se& 1 an 9/9 or a 9yo!9. :hen we are attached to o!r chi&dren1 we worry abo!t o!r chi&dren9s hea&th1 ed!cation and so on. :hen we observe it very attentive&y and c&ose&y1 then we see its brand1 its design and the ig!res on it.terminate this desire or attachment1 then we m!st destroy its ca!se. So1 attachment *tanha+ is the ca!se o s! ering. :here there is no attachment1 there wi&& not be any s! ering. /t arises thro!gh the a&se idea o a #erson or a being1 a so!& or a se& 1 an 9/9 or 9yo!9 / we want to e. :hen this conce#t o #ersona&ity and individ!a&ity has been destroyed1 there wi&& not be any attachment. :hen we do not observe a watch attentive&y and care !&&y we cannot !nderstand it as it is. :hen that desire or attachment arises in !s1 it brings abo!t a&& kinds o s! ering. $owever i we do not observe it as it is1 i o!r observation is combined with s!ch #reconceived ideas . / o!r chi&dren ai& their e.#&ained ear&ier1 the a&se view or a&se conce#t o a #erson or a being1 a so!& or a se& . Sadness is one o the main kind o s! ering. )hen again1 when we attached to o!r re&atives1 to o!r riends1 to o!r chi&dren1 or to o!r #arentsA this attachment a&so ca!ses !s to s! er. So1 when the a&se view has been destroyed1 there wi&& not arise any attachment to become a rich man1 a king1 a #resident or so on. :hat is the ca!seB )he ca!se o desire or attachment is1 as / have e. )his s! ering is menta& s! ering or menta& d!kkha1 and is ca!sed by attachment to o!r chi&dren.1 is attachment. /t is beca!se we do not right&y !nderstand this d!a& #rocess in its tr!e nat!re that we consider it as as #erson or a being1 a so!& or a se& . )he desire to be1 to get1 to have something arises thro!gh a&se view or the a&se conce#t o a #erson or being1 an 9/9m or 9yo!9. :hen we want to !nderstand something as it rea&&y is1 we sho!&d observe it1 watch it1 be mind !& o it as it rea&&y occ!rs witho!t ana&yCing it1 witho!t &ogica& reasoning1 witho!t #hi&oso#hica& thinking and witho!t #re(conce#tions. :e come to !nderstand that this is a watchA its brand name is SeikoA it has an internationa& time chart etc. / o!r ho!se is on ire1 we ee& sad.mniscient "!ddha #ointed o!t that by being mind !& o this d!a& #rocess as it rea&&y is1 we are ab&e to right&y !nderstand its rea&&y intrinsic nat!re. See it as it is )he .The Cause o& .am#&e ( &ook at a watch.

:hen we ee& angry1 we sho!&d note that anger as anger. / we choose any menta& or #hysica& #rocess as the ob=ect o meditation1 it means we are attached to it.onscio!sness *Cittanupassana Satipatthana+ mind(ob=ects *Dhammanupassana Satipatthana) Choice)ess A(areness :hen we are mind !& o o!r mind(body #rocess1 we do not need to choose any menta& or #hysica& #rocess as the ob=ect o o!r meditation. /n the same way1 when we want to right&y !nderstand the mind(body #rocesses in their tr!e nat!re or as they rea&&y are1 we m!st not ana&yCe them or think abo!t them. :hen the body ee&s co&d1 we sho!&d note it as co&d. )he1 we can see o!r mind(body #rocesses as they rea&&y are. 4. So1 mind !&ness o mind(body #rocesses in their nat!re is the way &eading to the cessation o s! ering. :hen o!r body ee&s hot1 we sho!&d note that ee&ing o heat as heat.megaF when we observed it. )hat is way the . :e have !sed the #reconceived idea when we saw it1 so the #reconceived ideas &ead !s to the wrong conc&!sion regarding the watch.mniscient "!ddha teaches !s to be mind !& o menta& and #hysica& #henomena as they rea&&y are. :e m!st not reason or !se any inte&&ect!a& know&edge1 or any #reconceived idea. :hen we ee& sorrow1 we sho!&d be mind !& o it as sorrow. :hen we ee& sad or disa##ointed1 we sho!&d be aware o o!r emotiona& state o sadness or disa##ointment as it is. 3. :e m!st &eave them aside and #ay bare attention to what is ha##ening to the mind(body #henomena as they rea&&y are.as1 F/ have seen s!ch a watch be ore and its brand name is . 4!ring meditation1 the 9noting mind9 or the 9observing . / we #!t the #reconceived idea aside and =!st observe it attentive&y and c&ose&y1 we wi&& !nderstand it as it is ( this is a Seiko1 it is made in Ja#an1 it a&so has an internationa& time chart. :hen ignorance has been removed1 then we do not take the mind( body #rocesses to be a #erson1 a being1 a so!& or a se& . 2ach and every menta& and #hysica& #rocess m!st be observed as it rea&&y occ!rs so that we can right&y !nderstand it in its tr!e nat!re. )he mind wi&& choose the ob=ect by itse& . :hen we ee& #ain1 we sho!&d note it as #ain. :hen the attachment has been destroyed1 we are ree rom a&& kinds o s! ering and have attained the cessation o s! ering. /n this disco!rse1 the .mniscient "!ddha de&ivered a disco!rse on F)he 8o!r 8o!ndation o 'ind !&nessF.megaF1 then1 as soon as we see this watch1 we wi&& take it to be an . )here are many ways by which we have to be mind !& o the mind(body #rocesses b!t they can be s!mmariCed as o&&owsD 1. 'ind 'ind 'ind 'ind !&ness o !&ness o !&ness o !&ness o bodi&y #rocess *Kayanupassana Satipatthana+ ee&ing or sensation *Vedananupassana Satipatthana+ .mega. :e wi&& !nderstand it as it is beca!se we had #!t aside o!r #reconceived idea o F. 2. )hat right !nderstanding wi&& &ead !s to remove ignorance. / we take these mind(body #rocesses to be =!st nat!ra& #rocesses1 then there wi&& not arise any attachment. :hen we ee& ha##y1 we sho!&d note that ha##iness. :hyB "eca!se we do not observe it attentive&y and c&ose&y.

:hen we #!sh it orward1 we sho!&d &abe& it as 9#!shing9. :hen #ractising wa&king meditation in a retreat1 the movements o the oot s!ch as the &i ting movement1 the #!shing movement and the dro##ing movement m!st be c&ose&y and #recise&y observed as they rea&&y are. . )his mind !&ness meditation is not on&y very sim#&e and easy1 b!t a&so very e ective in achieving o!r goa& ( the cessation o s! ering. So the #rinci#&e o %i#assana meditation or mind !&ness meditation is to observe1 to watch1 or to be mind !& o a&& menta& or #hysica& #henomena as they rea&&y are. /t is a&so very he&# !& or a meditator to oc!s his mind on the ob=ect o meditation. :hen we stretch o!t o!r arm1 we m!st be aware o the movement o stretching. /n this way1 one can deve&o# concentration more dee#&y that ever. :hen the hand to!ches the s#oon or the rice1 the to!ching sensation m!st be observed. :hen we dro# it1 we sho!&d &abe& is 9dro##ing9. :hen the itchy sensation has disa##eared by means o strong mind !&ness and dee# concentration1 the mind wi&& choose * or e. :hen we ho&d the s#oon1 the sensation o ho&ding m!st be observed. :hen we scoo# c!rry with the s#oon1 that movement m!st be observed. /n the same way1 when we are taking a bathA whi&e we are working in the o ice or at home1 we m!st be aware o a&& the actions or movements invo&ved. /n this way1 each and every action invo&ved in the act o eating m!st be observed as it is beca!se every #hysica& #rocess m!st be thoro!gh&y rea&iCed so as to remove ignorance which is the ca!se o a&se view. )ho!gh we try to oc!s the mind on the abdomina& movement1 the mind does not stay with it i the #ain is more distinct or more #rominent. So we need to choose the ob=ect b!t sho!&d observe the ob=ect that the mind chooses. :hen #ain disa##ear thro!gh attentive and c&ose awareness1 the mind wi&& choose another ob=ect which is more distinct. :hen we are taking ood1 we sho!&d be aware o every action1 every activity invo&ved in the act o eating. La/e))ing :e may need &abe&&ing or naming when we are mind !& o any ob=ect. /n this way 9&i ting1 #!shing1 dro##ingA &i ting1 #!shing1 dro##ing9. 0abe&&ing or naming can &ead the mind to the ob=ect o the meditation c&ose&y and #recise&y.mind9 wi&& choose the ob=ect by itse& A #erha#s a ee&ing o ha##iness or o!r s!ccess1 or a #ain !& sensation1 or the abdomina& movement. / the itchy sensation on the back is more distinct or more #rono!nced than the abdomina& movement1 the mind wi&& go to the ee&ing o itchiness and observe it as 9itching91 itching1 itching9. :hen we &i t o!r oot to wa&k1 we sho!&d &abe& it as 9&i ting9. $owever1 there may be some meditators who need not &abe& or name the ob=ect o meditation. :hen we di# the s#oon into the c!rry1 that di##ing movement m!st be observed. / ha##iness is more distinct than the abdomina& ob=ect1 the mind wi&& choose ha##iness as its ob=ect and observe it as 9ha##y1 ha##y1 ha##y9. )he mind m!st o&&ow the movement o the oot very c&ose&y as it is1 witho!t thinking or ana&yCing. /nstead1 they =!st observe it. )hey sho!&d =!st observe the movement o the oot ( rom the very beginning o the &i ting movement !# to the end o the dro##ing the abdomina& movement as its ob=ect beca!se it is more distinct than the other ob=ects. )he 9noting mind9 wi&& go to the #ain and observe it beca!se the more distinct ee&ing takes the mind toward it very strong&y.

)he #!r#ose and the res!&ts o Samatha and %i#assana meditation are di erent1 as are the methods. :hen the mind is dee#&y concentrated on the ob=ect o meditation1 the mind become ca&m and tranE!i&. )h!s1 we have a variety o ob=ects o meditationD ha##iness is an ob=ect o meditation and so is anger1 sorrow1 #ain !& sensation1 sti ness1 n!mbness and so on. $e m!st make the red circ&e abo!t the siCe o a #&ate and the co&o!r m!st be o #!re red1 even and smooth. 8or this1 we need some degree o concentration. Samantha means concentration 1 ca&mness1 tranE!i&ity. )he res!&ts o the Samatha meditation1 there ore1 is some degree o ha##iness thro!gh the attainment o dee# concentration s!ch as Absor#tion *a##ana(samadhi1 Jhana+ or access concentration *!#acara(samadhi+ b!t it does not enab&e !s to right&y !nderstand the menta& and #hysica& #henomena as they rea&&y are. :henever the mind wanders1 yo! sho!&d o&&ow the mind and observe it. :hen the mind is dee#&y concentrated on the ob=ect o meditation1 a&& the de i&ements s!ch as &!st1 greed1 hatred1 desire1 conceit1 ignorance and so on are ke#t away rom the mind which is absorbed in the ob=ect. :hen the device has been made1 then he has to sit on the &oor abo!t two eet rom the wa&&1 &ook at the red circ&e and concentrate on it. A ter the initia& tho!ght has disa##eared1 yo! sho!&d res!me yo!r wa&king and noting as !s!a& ( 9&i ting1 #!shing1 dro##ing9. $e m!st oc!s the mind on the red circ&e and and observe it as 9red1 red1 red9. )his is the way o Samatha meditation in brie . :hen we wa&k1 we observe the movement o the oot ( the &i ting1 #!shing and dro##ing. Sa*atha and Vi$assana $ere1 we sho!&d know the di erence between Samatha meditation and %i#assana meditation.e. As or %i#assana meditation1 the #!r#ose is to attain the cessation o s! ering thro!gh right&y !nderstanding menta& and #hysica& #rocesses in their tr!e nat!re. / yo! are thinking abo!t yo!r ami&y a airs1 that tho!ght m!st be observed as it is1 making a menta& note1 9thinking1 thinking1 thinking9. )he #!r#ose o Samatha meditation is to attain dee# concentration o the mind on a sing&e ob=ect. 8or instance1 to make a co&o!r kasina1 he has to make a red circ&e on the wa&& abo!t two eet rom the &oor in accordance with the %is!ddhimagga commentary. Any menta& or #hysica& #rocess can be the ob=ect o meditation. At the beginning o the .#&ained ear&ier. :e sho!&d go back to what / e. A Samatha meditator has to make some device or kasina as the ob=ect o meditation. Sho!&d the mind wander1 he m!st not o&&ow the mind b!t he m!st bring it to the ob=ect o meditation1 i.1 the red circ&e.At the beginning o the #ractice1 the mind wanders very o ten. )his concentration can be attained thro!gh constant and !ninterr!#ted mind !&ness o the mind(body #rocess. So1 the res!&t o Samatha meditation is the attainment o dee# concentration s!ch as absor#tion *a##ana(samadhi1 =hana+ or access concentration *!#acara(samadhi+. :hen the mind is ree rom a&& the de i&ements or hindrances1 we ee& ca&m1 tranE!i&1 ha##y and #eace !&.

)he &i ting movement is one #rocess and and the mind that notes it is another #rocess. dukkha. So we rea&ise the three characteristics o menta& and #hysica& #henomena1 /m#ermanence *anicca+1 s! ering *dukkha+ and no(so!& or no(se& *anatta+.#erience1 we come to !nderstand that no #art o the #rocess is #ermanent or ever&asting. So1 beca!se attachment does not arise1 there wi&& not arise any d!kkha which is act!a&&y the res!&ts o the attachment. /n this way1 we thoro!gh&y rea&ise the two #rocesses o menta& #henomena and #hysica& #henomena. :e attain the sensation o s! ering at he moment o e. :hen the mind wanders1 we have to o&&ow it and observe it as it is !nti& that wandering mind has disa##ear. :e do not take them to be a #erson1 a 9being9 and 9/9 or 9yo!9. :e right&y !nderstand this d!a& #rocess as =!st nat!ra& #rocesses o menta& and #hysica& #henomena. 3. :hen we rea&ise the im#ermanent and s! ering nat!re o this #hysica& #rocess o movement1 then we do not take it to be an ever&asting entity ( a #erson1 a being1 a so!& or a se& . )hen we come to rea&ise one o the three characteristics o the menta& and #hysica& #rocess1 i. :hen this a&se conce#t has been destroyed1 there wi&& not arise any attachment or desire which is the ca!se o s! ering *dukkha+.n&y a ter it has disa##ear1 do we note the movement o the oot as !s!a&. 5. :hen we come to rea&ise them as nat!ra& #rocesses o movement1 we a&so come to rea&ise the mind that notes them. So we come to rea&ise many series o &i ting movements arising and #assing away one a ter another. :hen the oot is &i ted1 the mind notes it as &i ting1 when the oot is #!shed orward1 the mind notes it as #!shing1 when the oot is dro##ed1 the mind notes it as dro##ing. 4!ring s!ch e. . )his is the rea&iCation o theanatta1 no(so!&1 no(se& 1 non( ego nat!re o bodi&y and menta& #rocesses.#ractice1 o!r mind is not we&& concentrated on the oot.e. )hen there wi&& not arise any a&se conce#t o #ersona&ity1 individ!a&ity1 so!& or se& . 2very #rocess o movement is s!b=ect to im#ermanence *anicca+ ( arising and #assing away very swi t&y1 so it is not a good #recessA it is bad. :hen the concentration becomes dee# and strong1 then o!r rea&iCation or #enetrating insight into menta& #rocesses and #hysica& #rocesses become c&ear. As the mind !&ness becomes constant and #ower !&1 the concentration become dee#er and stronger. 2. )he #!shing movement is one #rocess and the mind that notes it is another #rocess. 4. :hen the mind becomes we&& concentrated on the movement o the oot1 what we note is the movement o &i ting1 #!shing and dro##ing and we m!st not be aware o the orm o the oot or the orm o the body d!ring wa&king. Rea)i:ation o& the No/)e Truths At that moment he has com#&ete&y deve&o#ed the @ob&e 2ight o&d <athD( 1. Samma"ditthi *>ight 5nderstanding+ Samma"sankappa *>ight )ho!ght+ Samma"va#a *>ight S#eech+ Samma"kammanta *>ight Action+ Samma"ajiva *>ight 0ive&ihood+ . As we #roceed1 o!r mind !&ness becomes more constant1 !ninterr!#ted and #ower !&.#eriencing the #rocess o the movement the &i ting1 #!shing and dro##ing movement ( as =!st a nat!ra& #rocess.

)hat mind !&ness is 9>ight 'ind !&ness9 *Samma-sati+ beca!se it &eads him to the right !nderstanding o the menta& and #hysica& #rocesses. )hen1 one o the menta& states which arises together with the mind !&ness o the movement o the oot &eads the mind to the ob=ect o meditation1 i. So when a meditator enters into the irst #ath1 Sotapatti-ma a1 he has com#&ete&y deve&o#ed the @ob&e 2ight o&d <ath ( !a a-sacca1 the way &eading to the cessation o the s! ering. Samma"va$ama *>ight 2 ort+ Samma"sati *>ight 'ind !&ness+ Samma"samadhi *>ight . 2. $owever m!ch e ort a meditator makes1 the mind does not stay with the movement o the oot at irst. Abstention rom wrong s#eech means 9>ight S#eech9 *Samma-vacca+A abstention rom wrong action means 9>ight Action9 *Samma-kammanta+A abstention rom wrong &ive&ihood means 9>ight 0ive&ihood9 *Samma-ajiva+. )his is how he has the 8o!r @ob&e )r!ths by means o c!&tivating mind !&ness o menta& and #hysica& #rocesses in their tr!e nat!re. "eca!se o that menta& e ort1 he can oc!s his mind on the movement o the oot. . )he characteristic o 9>ight )ho!ght9 is the directing o the mind to the ob=ect o meditation. Samma"va$ama * >ight 2 ort+ 7. /t is nat!ra& or the mind to wander in the beginning o the #ractice. $owB :hen he oc!ses the mind on the movement o the oot1 he has to make a menta& e ortA that menta& e ort is 9>ight 2 ort9 *Samma-vayama+. So we have a&together the eight menta& actors o the @ob&e 2ight o&d <ath whi&e we are being mind !& o any menta& or #hysica& #rocess. )h!s1 we have deve&o#ed ive menta& actors o the @ob&e 2ight o&d <ath when we are mind !& o the movement o the oot.oncentration+ Samma"sankappa *>ight )ho!ght+ Samma"ditthi *>ight 5nderstanding+ )hese ive menta& actors are inc&!ded in mind !&ness o the mind(body #rocesses as they are. Samma"samadhi *>ight .6. 3.e.e. As we deve&o# the @ob&e 2ight o&d <ath1 we can remove a&se view *sakkaya-ditthi or atta-ditthi+ by the #ower o >ight 5nderstanding *Samma-ditthi+1 one o the actors o the @ob&e 2ight o&d <ath. :hen his mind is oc!sed on the movement o the oot1 it is concentrated on it or a moment b!t when the concentration become contin!o!s and constantG stronger and dee#er1 that concentration is 9>ight .oncentration+ 8rom the time he can concentrate the mind to a &arge e. )hese areD( 1.tent on the ob=ect o meditation1 i.oncentration9 *Samma-samadhi+. /n this way1 the mind becomes we&& concentrated on the ob=ect o meditation1 the movement o the oot. Samma"sati *>ight 'ind !&ness+ 6. the movement o the oot. )hat menta& state which &eads the mind to the ob=ect o meditation is 9>ight )ho!ght9 *Samma-sankappa+. 4. :hi&e engaged in mind !&ness meditation1 we abstain rom wrong s#eech1 wrong action and wrong &ive&ihood.1 menta&(#hysica& #rocess1 he is deve&o#ing this @ob&e 2ight o&d <ath *tho!gh not com#&ete&y+. 5. )hen1 it #enetrates into the tr!e nat!re o the #hysica& #rocess o the movement ( knowing it as a nat!ra& #rocess. )hat knowing or that !nderstanding o it as a nat!ra& #rocess is 9>ight 5nderstanding9 *Samma-ditthi+.

!a& miscond!ct1 te&&ing &ies and !sing any kind o into. )raining in wisdom1 insight or en&ightenment *panna+ :hen we #ractise mora& cond!ct1 it means having restraint in s#eech and actions1 i.icant.OR MEDITATORS /n the teachings o the "!ddha1 there are three kinds o trainingD ( 1. )he eighth #rece#t is abstention rom high and &!. 4!ring a meditation retreat1 yo! have to observe the eight #rece#ts so that yo! can have more time to devote to meditation.!a& contact1 and not =!st rom se. :hen mora& cond!ct is #!ri ied1 one never ee&s g!i&ty. . :hen we observe the ive #rece#ts1 we have to abstain rom ki&&ing1 stea&ing1 se.bserving eight #rece#ts means #!ri ication o mora& cond!ct ( Sila-visuddhi" Silavisuddhi is a #rereE!isite or a meditator to make #rogress in meditative #ractice.$A<)2> ):. )hese are the eight #rece#ts yo! wi&& have to observe d!ring yo!r retreat. )raining in concentration *samadhi+1 and 3. )o observe the second #rece#t1 yo! m!st re rain rom dancing1 singing1 #&aying and &istening to m!sic and adorning yo!rse& with anything which wi&& be bea!ti y yo!rse& s!ch as !sing &owers1 #er !mes and so on.!a& miscond!ct and into. :hen we abstain rom !nwho&esome actions and s#eech1 we observe these #rece#ts com#&ete&y. "y re raining rom these activities1 yo!r s#eech and actions are #!re. . :hen one does not ee& g!i&ty1 one9s mind becomes steady1 thereby1 one can easi&y attain dee# concentration o mind #samadhi) which1 in t!rn1 gives rise to insight wisdom *panna+.. abstention rom se. A&tho!gh yo! m!st re rain rom taking any kind o ood d!ring these ho!rs1 yo! can take honey and certain kinds o r!it =!ice s!ch as orange and &emon =!ices. PRELIMINARY INSTR!CTIONS . )he si. )here ore1 i we re rain rom !nwho&esome s#eech and actions1 o!r sila is !&&y observed. )he second #rece#ts1 abstention rom stea&ing and i&&ega& #ossession o things not given by the owner1 means re raining rom !nwho&esome actions.e. )he third o the eight #rece#ts re ers to abstention rom any kind o se. )he irst #rece#t1 abstention rom ki&&ing1 means re raining rom !nwho&esome actions.!rio!s beds. observing at &east ive #rece#ts or eight #rece#ts as &aymen1 and or the San ha *comm!nity o monks+1 the 227 #rece#ts r!&es o training known as the Patimokkha.e. /t is the same with the third and i th #rece#ts1 i.icants.t #rece#t means abstention rom taking ood a ter noon *!nti& dawn the ne.!a& miscond!ct. )raining in mora& cond!ct *sila+ 2. )he o!rth #rece#t1 abstention rom te&&ing &ies is re raining rom a&se and !nwho&esome s#eech.

.ontem#&ation o the abdomina& movements is in accordance with the !aha Satipatthana Sutta% the 4isco!rse on the 8o!r 8o!ndations o 'ind !&ness. /n that disco!rse1 there is a cha#ter concerning mind !&ness o the o!r e&ements. $ere1 $vi$ re ers to the three characteristics o menta&ity and #hysica&ity1 i.our E)e*ents 4!ring the #ractice1 we m!st observe each and every menta& and #hysica& #rocess which is arising at the moment. $aving destroyed a&& these de i&ements1 we then attain de&iverance or the cessation o s! ering.#erience many kinds o dukkha *s! ering+. $eat and co&d are the s#eci ic characteristics o the ire e&ement #tejo-dhatu)" :ind e&ement #vayo dhatu) &ikewise is not wind b!t the term given to the s#eci ic characteristics o the wind e&ement1 that is1 . #anicca)% !nsatis actoriness or s! ering #dukkha) and no( so!&1 no(se& or non(ego #anatta)" 9Passana9 means right !nderstanding or rea&iCation thro!gh dee# concentration1 or right !nderstanding o the three characteristics o menta&ity #nama) and #hysica&ity #rupa)" :hen we #ractise Vipassana meditation or mind !&ness meditation1 the #!r#ose is to rea&ise1 anicca% dukkha and anatta ( the three characteristics o #henomena. 8&!idity and cohesion are characteristics o the water e&ement #apo-dhatu)" :hen yo! rea&ise the nat!re o &!idity or cohesion in any #art o yo!r body1 it means yo! are rea&iCing the water e&ement.terminate every de i&ement s!ch as &!st1 greed1 desire1 craving1 hatred1 i&&(wi&&1 =ea&o!sy1 conceit1 s&oth and tor#or1 sorrow and worry1 rest&essness and remorse. F$ardness and so tness are the individ!a& or s#eci ic characteristics o the earth e&ementF ( so when yo! thoro!gh&y rea&ise hardness or so tness in any #art o yo!r body1 it means that yo! are rea&iCing the tr!e nat!re or individ!a& characteristic o the earth e&ement*pavthavi-dhatu)" :ater e&ement is not act!a&&y water b!t the term given to the individ!a& characteristics o the e& @ot on&y these o!r e&ements b!t a&& menta& and #hysica& #henomena m!st be observed. $Vi$ is one word1 $passana$ is the other. Mind&u)ness o& the . Vipassana is a Dhamma term which is a combination o two words. im#ermanence. /n the beginning o the #ractice1 we m!st contem#&ate the abdomina& movements as instr!cted by the 'ost %enerab&e 'ahasi Sayadaw.hat is Vi$assana. "y rea&iCing these three characteristics o menta&ity and #hysica&ity1 we can e. Simi&ar&y1 the ire e&ement is not rea&&y ire1 b!t the s#eci ic characteristic o the e&ement. 4e i&ements %ki&esas' are the ca!se o s! ering1 there ore1 when de i&ements have been destroyed1 a&& kinds o s! ering cease to e. :e m!st !nderstand that the earth e&ement is not act!a&&y the earth. )here the "!ddha teaches !s to be mind !& o the o!r e&ements when they arise pathavi-dhatu ( earth e&ement1 apo-dhatu ( water e&ement1 tejo-dhatu ( ire e&ement and vayo-dhatu ( wind e&ement+. 2arth e&ement is the name given to its individ!a& characteristics1 s!ch as hardness and so tness. )he scri#t!res say. As &ong as we have any o these de i&ements1 we are s!re to e. /nstead it re ers to the tr!e nat!re o the earth e&ement.e.

)his s#eci ic characteristic o vayo dhatu m!st be thoro!gh&y rea&iCed by meditators so that they can destroy the a&se view o a #erson1 a being or a so!&. So1 to overcome this di ic!&ty1 the 'ost %enerab&e 'ahasi Sayadaw instr!cted his meditators to begin with the abdomina& movements. 4!ring the contem#&ation o yo!r abdomina& movement1 when yo! hear a so!nd which is &o!d eno!gh to be noted1 then yo! sho!&d note1 9hearing1 hearing1 hearing9. Sometimes the so!nd may &ast or a second or two. )h!s we can ee& the inward and o!tward movement o the abdomen. Mind&u)ness o& Menta) and E*otiona) States :hen yo! ee& ha##y or !nha##y1 or when yo! ee& sorry and sad1 these emotiona& states m!st be observed as they rea&&y are ( menta&&y noting1 9ha##y1 ha##y9 or 9!nha##y1 !nha##y9 or 9sad1 sad91 and so on. A ter the emotiona& state has disa##eared1 the noting mind nat!ra&&y ret!rns to the abdomina& movement1 which sho!&d be observed as !s!a&. wa&king1 standing1 sitting and &ying down.movement1 motion1 vibration or s!##ort in any #art o yo!r body. /t nat!ra&&y ret!rns to the abdomina& movement which sho!&d be noted as !s!a&.F :hen we sit in any com ortab&e #osition and oc!s o!r mind on the menta& and #hysica& #rocesses1 we may not know which ob=ect m!st be observed irst. :e sho!&d oc!s o!r mind on the abdomina& movement. :hen the abdomen rises1 we sho!&d note it as 9rising91 and when it a&&s1 as 9 a&&ing9.mniscient "!ddha said1 FAny menta& or #hysica& #rocess m!st be observed as it is. :hen yo! think it is eno!gh or yo! to sto#1 then yo! sho!&d ret!rn to the #rimary ob=ect1 the abdomina& movement. /n this wayD 9rising1 a&&ing1 rising1 a&&ing9. :hen yo! ee&1 rea&ise and right&y !nderstand this movement1 motion1 vibration or s!##orting nat!re in any #art o yo!r body1 it means that yo! are rea&iCing the wind e&ement. a)'ing Meditation )he "!ddha said that mind !&ness m!st be a##&ied to the o!r #ost!res o the body1 i. )he . )hey m!st observe the inward movement and o!tward movement o the abdomen or the rising and a&&ing movement o the abdomen1 making a menta& note o 9rising1 a&&ing1 rising1 a&&ing9. )hen the noting mind no &onger has the ob=ect to note. :hen we breathe in1 the abdomen rises1 when we breathe o!t1 the abdomen a&&s. :hen the noting mind becomes #ower !&1 the tho!ght or idea1 or the thinking mind 9sto#s9 by itse& . )his is mind !&ness o the o!r e&ements. . )hen1 when the so!nd has disa##eared1 yo!r mind wi&& nat!ra&&y go back to the #rimary ob=ect1 9rising9 and 9 a&&ing9 which yo! sho!&d note as !s!a&. :hen yo!r mind goes o!t and thinks abo!t yo!r work1 yo!r ami&y or yo!r re&atives1 yo! m!st &eave the abdomina& movement a &one and observe the wandering tho!ghts1 making a menta& note 9thinking1 thinking9. :hen yo! observe any menta& state or emotiona& state1 yo!r noting mind m!st be energetic1 attentive1 #recise and somewhat E!ick so that it becomes contin!o!s1 !ninterr!#ted and constant.e. 3o! sho!&d be care !& at this #oint. At the beginning o the #ractice1 yo! may not overcome it1 so yo! sho!&d note1 9hearing1 hearing9 as m!ch as #ossib&e.

A&so1 yo! may have a headache or diCCiness. At that stage1 yo!r concentration is good1 dee# and strong eno!gh to rea&ise the disso&!tion o nama and rupa *menta& and #hysica& #henomena+. )hat tendency or desire to &ook aro!nd m!st be very attentive&y observed and noted as 9tendency9 or 9wanting to &ook9 !nti& it has disa##eared. 3o! sho!&d &ay stress on awareness1 shar# awareness o the movement o the oot. :hen yo! have reached the si. 0abe&&ing or naming is not so im#ortant as the mind that observes the movement o the oot. / yo! ee& yo! sho!&d change the #osition o yo!r hands1 yo! may do so1 b!t mind !&&y. So irst o a&&1 yo! sho!&d #ractise wa&king meditation by being aware o ste##ing. /n this way1 note 9&e t1 right1 &e t1 right91 or =!st 9ste##ing1 ste##ing9. . / yo! &ook at yo!r oot1 yo! cannot concentrate we&& on the movement. 3o! can attain some degree o concentration more easi&y in wa&king than in sitting. / yo! bend yo!r head too &ow1 yo! wi&& soon ee& tension in yo!r neck or sho!&ders. :hen yo! make a &e t ste#1 note it as 9&e t9. . So1 #&ease be care !& not to &ook aro!nd so that yo! can maintain yo!r concentration and make #rogress in yo!r attainment o concentration by wa&king meditation. "!t in the beginning o the #ractice1 yo! need wa&king meditation &onger than sitting beca!se yo! are not yet ab&e to sit or &ong b!t can wa&k &onger. and kee# yo!r eyes norma&+ and yo! sho!&d &ook at a #&ace on the &oor abo!t o!r or ive eet in ront o yo!r oot.• • • • • :hi&e yo! are wa&king1 yo! m!st be mind !& o it as it is( :hi&e yo! are standing1 yo! m!st be mind !& o it as it is( :hi&e yo! are sitting1 yo! m!st be mind !& o it as it is( :hi&e yo! are &ying down1 yo! m!st be mind !& o it as it is( So1 in every #ost!re1 there m!st be mind !&ness. )hen yo! can maintain yo!r concentration. 3o! m!st not &ook at yo!r oot. /nstead1 yo!r eyes m!st be ha& (c&osed *that means1 re&a. :hen yo! #ractise wa&king meditation1 yo! m!st not c&ose yo!r eyes. 3o! may have a tendency or desire to &ook aro!nd when yo! ee& that someone is coming towards yo! or #assing in ront o yo!. 2very session o sitting m!st be #receded by wa&king beca!se in wa&king meditation1 the movement o the oot is more distinct than the abdomina& movement when sitting. @or m!st yo! &ook aro!nd here and stage o insight know&edge1 yo! may #ractise sitting meditation &onger than wa&king yo! may sit or two or three ho!rs and wa&k one ho!r. 3o! m!st not bend yo!r head too &ow. :e instr!ct meditators to #ractise wa&king and sitting meditation a&ternate&y so that they can concentrate more easi&y and hence attain insight into the wa&king and sitting #rocesses. :hen the tendency or desire has disa##eared1 yo! won9t &ook aro!nd. 3o!r hands sho!&d be &ocked together in ront or behind.nce yo! &ook aro!nd1 the mind goes with the eyesA then yo!r concentration breaks. :hen yo!r meditation #ractice mat!res1 yo! may then need sitting meditation or a &onger #eriod than wa&king. :hen yo! make a right ste#1 note it as 9right9.

/n a retreat1 yo! m!st s&ow down a&& actions and movements beca!se yo! have nothing e&se to do e.ce#t or the ew words which are necessary in yo!r dai&y ro!tine1 b!t these ew words sho!&d a&so be s#oken s&ow&y and so t&y so that yo!r words do not dist!rb the concentration o other meditators. 3o! sho!&d do everything with very &itt&e noise or witho!t any noise. 'ind !&ness and concentration wi&& #ave the way or insight to !n o&d. At home1 yo! need not s&ow down a&& these actions and movements b!t rather1 they sho!&d be norma&1 and mind !&&y observed. 3o! m!st not be !nmind !& o any movement or action. :hen yo! stand !#1 that m!st a&so be done very s&ow&y by being aware o the movement beca!se we want to rea&ise every menta& or #hysica& #rocess in its tr!e nat!re. :hen yo! sit down1 yo! sho!&d do it very s&ow&y1 being aware o the who&e movement o sitting. As yo! are eating1 yo! m!st be mind !& o a&& the actions and movements in eating. "e ore doing so1 he m!st note the intention to change #ost!re1 as 9intending1 intending9. :hen mind !&ness becomes contin!o!s1 nat!ra&&y the concentration becomes dee#er.ce#t to be mind !& o a&& yo!r menta& and #hysica& activities. A&& actions and movements m!st be mind !&&y noted as they rea&&y are. )here ore1 we sho!&d strive to have constant and contin!o!s mind !&ness. A&& menta& and #hysica& #rocesses are ever changing ( a##earing and disa##earing1 arising and vanishing. )hat is genera& mind !&ness. :hen he has changed his #ost!re1 he sho!&d then ret!rn to the abdomina& movement1 the #rimary ob=ect1 and note as !s!a&. "eginners sho!&d sit at &east 27( 37 min!tes witho!t changing #osition. 3o! m!st s&ow down a&& actions and movements as m!ch as #ossib&e so that yo! can a##&y mind !&ness to every min!te movement or action o the body. 3o! m!st not make a so!nd by wa&king s&!ggish&y and heavi&y. / a beginner is !nab&e to bear the severe #ain which arises1 he may ee& &ike changing his #ost!re. :hen yo! are taking a bath1 dressing or drinking water1 yo! m!st s&ow down a&& yo!r actions and observe the movements. )here ore1 we sho!&d s&ow down a&& actions and movements. e. . / yo! are mind !& o the movements o yo!r oot1 yo! won9t make any so!nd when wa&king. 3o! m!st be aware o any activity o yo!r mind and body as it rea&&y is. :e want to rea&ise this tr!e nat!re o menta& and #hysica& #rocesses.:hen yo! have an intention to change #osition1 yo! sho!&d note 9intending1 intending9. /n sitting meditation too1 those who have some e. 2ven then1 yo! sho!&d change the #osition very s&ow&y and every action and movement invo&ved in the act o changing m!st be observed.#erience in meditationa& #ractice sho!&d sit at &east 45 min!tes witho!t changing #osition. Si)ent A(areness /n a meditation retreat1 yo! m!st not do any action or movement E!ick&y. :hen yo! have changed the #osition o yo!r hands1 then yo! sho!&d contin!e to note the movements o the oot as be ore. 3o! m!st not ta&k. )hen he sho!&d change his #ost!re very1 very s&ow&y being aware o a&& the movements and actions invo&ved in the changing o #ost!res. :hen the concentration becomes dee#er1 insight wi&& !n o&d by itse& . 3o! m!st be mind !& o whatever arises in yo!r body and mind.

8or this reason1 we be&ieve in the Dhamma" /n the same way1 we be&ieve in the San ha" :hen we say San ha% it main&y means the(riya-san ha% the @ob&e San ha who have attained any one o the o!r stages o the <ath #ma a)" "!t in the genera& sense1 it a&so re ers to the Sammuti san ha *those who are sti&& striving to eradicate the de i&ements+.$A<)2> 3 SEVEN BENE. )hese o!r as#ects are 1. :e ho&d the view that the "!ddha has eradicated a&& de i&ements thro!gh his s!#reme en&ightenment1 so he is worthy o res#ect *an (rahant)" $e was 'uddha beca!se he had strived and was en&ightened by himse& 1 not beca!se he &earned the Dhamma rom any teacher. $owever1 we sho!&d not be content with this devotiona& as#ect i we want to en=oy the essence o "!ddhism and be . 4. )h!s we #ay homage to the )ri#&e -em #Tiratana) ( the 'uddha" Dhamma and San ha" :e a&so be&ieve that by chanting suttas and parittas as ta!ght by the "!ddha1 we #er orm meritorio!s deeds which wi&& be cond!cive to the cessation o s! ering.#&ain to yo! brie &y the o!r as#ects o "!ddhism. MIND. :e be&ieve that i we o&&ow his teaching or his way1 we are s!re to &ive ha##i&y and #eace !&&y and to get rid o s! ering. :hen we #er orm s!ch good deeds1 we do so with sraddha *in Sanskrit+ or saddha *in <a&i+. <er orming these meritorio!s deeds orms the devotiona& as#ect o "!ddhism. :e be&ieve in the 'uddha in this way. 3.rder o "!ddhist monks+. 2. 4evotiona& as#ect o "!ddhism1 2thica& as#ect o "!ddhism1 'ora& as#ect o "!ddhism1 <ractica& as#ect o "!ddhism *inc&!ding the e.!LNESS MEDITATION Seven bene its o 'ind !&ness meditation as ta!ght by the "!ddha are recorded in the !aha Satipatthana Sutta ( the 4isco!rse on the 8o!r 8o!ndations o 'ind !&ness. De+otiona) As$ect )he devotiona& as#ect o "!ddhism means 9rites and rit!a&s91 chanting o suttas and parittas1 o ering o &owers and incense as we&& as o ering o ood and robes.ITS O. "!t be ore / dea& with them1 / want to e.. )here is no 2ng&ish eE!iva&ent or the <a&i word $saddha$ / we trans&ate saddha to be aith1 the word 9 aith9 does not cover the rea& sense1 and i we trans&ate it as 9con idence91 it a&so does not cover the rea& sense o& $saddha$" :e cannot ind a sing&e word in 2ng&ish which can give a com#&ete meaning o saddha )o me1 saddha can be taken to mean be&ie thro!gh right !nderstanding o the Dhamma" :hen we #er orm re&igio!s ceremonies we do it with a be&ie in the )ri#&e -em #Tiratana)" :e be&ieve in the 'uddha% the Dhamma *his teachings+ and the San ha *the . )he "!ddha ta!ght !s to &ive ha##i&y and #eace !&&y and he ta!ght !s the way &eading to the cessation o a&& kinds o s! erings.#erientia& as#ect+. )he word saddha is di ic!&t to trans&ate into 2ng&ish.

:hen we re &ect on the e. :hen the de i&ements have been tota&&y destroyed and the mind com#&ete&y #!ri ied there wi&& not arise any dukkha or s! ering. >e raining rom a&& kinds o evi& deeds1 2. <er orming meritorio!s or good deeds1 3. /t overcomes some as#ects o de i&ements and red!ces de i&ements s!ch as greed1 anger1 de&!sion and so on. )his is o&&owing the "!ddha9s teaching regarding o!r actions1 s#eech and menta& #!ri ication. )h!s1 we can #!ri y o!r minds rom some de i&ements. )here ore1 we m!st #roceed to #ractise the higher as#ects. / we re rain rom a&& kinds o evi& deeds1 we wi&& not s! er any bad res!&ts. Ethica) As$ect )he second as#ect o "!ddhism is the ethica& as#ect. >ea&iCation or insight into menta& and #hysica& #henomena is known as Vipassana-nana *insight know&edge+. )he ethica& as#ects o "!ddhism areD 1. :ith Samatha meditation o!r mind can be #!ri ied on&y whi&e it is engaged in the meditative #ractice1 b!t when it is not1 de i&ements wi&& attack !s again. S! ering ceases to e. As to the #!ri ication o mind rom de i&ements1 we have to #ractise Samatha meditation as we&& as Vipassana meditation. )here are many doctrines concerned with the ethica& as#ect o "!ddhism. "!t i we have eno!gh saddha% we wi&& #!t orth greater e ort in o!r #ractice and attain the 8o!rth <ath1 (rahantship" )hen we can e.hortations o a&& the "!ddhas.ertain de i&ements which have been destroyed by means o Vipassana-nana *#enetrative insight+ wi&& not be ab&e to attack !s again. / we #!ri y o!r minds thro!gh the rea&iCation o the mind(body #rocesses in their tr!e nat!re1 the de i&ements wi&& not ret!rn. "y o&&owing these doctrines1 we can &ead a ha##y &i e in this e.mniscient "!ddha has ta!ght !s and they are the e.terminate every de i&ement.#erienced insight know&edge1 that e. <!ri ying the mind rom a&& kinds o de i&ements. /n the suttas are many ethics to o&&ow which enab&e !s to &ive ha##i&y and #eace !&&y s!ch asD . )hese are the three #arts o the ethica& as#ect o what the .istence as we&& as the ne. .ree rom a&& kinds o s! ering. / we o&&ow these doctrines1 we can &ead a ha##y and #eace !& &i e beca!se "!ddhism is o!nded on the 0aw o .. )his #!ri ication o the mind rom de i&ements is concerned with the #ractica& as#ect o "!ddhism whereas the ormer two #oints are concerned with the ethica& as#ect o "!ddhism.t b!t we cannot yet be rid o s! ering tota&&y.#erience we have had d!ring meditation1 the insight that we attained comes to !s again1 and with this insight1 some as#ects o de i&ements abandoned by insight wi&& not arise /n other words1 when we have e.a!se and 2 ect. )here is a&so the !an ala Sutta #Sutta-nipata% verses 256(269+ with 36 kinds o b&essings.#erience wi&& not disa##ear or go away rom !s.

"ased on #!ri ication o mora& cond!ct1 a meditator can easi&y concentrate on the ob=ect o meditation and gain dee# concentration1 whereby the mind is c&ear1 serene and ha##y.e. "!t i this deed wi&& not be harm !& to yo!rse& or to others1 yo! may do it. 3o! sho!&d do meritorio!s deeds as m!ch as #ossib&e at #resent too. )he "!ddha ta!ght >ah!&a to sto# and re &ect whenever he had the intention o doing something. )here are inn!merab&e as#ects o ethics cond!cive to a ha##y and #eace !& &i e. /n this way1 we have many as#ects o ethics to o&&ow so that we can &ive ha##i&y and #eace !&&y. )hat means1 we sho!&d kee# o!r deeds1 s#eech and tho!ghts ree rom de i&ements. $ere1 we #ractise two kinds o meditation which make !# the #ractica& as#ect o "!ddhism ( one to enab&e !s to attain dee# . )he ten #rece#ts are or novices #samaneras) whi&e the 227 r!&es are or monks #)hikkhus)" /n dai&y &i e1 we m!st observe at &east the ive #rece#ts. Mora) As$ect )ho!gh these ethics are very cond!cive to a ha##y and #eace !& &i e1 we sho!&d not be contented mere&y with the second as#ect o "!ddhism. the #ractica& as#ect o "!ddhism. "y considering th!s1 i yo! ind that this deed wi&& be harm !& to yo!rse& or to others1 yo! m!st not do it. :hen mora& cond!ct is #!ri ied1 a meditator can easi&y #ractise meditation1 either Samatha or Vipassana meditation. :hen we can observe the ive #rece#ts #er ect&y1 o!r mora&ity is #!ri ied. 3o! m!st watch yo!r deeds1 s#eech and mind #ro#er&y. Practica) As$ect @e. / we try to !nderstand these ethics and o&&ow them1 we are s!re to &ive a ha##y and #eace !& &i e a&tho!gh we cannot yet get rid o a&& o!r s! ering.• • • 3o! sho!&d &ive in a s!itab&e #&ace where yo! can be #ros#ero!s in every as#ect1 having done meritorio!s deeds in the #ast.61+ which may be ami&iar to yo!. /n that sutta% the "!ddha enco!raged his son1 >ah!&a1 who was a seven year o&d samanera% to &ive #ro#er&y1 ha##i&y and #eace !&&y. >ah!&a1 yo! m!st be mind !& o what yo! are going to do and consider whether this deed wi&& be harm !& to yo!rse& or to others. :e sho!&d #roceed to the higher as#ects o "!ddhism1 the third as#ect( the mora& as#ect. / want to remind yo! o the (m)alatthika *ahulovadasutta #!ajjhima-nikaya% Sutta @o. So this ethic too is the best way or &iving ha##i&y and #eace !&&y in o!r dai&y &i e. /n the mora& as#ect1 yo! m!st observe #rece#ts1 either ive1 eight or ten.t1 we have the o!rth as#ect1 i. :e m!st #ractise meditation so that we can de&iver o!rse&ves rom de i&ements and1 as a res!&t1 attain the cessation o a&& kinds o s! ering. /n this way1 the "!ddha instr!cted >ah!&a to consider what is to be done1 to be aware o what is being done and to re &ect on what has been done.

#&ained the seven bene its which a meditator can gain thro!gh his own e. So these are known as de i&ements. !oha is de&!sion or ignorance. S&oth and tor#or are 9o&d riends9 o meditators and a&so those who &isten to the Dhamma" )oday1 d!ring interview1 a&& the meditators re#orted the e. :hen a #erson #ractises mind !&ness1 he can #!ri y his being rom a&& de i&ements. Ahirika 17. Vicikiccha is sce#tica& do!bt. / we a##&y mind !&ness to a&& o!r mind(body #rocesses1 we are s!re to attain the cessation o s! ering. )he kilesa are o ten main kindsD 1. At the beginning o the #ractice1 we have to str!gg&e beca!se we have not yet . Thina-middha is s&oth and tor#or. • • • • • • Dosa is hatred1 anger1 i&&(wi&& or aversion. :hen one o these menta& states arises in !s1 o!r mind gets de i&ed. !ana is conceit. )he <a&i word $kilesa$ may be ami&iar to yo!.concentration1 and the other to enab&e !s to attain the cessation o s! ering thro!gh the rea&iCation o menta&ity and #hysica&ity in their tr!e nat!re. 'ana 6. 4osa 3. 'oha 4. )he "!ddha described the o!r 8o!ndations o 'ind !&ness when he gave the disco!rse on !aha Satipatthana Sutta in Kuru #rovince. 0obha 2.#erienceD 9/ am tired1 1 ee& s&ee#y9. )he word $kilesa$ is trans&ated as de i&ements by "!ddhist scho&ars. )he "!ddha stressed the second ty#e o meditation ( Vipassana(meditation. Ditthi is wrong view or a&se view. :hen we #ractise Vipassana meditation1 we have to o&&ow the !aha Satipatthana Sutta1 the disco!rse on the 8o!r 8o!ndations o 'ind !&ness. 5ddhacca k!kk!cca 9. )hina(middha 6.irst Bene&its #!ri ication.#erience o Dhamma" )he . Se+en Bene&its o& Meditation /n the introd!ctory #assage o that sutta% the "!ddha e. S&ee#iness a&so comes !nder s&oth and tor#or. 4itthi 5. %icikiccha 7. Anotta##a 0obha means not on&y greed b!t a&so desire1 &!st1 craving1 attachment and &ove.

(hirika means mora& shame&essness. 3o! wi&& not be sorry abo!t anything i yo! #ractise this mind !&ness meditation.become acc!stomed to the task o mind !&ness meditation. )hat means1 he can attain (rahantship when he is com#&ete&y #!ri ied rom a&& kinds o de i&ements. . 3o! wi&& not be worried abo!t ai&!re1 or be sorry abo!t the death o yo!r re&atives1 or abo!t the &oss o yo!r work. A&tho!gh yo! have not attained any <ath and 8r!ition *ma a and phala +1 yo! can overcome sorrow and worry to some e.tent1 beca!se when sorrow or worry arises1 yo! wi&& be mind !& o it as it is. )hey wi&& not ind it too di ic!&t to overcome these 9o&d riends9 which are obstr!cting their #rogress in concentration as we&& as insight. /n this way1 worry and sorrow can be overcome by mind !&ness meditation. )he Second Bene&it o mind !&ness is the overcoming o sorrow and worry. )his mora& ear&essness is one o the de i&ements. /n this way1 &amentation can be overcome by mind !&ness meditation. >egarding the third bene it1 the commentary on the !aha Satipatthana Sutta mentions a storyD A woman1 named Patacara1 whose h!sband1 two sons1 #arents and brothers had died within a day or two1 went mad d!e to sorrow1 worry and &amentation. )he commentary mentions this story as #roo that one can overcome sorrow1 worry and &amentation by means o mind !&ness meditation. )his is the irst bene it. She was overwhe&med by sorrow over the death o the #eo#&e she &oved. /t may &ast or two or three days. :hen mind !&ness becomes #ower !&1 that worry or sorrow wi&& sto# and disa##ear. :hen yo! have com#&ete&y deve&o#ed mind !&ness meditation1 yo! are s!re to attain (rahantship% and hence be ree rom worry and sorrow #ermanent&y. A ter three days1 a&& meditators wi&& be a&& who is not ashamed o evi& deeds in s#eech1 tho!ght and action. )he Third Bene&it is that o overcoming &amentation. A&tho!gh yo!r #arents1 chi&dren or re&atives die1 yo! wi&& not have any &amentation or them beca!se yo! have !&&y rea&iCed that menta& and #hysica& #rocesses constit!te the so(ca&&ed 9chi&d9 or the so( ca&&ed 9#arents9. +ddhaaca kukkucca means rest&essness and remorse. )his is a critica& stage o meditation1 b!t it wi&& not &ast &ong. )hen this mad woman1 who was going or a stro&&1 went into the monastery . . )hese are the ten kinds o de i&ements which m!st be abandoned or removed rom o!r minds by means o Vipassana meditation. )he "!ddha saysD / one #ractises mind !&ness meditation1 one can be #!ri ied rom a&& de i&ements. (nottappa means mora& ear&essness ( that is one is not a raid o evi& deeds in s#eech1 tho!ght and day1 the "!ddha was giving a disco!rse to an a!dience at Jetavana monastery near Savatthi.

F "eca!se o the soothing voice o the "!ddha1 the mad woman come to her senses. )he . <hysica& s! ering s!ch as #ain1 sti ness1 itchiness1 n!mbness and so on can be overcome by this mind !&ness in meditation retreats as we&& as in dai&y &i e. 4. )h!s she #rogressive&y e. Dukkha-sacca *)he )r!th o S! ering+ Samudaya-sacca *)he )r!th o the .F At the same time the "!ddha said to her1 F4ear sister1 be mind !&.and saw the a!dience &istening to the disco!rse. Patacara1 having come to her senses1 right&y !nderstood the techniE!e o mind !&ness1 a##&ied it to whatever arose in the mind(body #rocesses and to whatever she heard.a!se o S! ering+ Nirodha-sacca *)he )r!th o the .#erience o the Dhamma by means o mind !&ness meditation1 the sorrow1 worries and &amentation she had had1 tota&&y disa##eared rom her mind1 and she became a 9new woman9.#o!nded the 8o!r @ob&e )r!thsD( 1. / yo! invest eno!gh e ort and time yo! can e. )he "!ddha1 knowing that she had come to her senses1 aimed his disco!rse at her.#erience in the meditation #ractice1 yo! can overcome yo!r menta& and #hysica& s! ering to a &arge e. An o&d man1 who was very kind to the #oor1 took o his !##er robe threw it to the woman and said to her. )he . )h!s she overcome her worry1 sorrow and &amentation by means o mind !&ness meditation. As her mind !&ness gained moment!m1 her concentration became dee#er and stronger.ourth Bene&it is the cessation o #hysica& s! ering. 3. "eca!se her concentration became dee#1 her insight and #enetrating know&edge o the mind ( body #rocesses became #ower !&1 and she grad!a&&y rea&iCed both the s#eci ic characteristics and common characteristics o menta& and #hysica& #henomena.i&th Bene&it is the cessation o menta& s! ering. :hen yo! have some e. So the commentary on the !aha Satipatthana Sutta mentioned not on&y the #eo#&e d!ring the time o the "!ddha1 b!t a&so #eo#&e nowadays can overcome sorrow and worry i they #ractise this mind !&ness meditation to attain some higher stages o insight. She then sat at the edge o the a!dience and &istened to the disco!rse. 3o! are a&so inc&!ded in those #eo#&e who can overcome sorrow and worry by means o mind !&ness meditation.essation o S! ering+ )he 8o!rth @ob&e )r!th inc&!des advice on how to be mind !& o whatever arises in o!r mind and body as it rea&&y is.essation o S! ering+ !a a-sacca *)he )r!th o the :ay 0eading to the . 0istening to the disco!rse given by the "!ddha1 the woman9s mind grad!a&&y absorbed the essence o the doctrine. She a##roached the a!dience. :hen her mind was we&& #re#ared to rea&ise the Dhamma% the "!ddha e. F4ear da!ghter1 #&ease !se my robe to cover yo!r body.tent. 2.#erienced a&& the stages o insight know&edge whi&e &istening to the disco!rse1 and attained the 8irst <ath1 Sotapatti-ma a" )hro!gh her own #ersona& e.terminate both menta& and #hysica& s! ering #ermanent&y when yo! have attained (rahantship" "!t d!ring meditation1 yo! can overcome #ain1 sti ness1 n!mbness1 itchiness and a&& kinds o !n#&easant #hysica& sensations by observing them very .

/n this way1 yo! can eradicate the wrong view o a so!&1 a se& 1 a #erson1 a being1 an 9/9 or a 9yo!9.e. So they o&ded their &egs !nder themse&ves and #ressed them so that they co!&d get #ain. :hen yo!r mind !&ness becomes #ower !&1 the !nha##iness and de#ression wi&& cease to e. /n "!rma1 some meditators1 having #assed the third stage o insight know&edge #sammasana-nana)% a&most com#&ete&y overcame a&& #ain !& sensations1 b!t were dissatis ied with their #ractice beca!se they had no #ain to bene it o mind !&ness meditation. )he Se+enth Bene&it is that yo! are s!re to attain ni))ana% de&iverance1 emanci#ation thro!gh mind !&ness meditation. )here ore1 yo! need not be a raid o #ain1 sti ness or n!mbness beca!se these are yo!r 9good riends9 who can he&# yo! to attain the cessation o s! ering. <ain is the most va&!ab&e ob=ect o meditation beca!se it attracts the 9noting mind9 to stay with it or a very &ong time. :hen yo! have com#rehended the !n#&easantness o this #ain !& sensation1 yo! wi&& not identi y it with yo!rse& beca!se the sensation is #erceived as =!st a nat!ra& #rocess o menta& #henomena. 3o! are not attached to the #ain !& sensation as 9/9 or 9mine9 or 9me91 or a 9#erson9 or a 9being9. sakkaya-ditthi or atta-ditthi has been destroyed yo! are s!re to attain the 8irst <ath1 Sotapatti-ma a" )hen yo! can #roceed with yo!r #ractice to attain the three higher stages o the <ath and 8r!ition. :hen the root o a&& kinds o de i&ements1 i. )hat is why / say that !n#&easant #hysica& sensations s!ch as #ain1 sti ness and n!mbness are yo!r 9good riends9 who can he&# yo! to attain the cessation o s! ering. )he 9noting mind9 can concentrate on it dee#&y and be absorbed in / yo! ee& de#ressed1 that de#ression m!st be observed very attentive&y and #ersevering&y. )hen that wi&& &ead yo! to the cessation o a&& kinds o s! erings. So the overcoming o menta& s! ering is the &i&th /ene&it o mind !&ness meditation )he Si<th Bene&it is the attainment o en&ightenment1 the <ath and 8r!ition #ma a and phala)" :hen yo! devote eno!gh time and e ort to yo!r mind !&ness meditation1 yo! wi&& attain at &east the 8irst <ath1 Sotapatti-ma a" )his is the si. / yo! observe the #ain energetica&&y1 #recise&y and c&ose&y1 it may seem more severe beca!se yo! know it more and more c&ear&y.attentive&y and c&ose&y. /n other words1 this n!mbness or any #ain !& sensation is the key to the door o ni))ana" :hen yo! ee& #ain1 yo! are &!cky. . :hen the mind is com#&ete&y absorbed in the #ain !& sensation1 yo! wi&& no &onger be aware o yo!r bodi&y orm or yo!rse& . )hey were &ooking or their 9good riend9 who co!&d &ead them to the cessation o s! ering. :hen yo! ee& !nha##y1 #&ease observe that !nha##iness insistent&y1 attentive&y and very c&ose&y as 9!nha##y1 !nha##y9. So yo! are &!cky i yo! have #ain. /t means yo! are rea&iCing the sa)hava-lakkhana o the #ain or the individ!a& characteristic o the #ain !& sensation #dukkha-vedana)" <roceeding with the #ractice yo! wi&& be ab&e to rea&ise the common characteristics o im#ermanence1 s! ering and no(so!& or no(se& nat!re o menta& and #hysica& #henomena.

/ we know the way b!t do not #ractise this mind !&ness meditation1 we wi&& not get rid o s! ering. / we do not get rid o s! ering1 who sho!&d be b&amedB )he "!ddha1 the way o mind !&ness1 or !sB 3es1 we sho!&d be b&amed. 6.tD F/ the man remains dirty1 who is to be b&amed1 the #ond or the trave&&erBF . "!t we sho!&d not be com#&acent.)he seven kinds o bene its o mind !&ness meditation which the Vipassana meditator can gain thro!gh #ersona& e. <!ri ication rom a&& kinds o de i&ements. Attainment o ni))ana" )he "!ddha began the !aha Satipatthana Sutta with these seven bene its o mind !&ness meditation.essation o a&& kinds o #hysica& s! ering. 7. 2. . A trave&&ers hands are dirty. :e are &!cky beca!se we be&ieve in the "!ddha who is en&ightened and who teaches the right way which &eads to the cessation o s! ering.essation o a&& kinds o menta& s! ering.vercoming sorrow and worry. 1. )he "!ddha teaches !s the way o mind !&ness. So yo! are s!re to acE!ire these seven bene its i yo! #!t stren!o!s e ort into yo!r #ractice.1 o mind !&ness meditation.bvio!s&y1 the trave&&er. )ho!gh he knew he co!&d wash the dirt away in the #ond1 he did not do it. 4.#erience o Dhamma. 3. . . $e knows that i he washes them in the #ond1 they wi&& be c&ean. / yo! #ractise this mind !&ness meditation with stren!o!s e ort1 yo! wi&& #!ri y yo!rse& rom a&& de i&ements and get rid o s! ering by obtaining these seven kinds o bene it. /n this way1 he #asses the #ond and contin!es his =o!rney. "!t tho!gh he knows it1 he does not go to the #ond to wash his hands1 his hands are sti&& dirty. )hen the E!estion was asked in the te. .vercoming &amentation. )here ore1 the trave&&er is to be b&amed. /n the <a&i te. . 5. Attainment o en&ightenment.ts1 there is a simi&eD )here is a great #ond !&& o c&ear water with many &ot!s &owers in it.

/ a meditator #ractises stren!o!s&y and #ersevering&y1 his concentration wi&& become dee# and strong. 2. Some meditators think that !n#&easant ee&ing sho!&d not be observed beca!se it is !n#&easant.#eriences ra#t!re beca!se his mind is1 at that moment1 E!ite ree rom a&& de i&ements s!ch as greed1 hatred1 de&!sion1 conceit and so on.O!NDATIONS O. )his ee&ing or sensation is o three ty#esD *a+ <&easant ee&ing or sensation1 *b+ 5n#&easant ee&ing or sensation1 *c+ @e!tra& ee&ing or sensation.O!R THE . 3.#eriencing1 it means he is attached to it1 and th!s he cannot #rogress to the higher stages o insight.!LNESS :hen the "!ddha had e. :hatever he is e. Act!a&&y1 a&& kinds o ee&ing m!st be noted very attentive&y as they rea&&y occ!r.#eriencing at this stage1 he wi&& not become attached to it i he observes his e. Vedananupassana Satipatthana means contem#&ation o ee&ing or sensation. /n this case1 the #&easant ee&ing is the ca!se and attachment is the e ect. :hen the meditator9s concentration becomes dee# and strong1 he ee&s ha##y and e.O!R . )he #ersevering meditator has attained a very good stage o insight beca!se his mind is now ca&m1 tranE!i& and serene. 4. :hen the meditator notes it attentive&y and . <&easant ee&ing or #&easant sensation is ca&&ed sukha-vedana #sukha means #&easant1 vedana is ee&ing or sensation+. )hat attachment or tanha arises de#ending on the ee&ing or sensation.#&ained the seven bene its o mind !&ness1 he contin!ed to e. 5n#&easant sensation or !n#&easant ee&ing is ca&&ed dukkha-vedana in <a&i #dukkha here means !n#&easant+.#erience can be attained in the irst #art o the o!rth stage o insight. :hen we &ike a #artic!&ar ee&ing or sensation1 we become attached to it.#&ain the 8o!r 8o!ndations o 'ind !&nessD 1. S!ch an e. / he !nderstands that1 he sho!&d =!st observe the e. Kayanupassana Satipatthana Vedananupassana Satipatthana Cittanupassana Satipatthana Dhammanupassana Satipatthana Kayanupassana Satipatthana means contem#&ation o the body or mind !&ness o any bodi&y #rocess as it occ!rs. MIND.#erience he has attained at this stage. / we do not observe or note the #&easant or !n#&easant ee&ing or sensation1 we are s!re to become attached to it or re#!&sed by it. / the meditator en=oys it and is satis ied with what he is e. :hen #&easant ee&ing1 !n#&easant ee&ing or ne!tra& ee&ing arises1 a meditator m!st be mind !& o it as it is. @e!tra& ee&ing or ne!tra& sensation is ca&&ed upekkha-vedana #upekkha means ne!tra& ( neither #&easant nor !n#&easant+.CHAPTER .#erience very attentive&y and energetica&&y.

#arts o the ste#D &i ting o the oot1 raising o the toes1 #!shing the oot orward1 dro##ing it down1 to!ching1 and #ressing1 and as a res!&t1 his concentration is good1 dee# and strong1 he wi&& not be aware o the orm o the oot. $e may ee& as i he is &i ted in the sky. )he movement may a&so ee& &ightA he may ee& as i he is wa&king in the air. the menta& state. .#erience as it rea&&y occ!rs1 in order to rea&ise that this e. A&& this ha##ens beca!se he does not observe his #&easant e. "eca!se he has rea&ised that the #&easant ee&ing or sensation together with the good e. :henever it arises1 the mind notes it1 and again it disa##ears.#erience is im#ermanent1 he wi&& not be attached to it. :ho&esome bodi&y action is kusala kaya-kamma" 5nwho&esome bodi&y action is akusala kaya-kamma" :ho&esome verba& action is kusala vaci-kamma" 5nwho&esome verba& action akusala vaci-kamma" :ho&esome menta& .#ersistent&y1 that ha##iness1 tranE!i&ity or serenity wi&& not be mani ested in his mind very distinct&y. :hat he rea&ises at that moment is =!st ee&ing that arises and #asses away. At this stage1 he is e.#erience o the menta& #rocess or menta& state is s!b=ect to im#ermanence.#erience is not ever&asting.ce&&ent meditation e. )he mind begins to rea&ise that the e. / a meditator en=oys this #&easant ee&ing or sensation abo!t his good e. Chain o& Cause and E&&ect :hen attachment does not arise1 gras#ing or upadana wi&& not arise.n&y then can he go beyond this stage o insight. :hen gras#ing does not arise1 there wi&& not be any who&esome or !nwho&esome actions1 verba&1 #hysica& or menta&.#erience. / he does not observe these e.#eriencing e.#erience.#erience1 i. )he action that is ca!sed by gras#ing is known as kamma-)hava" )his may be who&esome or !nwho&esome.#erience he has ever had.#erience he has enco!ntered at this stage. So1 he sho!&d observe and be aware and mind !& o whatever e. :henever he notes1 he inds that the e. $e may become very satis ied with his #ractice and he may think this is ni))ana *the cessation o a&& kinds o s! ering+ beca!se this is the best e. @or is he aware o the body or bodi&y orm. $e m!st not ana&yse it or think abo!t it1 b!t m!st be aware o the e.#eriences.#erience o the Dhamma" $ere1 Dhamma means menta& as we&& as #hysica& #rocesses.#erience has disa##eared.#erience is im#ermanent *anicca+1 beca!se he has com#rehended the nat!re o im#ermanence thro!gh his #ersona& e.#eriences1 and so is attached to them. $e then conc&!des that this #&easant ee&ing together with his e. )hen another ee&ing arises and #asses away. Attachment wi&& not arise when the meditator right&y !nderstands the tr!e nat!re o good menta& states or a good e. / a meditator wa&ks very mind !&&y1 noting the si.e. :hen the 9noting mind9 becomes constant1 s!stained and #ower !&1 it #enetrates into the nat!re o his e. $e cannot di erentiate between #&easant and !n#&easant ee&ings1 thereby1 he becomes detached rom his e.#erience witho!t being mind !& o it he is s!re to become attached to it. :hat he knows is =!st movement o the oot. )his attachment arises de#ending on the #&easant ee&ing or #&easant sensation abo!t his good e.#eriences mind !&&y1 he wi&& &ike them and may desire more o them.#erience and #roceeds to #ractise or a higher stage o insight.

. So in this way1 a being is reborn again thro!gh his who&esome or !nwho&esome action. :hen any bodi&y1 verba& or menta& action is carried o!t1 it becomes a ca!se.#&ain again the two kinds o sensationD • • 1.istence and s! er rom a variety o dukkha" )hat is why the "!ddha teaches !s to be mind !& o any kind o ee&ing or sensation whether #&easant1 !n#&easant or ne!tra&. )hat !n#&easant sensation is ca&&ed k-yika vedan. Mind&u)ness o& . (a$ika"vedana 2.t e.beca!se it arises de#ending on #hysica& #rocesses.istence to e. $owever1 sometimes ee&ing or sensation arises de#ending on the #hysica& #rocess o discom ort. )etasika"vedana / the ee&ing or sensation arises de#ending on #hysica& #rocesses1 it is known as Kayika-vedana :e may trans&ate it as #hysica& ee&ing or sensation1 or bodi&y ee&ing or sensation. :henever ee&ing arises1 it m!st be observed and noted as it rea&&y occ!rs.t e. /n the beginning o the #ractice1 a meditator genera&&y e.action is kusala mano-kamma" 5nwho&esome menta& action is akusala mano-kamma" )hese actions or kamma arise thro!gh the gras#ing which is the res!&t o attachment to #&easant or !n#&easant ee&ing or sensation. )his is Vedananupassana Satipatthana ( mind !&ness o ee&ings or sensations. )hat action is ca!sed by the gras#ing which has attachment as its root.hain o 4e#endent .#erience. / the ree&ing or sensation arises de#ending on menta& #rocesses1 it is ca&&ed cetasika-vedana" :e may render it as menta& ee&ing or menta& sensation.#erience a variety o s! ering beca!se he does not observe his #&easant ee&ings together with his e. :hen a meditator ee&s discom ort in his body1 then !n#&easant sensation arises. )his ca!se has its res!&t which may occ!r in this &i e1 or !t!re &ives. $ere we need to 'ind !&ness o sensation or contem#&ation o sensation is known as Vedananupassana Satipatthana" 5s!a&&y at the beginning o the #ractice1 the meditator ee&s the !n#&easant #hysica& sensations as we&& as menta& sensations. Attachment1 in t!rn1 is conditioned thro!gh ree&ing or sensation1 vedana /n this way1 a being has to be reborn in the ne. )he s#eci ic and the genera& characteristics or the ree&ing m!st be thoro!gh&y rea&ised so that he wi&& not be attached to it or re#!&sed by it.#eriences most&y !n#&easant menta& and #hysica& sensations. )here ore1 i a meditator thinks that ee&ings sho!&d not be observed1 he wi&& be carried away a&ong the . "!t whatever sensation he may e. Act!a&&y1 every ee&ing1 every sensation is a menta& #rocess1 not a #hysica& #rocess.#erience1 he m!st observe it very attentive&y1 energetica&&y and #recise&y so that he can rea&ise the tr!e nat!re o that ee&ing or sensation.rigination #paticcasamuppada) to be reborn in the ne.

. ./t is nat!ra& or a meditator to be a raid o !n#&easant #hysica& sensation which he e.#eriences in his meditation #ractice1 b!t #ain !& sensation is not a #rocess that sho!&d be eared.oncomitants here means its associates. )his is Cittanupassana Satipatthana" )he menta& states may be good1 the emotiona& states may be better. :hatever it may be1 it m!st be noted as it rea&&y occ!rs. )here ore1 when yo! have conscio!sness with &!st or attachment1 yo! m!st be mind !& o it as it rea&&y is. Mind&u)ness o& Dha**a )he o!rth 8o!ndation o 'ind !&ness is Dhammanupassana Satipatthana which means contem#&ation o dhamma or mind !&ness o dhamma" $ere dhamma inc&!des many categories o menta& or #hysica& #rocesses. According to the ()hidhamma% every 9mind91 so to say1 is com#osed o conscio!sness and its concomitants. Anger is one o the menta& states that can &ead the meditator to the cessation o s! ering i he notes it with mind !&ness. "y observing anger1 a meditator has two kinds o bene itD 1.onscio!sness with anger can be noted as 9angry9 or 9anger9 in accordance with the !aha Satipatthana Sutta" :hen mind !&ness is #ower !&1 the anger wi&& disa##ear. >ea&isation o the tr!e nat!re o anger *the arising and #assing away o anger or the anicca nat!re o anger+. V$apada* Anger or i&&(wi&&. )he irst category is the ive nivarana *hindrances+D 1. 2vent!a&&y1 he co!&d attain en&ightenment by means o this #ain !& sensation.onscio!sness never arises inde#endent&y. <ain is a nat!ra& #rocess that sho!&d be thoro!gh&y !nderstood by being aware o it as it rea&&y occ!rs. :hen a meditator can observe #ain s!ccess !&&y with #ersistent e ort1 then he can rea&ise its tr!e nat!re ( the s#eci ic and genera& nat!re o #ain. )hen the #enetrating insight into the tr!e nat!re o that #ain or !n#&easant sensation wi&& &ead the meditator to the higher stages o insight. / yo! have conscio!sness with anger1 yo! m!st note it as conscio!sness with anger. (ama##handa* Sense desire ( desire or visib&e ob=ects1 so!nds1 odo!rs1 tastes and tangib&e ob=ects. . )he overcoming o anger. 2. /n short1 whatever conscio!sness or whatever 9mind9 or menta& state arises1 m!st be mind !&&y noted or observed as it rea&&y occ!rs. )he meditator wi&& then rea&ise that anger is not ever&asting ( it arises and #asses away. Mind&u)ness o& Consciousness )he third 8o!ndation o 'ind !&ness is Cittanupassana Satipatthana which means mind !&ness o conscio!sness and the states #cetasika) that arises with conscio!sness. . /t arises together with its associates. 2.

e.e. Vi#iki##ha* 4o!bts. So1 when he hears any sweet song1 he m!st note 9hearing1 hearing9. $e &ikes to hear this song re#eated&y and he ind!&ges in it. / he knows that this sense desire or the song can &ead him to !ndesirab&e events9 or accidents1 or can be an obstac&e to his #rogress in meditation1 he wi&& note it as 9desire1 desire9 !nti& it has been destroyed by strong mind !&ness. :hen the mind becomes active and a&ert1 it wi&& be ree rom s&ee#iness. 5. Sti&&1 he may be overwhe&med by the song i his mind !&ness is not #ower !& eno!gh. )hat is why s&oth and tor#or or s&ee#iness is an 9o&d riend9 o a meditator. )hat desire to &isten to the song is sense desire ( kamacchanda. 5n&ess he has rea&ised the tr!e nat!re o s&oth and tor#or or s&ee#iness1 he wi&& be attached to it and en=oy it. :hen we are s&ee#y1 we sho!&d make more stren!o!s e ort in o!r #racticeA that means we m!st observe more attentive&y1 energetica&&y and #recise&y so that we can make o!r mind more active and a&ert. So &ong as the mind is de i&ed1 a meditator cannot rea&ise any menta& #rocess or #hysica& #rocess. / he is !nab&e to observe s&ee#iness1 he cannot overcome it. /t makes him stay &onger in the cyc&e o rebirth.1 an !nwho&esome deed which wo!&d #rod!ce a bad res!&t. S&oth and tor#or is a very 9o&d riend9 o meditators. Thina"middha* S&oth and tor#or ( s&ee#iness1 menta& d!&&ness1 heaviness. "eing mind !& in this manner is 4hamman!#assana( Sati#atthana or the contem#&ation o mind ob=ects1 when a meditator hears a sweet song rom o!tside and does not note it1 he may have a desire to &isten to the song.n&y when the mind is we&& concentrated on the ob=ect o meditation *either menta& or #hysica& #rocesses+1 is it ree rom a&& kinds o de i&ements or hindrances. )he second as#ect is !nha##iness abo!t a deed which yo! did tho!gh yo! sho!&d not have done it1 i. :hen a meditator ee&s s&ee#y1 he en=oys it. 4. / any other #&easant sensation arises in him1 he is ab&e to observe it. +ddhacca is rest&essness or distraction1 kukucca is remorse. )he desire disa##ears beca!se it has been observed very attentive&y and energetica&&y. 8or e. :hen the mind !&ness becomes constant and strong1 that desire wi&& disa##ear.3. )h!s the mind becomes c&ear and #enetrativeA so #enetrative that it rea&ises the tr!e nat!re o menta& and #hysica& #rocesses as they rea&&y are. ddha##a"kukku##a* >emorse1 worry or !nha##iness abo!t #ast deeds. :hen a meditator observes or is mind !& o his sense desire as it rea&&y is1 making a menta& note1 9desire1 desire91 he is o&&owing strict&y what the "!ddha ta!ght in the 'aha Sati#atthana S!tta. )hen the meditator can overcome s&ee#iness. +ddhacca-kukucca is the o!rth o the hindrances. So whenever any one o the ive hindrances arises in a meditator9s mind1 he m!st be aware o it. 5nha##iness at the ai&!re to do what sho!&d have been done in the #ast is the irst as#ect. $ere uddhacca means distraction o the mind1 . "!t when s&ee#iness arises in him1 he is !nab&e to be aware o it beca!se he &ikes it. contem#&ation o the hindrances *nivaranas+. . )hina(middha1 s&oth and tor#or1 act!a&&y means s&ee#iness.

:hen he is aware that the mind has wandered1 he m!st note 9wandering1 wandering9 or 9thinking.e. )he i th hindrance is vicikiccha or do!bt.contemplation o& the )ody or physical phenomena" 2. )hat means uddhacca-kukkucca is observed. $e does not even know that the mind is wandering." Kayanupassana Satipatthana. )his is known as Dhammanupassana Satipatthana ( mind !&ness o dhamma" So these are the o!r 8o!ndations o 'ind !&nessD 1. 3o! may have do!bt abo!t the "!ddhathe Dhamma% the San ha% or abo!t the techniE!e o meditation.contemplation o& dhamma or mind o)jects" . thinking9. the abdomina& movements or o the mind1 wandering o the mind. :hen the mind wanders or thinks abo!t something e&se instead o noting the ob=ect o meditation1 it is uddhacca" :hen yo!r mind wanders1 yo! m!st be aware o it as it rea&&y is. . 1" Dhammanupassana Satipatthana . $e thinks the mind is staying with the ob=ect o meditation1 i. :hatever do!bt arises1 it m!st be very attentive&y observed1 yo! m!st be mind !& o it as it rea&&y is.contemplation o& consciousness to ether with its concomitants or associates" 4. At the beginning o the #ractice a meditator may not be ab&e to observe it. 0" Cittanupassana Satipatthana . /" Vedananupassana Satipatthana .contemplation o& &eelin or sensation" 3.

!a& miscond!ct1 whereas the third o the eight #rece#ts is abstention rom a&& kinds o se.ond!ct. / do not know whether / can or cannot &ive o!t today or tomorrow. :hen the mind becomes #!ri ied1 it becomes ca&m1 serene1 tranE!i& and ha##y and can concentrate on the ob=ect o meditation. So / want to meditate to destroy a&& kinds o de i&ements thro!gh to the o!rth stage o en&ightenment1 arahantshi#1 be ore / die. %enerab&e 5ttiya to&d the "!ddha abo!t his sicknessD %enerab&e sir1 my sickness is not decreasing b!t increasing. "y observing eight #rece#ts1 one can #!ri y one9s deeds and s#eech which is #!ri ication o mora& cond!ct #Cittavisuddhi)" :hen mora& cond!ct is #!ri ied1 the mind is a&so #!ri ied to some e. / the beginning is #!ri ied1 then yo! wi&& be a&& right1 i. 'editators have to observe at &east ive #rece#ts1 i not eight1 so that they can attain #!ri ication o sila" )he third o the ive #rece#ts is abstention rom se. co!rse it is better i meditators can observe the eight #rece#ts. ab&e to attain (rahantship" )he .n&y when the mind is #!ri ied rom a&& hindrances can meditators rea&ise menta& and #hysica& #rocesses in their tr!e nat!re.ICATION )o attain en&ightenment we m!st go thro!gh seven stages o #!ri ication #visuddhi)" Puri&ication o& Mora) Conduct )he irst is sila-visuddhi% <!ri ication o 'ora& . .e.!a& contact1 his mind wi&& be de i&ed by the hindrance o sense desire kamacchanda nivarana)" . )hen the meditator attains <!ri ication o 'ind1 i"e" Citta-visuddhi the second stage o #!ri ication.IVE THE SEVEN STA-ES O.!a& contact.mniscient "!ddha contin!edD . / a meditator does not abstain rom se.CHAPTER . :hen %enerab&e 5ttiya1 one o the disci#&es o the "!ddha was sick in bed1 the "!ddha visited him and asked abo!t his hea&th. / they do not1 they may have desires or taste1 ood1 visib&e things1 a!dib&e things1 odo!rs and tangib&e things ( ive kinds o sense desire #kammacchanda) in their mind.mniscient "!ddha asked the E!estion1 F:hat is the beginningBF $e himse& re#&ied1 F$erein the beginning is #!ri ied mora& cond!ct or sTia and right view #Sammaditthi)" >ight view means the acce#tance o and be&ie in the 0aw o . <&ease give a short instr!ction which wi&& enab&e me to deve&o# my meditation #ractice to attain (rahantship" )hen the "!ddha saidD 5ttiya1 yo! sho!&d c&eanse the beginning.a!se and 2 ect *action reaction+ or the 0aw o Kamma"2 )he . P!RI.tent.

)h!s1 he overcomes do!bt. :hi&e we are eating1 we have an intention to o#en o!r mo!th to take ood1 then irst o a&&1 we sho!&d note 9intending1 intending91 then 9o#ening1 o#ening9. :hen a meditator has attained the second stage o insight know&edge ( Hnow&edge o . A&& actions are #receded by intention1 wishing or wanting. )he . )hat is known as Namarupapariccheda-nana ( know&edge o the di erence between menta&ity and #hysica&ity. )his is known as #!ri ication o mind ( Citta-visuddhi" :ith this #!ri ication1 the mind can #enetrate into the menta& and #hysica& #rocesses in their tr!e nat!re. :hen we have an intention to bend o!r arm1 we sho!&d note 9intending1 intending91 then 9bending1 bending9. 8irst o a&&1 he disting!ishes between menta& #rocess and #hysica& #rocess #nama and rupa) thro!gh his own e. <ractising th!s1 yo! wi&& attain the cessation o s! ering.#erience. So #!rity o mora& cond!ct is a #re(reE!irement or a meditator to make #rogress. / he c!&tivates mind !&ness1 then he can easi&y concentrate on any ob=ect o the menta& and #hysica& #rocesses. )hat is why we have to be mind !& o every intention be ore every action or movement. )o attain this know&edge he has to observe every intention1 wish or want be ore every action or movement. Puri&ication o& Mind )he second #!ri ication is <!ri ication o 'ind #Citta-visuddhi)" / we want to attain insight know&edges1 the mind m!st be #!ri ied rom a&& kinds o de i&ements.a!se and 2 ect #Paccayapari aha-nana)% he no &onger has do!bts abo!t his #ast e. :hen mora& cond!ct is #!ri ied1 the mind becomes ca&m1 serene and ha##y. Puri&ication o& Vie( )he third is <!ri ication o %iew #Ditthi-Visuddhi)" :hen a meditator #enetrates into the tr!e nat!re o menta& and #hysica& #rocesses1 he does not take them to be a #erson or a being1 a so!& or a se& .istence.vercoming 4o!bt #Kankhavitarana visuddhi)" $Kankha$ means do!bt1 $visuddhi$ means #!ri ication by overcoming do!bt. :hen we have an intention to &i t o!r oot1 we sho!&d note it as 9intending1 intending91 then 9&i ting1 &i ting9. . )his is #!ri ication by overcoming do!bt. :hen the mind is we&& concentrated on any menta& or #hysica& #henomena1 it is ree rom a&& these hindrances. )hen1 based on the #!ri ied mora& cond!ct or Si&a1 yo! sho!&d deve&o# the 8o!r 8o!ndations o 'ind !&ness.5ttiya1 yo! sho!&d c&eanse yo!r mora& cond!ct and right view. )hen he has #!ri ied his view1 he has attained Ditthi-visuddhi" Puri&ication /% O+erco*ing Dou/t )he o!rth is <!ri ication by . /n the act o o#ening the mo!th1 the intention is the ca!se1 and the o#ening o the mo!th is the e ect.mniscient "!ddha &ays stress on the #!ri ication o sila or mora& cond!ct beca!se it is a basic reE!irement or #rogress in concentration as we&& as insight.

:hen we observe the intention be ore the dro##ing o the oot1 we wi&& a&so come to rea&ise how the intention is re&ated to the dro##ing movement o the oot and so on. :hen we bend o!r arm1 we m!st irst o a&& note the intention1 then the movements o bending the arm.isted in the #astB /n the #ast. /n this way1 we can overcome do!bts abo!t o!r #ast e. )hen we have no do!bt abo!t o!r #ast e. we wi&& come to rea&ise how the intention is re&ated to the &i ting o the oot. :hen o!r concentration is dee# eno!gh1 by being aware o intention and the actions that o&&ow it1 we come to rea&ise that nothing arises witho!t a ca!se.a!se and 2 ect. )here ore1 a so(ca&&ed #erson1 a man or a woman is =!st the #rocess o ca!se and e ect. )o observe1 we m!st be #atient with o!r actions or movements so that we can observe the intention be ore every action or movement. /n the sitting #ost!re1 there is a #hysica& #rocess s!##orted by the wind e&ement #vayyo-dhatu ( the interna& and e. :hen we stretch o!t o!r arm1 irst o a&&1 we m!st note intention1 then the movements o stretching as stretching1 stretching1 stretching9.:itho!t wishing or wanting to come here1 co!&d yo! come hereB )hen what is the ca!se and what the e ectB )he act o coming is the e ect1 the intention is the ca!se. A&& the sitting movements m!st be observed a ter we have noted intention. So i we want to sit1 irst o a&&1 we have to note 9intending1 intending91 then 9sitting1 sitting1 sitting9. :hen we observe intention be ore &i ting o!r oot. )here is no doer1 no one that does anything. / we thoro!gh&y rea&ise the ca!se and e ect re&ationshi#1 what we rea&ise is =!st a nat!ra& #rocess.isted on&y the #rocess o ca!se and e ect. /s there any sitterB / yo! think there is a #erson who sits on the chair1 then we sho!&d bring a cor#se rom the hos#ita& and make it sit on the chair. Sitting is a #hysica& #rocess. )hen there is no 9#erson9 that became a #resident1 there is no 9#erson9 that became a king. So is the sitting #ost!re a man or a woman1 a samanera or a )hikkhu3 /t is none o these. .terna& wind e&ement+. there e. :hen we come to rea&ise this re&ationshi# o ca!se and e ect1 we have a&most com#&ete&y rea&ised the 0aw o . "y this rea&isation we overcome do!bt as to whether there is any #ersona&ity or entity which is ever&asting in !s. )hen again1 when we observe intention be ore the #!shing o the oot1 we wi&& come to rea&ise how intention is re&ated to the #!shing movement o the oot.istence. 2verything arises de#ending on a ca!se. /t is on&y intention1 the menta& #rocess1 that ca!ses an action or movement.ists is =!st the #rocess o ca!se and e ect. /t cannot sit beca!se there is no intention. )hen why do yo! sit on the chairB 3es1 it is the intention that makes yo! sit on the chair.istence ( so1 this is known as #!ri ication by overcoming do!bt #Kankhavitarana-visuddhi)" Some meditators ind it di ic!&t to observe intention be ore every action beca!se they are not #atient eno!gh. )hen what rea&&y e. / we be&ieve that there is a #erson who does the sitting1 it is ca&&ed Sakkaya-ditthi or (tta-di4tht *wrong view o a doer+. )hen what e.

/n order to &ay em#hasis on #enetration1 the te. $Nina$ and $dassana$ are here re erred to in the same sense.#erience #eace1 ca&mness1 serenity1 tranE!i&ity1 ha##iness1 ra#t!re and so on. )here ore1 he m!st contin!e to meditate and #ractise stren!o!s&y. $e thinks that i he goes !rther1 he wi&& go beyond ni))ana" / a meditator ho&ds that this stage is ni))ana% this is the wrong #ath.#erienced it be ore1 it is better than having a mi&&ion do&&ars ( now / have attained ni))ana )h!s1 he does not go !rther beca!se he is c&inging to it. Puri&ication o& #no()edge and Vision o& the Course )he si.#eriencesA &ightness1 ha##iness1 tranE!i&ity1 serenity etc. )his is on&y a very minor and trivia& e. /n two or three tho!ght moments we have reached the &ine and stand on it. <ath visuddhi)" /n this stage o insight1 yo! get very good e. )hen there is #!ri ication o know&edge and vision o the right co!rse o #ractice ( patipada-nanadassana-visuddhi" :hen yo! reach that stage1 yo! have attained (nuloma-nana *know&edge o ada#tation+ beca!se yo!r e. )hen we do not have any do!bt abo!t the co!rse o #ariya)" :hen yo! are on the bo!ndary1 do yo! want to go ahead or go backB / yo! want to go back1 yo!r attentions towards the #ast1 b!t i yo! want to go ahead yo!r attention is . 3o!r e ort is steadyA neither s&ack nor vigoro!s1 nor rigid. :ith s!ch good e.#erienced in abo!t two weeks i meditators #ractise stren!o!s&y1 b!t some meditators go thro!gh this stage within a week. /t means that when we have #assed !a ama ananadassana-visuddhi% we are on the right #ath which &eads to (rahantship or the cessation o s! ering.#eriences1 meditators may think 9)his m!st be nibbana( this is great1 / have never e.#erience is in con ormity with the &ower stages o insight know&edge and with the higher stages o insight. 3o!r concentration is dee#1 so yo! e. )his is a very good stage that meditators m!st go thro!gh. #no()edge o& Maturit% / we contin!e with o!r #ractice1 we wi&& come to the border&ine in a short time. Sometimes yo! may ee& yo!r body has become &ight1 as i it has been &i ted1 or as i yo! were &ying in the sky. )hat do!bt has been destroyed by know&edge and vision o the co!rse o #ractice.t !sed the two words in the same sense(know&edge and vision.Path )he i th visuddhi is <!ri ication o Hnow&edge and %ision o <ath and @on. )his stage may be e. 3o!r e ort is moderate1 steady and irm.#erience and he sho!&d not be content with it1 b!t m!st go ahead with his #ractice. / we were on the wrong #ath1 we wo!&d sto# at !a ama a-nanadassanavisuddhi" "eca!se we are on the right #ath1 we have to go thro!gh the nine stages o insight and are a##roaching the goa&1 so we can =!dge that o!r co!rse o #ractice is right.o!rse o <ractice. So Patipada-nanadassana-visuddhi means <!ri ication o Hnow&edge and %ision o the .Puri&ication o& #no()edge and Vision o& Path and Visuddhi is Patipada-nanadassana-visuddhi" $Patipada$means the co!rse o #ractice1 9nana9 means know&edge1 $dassana$ means vision. 3o!r mind !&ness is very keen. )he border here means the border between an ordinary #erson *#!th!==ana+ and a @ob&e .

ist.e. Act!a&&y1 we can trans&ate it &itera&&y as the know&edge which has c!t o the Puthujjana &ineage.#eriences1 F/ have been s! ering or co!nt&ess e. )he seventh visuddhi re ers to Sotapatti-nana% the irst know&edge o the <ath ( Nanadassana-visuddhi" $Nana$ is know&edge1 $dassana$ is vision1 $visuddhi$ is #!ri ication. 2. :hen yo! have attained Sotapatti-nana% yo! have entered into the c!rrent o the @ob&e 2ight o&d <ath. So this insight know&edge is known as Nanadassana(visuddhi% <!ri ication o Hnow&edge and %ision. :hen yo! are at the bo!ndary1 yo! wi&& re &ect on yo!r #ast e. .n&y then have yo! attained Nanadassana-visuddhi ( #!ri ication o know&edge and vision. . )hen there is no more Puthujjana" .essation o S! ering Magga"sa##a)he )r!th o the :ay 0eading to the . the cessation o a&& kinds o menta&ity #nama) and #hysica&ity #rupa)" / yo! want to #roceed1 standing on the bo!ndary or border1 yo! &ook ahead as we&& as behind. :hen the Puthujjana &ineage has been c!t o 1 the meditator has attained Sotapatti-ma a nana ( he becomes a @ob&e .istences in this cyc&e o dukkha" /9ve had eno!gh o this / m!st #!t an end to this s! ering. 3.F 3o!r attention is then towards the cessation o s! ering.essation o S! ering Puri&ication o& #no()edge and Vision "eca!se he rea&ises these 8o!r @ob&e )r!ths1 his know&edge and vision o the )r!ths is #!ri ied. $Sotapannameans stream(enterer. !ukkha"sa##a )he )r!th o S! ering Samuda$a"sa##a )he )r!th o the . . )hen yo! wi&& know1 F/ / go ahead1 a&& kinds o s! ering wi&& cease to e.ahead.a!se o S! ering Nirodha"sa##a )he )r!th o the .n this border1 descendants o a Puthujjana are c!t o tota&&y.ne1 an (riya" /mmediate&y a ter the border&ine know&edge o mat!rity1 there is <ath Hnow&edge #!a a-nana) which rea&ises the 8o!r @ob&e )r!ths thoro!gh&yD 1. )he answer is yes1 beca!se yo! have been s! ering or many aeons #kappas)" )he word $kappa$ means co!nt&ess n!mbers o #(riya) beca!se yo! have c!t o the Puthujjana &ineage.istences. Ahead is the cessation o com#o!nded things1 i. So sho!&d / go aheadBF 3o! wi&& think abo!t it. :hen yo! have attained the seventh visuddhi yo! have become a Sotapanna $Sota$ means streamA $apanna$ means enterer. )hat border&ine know&edge is known as 5otra)hu-nana" $5otra$ means Puthujjana or descendants. %enerab&e @yana#onika )hera trans&ates it as mat!rity know&edge or know&edge o mat!rity beca!se the meditator9s know&edge is mat!re eno!gh to attain the #ath.nce yo! #ass that border&ine1 yo! become a @ob&e . 4.

/ a meditator be&ieves in the "!ddha or the "!ddha9s doctrine1 then his wisdom or insight know&edge is in ba&ance with irm aith #saddha)" $e can then #roceed with his #ractice witho!t any dist!rbance by ana&ytica& know&edge or reasoning1 or #hi&oso#hica& thinking. Some meditators want to dis#&ay their know&edge o "!ddhism or Dhamma% so .AC!LTIES )he 8ive 'enta& 8ac!&ties o a meditator are saddha% viriya% sati% samadhi% and panna. / these ac!&ties are strong b!t they are not in ba&ance1 a meditator cannot attain insight and en&ightenment o the cessation o s! ering. 3. Viri$a means stren!o!s e ort or energy.CHAPTER SI= NINE AYS TO SHARPEN THE MENTAL . )hen he wi&& have !nwavering con idence in the 'uddha% Dhamma and San ha beca!se o his e.#erience.#erience in the co!rse o meditation. )he main menta& actor ( mind !&ness1 need not be in ba&ance with any ac!&tiesA it m!st be constant1 #ower !&1 s!stained and !ninterr!#ted. Suddha * aith+ m!st be in ba&ance with panna *wisdom+1 and samadhi *concentration+ m!st be in ba&ance with viriya *e ort+. Saddha m!st be irm and !nwavering1 and sati m!st be #ower !& and strong samadhi m!st be dee# and panna m!st be #enetrating.. :hi&e e. Saddha means aith with right !nderstanding or thro!gh right !nderstanding. 1. )here is no room or &ogica& reasoning or #hi&oso#hica& thinking or ana&ysing which are not right !nderstanding o the nat!ra& #rocess o menta& and #hysica& #henomena. )hese ive are known as Pancindriya #panca means ive1 indriya means ac!&ties+ as we&& as Panca)ala *8ive 'enta& <owers+. 4.acu)ties )o make these ive ac!&ties strong1 #ower !& and ba&anced1 there are nine g!ide&ines which a meditator m!st o&&ow. Sati means mind !&ness or s!stained1 constant mind !&ness.n&y a ter he has com#&eted the #ractice o meditation and e. 5. / saddh is weak and panna is #owerr!&1 a meditator may ana&yse his e. Samadhi means dee# concentration. . 8or meditation1 these 8ive 'enta& 8ac!&ties m!st be strong1 #ower !& and ba&anced as stated in the commentary on the Visuddhima a.#erience1 that ana&ytica& know&edge im#edes his concentration.#erienced en&ightenment1 can he ana&yse it in any way. :hen a dhamma is not right&y #enetrated1 com#rehended or rea&ised1 a meditator may have &ess aith or a disbe&ie in the doctrine as a res!&t o his ana&ytica& know&edge o the dhamma or e. Ba)ancing the Menta) . 2. )hen his concentration wi&& be broken or weakened. +anna means wisdom1 insight or en&ightenment.#erientia& know&edge.#eriencing a menta& or #hysica& #rocess1 he wi&& ana&yse it1 es#ecia&&y i he has a wide know&edge o the Dhamma" :hen he ana&yses his e.

:e say he is cred!&o!s beca!se he has aith witho!t know&edge1 wisdom or inte&&igence1 and tends to be&ieve easi&y any theory or doctrine. / viriya is more #ower !& and stronger than samadhi% yo! cannot concentrate we&& on the ob=ect o . 3o! m!st #!t aside yo!r know&edge o the Dhamma rom books i yo! want to achieve something o!t o this meditation. $e to&d meD 5 Janaka1 yo! have gone thro!gh higher e.D ire e&ement #tejo-dh6t7s)% water e&ement #apo-dhatu) and earth e&ement #pathavi-dhatu) are a&so inc&!ded in the abdomina& movement. According to the commentary on the Visuddhima a% aith m!st be in ba&ance with panna *wisdom1 insight know&edge+ and vice versa. A&tho!gh / went to the 'ahasi 'editation . /n this way1 Saddhindriya and Pannindriya m!st be in ba&ance. / acce#ted the techniE!e as tr!e and correct beca!se / knew that the abdomina& movement is vayo-dhatu% and the other three e&ement. At that time1 / was a &ect!rer at a "!ddhist 5niversity in 'anda&ay.they sometimes ana&yse what they e. )hat was in 1953 when / s#ent my vassa *rains+ there or o!r months doing an intensive co!rse o meditation. $owever1 the contem#&ation o the abdomina& movement is very straight orward to those who have &earnt the meditation techniE!e rom the book. / panna *wisdom+ is weak and saddha * aith+ is strong1 then a meditator may be cred!&o!s. As we can contem#&ate the o!r e&ements1 this techniE!e m!st be correct. $aving acce#ted his advice1 / #!t aside my know&edge and #ractised as advised by my teacher.#erience in their meditation and ta&k abo!t something which is contrary to rea&ity. )ho!gh / now ho&d that the 'ahasi Sayadaw9s techniE!e is correct1 / co!&d not acce#t it as satis actory then beca!se / was c&inging to the traditiona& method o mind !&ness o res#iration.#erience or the techniE!e based on my #reconce#tions or the know&edge that / had &earnt rom books. At that time / had not met the %enerab&e Saydaw #ersona&&y. :hen / irst started mind !&ness meditation1 my #!r#ose was to test the techniE!e to see i it was right.entre and began to #ractise the techniE!e1 / did it with m!ch do!bt. As s!ch1 my aith was in ba&ance with my wisdom beca!se / did not ana&yse the e.aminations and yo! are now a &ect!rer in the 5niversity. )raditiona&&y we tend to avo!r the method o meditation on res#iration or breathing meditation #anapanasati)" / #ractised anapanasati in my days as a samanera when / was 17 to 24 years o&d. "e ore / began mind !&ness meditation1 / went thro!gh two vo&!mes o $Vipassana !editation$ written by the %enerab&e 'ahasi Sayadaw. / a meditator is cred!&o!s1 he may a&& into a doctrine or theory which &eads to the wrong #ath. )here ore1 saddha m!st be in ba&ance with pana% know&edge or wisdom. )hat was why / wanted to test the 'ahasi Sayadaw9s techniE!e which begins with the contem#&ation o the abdomina& movement. / #ractised !nder %enerab&e 5 @andavamsa. )hen again1 samadhi *concentration+ and viriya *energy+ m!st be in ba&ance.

So1 we can say that mind !&ness is never too strong or #ower !&. $owever1 on&y very ew meditators e.irst a% is that the meditator m!st kee# in mind that he wi&& rea&ise the disa##earance o menta& and #hysica& #rocesses or com#o!nded things when he sees them or when he observes them as they rea&&y are. $ence1 that concentration changes into s&oth and tor#or or s&ee#iness. Sometimes a meditator does not be&ieve that every menta& and #hysica& #rocess is /m#ermanent1 s!b=ect to arising and #assing away #anicca)"" "eca!se o this #reconce#tion he may not be ab&e to rea&ise the tr!e nat!re o the mind(body #rocesses. :hen concentration is dee#1 insight wi&& !n o&d nat!ra&&y and yo! wi&& be ab&e to rea&ise the mind and body #rocesses #nama and r!#a+. )he commentary saysD / vir7ya is stronger or more #ower !& than samadhi% a meditator9s mind wi&& become distracted and rest&ess #uddhacca)" /n the beginning o the #ractice his concentration is !s!a&&y weak and o ten wanders.ceeds their concentration.. 2 ort m!st be ke#t in ba&ance with samadhi" )o do this1 he m!st red!ce his e ort1 kee#ing his mind stab&e and steady1 noting whatever arises in his mind and body attentive&y1 b!t not too energetica&&y. )here are a&so some meditators whose e ort e. )hen he wi&& grad!a&&y attain some degree o concentration. )hen mind !&ness becomes constant1 s!stained1 !ninterr!#ted and contin!o!s1 thereby giving rise to dee# concentration. )o kee# his concentration in ba&ance with e ort1 he sho!&d #ractise wa&king meditation &onger than sitting. / 1 however1 ins! icient e ort is #!t in1 the noting mind wi&& grad!a&&y become d!&& and heavy. )ho!gh he may gain some concentration1 it wo!&d on&y enab&e him to attain #eace and .ceeds e ort. )he commentary saysD ( / concentration is too strong and e ort is too weak1 then that concentration changes into s&oth and tor#or or s&ee#iness #thina-middha)" So concentration m!st be ke#t in ba&ance with e ort #viriya)" )he #assive #ost!re o sitting wi&& on&y make his mind more concentrated on the ob=ect and1 as &ess and &ess e ort is reE!ired1 the mind wi&& become more and more d!&&. So1 he sho!&d o&&ow the mind and watch it as it is. )hat sho!&d be the attit!de o a meditator. )here ore1 concentration m!st be ke#t in ba&ance with e ort1 de#ending on circ!mstances. / a meditator is enth!siastic or the achievement o insight1 he may #!t too m!ch e ort in his #ractice1 thereby ca!sing the mind to become distracted and rest&ess. According to the commentary1 we can never say that sati is too strong or #ower !& beca!se it is best or yo! to be mind !& o each and every activity o mind and body rom moment to moment. According to the Visuddhima which a meditator m!st o&&ow. a% there are nine ways to shar#en these ive ac!&ties The . "eca!se o this concentration1 his e ort wi&& become steady and irm1 neither too strong nor too &a.#erience concentration that e. /n some cases when a meditator has #ractised meditation or two or three weeks1 his concentration becomes very dee# and strong1 the noting mind notes the ob=ect by itse& 1 a!tomatica&&y and e ort&ess&y.meditation.

:hen / say $sati$% it means the constant1 s!stained and !ninterr!#ted mind !&ness and not the ordinary mind !&ness. "y means o mind !&ness1 he can change an 9enemy9 into a 9 riend9. $e can di erentiate between the sensation and the mind that notes it. )his is a very im#ortant #oint which every meditator m!st o&&ow. A mind !& meditator has no enemies at a&& in the wor&d. $e does not identi y the #ain with himse& 1 so the #ain does not dist!rb his concentration. Sometimes a meditator is very attached to the an beca!se o the hot weather. / he does so1 the heat wi&& grad!a&&y become a 9 riend9. Act!a&&y it does not become more severeA it is =!st that the mind1 with dee# concentration1 become more sensitive. The . $e m!st remember that way and #ractise it re#eated&y !sing that acE!ired ski&& to enab&e him to attain dee# concentration. . $e wants to sit !nder the an. :hat he rea&ises at that moment is =!st the #ain !& sensation and the mind that notes it. 'ind !&ness is act!a&&y the so!rce o every achievement. The Second a% is1 he m!st treat the #ractise o mind !&ness with res#ect1 i. :hen he observes it1 the concentration becomes stronger and the #ain may then seem to be more severe. A&& #henomena are 9 riends9 beca!se they are cond!cive to the attainment o insight or en&ightenment ( the cessation o a&& s! ering. 0ikewise with #ain. / he &acks res#ect or the techniE!e or the res!&t o meditation1 then he wi&& not #!t eno!gh e ort into his #ractice. /t is &ike a 9 riend9. / he ee&s hot1 he sho!&d be mind !& o it. The .tent. Act!a&&y a meditator m!st be indi erent to whether it is co&d1 warm or hotA he m!st not choose.ha##iness to a &imited e.ourth a% is the seven kinds o s!itabi&ity which a meditator de#ends !#onD a s!itab&e meditation ha&&1 ood1 weather1 etc. )he commentary saysD A meditator m!st kee# in mind that he is going to rea&ise the /m#ermanence o e. . he m!st #ractise mind !&ness meditation serio!s&y. "y means o mind !&ness1 yo! can t!rn an 9enemy9 into a 9 riend9. "e mind !& or the who&e day witho!t a break. So it knows the #ain more and more c&ear&y1 making it1 seem more severe.i&th a% is that a meditator m!st remember the way in which he attained dee# concentration.istence or mind( body #rocesses i he observes them.e.onseE!ent&y1 he cannot concentrate his9 mind we&& on the ob=ect o meditation. )hen he wi&& not be ab&e to rea&ise the tr!e nat!re o nama and rupa" The Third a% is1 his mind !&ness o menta& and #hysica& #rocesses m!st be constant1 s!stained1 !ninterr!#ted and contin!o!s. )ho!gh yo! know it theoretica&&y1 yo! sho!&d a&so know it #ractica&&y. :hi&e yo! are awake1 yo! m!st constant&y and contin!o!s&y be aware o whatever arises in yo!r mind and body as it rea&&y is. )here ore1 mind !&ness is everything1 the so!rce o every achievement. "!t when he comes to rea&ise that #ain is =!st a menta& #rocess o !n#&easant ee&ing1 he wi&& no &onger be aware o himse& or his bodi&y orm.n&y then can he attain the dee# concentration !#on which he can b!i&d !# the insight know&edge which #enetrates into the tr!e nat!re o menta& and #hysica& #rocesses. . :hether or not the conditions are s!itab&e yo! sho!&d make e ort in yo!r #ractice.

/nstead1 yo! m!st #!t more e ort into yo!r #ractice to overcome the #ain by being aware o it more energetica&&y1 attentive&y and #recise&y. 4o not sto# ha& (way to yo!r goa&.t says that to shar#en these 8ive 'enta& 8ac!&ties1 yo! m!st not be concerned abo!t yo!r body and hea&th.ert in that way or a month1 he may die o atig!e or some i&&ness. :hen #ain arises1 there is a tendency or desire to change #osition so that it wi&& disa##er beca!se yo! are re&!ctant to note it. $e worries and thinks that i he contin!es to e. Strive to the !tmost1 #ractise stren!o!s&y or the who&e day witho!t taking a rest or a break1 witho!t concern or the body. )o s!mmariCe1 these are the nine ways to shar#en the 8ive 'enta& 8ac!&ties o a meditatorD 1. The Ninth a% is that yo! m!st not sto# ha& (way to yo!r goa&. The Eighth a% is that whenever menta& or #hysica& #ain arises1 yo! sho!&d strive to note it by #!tting more e ort into yo!r #ractice. 'aintain constant1 !ninterr!#ted and contin!o!s mind !&ness by being aware o a&& dai&y activities1 moment to moment witho!t a break or the who&e day. 4. 7. . 6. Seven kinds o s!itabi&ity m!st be o&&owed or observed. )h!s he wi&& not make s! icient e ort in his #ractice and his mind !&ness wi&& not be constant1 contin!o!s and s!stained. 6. )hen the #ain wi&& become yo!r 9 riend9 beca!se it enab&es yo! to attain dee# concentration and c&ear insight. Sometimes a meditator who strives very hard in this meditation rom o!r in the morning ti&& nine or ten at right witho!t rest1 ears he may become weak.The Si<th :ay is that a meditator m!st deve&o# the seven 8actors o 2n&ightenment #)ojihan a)" 3o! m!st deve&o# the seven )ojjhan as% as and when they are needed1 they areD mind !&ness1 investigation o states1 energy1 ha##iness1 tranE!i&ity1 concentration and eE!animity The Se+enth a% is that yo! m!st not be worried abo!t yo!r body or yo!r 0i e. 2.vercome #hysica& #ain ( dukkha vedana thro!gh stren!o!s e ort in yo!r #ractice. /t means that yo! m!st not sto# yo!r #ractice o mind !&ness meditation !nti& yo! achieve (rahantship" "eca!se o yo!r eagerness to achieve (rahantship% yo! wi&& #!t #ro#er e ort in the #ractice thereby making these 8ive 'enta& 8ac!&ties strong and #ower !&. 5. 9. )hat is why the te. 3. :hen concentration is weak1 insight know&edge o the tr!e nat!re o bodi&y and menta& #rocesses wi&& not !n o&d. Hee# in mind the aim to rea&ise the im#ermanence o the menta&(#hysica& #rocess. 4eve&o# the seven 8actors o 2n&ightenment. >emember how to achieve the concentration that was attained #revio!s&y. :hen mind !&ness is interr!#ted1 it cannot ca!se dee# concentration to arise. 4o not worry abo!t yo!r bodi&y hea&th and &i e d!ring meditation. <ractice the Dhamma serio!s&y and with res#ect. )hat means yo! m!st a&ways be striving as &ong as yo! have not attained (rahantship" .

#ected to #ossess this actor. b!t he m!st strive with padhana . /t re ers to insight know&edge o the arising and #assing away o nama and r!#a *!dayabbaya(nana+ which is the o!rth stage o insight know&edge. $onesty is the best #o&icy. The . :hen mind !&ness becomes contin!o!s1 constant and !ninterr!#ted1 concentration wi&& become dee# and strong. A meditator is e.i&th . )ho!gh we !se the word pannait does not re er to ordinary pannaor know&edge. )he third is know&edge o com#rehension ( Samma-sana-nana" Hnow &edge o com#rehension means know&edge which #enetrates and com#rehends a&& the three characteristics o menta& and #hysica& #rocesses1 name&y1 anicca% dukkha and anatta" )he o!rth stage is +daya))ayanana know&edge o arising and #assing away o menta& and #hysica& #henomena. / he s! ers rom headaches1 ree&s diCCy or has stomach tro!b&e1 gastric or any other i&&ness1 it does not mean he is not hea&thy.tent that he can observe any menta& or #hysica& #rocess. The . /nsight wi&& become shar# and #enetrative1 res!&ting in the c&ear com#rehension o the menta& and #hysica& #rocesses in their tr!e nat!re.ACTORS is energy #uiriya) ( not ordinary energy b!t !nwavering1 strong and irm energy #padhana)" A meditator m!st have this actor or his s!ccess in striving or emanci#ation. ood which does not ca!se stomach disorders+ beca!se i he s! ers rom indigestion1 he wi&& not be ab&e to #ractise very we&&. :hen viriya or padhana is increasing1 then mind !&ness wi&& become contin!o!s1 constant and !ninterr!#ted. )he irst stage is Namarupa-pariccheda-nana *know&edge o the di erence between menta&ity and #hysica&ity+. A *editator *ust ha+e a &ir* and strong &aith in the 'uddha% Dhamma and San ha% es#ecia&&y in the Dhamma which inc&!des the techniE!e o meditation he is #ractising.ourth . So the "!ddha said that #anna here re ers to that o!rth stage o insight know&edge which #enetrates into the a##earance and disa##earance o menta&ity and #hysica&ity.e.CHAPTER SEVEN THE . )he )hird 8actor is he m!st be honest and straight orward. )he second stage is Paccayapari ahanana*know&edge o ca!sa&ity or know&edge o the 0aw o . )hat means he m!st not te&& &ies to his teacher or to his e&&ow meditators. $e is considered to be hea&thy to the is pannaor wisdom. )he ood he takes m!st be digestib&e *i.a!se and 2 ect+. /n the beginning1 a meditator may not #ossess this insight know&edge o arising and #assing away.IVE . )he Second 8actor is1 he m!st be hea&thy both menta&&y and #hysica&&y. A MEDITATOR /n order that a meditator can make #rogress in his insight meditation1 he *ust ha+e &i+e &actors1 )he 8irst 8actor is aith. $e sho!&d never &et his uiriya or e ort decrease1 b!t sho!&d be #er#et!a&&y im#roving or increasing it.

:hen the condition o the wor&d was good eno!gh or &iving beings to &ive in1 he created a&& &iving beings( men1 decas1 "rahmas1and anima&s. So these are the ive actors which a meditator m!st have. Some trans&ate this word as the big se& or big so!&. )hen a&& the creat!res got !# and moved1 stood1 sat and so on.isted in every &iving being according to "rahmanism. )his is the irst stage o insight.*strong and irm viriya or e ort+ to meditate on menta& and #hysica& #rocesses to attain the o!rth stage o insight know&edge1 i. /n <a&i it is Paramatta" :hen wedivide this Paramatma into two words1 it is Parama and atma" $ere parama means the nob&est1 the ho&iestA $atma$ means so!& or se& . 2ven an insect has a sma&& so!& in it. Sakkaya-ditthi is on&y !#rooted or e. So he #!t a so!& into each creat!re or &iving being. :hen a meditator has attained Sotapatti-ma a-nana% the irst stage o en&ightenment1 he has !#rooted both the conce#t o a so!& or a se& 1 #ersona&ity or individ!a&ity #sakkaya-ditthi) and do!bt #vicikiccha) abo!t the )ri#&e -em.e. :hen !aha)rahma or Paramatma irst created &iving beings1 they were &ike cor#sesA they co!&d not move1 sit or stand. $e even created tigers1 &ions and #oisono!s snakes1 which are a great danger to man. :hen he can rea&ise the s#eci ic characteristics o menta& and #hysica& #henomena and can disting!ish between nama and rupa% he can destroy sakkaya-ditthi and atta-ditthi or the time being. :hen a meditator has attained #!ri ication o mind1 his mind becomes shar# eno!gh to #enetrate into the tr!e nat!re o the mind(body #rocesses.#eriencing this insight1 sakkaya ditthi and atta-ditthi wi&& come back to him1 a&tho!gh not strong&y. Prajameans creat!res or &iving beings. According to $ind!ism or "rahmanism1 the who&e wor&d was created by !aha)rahma" )his !aha)rahmahas many names s!ch as1 8svara% Paramatmaand Prajapati" $Pati$ means creator or master.terminated by attaining the irst stage o en&ightenment1 Sotapatti-ma a. Paramatma is a Sanskrit or $ind! term. +daya))aya-nana% know&edge o arising and #assing away. )his so!& is big eno!gh to create the wor&d and &iving beings. So he is the master o &iving beings beca!se he created them. /n this way1 that sma&& so!& or se& e. )hen he disting!ishes between the menta& and #hysica& #rocesses and rea&ises the s#eci ic characteristics o menta& and #hysica& #henomena.nana" Atta in Brah*anis* :e sho!&d !nderstand the conce#ts o sakkaya-ditthi and atta-ditthi rom the #oint o view o $ind!ism. So Paramatma means the ho&iest so!&. / a meditator #ossesses wisdom he is s!re to make #rogress !nti& he attains at &east the &owest <ath Hnow&edge ( Sotapatti-ma a-nana" )hat is why the "!ddha said that a meditator m!st #ossess wisdom which rea&ises the a##earance and disa##earance o menta& and #hysica& #henomena. )hen !aha)rahma wanted to make these creat!res come to &i e. At this stage o insight1 he has !#rooted sakkaya-ditthi and atta-ditthi" :hen he is not e. )hat so!& is ca&&ed 9iva-atta" /t is ever&asting and indestr!ctib&e and cannot he destroyed by any means1 even an atomic bomb1 beca!se it is s!##orted by !aha)rahma or Prajapati" "!t when this body is abo!t .

/n short.n&y i yo! have #ersona& e. / yo! ask yo!rse& 1 F:i&& / die tomorrowBF ( yo! dare not answer the E!estion.istence disintegrate1 that so!& knows that the body is abo!t to disintegrate ( so it has to be #re#ared to &eave that body and reincarnate into another body. 3o! ho&d it beca!se yo! have not rea&ised the a##earance and disa##earance o the #rocess o menta& and #hysica& #henomena. /t has to take e. / that so!& #er orms meritorio!s deeds in this &i e1 these meritorio!s deeds are good kamma so they &ead the so!& to a higher &eve& o e. )his is what "rahmanism be&ieves abo!t so!&. :hen the so!& reincarnates into another body1 we ca&& it reincarnation.#erience o the Dhamma% do yo! conc&!de that it is im#ermanent. )hat be&ie or conce#t o an ever&asting entity1 so!&1 se& or ego1 known as (tta-ditthi% is d!e to the non(rea&isation o the tr!e nat!re o the nat!ra& #rocesses. Attta in Buddhis* :e are not $ind!s b!t we have the conce#t o a so!&1 tho!gh the conce#t is not so strong beca!se we o&&ow the doctrine o the "!ddha.. / / say yo! are going to die tomorrow1 yo! wi&& get angry with me beca!se yo! have the idea o #ermanency o menta& and #hysica& #rocesses. according to "rahmanism1 there is an ever&asting entity in !s1 the so(ca&&ed se& 1 so!& or ego. 3o! can then acce#t1 F/ may not even &ive !nti& tomorrow. So the cyc&e o reincarnation contin!es.istence either in a &ower or higher wor&d1 de#ending on its kamma in this &i e. 3o! think yo!r mind(body #rocesses are #ermanentA at &east !nti& tomorrow. 3es1 that is the idea o #ermanency. / yo! see the constant1 instant a##earance and disa##earance o menta& and #hysica& #henomena1 yo! wi&& not be&ieve them to be #ermanent. :e !nderstand theoretica&&y that there is no so!& or se& or that there is no ever&asting entity1 yet we be&ieve that when a #erson dies1 the so!& comes o!t o the body and stays near his ho!se or his cor#se or his co in.istence. "!t that ever&asting so!&1 jiva-atta or se& cannot be destroyed in the ne. . / may die this very second beca!se every #henomena is s!b=ect to im#ermanence Act!a&&y1 when a man has not rea&ised the arising and #assing away o menta& arid #hysica& #henomena1 he takes them to be #ermanent. )heoretica&&y yo! !nderstand that none o the menta& and #hysica& #rocesses &ast even a second according to the doctrine o the 0ord "!ddha1 b!t #ractica&&y yo! do not be&ieve it beca!se yo! have not rea&ised their im#ermanent nat!re. /t /s a common be&ie that i we do not make o erings to the monks #)hikkhu ) and have not shared o!r meritorio!s deeds with the de#arted ones1 the so!& has to &ive aro!nd !s. :e have this conce#t beca!se we do not com#rehend the s#eci ic and common characteristics o the mind(body #rocessesA we take them to be ever&asting. .t e. )ho!gh we be&ieve the doctrine o the "!ddha1 we sti&& have this conce#t o attaditthi% and based on this conce#t we have another conce#t o #ersona&ity1 individ!a&ity1 a being1 a man or a woman -sakkaya-ditthi #sakkaya here means nama and rupa% ditthi means wrong or a&se view+.

terminate it thro!gh right !nderstanding o menta& and #hysica& #rocesses by means o mind !&ness meditation. :hen he is ab&e to destroy that sakkaya-ditthi% he is s!re to de&iver himse& rom a&& kinds o s! ering. )hat isD Sakkaya-ditthi pahanaya sato )hikkhu pari))aje" 9Sakkaya(ditthi #ahanaya9 means to overcome this a&se view o a so!&1 a se& or a #ersonA $sato$ means mind !&A )hikkhu means monk.F :ho is that 9/9B A )hikkhu% a man1 or a being who is &ivingB / we do not be&ieve in the #ermanent nat!re o mind(body #rocesses1 we do not take them to be a being. )his insight know&edge destroys the conce#t o so!& or se& 1 #erson or being which is the main ca!se o de i&ements #kilesas) s!ch as greed1 anger1 de&!sion and conceit and so on.terminated the seed there wi&& not arise any de i&ements and we have got rid o s! ering. So we can say that this conce#t o a so!& or a se& is the seed o a&& de i&ements. :hen we have e. )hat is why the "!ddha teaches !s to be mind !& o any activity o mind and body1 or any menta& and #hysica& #rocesses as they rea&&y are1 so that we can rea&ise the two #rocesses as nat!ra& #rocesses. )his sakkayaditthi is the ca!se o a&& kinds o de i&ements or the seed o a&& de i&ements. 'ay a&& o yo! #ractise this mind !&ness meditation stren!o!s&y and attain the cessation o s! ering. So attaditthi and sakkaya-ditthi are the same. "!t act!a&&y1 the d!a& #rocess o menta&ity and #hysica&ity which constit!tes a so(ca&&ed #erson is s!b=ect to change1 arising and #assing away b!t we do not rea&ise it. :e take this d!a& #rocess to be a #erson1 a being1 a dog or an anima&. )his view is ca&&ed sakkaya-ditthi" 5n&ess we can right&y com#rehend these mind and body #rocesses in their tr!e nat!re we are !nab&e to overcome or destroy this a&se view. / wi&& say1 F/ am &i ting the hand. So we have to try to e. / we say1 F@ow / am &i ting my handF1 then yo! ask me who is &i ting the hand. Sadhu4 """""Sadhu4"""""Sadhu4 . )his insight is ca&&ed know&edge o Sa)hava-lakkhana *right !nderstanding o the s#eci ic characteristics or individ!a& characteristics o menta& and #hysica& #henomena+. A )hikkhu who is mind !& o #henomena m!st strive or #ractise to overcome the a&se view.)he idea o #ersona&ity is based on the be&ie in a #ermanent entity within !s.

/ !ndertake the #rece#t to abstain rom taking disti&&ed and ermented &iE!ors and into. . 6. 5. 7. 9. 2.A$$endi< One MEDITATION -!IDELINES Mora) Conduct <!ri ication o mora& cond!ct is a #rereE!isite or a meditator to achieve #rogress in his #ractice. / !ndertake the #rece#t to abstain rom taking things not given. 3. The Meaning o& Vi$assana / a yogi does not !nderstand the #!r#ose o Vipassana medication1 he wi&& not try to discover something by his noting o menta& and #hysica& #rocesses. .!rio!s seats and beds. the three characteristics *transiency1 !nsatis actoriness1 non(se& +. /n a meditation retreat1 the meditators are reE!ired to observe the eight #rece#tsD ( 1. 6. 7. / yo! are &ooking or something whi&e #ractising1 the mind wi&& be in the !t!re. / !ndertake the #rece#t to abstain rom a&se s#eech. Vi means vario!s1 i. @ote the #resent1 &ive in the #resent. S!#er icia& noting may make yo!r mind more distracted. 2. 4. / !ndertake the #rece#t to abstain rom ki&&ing. 4. / !ndertake the #rece#t to abstain rom !sing high and &!. Passana means right !nderstanding or rea&iCation by means o mind !&ness o menta&ity and #hysica&ity. 1.n&y then wi&& he be ree rom a g!i&ty conscience and be detached and ab&e to concentrate easi&y. Vipassana is a com#o!nd o two wordsD vi ( and passana.icants. 5. Note *ind&u))% @ote attentive&y and #recise&y. / !ndertake the #rece#t to abstain rom ince&ibacy. 6.e. 3. / !ndertake the #rece#t to abstain rom dancing1 singing1 m!sic and !nseem&y shows1 rom the !se o gar&ands1 #er !mes1 and !ng!ents1 and rom things that tend to bea!ti y and adorn *the #erson+. 6. %i#assana there ore means the direct rea&isation o the three characteristics o menta&ity and #hysica&ity. / !ndertake the #rece#t to abstain rom taking ood at an im#ro#er time.

2ach e&ement has its individ!a& or s#eci ic characteristics. 2very sitting m!st be #receded by an ho!r o wa&king meditation *this may be red!ced when not in retreat and the time avai&ab&e is &imited+. 90abe&&ing9 is a riend o mind !&ness when concentration is weak. )his wi&& make yo! ee& s&ee#y. /n the beginning o the #ractice1 a beginner may be con !sed as to what to note. )he water e&ement *apo-dhatu+ has &!idity and cohesion as its s#eci ic characteristics. )he 8ire e&ement *tejo-dhatu+ has heat and co&d as its s#eci ic characteristics. )he movement o the abdomen is vayo-dhatu *wind e&ement+. / yo! do not &abe&1 yo! wi&& tend to miss the ob=ect. Sariputta and !o allana did not !se any c!shion to meditate. /t is im#ortant to note #recise&y every menta& and #hysica& #rocess ( which need to be rea&iCed in their tr!e nat!re. )his weakens right e ort *sammavayama+ and yo! wi&& ee& s&ee#y. 4o not sit &eaning against a wa&& or other s!##ort. )he 2arth e&ement *pathavi-dhatu+ has hardness and so tness as its s#eci ic characteristics.)he !ndamenta& #rinci#&e is to observe whatever arises at the very moment it arises. )he %enerab&e 'ahasi Sayadaw instr!cted that a yogi may start observing the rising and a&&ing movement o the abdomen1 menta&&y noting 9rising9 when observing the o!tward movement and 9 a&&ing9 when observing the inward movement. :ords are not essentia& b!t are sometimes he&# !&1 es#ecia&&y in the beginning. :hen changing rom wa&king to sitting #ractice1 mind !&ness and concentration sho!&d not be disr!#ted. Sitting on raised and com#ressed c!shions ca!ses the body to bend orward. Sitting Meditation :hen sitting the body o the meditator sho!&d be ba&anced. . 5n&ess it becomes a hindrance1 do not dro# &abe&&ing. )he :ind e&ement *vayo-dhatu+ has motion1 s!##ort and vibration as its s#eci ic characteristics. )his is in accordance with the cha#ter on the o!r e&ements in the !aha Satipatthana Sutta.

. "y mere&y doing wa&king meditation1 one can reach Arahantshi#I )ake the %enerab&e S!bhadda the &ast (rahant disci#&e o the "!ddha1 as an e. 4o not o#en yo!r eyes whi&e sitting meditation. 4o not &ook at yo!r eet. 4o not c&ose yo!r eyes b!t kee# them ha& (c&osed1 &ooking ahead abo!t o!r or ive eet. Sit as &ong as yo! can.:hen one is mind !& o and rea&iCes the movement o the abdomen1 then one can be said to right&y !nderstand the rea& nat!re o the wind e&ement and destroy the a&se view o a se& .am#&e. a&&ing. 9rising9 and 9 a&&ing9+.g. . / yo! do1 concentration is broken.. "ring yo!r attention to the oot d!ring wa&king meditation. @ote the movement with shar# awareness. A&tho!gh the yogi is ta!ght to begin with the watching o the rise and a&& o the abdomen1 he m!st not be attached to it. / so!nds are heard1 note 9hearing9. 4o not take E!ick or dee# breaths1 yo! wi&& get tired. a)'ing Meditation )ake the wa&king meditation serio!s&y. At the beginning1 note the ste# in one #art on&y1 menta&&y note 9right9 and 9&e t9..rising.. At irst it is not easy1 b!t has to note as m!ch as #ossib&e. >e&a. )his is not the on&y ob=ect1 b!t on&y one o the many varieties o ob=ects o Vipassana meditation. :hen yo! o&&ow the movement o the oot1 yo! m!st not &i t the eet too high. 4o not bend the head too &ow.. / the movements are com#&icated1 =!st note them genera&&y. 4o not shi t yo!r #ost!re. . "reathing m!st be norma&. :hen the abdomina& movements are more grad!a& and c&ear1 yo! may increase the reE!ency o the notingD ( Frising... 3o!r mind wi&& get distracted. / there is a ga# between 9rising9 and 9 a&&ing91 i&& it with the noting 9sitting9 andGor 9to!ching9. 4o not be contented with one ho!r sitting.. )his wi&& ca!se tension and diCCiness in a short time. the mind and body as m!ch as #ossib&e.risingF1 F a&&ing. /n the beginning yo! may #!t yo!r hand on the abdomen i yo! are !nab&e to ee& the movement otherwise. a&&ingF.n&y when mind !&ness is s! icient1 may one ret!rn to the #rimary ob=ect o meditation *e.

8ina&&y it may be !rther increased toD ( 9intending91 9&i ting91 9#!shing91 9&owering91 9to!ching91 9#ressing9.t. / yo! cannot be mind !& o dai&y activities1 do not e. Awareness o dai&y activities is the &i e o a yogi.n&y with dee# concentration can one rea&iCe the intrinsic nat!re o menta& and #hysica& #henomenon1 which &eads one to the cessation o d!kkha.ontin!ity is needed to carry mind !&ness orward rom one moment to the ne.nce the yogi ai&s to observe an activity he &oses his &i e. 0ater one may watch the ste# in one #art abo!t ten min!tes1 o&&owed by three #arts 9&i ting91 9#!shing91 9&owering9. . 4!ring a retreat1 a&& yo! have to do is to be mind !&. 3o! have had and wi&& have many years to &ook aro!nd. . / yo! do so d!ring the retreat1 yo! say good( bye to concentration. "e mind !& o each and every dai&y activity. ho!rs each o wa&king and sitting meditation #er day is recommended. )here are many new things to discover everyday i yo! have constant and !ninterr!#ted mind !&ness. )ake note o the 9desire9 to &ook aro!nd.onstant and !ninterr!#ted mind !&ness gives rise to dee# concentration.#ect #rogress. )hat is1 he is not a yogi1 beca!se he is devoid o sati1 samadhi and panna. . 3o! need not h!rry.)he ob=ects to be noted are increased grad!a&&y1 that is1 the n!mber o #arts o a ste# that are observed is grad!a&&y increased. )he ac!&ty o mind !&ness *satindriya+ o a yogi invo&ves constant and !ninterr!#ted mind !&ness or the who&e day. At &east ive to si. . 3o! m!st not &ook aro!nd here and there d!ring wa&king meditation. . @ot noting dai&y activities &eads to wide ga#s o non(mind !&ness. <&ease consider this ( within one ho!r o wa&king meditation1 the mind is s!re to wander o E!ite a ew times. Mind&u)ness o& Dai)% Acti+ities 'ind !&ness 'editation is "!ddha9s way o &i e. )he wandering eye is a very di ic!&t #rob&em or a yogi.

<ain is the key o the door to Ni))ana. / yo! observe it attentive&y1 the mind wi&& be absorbed in it and discover its tr!e nat!re. 4o not read1 recite or reco&&ect. Pain and Patience <ain is the riend o a meditator1 do not evade it1 it can &ead yo! to Ni))ana. <atience &eads to Ni))ana. /m#atience &eads to he&&. 8ive min!tes9 ta&k can wreck a yogi9s concentration or the who&e day. So yo! wi&& have to s&ow down to be ab&e to see c&ear&y the menta& and #hysica& #rocesses as they rea&&y are. :hen a an is t!rning ast1 yo! cannot see it as it rea&&y is. Some yogis even ind!ce #ain by o&ding their &egs beneath them.)he %enerab&e 'ahasi Sayadaw com#ared a meditator to a sick #erson who moves abo!t very s&ow&y. / yo! intend to achieve something in yo!r meditation1 yo! m!st get acc!stomed to s&owing down. / it does1 yo! may cry over it1 or yo!r riends has gone away. )a&king is a greater danger to the #rogress o insight. :ho said anything is en=oyab&eB . )hey are hindrances to yo!r meditation #rogress. "e #atient with anything and and everything that stim!&ates yo!r mind. / it is t!rning s&ow&y1 then yo! can do so. :hen concentration is good1 #ain is not a #rob&em. / there is intense #ain whi&e wa&king1 one sho!&d sto# occasiona&&y and take note o it. 4oing things e. /t may not disa##ear. :hen #ain comes it is noted direct&y b!t ignored on&y i it becomes over&y #ersistent. <ain is observed not to make it go away b!t to rea&ise its tr!e nat!re.treme&y s&ow&y makes yo!r mind concentrated . /t can be overcome by dee# concentration which is bro!ght abo!t by contin!o!s mind !&ness. :hen yo! are s!rro!nded by #eo#&e who are doing things in a r!sh1 yo! m!st be ob&ivio!s to the s!rro!ndings and energetica&&y note any menta& or #hysica& activity. /t is a nat!ra& #rocess no di erent rom 9rising9 ( 9 a&&ing9. <ain does not have to in orm yo! o its coming.

!riosity and e.. $e sho!&d not wait !nti& 4. )he thinking wi&& sto# by itse& . -ive them shar# awareness.+ . @ote s&ee#iness energetica&&y ( by doing it in E!ick re#etition.. @ote the tho!ghts E!ick&y as i yo! are hitting them with a stickD ( 9thinking1 thinking1 thinking . thinking .. . / yo! are aware o the tho!ght itse& 1 then thinking wi&& cease. )he menta& attit!de is very im#ortant..77 a. Act!a&&y1 the energy to note is a&ways there. he m!st get !# to meditate. )he tro!b&e is yo! are re&!ctant to !se it.9 or 9s&ee#y1 s&ee#y1 s&ee#y .77 a.m. 5n&ess yo! can note the wandering tho!ght yo! do not have a o#e o concentrating the mind.. )hen there is satis action in every sit!ation and yo! wi&& a&so have &ess distraction. / yo! are o#timistic1 yo! o er yo!rse& o##ort!nity.9 or 9ha##y1 ha##y1 ha##y . /nsight comes with dee# concentration b!t &ogica& or #hi&oso#hica& thinking comes with sha&&ow concentration.Noting Menta) and E*otiona) States / yo! note any menta& or emotiona& state1 it m!st be done somewhat E!ick&y1 energetica&&y and #recise&y1 so that the noting mind id contin!o!s and becomes #ower !&...m. )hat is not the right attit!de.therwise yo! wi&& en=oy s&ee#ing. 4rowsiness can be overcome by #!tting in more e ort. / a yogi wakes !# at 3. / yo! are aware o the content o the tho!ght1 it wi&& tend to go on.s&ee#y .. not s&ow&y as1 9thinking ... / yo! want to achieve something in yo!r meditation1 yo! wi&& have to #!t more e ort into yogi #ractice. 4on9t be #essimistic.#ectation de inite&y de&ay yo!r #rogress.9.9or 9s&ee#y ..m.9. */n the retreat1 yogis were sched!&ed to wake !# at 4. 2agerness and worry abo!t getting concentration can ca!se distraction.77 a... .. / they arise1 do not dwe&& on them. 0abe&&ing activities to be noted a&so he&#s... / yo! are s&ee#y on waking !#1 get !# and wa&k. )his abi&ity is indis#ensab&e. / yo!r mind is sti&& wandering it =!st means that yo! sti&& do not note energetica&&y eno!gh.9 or 9sad1 sad1 sad . 4o not be attached to thinking and theory.

As s!ch1 e ective comm!nication between them is o e./ yo! are s&ee#y1 wa&k E!ick&y backwards and orwards in the s!n. /t is the most im#ortant ac!&ty that &eads the other o!r to their goa&. 8aith or con idence m!st be ba&anced with wisdom1 energy with concentration. So do not be ca!ght !# by them. A h!man being has a great variety o strengths and the abi&ity to do many things.n the other hand1 it sho!&d not be a actor that hinders his meditation1 he may come &ater than sched!&ed. .treme im#ortance. . >ea& #ractice begins on&y a ter that. 5. Viri%indri%aD Strong and stren!o!s e ort in the #ractice.i+e . Sa*adhindri%aD dee# concentration. )hese ac!&ties m!st be ba&anced to attain insight. Sit down and be mind !& ti&& ca&&ed. Satindri%aD s!stained and !ninterr!#ted mind !&ness. "e concise and to the #oint. Pannindri%aD #enetrative wisdom1 insight. $aving given a re#ort o what he did and e. )hey areD ( 1. 3ogis sho!&d be considerate1 es#ecia&&y when there are many other yogis waiting and time is #recio!s. 'editation is beyond time and s#ace. /nterviews or >e#orting Sessions 4ai&y1 the yogi has to re#ort to the meditation instr!ctor to check on his #ractice. A yogi sho!&d not try to come in be ore their sched!&ed time !n&ess he has reason to.#erienced d!ring the day9s meditation1 the instr!ctor wi&& correct1 give !rther instr!ction or ins#ire him or !rther #rogress. Saddhindri%aD irm and strong aith based on right !nderstanding. /n the retreat1 di erent times were given to each gro!# to re#ort to the week o #ractice is =!st a &earning #rocess.acu)ties o& a Meditator *+an#indri$a+ A meditator m!st have these ive ac!&ties strong1 #ower !&1 shar#ened and ba&anced. 2. The . :hen waiting or yo!r t!rn within the gro!# do not waste time. 3.t one sho!&d get ready beside the one being interviewed. 4. 'ind !&ness need not be ba&anced with any other actor. )he ne. :e m!st S)>/%21 not )>3I / yo! #!t in eno!gh e ort1 yo! can achieve the o!r #aths and r!itions .

.cited1 nervo!s or a raid. 4o not swa&&ow yo!r words1 s#eak in a =!mb&e or m!tter. :hen asked a E!estion1 answer itA do not s#eak abo!t something e&se.#eriences even tho!gh they may seem !nim#ortant to yo!. >e#ort e. / in do!bt1 ask.n&y a ter yo! have narrated a&& yo!r e. 4o not wait or remarks. "e com#osed and o#en.ome and &eave the re#orting session mind !&&y. 0isten care !&&y to the instr!ctions and o&&ow them strict&y and di&igent&y. )aking short notes immediate&y a ter meditation is he&# !& b!t one sho!&d not make it a #oint to remember whi&e meditating as this wi&& dist!rb concentration. . S#eak c&ear&y and a!dib&y in com#&ete sentences.4o not get e. .#eriences wi&& any remarks be made.

A$$endi< T(o RETREAT TIMETABLE 4D77 a.m 4D37 a.m 11D77 a.m 17D77 a.m 5D37 a.m 6D77 #.m wake !# wa&king sittingJ wa&king break ast wa&king sitting wa&king &!nch rest sittingJ wa&king sitting wa&king drinks served :a&king sitting wa&king 4hamma &ect!re sitting #rivate meditation J .om#!&sory gro!# meditation sessions en orced in the &ater #art o the retreat.m 1D77 #.m 5D37 #.m 6D37 a.37 #.m 9D37 #.m 5D77 #.m 4D77 #. .m 12D77 #.m 3D77 #.m 17.m 6D37 #.m 6D77 a.m 7D77 a.m 9D77 a.m 2D77 #.m 7D37 #.