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Experiment : Isolating DNA from cells Objective: To isolate DNA from fruit cells.

Introduction Each chromosome is a single thread-like structure made up of long molecules of DNA combines with histone protein. The DNA molecule is made up of many small sections called genes. Shortly before cell division occurs, each DNA molecule makes a copy of itself. So the one thread of DNA becomes two identical threads, the chromatids. As the two chromatids are identical, they will have identical genes. These identical genes are known as alleles. In this experiment, you will rupture fruit cells, thus releasing their contents such as protein, DNA, RNA, lipids, ribosomes and various small molecules. DNA is then precipitated from the suspension by treatment with ethyl alcohol. Apparatus: Mortar and pastle Beaker 500ml Muslin cloth Test tube Test tube rack Wire loop Water bath (60°C) Materials: Kiwi fruits/banana/onion/tomato Salt-detergent mixture (3g salt + 10ml liquid detergent + 100ml water) Alcohol 95% Ice cubes

Procedures and Observation 1. Make up solution from 3g salt, 10ml liquid detergent and 100ml water in a beaker. Stir thoroughly to dissolve the salt completely without producing foam. 2. Pour 10ml of ice-cold alcohol into a test tube and place the test tube into a beaker containing ice cubes. 3. Peel and chop one fruit. Mash it in a mortar. 4. Scoop the squashed fruit into a beaker and add 100ml of the salt-detergent mixture. 5. Put the beaker into the water bath and leave it for 15 minutes. 6. After 15 minutes, put the mixture into a piece of muslin cloth and collect the liquid in a test tube. You will need about half a tube of the liquid. 7. Very carefully (at flat angle), drizzle the cold alcohol into the test tube that contains the fruit extract. Make sure that both liquid do not mix so that the alcohol builds a separate layer on top of the fruit sap. 8. Put the test tube into the test tube rack and observe it. After a short time, you should be able to observe a white layer beginning to form between the alcohol and the fruit sap. DNA filament should be found in this white layer. 9. Get the DNA filament using the wire loop.