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where the emf has been replaced by a short circuit.bilateral elements.  Reciprocal network means any network composed of linear.  . then if the emf E is moved from the first to the second branch. it will cause the same current in the first branch.reciprocity theorem states that if an emf E in one branch of a reciprocal network produces a current I in another.

 Network must have passive. Applicable to single-source networks. .  Network must have absence of independent source. linear and bilateral elements.


 The theorem by the above circuit suggests that polarity of the voltage source have the same correspondence disection of the branch current in each position. .

 Consider the network below in which values for the elements of fig(a) of the previous slide have been assigned. .

 To find the current I due to a source time proceed as:  The total resistance is:  RT =R1 + R2 //( R3 + R4 ) = 12Ω+6 Ω //(2 Ω +4 Ω) =12Ω+6 Ω//6 Ω =12Ω+3 Ω =12Ω .

5A . And I5 =I/RT =45V/15Ω =3A With I= 3A/2 = 1.

we have the network as: . Interchanging the location of E and I of previous slide.

5A Which agrees with the previous slides. .5A)/12 Ω+6 Ω =1.5A That I=(6 Ω)(4. Now RT =R4 +R3 +R1 //R2 =4 Ω+2 Ω+12 Ω//6 Ω =10 Ω And I5 =I/RT =45 V/10 Ω=4.

not a theorem used in the analysis of mutisource networks. therefore. The reciprocity theorem does not appear in many of the textbooks. Hayt & Jack E.  Fundamentals of Electric circuit by Alexander and M. .Sadika  Engineering Circuit Analysis by William H. Kemmerly because it is applicable only to single-source networks. such as. It is.

the theorem is important because:  It does not hold for all networks  Utility of the theorem lies in transformers. But. . electromagnetic fields and microwaves.