# QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

2.1 INTRODUCTION

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
- Data recorded in the sequence in which there are collected and before they are processed or ranked Array data - Raw data that is arranged in ascending or descending order.

Raw data

Exampl e1
Here is a list of question asked in a large statistics class and the “raw data” given by one of the students:

1.
2. 3.

What is your sex (m=male, f=female)? Answer : m How many hours did you sleep last night? Answer: 5 hours Randomly pick a letter – S or Q. Answer: S What is your height in inches? Answer: 67 inches What’s the fastest you’ve ever driven a car (mph)? Answer: 110 mph

4.
5.

Exampl e2 Quantitative raw data Qualitative raw data

These data also called ungrouped data.

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2.2 ORGANIZING AND GRAPHING QUALITATIVE DATA
2.2.1 Frequency Distributions Table
A frequency distribution for qualitative data lists all categories and the number of elements that belong to each of the categories. It exhibits the frequencies are distributed over various categories Also called as a frequency distribution table or simply a frequency table. e.g. : The number of students who belong to a certain category is called the frequency of that category.

2.2.2 Relative Frequency and Percentage Distribution

• • •

A relative frequency distribution is a listing of all categories along with their relative frequencies (given as proportions or percentages). It is commonplace to give the frequency and relative frequency distribution together. Calculating relative frequency and percentage of a category

Σξϖ λβ ∆

FORMUL A

Relative Frequency of a category = Frequency of that category Sum of all frequencies

Percentage (%) = (Relative Frequency)* 100

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Exampl e3
A sample of UUM staff-owned vehicles produced by Proton was identified and the make of each noted. The resulting sample follows (W = Wira, Is = Iswara, Wj = Waja, St = Satria, P = Perdana, Sv = Savvy): Construct a frequency distribution table for these data with their relative frequency and percentage.

W Is Wj Wj St Solution:

W W Is Sv W

P W Wj W W

Is Wj Sv Is W

Is Is W P W

P W W Sv St

Is W W Wj St

W Is Wj Wj P

St W St W Wj

Wj Wj W W Sv

Category Wira Iswara Perdana Waja Satria Savvy Total

Frequency 19 8 4 10 5 4 50

Relative Frequency 19/50 = 0.38 0.16 0.08 0.20 0.10 0.08 1.00

Percentage (%) 0.38*100 = 38 16 8 20 10 8 100

2.2.3 Graphical Presentation of Qualitative Data
a) Bar Graphs A graph made of bars whose heights represent the frequencies of respective categories.

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• • It has

Such a graph is most helpful when you have many categories to represent. Notice that a gap is inserted between each of the bars.

simple/ vertical bar chart horizontal bar chart component bar chart multiple bar chart Simple/ Vertical Bar Chart
To construct a vertical bar chart, mark the various categories on the horizontal axis and mark the frequencies on the vertical axis

Horizontal Bar Chart
To construct a horizontal bar chart, mark the various categories on the vertical axis and mark the frequencies on the horizontal axis.

UUM Staff-owned Vehicles Produced By Proton

Types of Vehicle

Satria Perdana Wira 0 5 10 Frequency 15 20

Component Bar Chart
 To construct a component bar chart, all categories is in one bar and every bar is divided into components.  The height of components should be tally with representative frequencies.

Exampl
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Suppose we want to illustrate the information below, representing the number of people participating in the activities offered by an outdoor pursuits centre during Jun of three consecutive years. Climbing Caving Walking Sailing Total 2004 21 10 75 36 142 2005 34 12 85 36 167 2006 36 21 100 40 191

Solution:
Activities Breakdown (Jun)
Number of participants 200 150 100 50 0 2004 2005 Year 2006 Sailing Walking Caving Climbing

Multiple Bar Chart
 To construct a multiple bar chart, each bars that representative any The height of the bar represented the frequencies of categories.

categories are gathered in groups.  

Useful for making comparisons (two or more values).
Activities Breakdown (Jun)

120 Number of participants 100 80 60 40 20 0 2004 2005 2006 Year Climbing Caving Walking Sailing

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QQS1013 Elementary Statistics  The bar graphs for relative frequency and percentage distributions can

be drawn simply by marking the relative frequencies or percentages, instead of the class frequencies.

Pie Chart A circle divided into portions that represent the relative frequencies or percentages of a population or a sample belonging to different categories. • • An alternative to the bar chart and useful for summarizing a single categorical variable if there are not too many categories. The chart makes it easy to compare relative sizes of each class/category. The whole pie represents the total sample or population. The pie is divided into different portions that represent the different categories. To construct a pie chart, we multiply 360o by the relative frequency for each category to obtain the degree measure or size of the angle for the corresponding categories.

Exampl e5
Movie Genres Comedy Action Romance Drama Horror Foreign Science Fiction Total Frequency 54 36 28 28 22 16 16 200 Relative Frequency 0.27 0.18 0.14 0.14 0.11 0.08 0.08 1.00 Angle Size 360*0.27=97.2o 360*0.18=64.8o 360*0.14=50.4o 360*0.14=50.4o 360*0.11=39.6o 360*0.08=28.8o 360*0.08=28.8o 360o

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c) Line Graph/Time Series Graph A graph represents data that occur over a specific period time of time. • Line graphs are more popular than all other graphs combined because their visual characteristics reveal data trends clearly and these graphs are easy to create. When analyzing the graph, look for a trend or pattern that occurs over the time period. • • Example is the line ascending (indicating an increase over time) or descending (indicating a decrease over time). Another thing to look for is the slope, or steepness, of the line. A line that is steep over a specific time period indicates a rapid increase or decrease over that period. Two data sets can be compared on the same graph (called a compound time series graph) if two lines are used. Data collected on the same element for the same variable at different points in time or for different periods of time are called time series data. • A line graph is a visual comparison of how two variables—shown on the x- and y-axes—are related or vary with each other. It shows related information by drawing a continuous line between all the points on a grid. • • Line graphs compare two variables: one is plotted along the x-axis (horizontal) and the other along the y-axis (vertical). The y-axis in a line graph usually indicates quantity (e.g., RM, numbers of sales litres) or percentage, while the horizontal x-axis often measures units of time. As a result, the line graph is often viewed as a time series graph

Exampl e6
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A transit manager wishes to use the following data for a presentation showing how Port Authority Transit ridership has changed over the years. Draw a time series graph for the data and summarize the findings.

Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

Ridership (in millions) 88.0 85.0 75.7 76.6 75.4

Solution:

89 Ridership (in millions) 87 85 83 81 79 77 75 1990 1991 1992 Year 1993 1994

The graph shows a decline in ridership through 1992 and then leveling off for the years 1993 and 1994.

EXERCISE 1

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1. The following data show the method of payment by 16 customers in a supermarket
checkout line. ( C = cash, CK = check, CC = credit card, D = debit and O = other ). C CK CK CC CK D C CC CC C D CK O CK C CC

a. b. c.

Construct a frequency distribution table. Calculate the relative frequencies and percentages for all categories. Draw a pie chart for the percentage distribution.

2. The frequency distribution table represents the sale of certain product in ZeeZee
Company. Each of the products was given the frequency of the sales in certain period. Find the relative frequency and the percentage of each product. Then, construct a pie chart using the obtained information.
Type of Product A B C D E Frequency 13 12 5 9 11 Relative Frequency Percentage Angle Size

3. Draw a time series graph to represent the data for the number of worldwide airline
fatalities for the given years.
Year No. of fatalities 1990 440 1991 510 1992 990 1993 801 1994 732 1995 557 1996 1132

4. A questionnaire about how people get news resulted in the following information
from 25 respondents (N = newspaper, T = television, R = radio, M = magazine). N R M T T N N M R R R T N M R T M R N N T R N M N

a. b.

Construct a frequency distribution for the data. Construct a bar graph for the data.

5. The given information shows the export and import trade in million RM for four
months of sales in certain year. Using the provided information, present this data in component bar graph.
Month September October November December Export 28 30 32 24 Import 20 28 17 14

6.

The following information represents the maximum rain fall in millimeter (mm) in each state in Malaysia. You are supposed to help a meteorologist in your place to make an analysis. Based on your knowledge,

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QQS1013 Elementary Statistics present this information using the most appropriate chart and give your comment.
State Perlis Kedah Pulau Pinang Perak Selangor Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur Negeri Sembilan Melaka Johor Pahang Terengganu Kelantan Sarawak Sabah Quantity (mm) 435 512 163 721 664 1003 390 223 876 1050 1255 986 878 456

2.3 ORGANIZING AND GRAPHING QUANTITATIVE DATA
2.3.1 Stem-and-Leaf Display
In stem and leaf display of quantitative data, each value is divided into two portions – a stem and a leaf. Then the leaves for each stem are shown separately in a display. Gives the information of data pattern. Can detect which value frequently repeated. Exampl e7 25 12 9 10 5 12 11 12 31 28 37 6 38 44 13 22 18 19 23 7

13 41

Solution: 0 1 2 3 4 9 2 5 6 1 5 0 3 1 4 7 2 8 7 6 3 1 2 4 3 8 9 2 8

2.3.2 Frequency Distributions

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A frequency distribution for quantitative data lists all the classes and the number of values that belong to each class. Data presented in form of frequency distribution are called grouped data. The class boundary is given by the midpoint of the upper limit of one class and the lower limit of the next class. Also called real class limit.

To find the midpoint of the upper limit of the first class and the lower limit of the second class, we divide the sum of these two limits by 2. e.g.:

400 + 401 = 400.5 2
Class Width (class size)

class boundary

Σξϖ λβ ∆

FORMUL A

Class width = Upper boundary – Lower boundary

e.g. : Width of the first class = 600.5 – 400.5 = 200

Class Midpoint or Mark

FORMUL A

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Σξϖ λβ ∆

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class midpoint or mark =

Lower limit + Upper limit 2

e.g:

Midpoint of the 1st class =

401 + 600 =500.5 2

Constructing Frequency Distribution Tables 1. To decide the number of classes, we used Sturge’s formula, which is
FORMUL A

Σξϖ λβ ∆
where 2. Class width,

c = 1 + 3.3 log n
c is the no. of classes n is the no. of observations in the data set.

Σ∆β λ
ξϖ

FORMUL A

Largest value - Smallest value Number of classes Range i> c i>

This class width is rounded up to a convenient number. 3. Lower Limit of the First Class or the Starting Point  Use the smallest value in the data set. Exampl

e8
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QQS1013 Elementary Statistics The following data give the total home runs hit by all players of each of the 30 Major League Baseball teams during 2004 season.

Number of classes, c

= 1 + 3.3 log 30 = 1 + 3.3(1.48) = 5.89 ≈ 6 class
242 − 135 6 > 17.8 ≈ 18

Class width,

i>

i)

Starting Point = 135

Table 2.10 : Frequency Distribution for Data of Table 2.9

Total Home Runs
135 – 153 153 – 171 171 – 189 189 – 207 207 – 225 225 – 242 |||| |||| || |||| |||| | ||| ||||

Tally

f
10 2 5 6 3 4

∑ f = 30

2.3.3 Relative Frequency and Percentage Distributions
FORMUL A

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Σξϖ λβ ∆

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Frequency of that class Sum of all frequencies f = ∑f

Relative frequency of a class =

Percentage = (Relative frequency) •100

Exampl e9
(Refer example 8)
Table 2.11: Relative Frequency and Percentage Distributions

Total Home Runs 135 – 153 153 – 171 171 – 189 189 – 207 207 – 225 225 – 242

Class Boundaries 134.5 less than 152.5 152.5 less than 170.5 170.5 less than 188.5 188.5 less than 206.5 206.5 less than 224.5 224.5 less than 242.5 Total

Relative Frequency 0.3333 0.0667 0.1667 0.2000 0.1000 0.1333 1.0

% 33.33 6.67 16.67 20.00 10.00 13.33 100%

2.3.4 Graphing Grouped Data
a) Histograms
A histogram is a graph in which the class boundaries are marked on the horizontal axis and either the frequencies, relative frequencies, or percentages are marked on the vertical axis. The frequencies, relative frequencies or percentages are represented by the heights of the bars. In histogram, the bars are drawn adjacent to each other and there is a space between y axis and the first bar.

Exampl e 10

(Refer example 8) Frequency histogram for Table 2.9
12 10 8 6 4 2 0 134.5
152.5 170.5 188.5 206.5 224.5 242.5

b) Polygon

1

Total home runs

A graph formed by joining the midpoints of the tops of successive bars in a histogram with straight lines is called a polygon.
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Exampl e 11
12 10 Frequency 8 6 4 2 0 134.5
152.5 170.5 188.5 206.5 224.5 242.5

Frequency polygon for Table 2.11

1

Total home runs

For a very large data set, as the number of classes is increased (and the width of classes is decreased), the frequency polygon eventually becomes a smooth curve called a frequency distribution curve or simply a frequency curve.

Frequency distribution curve

Shape of Histogram
Same as polygon. For a very large data set, as the number of classes is increased (and the width of classes is decreased), the frequency polygon eventually becomes a smooth curve called a frequency distribution curve or simply a frequency curve.

The most common of shapes are: (i) Symmetric (ii) Right skewed

(iii) Left skewed
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Symmetric histograms

Right skewed and Left skewed

 Describing data using graphs helps us insight into the main characteristics of the data.  When interpreting a graph, we should be very cautious. We should observe carefully whether the frequency axis has been truncated or whether any axis has been unnecessarily shortened or stretched.

2.3.5 Cumulative Frequency Distributions
• A cumulative frequency distribution gives the total number of values that fall below the upper boundary of each class. Exampl e 12
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Using the frequency distribution of table 2.11, Total Home Runs 135 – 152 153 – 170 171 – 188 189 – 206 207 – 224 225 – 242 Class Boundaries 134.5 less than 152.5 152.5 less than 170.5 170.5 less than 188.5 188.5 less than 206.5 206.5 less than 224.5 224.5 less than 242.5 f 10 2 5 6 3 4 Cumulative Frequency 10 10+2=12 10+2+5=17 10+2+5+6=23 10+2+5+6+3=26 10+2+5+6+3+4=30

Ogive
An ogive is a curve drawn for the cumulative frequency distribution by joining with straight lines the dots marked above the upper boundaries of classes at heights equal to the cumulative frequencies of respective classes. Two type of ogive: (i) (ii) ogive less than ogive greater than

First, build a table of cumulative frequency.

Exampl e 13
(Ogive Less Than) Earnings Number of (RM) students (f) 30 – 39 40 – 49 50 – 59 60 - 69 70 – 79 80 - 89
Cumulative Frequency

Earnings (RM) Less than 29.5 Less than 39.5 Less than 49.5 Less than 59.5 Less than 69.5 Less than 79.5 Less than 89.5

Cumulative Frequency (F) 0 5 11 17 20 23 30

5 6 6 3 3 7 30

Total

35 Graph Ogive Less Than 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics 29.5 39.5

49.5

59.5

69.5

79.5

89.5

17

Earnings

QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

Exampl e 14 (Ogive More Than)
Earnings (RM) 30 – 39 40 – 49 50 – 59 60 - 69 70 – 79 80 - 89 Total Number of students (f) 5 6 6 3 3 7 30 Earnings (RM) More than 29.5 More than 39.5 More than 49.5 More than 59.5 More than 69.5 More than 79.5 More than 89.5 Cumulative Frequency (F) 30 25 19 13 10 7 0

Graph Ogive More Than
35 30 25

2.3.6 Box-Plot
Describe the analyze data graphically using 5 measurement: smallest value, first quartile (K1), second quartile (median or K2), third quartile (K3) and largest value.

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Cumulative Frequency
15 10 5 0 29.5 39.5 49.5 59.5 69.5 79.5 89.5

20

Earnings

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For symmetry data

Smallest value

K1

Median

K3

Largest value

For left skewed data

Smallest value

K1

Median

K3

Largest value

For right skewed data
Smallest K1 value Median K3 Largest value

2.4 MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY
2.4.1 Ungrouped Data Measurement
Mean FORMUL A

Σξϖ λβ ∆

Mean for population data:

µ=
x=

∑x
N

Mean for sample data:

∑x
n

where:

∑x =
x

the sum of all values N = the population size n = the sample size, µ = the population mean = the sample mean

Exampl e 15
The following data give the prices (rounded to thousand RM) of five homes sold recently in Sekayang.

158

189

265

127

191

Find the mean sale price for these homes.
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Solution: x= x ∑

n 158 189+ 65 1 + 2+ + 1 27 91 = 5 9 30 = 5 =1 86

Thus, these five homes were sold for an average price of RM186 thousand @ RM186 000.

The mean has the advantage that its calculation includes each value of the data set.

Weighted Mean Used when have different needs.

Weight mean :
FORMUL A

Σξϖ λβ ∆

xw =

∑ wx ∑w

where w is a weight.

Exampl e 16
Consider the data of electricity components purchasing from a factory in the table below: Type Number of component (w) Cost/unit (x)

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QQS1013 Elementary Statistics 1 2 3 4 5 Total 1200 500 2500 1000 800 6000 RM3.00 RM3.40 RM2.80 RM2.90 RM3.25

Solution:

xw = =

1200(3) 500(3.4) +2500(2.8) 1000(2.9) 800(3.2 + + + 1200 + +2500 1000 800 500 + + 17800 = 6000 = 2.967
Mean cost of a unit of the component is RM2.97

∑wx ∑w

5)

Median Median is the value of the middle term in a data set that has been ranked in increasing order. Procedure for finding the Median Step 1: Rank the data set in increasing order. Step 2: Determine the depth (position or location) of the median.
FORMUL A

Σ∆β λ
ϖ ξ

Depth of Median =

n +1 2

Step 3: Determine the value of the Median.

Exampl e 17
Find the median for the following data: 10 5 19 8 3

Solution:
(1) Rank the data in increasing order

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QQS1013 Elementary Statistics 3 (2) 5 8 10 19

Determine the depth of the Median n +1 Depth of Median = 2 5 +1 = 2 =3 (3) Determine the value of the median Therefore the median is located in third position of the data set. 3 5 8 10 19

Hence, the Median for above data = 8

Exampl e 18
Find the median for the following data: 10 5 19 8 3 15

Solution:
(1) Rank the data in increasing order 3 5 8 10 15 19

(2) Determine the depth of the Median

Depth of Median = = =

n +1 2 6 +1 2 3.5

(3) Determine the value of the Median
Therefore the median is located in the middle of 3rd position and 4th position of the data set.

Median =

8 +10 = 9 2

Hence, the Median for the above data = 9 

The median gives the center of a histogram, with half of the data

values to the left of (or, less than) the median and half to the right of (or, more than) the median.

The advantage of using the median is that it is not influenced by

outliers.

Mode
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Mode is the value that occurs with the highest frequency in a data set. Exampl e 19 1. What is the mode for given data? 77 69 74 81 71 68 74 73

2. What is the mode for given data? 77 69 68 74 81 71 68 74 73 Solution: 1. Mode = 74 (this number occurs twice): Unimodal 2. Mode = 68 and 74: Bimodal

A major shortcoming of the mode is that a data set may have One advantage of the mode is that it can be calculated for both

none or may have more than one mode.

kinds of data, quantitative and qualitative.

2.4.2 Grouped Data Measurement
Mean
FORMUL A

Σξϖ λβ ∆

Mean for population data:

μ=

∑fx
N

Mean for sample data:

x=
Exampl e 20
Where

∑fx
n

x

the midpoint and f is the frequency of a class.

The following table gives the frequency distribution of the number of orders received each day during the past 50 days at the office of a mail-order company. Calculate the mean. Number of order 10 – 12 13 – 15 16 – 18 19 – 21
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f 4 12 20 14 n = 50

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Solution:
Because the data set includes only 50 days, it represents a sample. The value of fx is calculated in the following table:

Number of order 10 – 12 13 – 15 16 – 18 19 – 21

f 4 12 20 14 n = 50

x 11 14 17 20

fx 44 168 340 280 ∑ fx = 832

The value of mean sample is:
x=

∑fx =
n

832 =16.64 50

Thus, this mail-order company received an average of 16.64 orders per day during these 50 days.

Median
Step 1: Construct the cumulative frequency distribution. Step 2: Decide the class that contain the median.
Class Median is the first class with the value of cumulative frequency is at least n/2.

Step 3: Find the median by using the following formula:

Σξϖ λβ ∆
Exampl e 21

FORMUL A

n  2-F Median= Lm +  fm 

  i  

Where: n = the total frequency F = the total frequency before class median i = the class width

Lm = the lower boundary of the class
median

fm =

the frequency of the class median

Based on the grouped data below, find the median: Time to travel to work 1 – 10 11 – 20 21 – 30 31 – 40 41 – 50 Frequency 8 14 12 9 7

Solution:
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1st Step: Construct the cumulative frequency distribution Time to travel to work 1 – 10 11 – 20 21 – 30 31 – 40 41 – 50 n 50 = = 25 2 2 Frequency 8 14 12 9 7 Cumulative Frequency 8 22 34 43 50

class median is the 3rd class

So,
Therefore,

F = 22 ,

fm = 12, Lm = 21.5

and

i = 10

n   2 -F Median = Lm +  i  fm     25 - 22  = 21.5 +  10  12  = 24
Thus, 25 persons take less than 24 minutes to travel to work and another 25 persons take more than 24 minutes to travel to work.

Mode Mode is the value that has the highest frequency in a data set. For grouped data, class mode (or, modal class) is the class with the highest frequency. Formula of mode for grouped data:
FORMUL A

Σξϖ λβ Mode ∆
Where:

 Δ1  =L mo  + i Δ1+Δ2  

Lmo
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∆1 ∆2
i
Exampl e 22

is the difference between the frequency of class mode and the frequency of the class before the class mode is the difference between the frequency of class mode and the frequency of the class after the class mode is the class width

Based on the grouped data below, find the mode Time to travel to work 1 – 10 11 – 20 21 – 30 31 – 40 41 – 50 Frequency 8 14 12 9 7

Solution:
Based on the table,

Lmo = 10.5, ∆1= (14 – 8) = 6, ∆ 2 = (14 – 12) = 2 and i = 10

 6 Mode = 105 +  . 10 .  = 175  6 +2 

We can also obtain the mode by using the histogram;

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2.4.3 Relationship among Mean, Median & Mode
As discussed in previous topic, histogram or a frequency distribution curve can assume either skewed shape or symmetrical shape. Knowing the value of mean, median and mode can give us some idea about the shape of frequency curve.
For a symmetrical histogram and frequency curve with one peak, the value of the mean, median and mode are identical and they lie at the center of the distribution.

Mean, median, and mode for a symmetric histogram and frequency distribution curve

For a histogram and a frequency curve skewed to the right, the value of the mean is the largest that of the mode is the smallest and the value of the median lies between these two.

Mean, median, and mode for a histogram and frequency distribution curve skewed to the right

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QQS1013 Elementary Statistics For a histogram and a frequency curve skewed to the left, the value of the mean is the smallest and that of the mode is the largest and the value of the median lies between these two.

Mean, median, and mode for a histogram and frequency distribution curve skewed to the left

2.5 DISPERSION MEASUREMENT
The measures of central tendency such as mean, median and mode do not reveal the whole picture of the distribution of a data set. Two data sets with the same mean may have a completely different spreads. • The variation among the values of observations for one data set may be much larger or smaller than for the other data set.

2.5.1 Ungrouped Data Measurement
Range
FORMUL A

Σξϖ λβ ∆

RANGE = Largest value – Smallest value

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Exampl e 23

Find the range of production for this data set,

Solution: Range = Largest value – Smallest value = 267 277 – 49 651 = 217 626

Disadvantages:
o

o

being influenced by outliers. based on two values only. All other values in a data set are ignored.

Variance and Standard Deviation Standard deviation is the most used measure of dispersion. A Standard Deviation value tells how closely the values of a data set clustered around the mean. Lower value of standard deviation indicates that the data set value are spread over relatively smaller range around the mean. Larger value of data set indicates that the data set value are spread over relatively larger around the mean (far from mean). Standard deviation is obtained the positive root of the variance: FORMUL A Variance for population:

Σξϖ λβ ∆

σ =
2

∑x

2

(∑x ) −
N N

2

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Variance for sample:

s =
2

∑x

2

( ∑ x) −
n

2

n −1

FORMUL A

Σ∆β λ
ξϖ

Standard Deviation for population:
2 2 σ = σ

Standard Deviation for sample:

s2 = s2
Exampl e 24
Let x denote the total production (in unit) of company Company A B C D E Find the variance and standard deviation, Production 62 93 126 75 34

Solution:
Company A B C D E Production (x) 62 93 126 75 34 1156 x2 3 844 8 649 15 876 5 625 1 156

∑x

2

=35150

s =

2

∑x

2

-

( ∑x )
n

2

n -1 35150-

( 390 )
5

2

=

5− 1 = 118250 .

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Since s2 = 1182.50; Therefore, s = 118250 . = 343875 . The properties of variance and standard deviation:
The standard deviation is a measure of variation of all values from the mean. The value of the variance and the standard deviation are never negative. Also, larger values of variance or standard deviation indicate greater amounts of variation. The value of s can increase dramatically with the inclusion of one or more outliers. The measurement units of variance are always the square of the measurement units of the original data while the units of standard deviation are the same as the units of the original data values.

2.5.2 Grouped Data Measurement
Range

Σ∆β λ
ξϖ

FORMUL A

Range = Upper bound of last class – Lower bound of first class

Class 41 – 50 51 – 60 61 – 70 71 – 80 81 – 90 91 - 100 Total Upper bound of last class = 100.5 Lower bound of first class = 40.5 Range = 100.5 – 40.5 = 60

Frequency 1 3 7 13 10 6 40

Variance and Standard Deviation
FORMUL A

Σξϖ λβ ∆

Variance for population: 31

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σ =
2

∑ fx

2

( ∑ fx ) −
N N

2

Variance for sample:

s2 =
FORMUL A

∑ fx

2

( ∑ fx ) −
n −1 n

2

Σξϖ λβ ∆

Standard Deviation: Population: σ Sample:
2

= σ2

s2 = s2

Exampl e 25
Find the variance and standard deviation for the following data: No. of order 10 – 12 13 – 15 16 – 18 19 – 21 Total f 4 12 20 14 n = 50

Solution:
No. of order 10 – 12 13 – 15 16 – 18 19 – 21 Total f 4 12 20 14 n = 50 x 11 14 17 20 fx 44 168 340 280 857 fx2 484 2352 5780 5600 14216

Variance,

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QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

s =
2

∑fx

2

( ∑fx ) −
n −1 n
2

2

=

( 832 ) 14216 −
50

50 −1 = 7.5820
Standard Deviation,

s = s 2 = 7.5820 = 2.75
Thus, the standard deviation of the number of orders received at the office of this mailorder company during the past 50 days is 2.75.

2.5.3 Relative Dispersion Measurement
To compare two or more distribution that has different unit based on their dispersion OR To compare two or more distribution that has same unit but big different in their value of mean. Also called modified coefficient or coefficient of variation, CV.
FORMUL A

Σξϖ λβ ∆

s CV =   ×100 % − ( sample ) x σ  CV =   ×100 % − ( population ) x

Exampl e 26
Given mean and standard deviation of monthly salary for two groups of worker who are working in ABC company- Group 1: 700 & 20 and Group 2 :1070 & 20. Find the CV for every group and determine which group is more dispersed.

Solution:
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QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

20 × 100 . 286 % = % 700 20 CV 2 = × 100 . 187 % = % 1070 CV 1 =
The monthly salary for group 1 worker is more dispersed compared to group 2.

2.6 MEASURE OF POSITION

• •

Determines the position of a single value in relation to other values in a sample or a population data set.

Quartiles Quartiles are three summary measures that divide ranked data set into four equal parts.

The 1st quartiles – denoted as Q1
FORMUL A

Σ∆β λ
ξϖ

Depth of Q1 =

n +1 4

The 2nd quartiles – median of a data set or Q2 The 3rd quartiles – denoted as Q3
FORMUL A

Exampl e 27

Σξϖ λβ ∆

Depth of Q 3 =

3( n + 1) 4

Table below lists the total revenue for the 11 top tourism company in Malaysia

109.7 86.8 Solution:

79.9

21.2

76.4

80.2

82.1

79.4

89.3

98.0

103.5

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QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

Step 1: Arrange the data in increasing order 76.4 121.2 Step 2: Determine the depth for Q1 and Q3 79.4 79.9 80.2 82.1 86.8 89.3 98.0 103.5 109.7

Depth of Q1 =

n + 1 11 + 1 = =3 4 4
3 ( 11 + 1) 3( n + 1) = = 9 4 4

Depth of Q 3 =

Step 3: Determine the Q1 and Q3 76.4 121.2 79.4 79.9 80.2 82.1 86.8 89.3 98.0 103.5 109.7

Exampl e 28

Q1 = 79.9 ; Q3 = 103.5

Table below lists the total revenue for the 12 top tourism company in Malaysia

109.7 98.0

79.9 103.5

74.1 86.8

121.2

76.4

80.2

82.1

79.4

89.3

Solution:
Step 1: Arrange the data in increasing order 74.1 76.4 121.2 Step 2: Determine the depth for Q1 and Q3
Depth of Q = 1 n +1 = 4 12 1 + = 4 3. 25

79.4

79.9

80.2

82.1

86.8

89.3

98.0 103.5

109.7

Depth of Q = 3

3(n +) 1 = 4

3 (12 + 1 = 4

)

975 .

Step 3: Determine the Q1 and Q3 74.1 76.4 121.2 Q1 = 79.4 + 0.25 (79.9 – 79.4) = 79.525 Q3 = 98.0 + 0.75 (103.5 – 98.0) = 102.125
Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

79.4

79.9

80.2

82.1

86.8

89.3

98.0 103.5

109.7

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QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

Interquartile Range  The difference between the third quartile and the first quartile for a data set.
FORMUL A

Exampl e 29

Σξϖ λβ ∆

IQR = Q3 – Q1

By referring to example 28, calculate the IQR.

Solution: IQR = Q3 – Q1 = 102.125 – 79.525 = 22.6

2.6.2 Grouped Data Measurement
• Quartiles

From Median, we can get Q1 and Q3 equation as follows:

Σξϖ λβ ∆

FORMUL A

n   4 - F Q1 =L Q+  i 1 f Q1    
 3n   4 -F  Q3 =LQ 3  + i f Q3    

Exampl e 30
Refer to example 22, find Q1 and Q3

Solution:
1st Step: Construct the cumulative frequency distribution Time to travel to work Frequency Cumulative Frequency

Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

36

QQS1013 Elementary Statistics 1 – 10 11 – 20 21 – 30 31 – 40 41 – 50 8 14 12 9 7 8 22 34 43 50

2nd Step: Determine the Q1 and Q3

Class Q

1

n 50 = = = 5 12 4 4

.

Class Q1 is the 2nd class

Therefore,

n   4 -F Q1 = LQ1 +  i fQ1      12.5 - 8  = 10.5 +   10  14  = 13.7143
Class Q 3 = 3n 3 ( 50 ) = = 37 5 . 4 4

Class Q3 is the 4th class Therefore,

n   4 -F Q3 = LQ3 +  i fQ3      37.5 - 34  = 30.5 +  10 9   = 34.3889
• Interquartile Range

Σξϖ λβ ∆

FORMUL A

IQR = Q3 – Q1
37

Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

Exampl e 31
Refer to example 30, calculate the IQR.

Solution:
IQR = Q3 – Q1 = 34.3889 – 13.7143 = 20.6746

2.7 MEASURE OF SKEWNESS
To determine the skewness of data (symmetry, left skewed, right skewed) Also called Skewness Coefficient or Pearson Coefficient of Skewness
FORMUL A

Σ∆β λ
ξϖ

Sk = or Sk =

Mean − Mode s 3( Mean − Mode ) s

If Sk +ve  right skewed If Sk -ve  left skewed If Sk = 0  symmetry  If Sk takes a value in between (-0.9999, -0.0001) or (0.0001, 0.9999)  approximately symmetry. Exampl e 32
The duration of cancer patient warded in Hospital Seberang Jaya recorded in a frequency distribution. From the record, the mean is 28 days, median is 25 days and mode is 23 days. Given the standard deviation is 4.2 days. What is the type of distribution? Find the skewness coefficient
Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

38

QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

Solution:
This distribution is right skewed because the mean is the largest value

Sk =

Mean - Mode 28 − 23 = = 11905 . s 4.2 OR 3 ( Mean - Median ) s = 3 ( 28 − 25 ) 4.2 = 21429 .

Sk =

So, from the Sk value this distribution is right skewed.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Use of Standard Deviation 1. Chebyshev’s Theorem
According to Chebyshev’s Theorem, for any number k greater than 1, at least (1 – 1/k2) of the data values lie within k standard deviations of the mean.

1 k2 1 =1 − ( 2) 2 = 0.75 @ 75 % =1 −
Thus; for example if k = 2, then Therefore, according to Chebyshev’s Theorem, at least 75% of the values of a data set lie within two standard deviation of the mean

Empirical Rule
• For a bell-shaped distribution, approximately
Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

39

QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

  

1.68%of the observations lie within one standard deviation of the mean. 2.95% of the observations lie within two standard deviations of mean. 3.99.7% of the observations lie within three standard deviations of the mean.

Measure of Position 1. Ungrouped Data - Quartile Deviation QD is a mean for Interquartile Range It used to compare the dissemination of two data set. If the QD value is high, it means that the data is more disseminated.

Quartile Deviation = Interquartile Range / 2 = (Q3 - Q1) / 2

2.

Ungrouped Data – Percentile

Pk = value of the (kn)th term in a ranked set 100 Where: k = the number of percentile
Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

40

QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

n = the sample size

Percentile rank of xi = Number of values than xi X 100 Total number of values in the data set

Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

41

QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

EXERCISE 2
1. A survey research company asks 100 people how many times they have been to the dentist in the last five years. Their grouped responses appear below. Number of Visits 0–4 5–9 10 – 14 15 – 19 Number of Responses 16 25 48 11

What are the mean and variance of the data?

2. A researcher asked 25 consumers: “How much would you pay for a television adapter that provides Internet access?” Their grouped responses are as follows: Amount (\$) 0 – 99 100 – 199 200 – 249 250 – 299 300 – 349 350 – 399 400 – 499 500 – 999 Number of Responses 2 2 3 3 6 3 4 2

Calculate the mean, variance, and standard deviation.

3.

The following data give the pairs of shoes sold per day by a particular shoe store in the last 20 days. 85 89 90 86 89 71 70 76 79 77 80 89 83 70 83 65 75 90 76 86

Calculate the a. mean and interpret the value. b.median and interpret the value. c. mode and interpret the value. d.standard deviation.

4.

The followings data shows the information of serving time (in minutes) for 40 customers in a post office: 3.5 2.3 4.1 3.5 3.3 2.8 3.5 3.1 3.0 2.4

a.

2.0 4.5 2.5 2.9 4.2 2.9 3.2 2.9 4.0 3.0 3.8 2.5 2.1 3.1 3.6 4.3 4.7 2.6 4.6 2.8 5.1 2.7 2.6 4.4 2.7 3.9 2.9 2.9 2.5 3.7 Construct a frequency distribution table with 0.5 of class width.
Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

42

QQS1013 Elementary Statistics Construct a histogram. Calculate the mode and median of the data. Find the mean of serving time. Determine the skewness of the data. Find the first and third quartile value of the data. Determine the value of interquartile range.

b.

c.

d.

e.

.

g.

5.

In a survey for a class of final semester student, a group of data was obtained for the number of text books owned. Number of students 12 9 11 15 10 8 Number of text book owned 5 5 3 2 1 0

Find the average number of text book for the class. Use the weighted mean.

6.The following data represent the ages of 15 people buying lift tickets at a ski area. 15 30 25 53 26 28 17 40 38 20 16 35 60 31 21

Calculate the quartile and interquartile range. 7.A student scores 60 on a mathematics test that has a mean of 54 and a standard deviation of 3, and she scores 80 on a history test with a mean of 75 and a standard deviation of 2. On which test did she perform better? 8.The following table gives the distribution of the share’s price for ABC Company which was listed in BSKL in 2005. Price (RM) 12 – 14 15 – 17 18 – 20 21 – 23 24 – 26 27 - 29 Frequency 5 14 25 7 6 3

Find the mean, median and mode for this data.

ANSWER EXERCISE 1 1. a) Frequency distribution table, relative frequencies, percentages and angle sizes of all
categories. Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

43

QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

Method of payment Cash Check Credit Card Debit Other Total b). Pie Chart

Frequency, f 4 5 4 2 1 16

Relative frequency 0.2500 0.3125 0.2500 0.1250 0.0625 1.0

Percentage (%) 25 31.25 25 12.50 6.25 100

Angle Size (o) 90 112.5 90 45 22.5 360

6% 13% 25% Cash Check Credit Card Debit 25% Other 31%

2. a). Frequency distribution table, relative frequencies, percentages and angle sizes of all categories. Type of product A B C D E Total b). Pie Chart Frequency 13 12 5 9 11 50 Relative Frequency 0.26 0.24 0.1 0.18 0.22 1 Percentage (%) 26 24 10 18 22 100 Angle Size (o) 93.6 86.4 36 64.8 79.2 360

E 11 ,

A, 13 A B C D E B, 12 C5 ,

D9 ,

3. Time series graph

Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

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QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

1200 No. of Fatalities 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1 2 3 4 Time 5 6 7

4. a). Frequency Distribution Table Source of news Newspaper Television Radio Magazine Total b). Bar Graph
9 8 Frequency 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 N spaper ew T ision elev

Frequency, f 8 5 7 5 25

R adio

Magazine

Source of news

5. Component bar graph
70 60 Frequency 50 40 30 20 10 0 Septem ber O ctober M onth N em ov ber Decem ber Im port Export

6. Bar Graph

Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

45

QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

Quantity (mm) 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
P er lis

Quantity (mm)

K ed ul au ah P in an g P er ak S el an go r

K S L em bi la n M el ak a

The highest quantity of rain fall is coming from Terengganu state, second goes to Pahang and followed by Kuala Lumpur. The lowest rain fall is Pulau Pinang state. The rain fall is not equally distributed.

ANSWER EXERCISE 2 1.
Class 0-4 5-9 10 -14 15 - 19 f 16 25 48 11 100 x 2 7 12 17 fx 32 175 576 187 970 fx^2 64 1225 6912 3179 11380 Mean =

N eg er i

P

P ah Te an g re ng ga nu K el an ta n S ar aw ak S ab ah

Jo ho r

970/100 =

9.7 4.46196 19.90909

Standard Deviation = Variance =

2.
Class 0-99 100-199 200-249 250-299 300-349 350-399 400-499 500-999 f 2 2 3 3 6 3 4 2 25 x 49.5 149.5 224.5 274.5 324.5 374.5 449.5 749.5 fx 99 299 673.5 823.5 1947 1123.5 1798 1499 8262.5 fx^2 4900.5 44700.5 151200.75 226050.75 631801.5 420750.75 808201 1123500.5 3411106.25

Mean =

330.5 168.368396 28347.9167

Standard Deviation = Variance =

Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

46

QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

3.
65 70 70 71 75 76 76 77 79 80 83 83 85 86 86 89 89 89 90 90 1609 4225 4900 4900 5041 5625 5776 5776 5929 6241 6400 6889 6889 7225 7396 7396 7921 7921 7921 8100 8100 130571

position of median = median = Mean = Mode = Variance = s= (80+83)/2 =

10.5 81.5

80.45 89 59.31316 7.701504

4.
Sturge's Formula Number of classes, c = 1 + 3.3 log 40 = 6.2868 = 6 Class Width, I > (5.1 - 2)/6 = 0.5167 = 0.6 Starting Point = 2.0 Frequency Distribution Table Class f CF 2.0 - 2.5 7 7 2.6 - 3.1 15 22 3.2 - 3.7 7 29 3.8 - 4.3 6 35 4.4 - 4.9 4 39 5.0 - 5.5 1 40 40 Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

x 2.2 2.7 3.2 3.7 4.2 4.7

fx 15.4 40.5 22.4 22.2 16.8 4.7 122

fx^2 33.88 109.35 71.68 82.14 70.56 22.09 389.7

47

QQS1013 Elementary Statistics

class mode = second class mode = class median = 40/2 = 20 = second class Median = Mean = Skewness = mode - median - mean = Right Skew 40/4 = 10 Q1 = Q3 = IQR = 5. x 12 9 11 15 10 8

2.85

3.07 3.05

2.67 3.85 1.18

w 5 5 3 2 1 0 16

xw 60 45 33 30 10 0 178 Mean = 11.125

6. 15 16 17 20 21 25 26 28 30 31 35 38 40 53 60

Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

48

Position of Q1 = Q1 = Position of Q3 = Q3 =

4 20 12 QQS1013 Elementary Statistics 38

7. CV (Mathematics) =

IQR = 3/54 * 100% = 5.5556

18

CV (History) =

2/75 * 100% =

2.6667

Since the coefficient of variation for History is less than Mathematics so, the student performs better for History.

Chapter 2: Descriptive Statistics

49

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