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Textbook Pages 614-639
President Theodore Roosevelt Powerpoint by Mr. Zindman The Panama Canal
1. A Pacific Empire
The United States increased its role in world affairs throughout the second half of the nineteenth century. As the nation became an industrial and commercial power, American leaders sought new trade opportunities in Asia, Alaska, and Hawaii. Many other overseas territories came under United States control as well. As a result of the Spanish American War of 1898, the United States acquired an overseas empire. The United States created an era of imperialism in the Caribbean and Pacific. After the war, the United States played an increasing role in the affairs of Latin America. As a result, many Latin Americans began to view the United States with distrust and anger.
Latin Americans today
Spanish American War
He urged Americans to have as little possible connections with our foreign nations. or extending its national boundaries. as you recall. Americans further pressed further westward to settle. or having to little to do with the political affairs of other nations. George Washington had advised the nation to steer clear of permanent alliances. This policy was called isolationism.Expansionism Isolationism In his farewell address. Earlier In his career George Washington followed a policy of expansionism. 3 .
” 4 . Russia in the 1800’s owned Alaska. he persuaded Congress to annex the Midway Island. William Seward wanted the United States to dominate trade in the Pacific in 1867. Seward was playing a card game with the Czar and he offered to sell and Alaska for $7. In this way the island became part of the United States. They called this land the “icebox. Most Americans called this purchase “Seward’s Folly”. The land cost of 2¢ per acre.The Purchase of Alaska In the 1860’s the Secretary of the State.2 million dollars to the United States.
Paris presented Japanese officials with a letter from President Fillmore. It also opened Japanese ports for trade. They also wanted the Japanese to help shipwrecked sailors who washed up on their shores. The Japanese emperor signed the Treaty of Kanagawa. Fearing outsiders. President Millard Fillmore sent Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan in the early 1850’s.Opening Trade with Japan Japan was a small island nation. the Japanese had cut themselves off from the world in the 1600’s. Perry returned in one year with some warships and a show of power. American merchants wanted to open Japan to trade. the President asked Japanese to open trading relations with the United States. 5 Commodore Matthew Perry . The treaty accepted American demands to help shipwrecks sailors. In it.
During this period the United States and Japan became the imperial powers. 6 .The period between 1870 and 1914 has often been called the Age of Imperialism. One reason for the growth of imperialism is because industrial nations of Europe want to raw materials from Africa and Asia. Imperialism had other causes. Imperialism is the policy of powerful countries seeking to control the economic and political affairs of weaker countries or regions. Many Europeans believe they had a duty to spread their religion and culture to people to whom they consider to be less civilized.
Click on the pictures to learn more about a Democracy 7 .American factories turned out huge amounts of steel and other goods. Other expansionists stressed the need to offset the vanishing frontier by gaining European land. Expansionists also argued that the Americans had a right and a duty to bring western culture to the uncivilized peoples of the world. The nation was growing rapidly. and arguments in favor of expansion held great appeal.
Congress had begun to enlarge the modernized the navy. A bigger navy would need more bases throughout the world. of the United States Navy. 8 . New steam hulled ships were being built. The navy ships were called the Great White Fleet because they were painted white.Captain Alfred Mahan. argued that the United States needed a larger navy to protect American merchant ships.
Liliuokalani give up her throne. Soon afterwards the Americans took the land called Hawaii from the King Kalakaua. She wrote a protest to the United States government.The United States took part of the island of Samoa. Liliuokalani came to the throne. The people of Samoa had little say in the matter. 9 . When he died his sister. The United States demonstrated they have power in the lands of the Pacific Ocean. Faced with American guns. She resented the Americans that settled in Hawaii.
in the world. Rivalry among the industrial nations was very dominant. Germany. and Japan carved spheres of influence in China. Britain. Russia. usually near seaport and run by a nation. The sphere had special trading privileges. France. China had once been the most advanced empire . however. the United States gained important footholds in the Pacific.By acquiring Hawaii and Samoa. China failed to industrialize as other nations have in the 1800’s. years of civil war weakened the empire. 10 . A sphere of influence is an area. In addition.
the Cuban people rebelled against Spanish rule.000. “you supply the pictures we will supply the war. Americans invested more than $50 million in the island of Cuba. or sensational stories that were often biased or untrue.000.2. War With Spain In 1868. Hearst said. The revolution was crushed.” 11 . The rebels fought against Spanish rule with a growing concern. Lola Rodriguez de Tio wrote patriotic poetry in support of Cuban independence movement. Hearst used yellow journalism.00 a year. Opinion split over whether the United States should intervene in Cuba. American trade with Cuba was worth about $100.
In 1898. the Cuban capital. a huge explosion ripped through the ship. President McKinley sent the battleship Maine to Havana to protect the American citizens there. The battleship Maine The battleship Maine sinking 12 . The real cause of the explosion remains a mystery today. On February 15. Yellow journalists used the explosion to push the Americans into the war in Cuba. The explosion killed at least 260 of the 350 sailors and officers on board. fighting broke out in Havana.
On April 25. The Spanish-American war lasted only four months. felt it was important to attack the Spanish in the Philippines as soon as the war began. Theodore Roosevelt. Theodore Roosevelt George Dewey 13 . This war was called the Spanish-American War. George Dewey. 1898 President McKinley declared war on Spain. The navy Secretary. commander of the Pacific fleet followed Roosevelt’s instructions immediately after war was declared.
None were more eager than Theodore Roosevelt. 14 . American troops had landed in Cuba.Theodore Roosevelt Meanwhile. American troops were successful in taking the hill. This battle was called The Battle of San Juan Hill. During the battle for the city of Santiago. Roosevelt organized The First Volunteer Cavalry Regiment. later called the Rough Riders. Roosevelt led the roughriders in charge of the San Juan Hill.
thus ending the fighting. a nation whose independence is limited by the control of a more powerful country. Spain then agreed to sign an armistice. American soldiers remained in Cuba while the nation debated who would rule. The Spanish army in Cuba surrendered. In effect. After the war. In the end. the Americans destroyed the Spanish fleet in Santiago Bay. the amendment made Cuba an American protectorate. the United States let the Cuban people write their own constitution. However.Two days later. The amendment allowed the United States to intervene in Cuba and gave the United States control of the naval base in Guantá Namo Bay. In a peace treaty signed in Paris in December of 1898. Cuba had to accept the Platt Amendment. Spain agreed to grant Cuba its freedom. 15 . American troops then landed on Puerto Rico and claimed the island.
16 . the boxers rebelled. all nations could trade with one another in China Many Chinese opposed foreign influences in the country. In 1900. They attacked farmers in China. They killed more than 200 people. This is called a Boxer Rebellion. Under the policy.Each nation made their own laws and privileges. They encouraged an open door policy in China. These people will call the boxers. Americans armed with modern weapons stopped the boxer rebellion and freed all the captives that the boxers held.
An Isthmus in a narrow strip of land connecting larger bodies of land. Soon. Panama and then agreed to let the United States build a canal. 17 .3. Panama was the perfect place for canal because of its location. A revolution between Columbia and Panama began. he was determined to build a canal through the Isthmus of Panama. Roosevelt knew that a canal would greatly benefit the American commerce and military capability. The people of Panama revolted against the Columbian’s this made it very hard for Roosevelt to build the isthmus. Panama won their independence from Columbia. The United States recognized the new nation. The United States in Latin America When Theodore Roosevelt became President in 1901. It would also reduce the cost and shipping goods.
he claimed the right of the United States to intervene in Latin America to preserve law and order. Two tropical diseases were very common. Over the next twenty years. tropical heat at mosquitoes made it very difficult.000 workers struggled to dig the canal. Under the supervision of army engineer Colonel George Geothals. Roosevelt announced an important addition to the Monroe Doctrine. Yellow Fever and Malaria.Colonel George Geothals In building the Canal. the first coach and steamship traveled through the Panama Canal. In the Roosevelt Corollary. more than 40. In 1904. Finally in 1914. sell the President’s including Roosevelt. 18 . used this police power.
Wilson ordered military intervention in lead America more than any other President. elected President in 1912. Nevertheless. This policy of building strong economic ties to Latin America became known as the dollar diplomacy. disliked the heavy handed foreign policies of his past predecessors. William Howard Taft. American investors responded eagerly. and harbors in Latin America. railroads. Wilson’s goals were to condemn imperialism. 19 . He proposed instead a policy of moral diplomacy. He urged American bankers to invest in Latin America. spread democracy. The United States use built a force to keep order in Latin America. also favored a strong American role in Latin America. They helped build roads. Woodrow Wilson.Roosevelt successor. and promote peace.
most Mexicans remain poor.Relations with Mexico Mexican President Diaz was the Mexican President from 1884 to 1911 welcomed American investments. In 1917. Mexicans rebelled against Diaz. President Wilson sent General John J. Pershing with an army of several thousand soldiers. To capture Villa. Francisco “Pancho” Villa led the resistance in a Civil War in Mexico. Wilson ordered Pershing’s army to withdraw. after failing to capture Villa. In 1910. 20 . Meanwhile. These harsh conditions led to widespread discontent.
Slide show by Mr. Zindman 21 .
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